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INRODUCION: he idea of carrying concealed weapons is not new.
his writer argues that the only people carrying a concealed weapon should be those who have a clear need to do so.
SUPPORING ARGUMENS: It is not possible to keep loaded, concealed guns from people who should not have them.
OPPOSING ARGUMEN: Some argue that the Second Amendment justifies allowing most people to carry weapons.
he laws serve no useful purpose because those who need concealed weapons can already get permits.
he idea of carrying concealed weapons is not new. Most if not all states have allowed selected people, for instance, diamond cutters and jewelers, who must carry items of great value, to carry a concealed weapon for many years. he newer issue regarding concealed weapons refers to states such as Missouri, which has passed a new loaded and concealed weapon law allowing the great majority of the…… [Read More]
"Noting the high rate at which young, black males are stopped by police and the fact that it is currently a felony to possess a concealed handgun, he said that an honest, law-abiding, young, black male would be 'nuts' to carry a concealed handgun in Illinois" (2010: 74). It cannot be denied that people living in urban areas who must defend themselves with concealed handguns have the most to gain from passing conceal and carry laws. The absent of police protection is, in general, more absent from these areas than other less-dangerous neighborhoods, which seems ironic. Lott states that in a 1982 American Housing Survey, 60 thousand households were asked if their neighborhoods had adequate police protection. lack, urban area residents were twice as likely as whites to report that they did not have adequate protection, and six times more likely to say that they had considered moving because of…… [Read More]
Policy and Procedure Manual
EZ Protective Consultant Company
Policy and Procedures Manual
Introduction to defensive weapons
Carrying a concealed weapon
Use of diversionary devices and various chemical weapons
The shooting incident
Psychological and emotional reactions
Shooting, safety, and other issues
The criminal justice field has now had a very profound impact on society. Protection of rights is a very important in regards to our current economic backdrop. With unemployment a record levels crime has subsequently increased dramatically. Therefore, it is practical for individuals using this manual to abreast on the use of weapons, personal protection equipment, and physical security.
This manual is designed to help protect law enforcement officials and the general public with insights into defensive weaponry and its subsequent use. This manual is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of all the factors mentioned above with a particular emphasis on security. This…… [Read More]
Citizens Should Be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns
Gun control laws punish the innocent.
Gun control laws lower the crime rate.
Third Paragraph refutation paragraph
Rough Draft - Citizens Should be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns
Gun control laws are a hot topic of controversy. Currently, there is not enough legislation that supports the right for people to carry handguns.
Thesis Statement) There should be appropriate legislation and laws passed to allow for citizens to carry concealed handguns.
Gun control laws punish the innocent.) Many people feel that in order to prevent criminals from using guns that improved legislation should be passed to provide tougher laws which restrict the purchase of a handgun and stricter punishment if the laws are broken. People who are against stricter gun control laws feel that the average citizens' constitutional rights would be invaded. To allow citizens the right to carry…… [Read More]
Xander, an Illinois Juvenile Criminal Justice Case Study
The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA, 2012) operates under a statutory mandate to improve the administration of the criminal justice system in the State of Illinois. In order to perform this function the agency must be aware of all the operational details related to the Illinois juvenile criminal justice system (ICJIA, n.d.). The Illinois juvenile criminal justice system consists of 102 county systems that operate semi-independently from state agency oversight; therefore, the procedures of probation, detention, and corrections are the responsibility of the county juvenile systems. A distinct juvenile criminal justice system (JCS) in Illinois is relatively new, having been created in 2005 by the state legislature to separate adults from juvenile offenders within prisons and jails. A few years earlier (1998), legislation was passed that mandated a criminal justice policy of balanced and restorative justice.
According to the…… [Read More]
If an individual shows a concealed weapon to a criminal, the individual becomes a threat and deterring further advances of the criminal. ellford, John Pepper and Carol 120.
If criminals and proprietors of tragedies such as massacres in a certain part of the globe such as Rwanda were aware that innocent people had the means of defending themselves, the tragedies would have not happened because it would have not been easy.
The concealed weapon law is also a policy that reduces multiple victims shooting. In addition, law abiding citizen come in contact with criminals more frequently than the police and are therefore able to gun them down and reduce the level of crime as well as the criminals. Research in the state of Vermont that has the least preventive gun laws has a low rate of aggressive crime. Murder rates are low in areas where most women carry concealed weapons…… [Read More]
The recent school shooting in Oakland, California draws attention to the importance of the issue of guns on college campuses. A ban on carrying concealed weapons on college campuses is problematic for several reasons. One, it violates state laws regarding the right to carry concealed weapons. Two, it leaves students defenseless against terrorists like the Oakland shooter. Three, it sends the message that greater gun awareness and gun safety training are not important. The State of Texas must rule that college campuses are not exempt from concealed weapons laws; eligible students must have the right to carry concealed weapons.
Texas is not the only state contending with the issue of how to address campus rules related to concealed weapons. School shootings have happened in many different states, making the issue of self-defense critical to address immediately. Colorado's state Supreme Court recently ruled: "the University of Colorado overstepped its authority…… [Read More]
(NCSL, p. 1)
Beyond these states, the NCSL indicates that there are 23 states which avail the discretion of this ban to individual colleges and universities. According to the NCSL, these states are Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, hode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia. (NCSL, p. 1)
A third category exists for states of which Colorado is now a part. As the NCSL reports, "due to recent state legislation and court rulings, 5 states now have provisions allowing the carrying of concealed weapons on public postsecondary campuses. These states are Colorado, Mississippi, Oregon, Utah, and Wisconsin." (NCSL, p. 1)
What is particularly troubling about the policy orientation of the five states identified directly here above is that there position represents a rising wave of reactionary gun advocacy initiatives. As students, educators and…… [Read More]
Concealed Gun Carrying on College Campuses
College is a stage in a young person's life that is filled not only with hard work, the proverbial sweat, and often tears, but also with fun, new friends, and new love. It is one of the most carefree and happy times in life, between the restrictions of school and the woes of work. It is unfortunate, therefore, that some criminals feel the need to prey on the young and innocent lives contained within tertiary campuses today. Particularly, the victimization of women in the form of assault, rape, and murder, is increasingly reported. For this reason, an increase has also been seen in the call for the right of campus students to carry concealed weapons. The main argument in favor of this position is that students who are otherwise vulnerable to vicious and sometimes murderous attacks will be able to protect themselves from potential…… [Read More]
S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reaffirm restrictive gun laws since the Second Amendment was not infringed by a law that requires firearm owners to demonstrate proper cause (Nimmo par, 2).
The unanimous decision by the three-judge panel was regarded as a victory for the New York State law, the American constitution, and families throughout New York who are appropriately concerned regarding the plight of gun violence that is a major problem to all communities. There are various groups in the gun industry such as the Second Amendment Foundation and the National Rifle Association have been filing cases against cities and states throughout the country on the basis of the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The ruling re-affirming restrictive gun control laws has followed the significant increase in the number of the sale of guns.
Gun Control Laws in Other States:
Generally, crime rates associated with gun violence have…… [Read More]
Definition of the Problem (Gun Control)
In America as well as other parts of the world, the role played by guns in committing violent acts, and what must be done in this regard, is a hotly debated topic. However, some facts are incontestable. Over 31,000 individuals sustained gunshot injuries in the year 2010, in America. As these victims are mostly youths, gun violence can be considered as one among the primary reasons for premature deaths in the U.S. Apart from mortal wounds, there were, in the same year, approximately 337,960 non-fatal acts of violence perpetrated with the use of guns; emergency departments of American hospitals received 73,505 cases of nonfatal wounds made by guns. The economic and social costs associated with gun violence are also huge, in the U.S. (Webster, 2013)
However, ironically, in spite of gun violence's colossal impact, a majority of public discussions in regard to…… [Read More]
Gun violence in America has always been a great concern to communities, families and law enforcement officials. But in recent years gun violence has received a great deal more publicity and public concern because of the mass shootings -- particularly in schools -- that the media focuses on in great detail. In other words, a law-abiding family living in a quiet small town in Vermont is impacted emotionally when a gunman enters a school in California or Connecticut and murders innocent children. This paper identifies recent trends in mass shootings, potential laws that would attempt to keep guns out of the hands of mentally disturbed and violent individuals, and how the National Rifle Association (NRA) uses unethical tactics to promote its paranoid obsession that government is out to take guns away from law-abiding gun owners.
Recent Mass Shootings
Of the many gruesome mass killings that have been reported on television…… [Read More]
Guns on Campus
SHOULD STUDENTS BE ABLE TO CAY GUNS ON CAMPUS?
Of all the places in the world, one would think that the collage is the safest place for a student to be and sometimes it is not. In this paper it will be discussed whether students should be allowed to carry concealed weapons to college. The advantages of allowing students to carry a concealed weapon will be discussed and why Gun Free Zones do not work.
There are many current issues happening in the U.S. And abroad, which makes it very difficult to decide which one to choose. I chose the topic: "If students are able to carry weapons on campus." It affects all students in the United States. Dispute the right to arms has been going on with the second amendment was approved. Some people believe that the Second Amendment states that the military should only be…… [Read More]
These breath-testers use a range of technologies including electrochemical fuel cells, infrared absorption, metallic oxide semiconductors and disposable color-change testers.
The disposable breath-testers are cheap to purchase and very useful in detecting alcohol in a person's system. When the test is positive, to check for other drugs in his system, the person is required to give a blood sample for confirmation by a laboratory. In addition his urine sample is also taken to test for the presence of other drugs in his system.
Breath testers have been in use in the United States since the 1940s. Then the machines used to detect alcohol were not as accurate as the ones used today. Nowadays mostly infrared absorption devices are used. They have a sample chamber from where the breath passes. This comes in contact with the infrared light, which counts the ions of alcohol thus measuring the alcohol level.
The Tennessee…… [Read More]
"Studies have shown that guns are needed for the safety of the people and there is a need to repeal Gun Control for all guns."
Semiautomatic weapons have been brought out by a student of suburban high school and fired resulting in fatal injuries to his classmates and teachers and several others. The consequence is that a pre-teen boy was sentenced for life under the charge of murdering a 6-year-old girl. One teenager breaks out a pistol and gun and another fired at the girl. The news became so widespread that the respective horrors have initiated to coalesce, making our sense of hope and security as individuals and as a society becomes irresistible. The school yard insults that once resulted in a confrontation to deal with have extended to the children literally proceeding for their guns. In the past it was a matter of grave concern for some…… [Read More]
The initial exchange between aj and Sally illustrate the importance of sensitizing employees to the delicate nature of even benign social overtures, particularly in connection with coworkers of the opposite gender.
Whereas innocent social invitations are not necessarily inappropriate in the workplace, coworkers must be acutely aware of the dangers posed by these types of miscommunications and the use of words or gestures susceptible to more than one interpretation. On the other hand, that training would stress that repeated unwanted social overtures, (even where the actual content of the communications themselves are not inherently offensive), can be considered sexual harassment under certain circumstances. With respect to the situation between aj and Sally, even an otherwise innocent social invitation could constitute sexual harassment where it takes place in the context of multiple previous similar requests by the same individual.
6. Human esource esponse to Threats of Violence
While aj was not…… [Read More]
Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).
The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…… [Read More]
Those that oppose the allowing of firearms on campus also assert that there are other ways to make college campuses more secure. For instance, the development of campus wide alarms, email and text alerts have been implemented at college campuses throughout the country (Magnusson, 2008). In addition opponents argue that tighter laws governing the mental health status of students should be examined so that people who have a history of mental illness are monitored more carefully. They argue this is important because both of the perpetrators of recent college campus shootings were treated for mental illness. Opponent of guns on campus argue that careful monitoring and greater vigilance it what is needed and not the addition of guns to college campuses.
Are Campuses Safer with or without firearms
The arguments for and against the allowing of firearms on campuses really boils down to what makes the campus safer. The apprehension…… [Read More]
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…… [Read More]
It would also be highly recommended that there are designated buffer zones between the convention and any designated First Amendment Zones. Additionally, these zones must be away from any other public areas. If they are too close to public areas, like malls, they may inadvertently disrupt the flow of the public and endanger passersby.
There are also recommendations for general policy of the possible disruption of protest groups at the DNC event. If officers were to commence in disrupting the protest groups, it would be absolutely necessary to show they were acting in accordance with the misdemeanor violation of Section 870.02 in the 2002 Florida Statutes. Essentially, this would mean that officers would have to prove more than three individuals were acting in a way to disturb the peace, rather than to peacefully assemble. It is true, "no actual breach of peace needs to take place" (Unlawful Assembly Dispersal Order).…… [Read More]
On appeal, Terry argued that the conviction should be thrown out because the search that produced the evidence of the weapon in his possession was improper because it was an impermissible search of his person without a warrant or probable cause as required by the 4th Amendment (Schmalleger, 2009).
The Supreme Court decided that the type of search the police officer conducted was not prohibited by the 4th Amendment. Instead, it was a reasonable and appropriate means of ensuring the safety of the officer from concealed weapons in a tactical situation in which that concern was appropriate in light of the totality of the circumstances in which it occurred. While the 4th Amendment does prohibit more invasive searches with the intention of finding evidence of crimes, (such as for concealed contraband or of small containers), it does not prelude an external frisk now known as a Terry frisk or Terry…… [Read More]
Gun Control Legislation
Gun control is not one concern, but several. To some people gun control is a crime issue; to others it is a rights issue. Gun control is a safety issue, an education issue, a racial issue, and a political issue. Within each of these issues, there are those who want more gun control legislation and those who want less. Guns are not for everyone. Certain individuals cannot handle a firearm safely, and some individuals choose to use firearms inappropriately. Our society has passed laws regulating the ownership and use of firearms, and additional legislation is being considered. Most of this legislation restricts, to some degree, the rights of individuals to possess or use firearms. Some restrictions may be necessary, but some recent legislation has gone too far. Society benefits from firearms in the hands of responsible citizens, and taking firearms away from such citizens will do more…… [Read More]
METAL DETECTOS have long been mainstays of building security and concealed weapon or contraband detection in correctional institutions. The tragic events of September 11, 2001 focused more attention on the role of metal detectors, specifically in airport settings. Since assuming control of air travel security, the Transportation
Safety Administration has established more stringent uniform performance standards for all metal detectors used in U.S. airports (Fiorino). The TSA has also integrated explosive detection equipment into the passenger and cargo screening procedures, but metal detection and X-ay equipment remain the primary means relied upon by law enforcement authorities to address the increased threat of terrorism at the most likely targets. In other countries where terrorism is even more of an ongoing concern than it is in the United States, metal detectors have become a routine part of everyday life, such as in Israel where walk through metal detection equipment has been installed…… [Read More]
However, Doherty took the themes of these books as further evidence of Adams' wrong doing, although Adams himself never admitted to anything about being part of the Black Blocs or believing in anarchist ideologies. The only thing Adams sad was that he was an environmentalist, which is why he had been collecting the glass Coca Cola bottles in order to recycle them later when he found an acceptable recycling location. Additionally, Officer Doherty found medication on Adams person as well. This medication was prescribed to Thomas Adams, a fact which Doherty should have seen as an obvious red flag that he was dealing with a minor with behavioral and emotional issues, which should have led him to be even more sensitive in his actions towards Adams. Yet, Officer Doherty seemed to only see this as further reason that Adams was guilty.
This leads into the second charge against Adams, the…… [Read More]
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA
STAND YOU GOUND: A CY FO EPEAL
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
Academic and Professional Writing for Graduate Students (LS526-01)
The "Stand Your Ground Law" is one of the most controversial laws in recent years and has gained notoriety due to its enactment in thirty-three states so far. Advocates of the law claim that it reduces the threat of violence in society, but the statistics prove otherwise as research shows that the law actually inflames race-based violence (Purdie-Vaughn, Williams, 2015). As such there are several states that have either taken a wary view of the law and have decided to steer clear of it, or have raised issue(s) with enactment of the law while considering it. It is because of this scrutiny the law has been misunderstood by some people, abused by others, and just…… [Read More]
In this case it was the U.S. Vs. Miller in which the court had to rule on whether a sawed off shotgun has a reasonable relationship in the preservation of a well regulated militia (Gun Politics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_politics_in_the_United_States).
As recently as 2002, the Supreme Court dealt with issues of gun control with regard to felons owning them. In that decision the court ruled that no agency or state can allow a convicted felon to ever own a firearm for any reason.
By a unanimous vote, the nine justices held that a federal district court lacked the authority to order Texas gun dealer Thomas Lamar Bean's firearms privileges restored after the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms declined to consider his request because Congress had refused to give it money to do so (Lane, 2002)."
The concept of the second amendment is at the core of any Supreme Court hearing with…… [Read More]
Terry vs. Ohio
Terry Vs Ohio
The issue of what constitutes a violation of the fourth amendment forms the basis of the argument in the case of Terry vs. Ohio. In this case the petitioner Terry was stopped and frisked by the officer on the streets. A brief description of the situation is as follows. Detective McFadden was walking his beat when he observed two individuals who in his opinion were "casing" the joint with the intention of robbing the place in the daylight hours. This opinion was based on his observation and years of experience (Terry v. Ohio 2012). The suspects moved away from the initial area and were kept under surveillance by the detective. When the men joined a third person a few blocks away the officer identified himself as a police officer, requested the men's names and proceeded to pat down the outside of the men's clothing.…… [Read More]
Spade walking down to examine a murder makes use of shadows as well as high black-white contrast in order to convey drama and suspense. This is commonly referred to as the film noir lighting technique because it conveys a sense of mystery and danger. The lighting highlights the most extreme contours of the character's faces, but none of the moderating details such as texture or color. This makes the facial expressions look much more dramatic than they would under normal lighting.
The costumes are also very typical of the film noir genre. Spade is wearing a black wool overcoat and a fedora and his counterpart from the police station is wearing the same outfit. This is a style of dress associated with detectives, who sometimes had to conceal their identity and not stand out. The overcoat conceals much of the person's figure and could conceal weapons or other objects.
The…… [Read More]
Administrative Search Exception
Administrative Search Exemption
Administrative search exception: Why it applies to airport searches
The 'administrative search exception' has often been called the TSA's attempt to circumvent the Fourth Amendment. However, "while the new TSA enhanced pat downs may violate the Fourth Amendment on the surface, what most people are not aware of is that the 9th Circuit Court of the United States ruled on the search of passengers in airports back in 1973, which effectively suspends limited aspects of the Fourth Amendment while undergoing airport security screening" (Frischling 2010). The U.S. Supreme Court case which established the exclusionary rule as a rule of law (the idea that 'fruit of the poisonous tree' evidence obtained illegally could not be used against a defendant in a court of law) was not found to be applicable in this particular category of searches. The U.S. Supreme Court had already established in 1968…… [Read More]
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…… [Read More]
Over the past ten years many technology companies have succumb to the economic conditions that have dictated their demise. InVision technologies is a company that has risen to the occasion and silenced many of the pessimists and naysayers. The purpose of this discussion is to identify InVision's strategic strengths and weaknesses based on environmental "scan" analysis. The discussion will also focus on the core competencies of the organization and develop a Porter's "Five Forces" analysis for the organization. Finally we will discuss the strategic thinking of company CEO Sergio Magistri. Let's begin with a brief description of the company's function and the products that it offers.
According to MultexInvestor Invision Technologies produces and sells explosives detection systems which are used in airports throughout the world to monitor checked baggage. The company, founded in 1992, has created products that are based on advanced computed tomography. (Company Profile) The…… [Read More]
AIDS in the Workplace," discuss the following:
What are the moral issues in this case?
The first moral obligation Carla has is to the law: it is illegal to discriminate against someone because they have an illness, if that illness does not substantially affect the employee's job performance. In this case, there is no concrete evidence that Tom's rumored illness has affected his abilities as a worker. The second moral obligation Carla has is to the truth. The evidence of Tom having AIDS is based upon second-hand testimony from his ex-wife, and Carla only convinced herself that Tom may have seemed thinner after hearing Frances' comments. Tom's illness does not seem as bad, objectively, as Carla's fears suggest. Carla also has a moral obligation to honor Tom's loyal service and evident qualifications for a promotion.
What ideals, obligations, and consequences must Carla Lombard consider?
Carla Lombard must consider the ideal…… [Read More]
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…… [Read More]
Othello's final speech in Act five of the play, paying close attention to poetic elements as well as imagery within the passage.
The analysis should be clearly focused and based on evidence found within the text. The essay should reflect a clear understanding of the play based on in-depth reading of the play for broader issues and intent by the author.
Othello's final speech redeems him even after he murders his wife and is duped by Iago. His eloquence and his ability to use words to his advantage make him a persuasive character in this tragic play.
To understand the final speech by Othello within the content of the play, first one needs to understand Shakespeare's writing style within this play and his development of his character, Othello. The play, Othello is considered a tragedy play. In particular, this type of play usually uses prose that can measure a collapse…… [Read More]
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]
Supreme Court Bill of Rights Case
Terry v. Ohio introduce the Terry frisk into police procedure, allowing officers to have the right to stop and frisk or do a surface search of individuals on the street even without probable cause. All the officer would need would be to have a reasonable suspicion that the person being searched had committed, was about to commit or was in the act of committing a crime. The Supreme Court stated that the officer's suspicion had to be "specific" and able to be put into words -- that is to say, the officer could not just say he had a "hunch" that the person searched was about to violate the law: the officer would have to be able to point to a specific characteristic that made him suspect the individual in question.
However, this Supreme Court case eventually led to the allowance of the detainment…… [Read More]
Street Drug Trade Is One of the Most Important Social Institutions for Young People in Detroit
From his perspective, Bergmann writes that the street drug is one of the most important social institutions for young people in Detroit. As an institution, the drug dealings and everything surrounding it are becoming a transforming force taking people in a certain way of life and perception. Detroit is known to be a major region of the drug trade, including heroin. Like any other society, it suffers consequences of this in many ways, including the economic, cultural, social, and even psychological repercussions arising from the presence of the drug. Drugs are commonly effective and, in some way, change the way people behave, live, and interact. This is seen from his submission that "drug dealing governed the seasonal cycles of their lives and taught them about the nature and power of the state, capitalism and…… [Read More]
This paper analyzes the case of Seung-Hui Cho, who killed dozens at Virginia Tech in 2007. The paper examines Cho’s background, his mental illness, the way in which reports of the investigation and incident were changed to hide the inept responses of administrators and police. The paper also examines changes that were made to protocol following the massacre and discusses lessons that can be learned from this incident and how institutions can better prepare themselves to ensure that this kind of tragedy is prevented in the future.
Keywords: Seung-Hui Cho, school shooting, mental illness student
Revisions to On and Off Campus Reports
As Urbina (2009a) notes, “during the worst campus shooting spree in American history, Virginia Tech officials locked down some administrative offices and warned their own families more than an hour and a half before the rest of the campus was alerted, according to revisions made in the state’s official report on…… [Read More]
The only valid torts causes of action are: (1) Malik vs. Daniel for battery in connection with Daniel's shoving Malik; (2) Malik vs. Stadium for negligence in connection with failing to maintain the integrity of the protective railing that gave way; (3) Daniel vs. Woman in Line for slander in connection with her verbal accusation of his supposedly supplying his son with alcohol; and (4) Daniel vs. Malik for assault in connection with being accosted by a firearm. There are also several invalid torts causes of action, such as: (1) Injured Fan vs. Stadium for injuries sustained while watching the game; (2) Malik vs. Daniel in connection with being shot by Daniel; and (3) Daniel vs. Stadium in connection with the negligent furnishing of sugary drinks instead of diet drinks to Daniel and Rubin.
Legal Analyses of Successful Cases
Malik will prevail in his suit against Daniel…… [Read More]
Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones
THEE SHOULD BE NO GOVENMENT MANDATED GUN-FEE ZONES IN PUBLIC SPACE.
Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.
There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…… [Read More]
New York City has some of the toughest gun laws in the country. And it's essentially impossible for a normal, law-abiding citizen to acquire a concealed handgun permit. The result is that the majority of New Yorkers are defenseless against the criminals who wish to prey on them. As pointed out by the NY Times article, the SQF program does little to stop criminals, but does a great deal to strip away a New Yorker's fundamental right of self-defense. This is counterintuitive to public safety. hile crime prevention is an important aspect of police work, the reality is the majority of the time law enforcement arrives after a crime has been committed.
The answer then is to arm New York. Arm the public. Restore their fundamental right of self-defense. There's an old saying, "An armed society is a polite society," and this rings true all across the country (except for…… [Read More]
The larger the region covered by the chemical agent, the more likely it will be to cause the widespread destruction for which the person or group is looking (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). Toxicity matters, of course, but the earliest uses were not about the level of toxicity the chemical agent possessed. They were more focused on how the toxic was absorbed. If the chemical agent could be absorbed through the clothing and skin, a gas mask would be useless against it and it would be more likely to work on a larger number of people (Burck & Flowerree, 1991).
July of 1917 saw the use of mustard gas begin (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). The Germans, once again, were the first to use this chemical. It easily passes through fabric and leather, and causes very painful burns to appear on the skin. There are two categories into which chemical agents like…… [Read More]
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…… [Read More]
This was known as pyrrexhia or trench fever. The first symptoms were shooting pains in the shins and was followed by a very high fever" (Simkin). It was not a deadly disease, but stricken men could not fight. Trench fever affected thousands of soldiers, and so did trench foot.
Trench foot is one of the most common ailments of soldiers in the trenches. Their boots and socks were always wet and muddy, and this led to the condition called trench foot. The feet would become numb and turn red or blue, and in extreme cases, it could lead to gangrene and amputation of the foot. The feet would also swell, fester, and develop sores. Soldiers had to change their socks at least three times a day to control the disease, and after the armies understood how severe is was, soldiers in the trenches received extra socks as part of their…… [Read More]
war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.
The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…… [Read More]
However, with large nuclear weapons the majority of the harm is caused by the explosion itself and the harm caused by the radioactivity is peripheral, although obviously still potentially horrific.)
The damage caused by a dirty bomb would be twofold: There would be damage caused by the conventional parts of the bomb (in this case, the det cord) and damage caused by the radioactive elements. A dirty bomb's effects would be greater in terms of the conventional aspects of the weapon, and we are not given enough information in this scenario to determine the amount of energy that will result in an explosion of the detonation cord. There is no single standard for detonating cord, although given that we know that it has come from a mining company we can assume that it is some of the stronger -- or more explosive -- type. We also do not know how…… [Read More]
The terrifying fear of living with the constant threat of instant annihilation from artillery shells and the soul-shaking noise and thunderous impacts of nearby strikes sent many veterans of trench warfare home with what was then called "shell shock" and which was so severe that some veterans suffered severe lifelong symptoms of what we refer to today as post traumatic stress disorder. emarque also explores the theme of the tendency of trench war survivors to experience survivor's guilt and a general disillusionment with life after witnessing how quickly and easily the lives of so many of their comrades were snuffed out by explosive artillery, often without any trace of their existence besides a fine red mist. emarque also relates the difficulty that returning combat veterans had readapting to the normal peacetime psychological orientation of ordinary civilian life after their wartime experiences.
Meanwhile, Isaac Babel's short story My first Goose relates…… [Read More]
John Woo (1997)
In 1997, John Woo directed Face/Off movie that is action thriller movie. The report studies the roles played by actors and the plot of the movie critically. It sorts out the quality of sounds used in the movie and the styles adopted by actors and directors. The movie uses concept of face changing faces which are not new yet the movie makes an effort towards elaborating the concept. The movie is based on blood-shed genre with thrilling adventure that goes on as the characters fight to get to the bomb ticking in L.A. Movie is not only about the story but it is also about the cinema experience that is based on quality of acting, style, direction, sounds, lights, timing and use of technology. The report covers different technical aspects as used in the movie Face/Off by John Woo.
The story…… [Read More]
First Case. No. The passenger's motion to suppress the seized evidence should not be granted. An accurate description of the apprehension by the two police officers and the rocks of crack cocaine they confiscated from the passenger's pocket and body are fundamental evidence of illegal drug use. The passenger cannot claim any right to suppress the evidence because the actual substance was found in his personal possession and constitutes direct evidence against him. Moreover, the apprehension happened in a high-crime neighborhood where drug use is inherent or quite likely. y omitting or suppressing the direct evidence and presenting an incomplete or misleading account or description, the police officers or judge will commit obstruction of justice.
The driver was not arrested because no such evidence was found in his personal possession. The woman who leaned into the passenger's window and handed him an object was not arrested, either, because…… [Read More]
Inca Empire, or Inka Empire, was the biggest empire in pre-Columbian America. The organizational, political and military center of the empire was situated in Cusco in modern-day Peru. "The Inca civilization came about from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia" (Inca Civilization, n.d.).
The Incas were a powerful group in South America from the 1200s until the middle of the 1500s. Then Spanish conquistadors, who had better weapons than the Incas, arrived and defeated them. Diseases arrived, too, and killed many Incas. Incas…… [Read More]
attle of ristoe Station led many to question the Confederacy's grasp of tactics as it was a strategic blunder. In many respects, it confirmed assumptions made after the battle of Gettysburg that the leadership of the Army of Northern Virginia's officer corps was not infallible. It is the principle battle of the ristoe campaign, one in which General Lee attempted to separate the Army of the Potomac from its supply lines and prevent the North from sending more troops to Georgia to make inroads into the Confederate interior. On October 14, A.P. Hill's corps stumbled on two Corps of the retreating Union army at ristoe Station and attacked without proper reconnaissance. In fact, his opponents were Union soldiers of the II Corps, that lay to his right. elieving re-enforcement troops to be close at hand, Hill ordered Henry Heth's division to attempt to breach General Warren's well-fortified line behind the…… [Read More]
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…… [Read More]
Breach of Faith
Over the course of twenty-two years, from 1979 to 2001, Robert Hanssen participated in what is possibly the most severe breach of national intelligence in the United States' history. hrough a combination of skill and sheer luck, Hanssen was able to pass critical information from his job at the FBI to Soviet and later Russian intelligence agencies, information that may have contributed to the capture and execution of a number of individuals. Hanssen's case is particularly interesting because it takes place over the course of two decades that included the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the internet age, and as such examining the various means by which Hanssen was able to breach security offers extra insight into the security threats, new and old, that face those tasked with protecting sensitive government information. Ultimately, the Hanssen case reveals a number of ongoing vulnerabilities concerning…… [Read More]
role of Islam as a unifying force
Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two,…… [Read More]
Terrorist Surveillance Techniques: An Overview
The United States and most other major powers routinely engage in surveillance of terrorist groups and individuals likely to perpetuate terrorist activities. This was one of the rationales for founding the Department of Homeland Security: so the U.S. government could become more mindful of terroristic threats arising within the nation's borders as well as abroad. Yet terrorist organizations themselves also engage in surveillance before launching an attack for logistical reasons and to "assess the psychological impact of a successful attack" (Nance 2008:187). Locations are not simply selected for strategic reasons but also because of the emotional resonance they have for the public. Law enforcement agencies must therefore be mindful of how to spot likely terrorist surveillance techniques as well as how to be well-versed in surveillance for their own purposes.
Most major law enforcement agencies deploy two primary forms of surveillance: overt surveillance (such as…… [Read More]
Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection:
The right to carry handguns for law abiding citizens has been a continual social and political debate about the restriction or availability of firearms within the country. Actually, the right to carry handguns has developed to become one of the major controversial and intractable issues within the social and political environments in the nation. The main reason attributed to the development of this controversial issue is the constitutional provision regarding firearms and the government's responsibility to prevent criminal activities, maintaining order, and safeguarding citizens' well-being. The debate has been characterized by different reasons that have been raised by intellectuals, social activists, and advocates in support and opposition of the controversial issue.
The debate regarding the right to carry and keep firearms can be traced to the inception of the gun culture, which explained the affections of American's citizens in adopting and celebrating…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]
Second mendment to the Constitution of the United States can often be as prevalent and potentially divisive as the First mendment, which covers freedom of speech, freedom of the press and the establishment caused which has come to justify the perceived separation of church and state. While there are practical and common-sense applications for gun ownership and rights, there are some weapons that probably shouldn't be in the hands of normal civilians and some people should not be allowed to own guns period due to things like felonious history, mental health issues and other similar conditions.
There has always been a butting of heads regarding what the Second mendment refers to and what it does not. To be precise, the ratified version of the Bill of Rights that was signed by Thomas Jefferson stated it "a well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of…… [Read More]
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…… [Read More]
Firearms Legislation and Firearms-Related Violence in Europe
This paper examines the relationship between firearms legislation and gun-related violence across countries and regions in Europe. The focus of the paper is to identify possible sources of literature to help answer questions regarding whether legislation is an effective tool in reducing firearms-related violence. The paper focuses on variance of gun violence rates throughout Europe, gun legislation, and possible national strategies for addressing the issue of gun violence. It finds that there are many variables that impact regions and can effect greater or lesser rates of gun violence -- factors such as education, culture, economic stability, political instability, and so on. No two countries are the same in terms of people, customs, traditions, ideals, and execution of the law. It is therefore important to better understand how culture plays a role in determining the effects of firearms-related violence in throughout Europe. This information…… [Read More]