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Concussion Management and the NCAA
Litigation Case -- Concussion Management
The case of Adrian Arrington, Derek Owens, Mark Turner and Angela Palacios v. National Collegiate Athletic Association arose from the consolidation of a On September 12, 2011, a class action filed against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Adrian Arrington v. NCAA, on September 12, 2011, and a second lawsuit, Derek Owens et al. v. NCAA. The complaints allege that the NCAA was negligent with regard to protecting student athletes from the risk posed by their game play and practices for concussions. The complaints extend to four distinct types of negligence as follows: fraudulent concealment, medical monitoring, unjust enrichment, and negligence. Specifically, the plaintiffs allege the following: The NCAA did not ensure that coaches received adequate education about proper tackling techniques. The NCAA did not provide education on concussion-like symptoms to student athletes, trainers, or coaches. The NCAA did not…
Anderson, P. (2012, September 19). Concussion litigation against the NCAA is gathering momentum. Concussion Litigation Reporter. Retrieved http://nflconcussionlitigation.com/?p=1137
Anderson, S. (2012, August). NCAA Institutions and a Duty to Warn Football Student-Athletes: A Look into the Arrington v. NCAA case. Retrieved http://nflconcussionlitigation.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/NCAA-Institutions-and-a-Duty-to-Warn-copy1.pdf
Corrected Consolidated Complaint. United States District Court Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division. Retrieved http://www.scribd.com/doc/
Sports Injuries - Concussions
hat is a Concussion?
The Latin word concutere -- the source for the English word concussion -- means, literally, "to shake violently," according to Dr. Robert Cantu, Chief Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery and co-director of Boston University's Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy. In his book, Concussions and Our Kids: America's Leading Expert on How to Protect Young Athletes and Keep Sports Safe, Cantu reports that nearly four million sports and recreation-related concussions are sustained each year, and "…many times that number" go unrecognized (Cantu, 2012, p. 2).
Concussions in sports happen when an athlete is "…slammed and makes sudden and forceful contact" with the ground, a court, a pool deck, a batted or thrown ball, a kicked ball, and "…of course with another player," Cantu explains (p. 3). A concussion can occur without any contact with the head, Cantu asserts. The "whiplash effect" is…
Breslow, Jason M. "NFL Concussions: The 2012-13 Season in Review." PBS / Frontline.
Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org . 2013.
Cantu, Robert, and Hyman, Mark. Concussions and Our Kids: America's Leading Expert on How to Protect Young Athletes and Keep Sports Safe. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
productions absolutely change the way that the author of this response looks at the league. The league and its leaders (which would obviously include Tagliabue and Goodell) certainly knew about the dangers of football including the risks of things like concussions, dementia (including early-onset dementia) and CTE. That being said, to completely lay this at the feet of the NFL is less than fair. Anyone with an active brain stem should know that colliding with other bodies and the turf in such a violent and sustained way.
It is nearly (but not quite) akin to those that abuse alcohol or cigarettes and then they get incredulous when their liver or lungs start to shut down or develop cancer. Further, the question has to become is there a way to prevent this trauma outright and the answer is probably "no" short of ending the league and its games entirely. In the…
Fainaru-Wade, Mark. "Doctors: Seau's Brain Tests Positive For CTE." ESPN.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
IMDB. "Frontline" League Of Denial: The NFL's Concussion Crisis (TV Episode 2013)." IMDb. N.p., 2016. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
IMDB. "Concussion (2015)." IMDb. N.p., 2016. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
The complex issue of providing adequate care and preventative testing to a population that is increasingly unable to afford the rising expenses associated with such care remains a substantial problem in the United States, and directly impacts care provided for cases of head traumas in rural areas. The Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and the New Orleans Criteria (NOC) are two clinical decision making methods for determining when the expense of a CT scan is warranted following a head trauma, though indications for the use of either testing procedure differ. Despite widespread and successful use elsewhere, the CCHR is not widely used in the United States and is especially under-utilized in rural areas, leading to rising expenses and the mistreatment of traumatic head injuries. Equipment shortages and other facility limitations in rural hospitals and clinics further complicates treatment for head injuries, and sheer geographic distance to facilities means that…
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…
Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.
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Available at: http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation [Accessed 21 May 2013].
Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
Safety Decisions in High School Football
This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the iddell Speed, the iddell evolution, the iddell evolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the iddell VS4 and the Adams A2000. No…
Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.
FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved http://www.vata.us/aboutvata/FactsaboutATCS.pdf
International Federation of Sports Medicine, Excessive physical training in children and adolescents, (1991). Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 262-4.
Gerberich, Susan Goodwin, et al., (1983). Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players, American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1370-5.
Any brain injury is serious and Julie should not have continued the climb. Seeking immediate medical attention as soon as the injury occurred may have saved Julie's life. The severe headache and ringing in her ears is another sign that the bump on the head was not so light, but still consistent with a Grade 1 concussion. Although Julie did not lose consciousness, she still had the key signs of a concussion.
The treatment of a concussion includes rest and inactivity. Aspirin should be avoided, as it may contribute to continued internal bleeding. Continuing the hike may have caused Julie's blood pressure to remain high, contributing to the inability of her body to form clots at the injury points. The onset of severe headache was a sign that things had become critical. Julie's life may have been saved had the severity of the injury been recognized from the beginning and…
Furthermore, EISA issues aside, according to Linda Sanchez (D-California), "It concerns me when those who work hazardous jobs don't get the care they deserve, whether a coal miner, tire factory worker or football player... " referring to the questionnaire distributed to the NFLPA requesting medical data pertaining to their retirees, she said, "I look forward to timely responses to our questions so we can determine what steps might be necessary that those who made football great aren't neglected."13
Professional football is, by all accounts, a violent sport whose participants frequently suffer significant physical injuries on the playing field. Because of the nature, frequency, and intensity of the collisions inherent to the game, especially at the professional level, the effects of football injuries often persist long after retirement. Most insidious are the cumulative effects of repeated cerebral concussions, only recently identified as a specific injury…
Associated Press. 10/24/07 NFL Adds $10 Million to Medical Fund, Latest Step in Dispute Concerning Retirees and Pensions. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from CBSonline at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/10/24/ap/sportsline/main3404035.shtml?source=search_story
Associated Press. 5/31/07-35 NFL Players Qualify for Dementia-Alzheimer's Assistance Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from FoxNews Web site, at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,276617,00.html
Carpenter, L. 10/13/07 Congress Presses NFL, Union on Benefits. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from WashingtonPost.com at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/12/AR2007101202059.html
Conrad, M. (1999) Sportslaw History: The John Mackey case. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, at http://www.sportslawnews.com/archive/history/HT8.html
Leadership and Organizational Change Potential in the NFL
Organizational Problem or Opportunity
Description of the Problem or Opportunity
Purpose of the Investigation
Summary of Section Highlights
Problem or Opportunity Background
• Current State of the Target Organization
• elevant Organizational Processes or Systems or Functions
• elevant Theory
Lewin's Change Management Model
McKinsey 7-S Model
Kotter's 8 Step Change Model
Corporate Social esponsibility
Investigative Approach and Design Strategies
• Investigative Approach
• Theory Thread Strategies
• Data Collection and Preparation Strategies
Investigation Parameters or Limitations
Findings of the Investigation
Overall Findings: A Synthesis
Interpretation and ecommendations 34
Organizational Implications 34
• Implications for Decision Makers 35
• Future esearch 35
The National Football League (NFL) is currently the most popular sport with American adults, however this position is…
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The red and swollen appearance could be an on-site reaction to the administered medication. A change of type of antibiotic medication may be necessary.
Question 5: Simon begins to complain of chest tightness he is beginning to get distressed what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken.
An asthma attack partially brought on by the psychological stress of the surgery and being in the hospital, combined with the physical trauma is likely. Simon, physician permitting, should be allowed with assistance to treat his asthma in the usual fashion, after screening for potentially more serious conditions that can manifest in chest tightness, such as a cardiac condition.
Question 6: You notice that Simon has become disoriented and is complaining of a headache what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken?
Signs and symptoms of a concussion, the result of head trauma, are not always immediately…
Fractures of the tibia and fibula." (2008). Chapter 21: Practical Plastic Surgery. Retrieved 23 May 2008 at http://www.practicalplasticsurgery.org/docs/Practical_21.pdf
This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.
ell-being of Muscles and Bones:
As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…
Bahr, Roald, and Lars Engebretsen. Sports Injury Prevention. Vol. 17. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.
Chambers, Abigail E.L., and Grant Cooper. "The Role of Sports and Activity in Osteoarthritis." Arthritis MD - Trusted Arthritis MD - Arthritis Information from Doctors Who Care. Arthritis MD. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
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Gotlin, Robert S. Sports Injuries Guidebook. Illustrated ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. Print.
Friday Night Lights is a movie about the Permian Panthers, who are a high school football team in Odessa, Texas. The town is racially prejudiced and the economy is bad. The one exciting night in the week is Friday night because that is when the Permian Panthers play their football games. Because of problems on the team and the ways they face the problems, the Permian Panthers teach lessons in character, discipline, team work and also show some things that are wrong with football.
"Friday Night Lights" shows how the good qualities of character, discipline and team work can be developed in football. Dictionary.com says that "Character refers especially to moral qualities, ethical standards, principles, and the like" (Dictionary.com). It also says that "Discipline" is "behavior in accord with rules of conduct" (Dictionary.com). Finally, Dictionary.com says that "Team ork" is "cooperative or coordinated effort on the part of…
Abrams, Zac. Internet Movie Data Base Web site. 2004. Web. 20 January 2012.
Bissinger, Buzz. "NFL Playoffs: Why Football Needs Violence." 17 January 2011. The Daily Beast Web site. Web. 20 January 2012.
Dictionary.com. character, discipline, team work. n.d. Web. 20 January 2012.
Mayer, Larry. "Paralyzed Football Player Rocky Clark Passes Away." 7 January 2012. Chicago Bears Web site. Web. 20 January 2012.
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…
Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:
Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.
Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
Age: 30 years, 11 months
Dates of Evaluation: 10/25/15 -10/30/2015
eason for eferral
This is a 30-year-old right-handed woman referred by Dr. Smith for a psychological evaluation to determine any lingering psychological and cognitive effects as a result of a mild head injury that she suffered on October 15, 2015 as a result of an automobile accident. The client has complained of severe memory problems, being disoriented at times, feeling depressed and anxious, and having nightmares the accident. Her physical complaints consist of headaches, back aches, poor sleep, nausea, and vomiting.
The client is a 30-year-old, divorced, Hispanic woman who lives with her children in a home that she rents in XXX (client please insert city). She has been married three times and has three children from two of the marriages.
The client grew up in XXXX (insert). She reported that her…
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Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. (5th ed.). Indianapolis, IN John Wiley & Sons.
Hogan, T.P. (2015). Psychological testing: A practical introduction . (3rd ed). Hoboken, NJ.
e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.
Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.
The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…
Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592
Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf
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Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
9/10/66 (46 years old)
Extremely painful headache that won't go away.
Deep pounding headache more pronounced behind eyes;
- Headache has lasted more than 72 hours
- OTC Pain medications ineffective (Tylenol)
No accompanying nausea or vomiting
Physical Exam: Elevated blood pressure
Diagnostic Testing: Frequency of symptoms log; More than 72 hours of pain; Two or more of unilateral, pulsating, moderate or severe pain; not reporting nausea or sensitivity to light; lack of response to pain medication
TMJ (Tempormandibular Joint Disorder)
History: Emanating pain but no jaw spasm or difficulty chewing or biting
Physical Exam: No clicking or popping of TMJ when opening or closing mouth
-No inflammation of muscle around jaw
Diagnostic Testing: No jaw pain or face pain, no earache so…
American Headache Society. (2010). Pathophysiology of Migraine. Retrieved from: http://www.americanheadachesociety.org/assets/1/7/NAP_for_Web_-_Pathophysiology_of_Migraine.pdf
Borsook, D. (2012). The Migraine Brain: Imaging, Structure and Function. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davodpff. R. (2002). Migraine: Manifestations, Pathogenesis, and Management. New York: Oxford University Press.
Goadsby, P. (2009). The Vascular Theory of Migraine. Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 132 (1): 6-7.
skills, and professional attributes you bring to your area of practice or specialization.
I bring several different types of skills and professional attributes into my area of practice of specialization. First, my capacity for empathy, sympathy, and understanding are all beyond reason of a doubt. I have always had the ability to converse well and calmly with individuals suffering from a variety of emotional states and recovering from different emotional capacities. In my own practice and attempts at counseling, I have been able to use my calming and comprehending personality to a therapeutic advantage. Therefore, I feel my own personality is attributed and akin to tuning into the needs of disabled veterans when counseling. Furthermore, I have had personal relationships with veterans, so I have a solid understanding of their sufferings and needs. For the most part, I realize it is incredibly difficult for them to talk about these instances,…
Allis, S. & Globe Staff (2005). "Frontline" examines war's psychological toll: [THIRD Edition]. Boston Globe, p .E.5.
Bookman, J. (2007, May 9). OUR OPINIONS: War strains troops, U.S. credibility: [Main Edition]. The Atlanta Journal - Constitution, p. a.14.
Mckenna, Phil (2006). Stress syndrome affected one in five Vietnam veterans. (August 21) Boston Globe, p. C.3.
Military History Companion (2004) the Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Barnaby Willows owns a small boutique petting zoo in downtown Sydney. his petting zoo harbors two of each kind of local species of animal. he zoo is open to the public seven days a week for 8 hours a day. he animals are kept in cages pursuant to city ordinance and have received all of the required vaccinations mandated by public health code. he petting zoo has been in operation since January of 2000; to date no member of the public has been injured by any of the animals. Paul Hogan has been an employee of Barnaby for the past two (2) years his main job includes tending to the animals in their cages. his includes feeding the animals and making sure they are comfortable at all times.
Barnaby has recently received an import of Coyotes from the United States Southwestern Cultural Center located in Phoenix, Arizona. he…
There is specific statutory language that we can use to reduce the amount of damages that Ms. Jones will have to provide to Michael. Specifically, in the Contributory Negligence and Tortfeasor's Act of 1947, Western Australia has added some provisions that can mitigate the damages. Specifically, the statute states: Whenever in any claim for damages founded on an allegation of negligence the Court is satisfied that the defendant was guilty of an act of negligence conducing to the happening of the event which caused the damage then notwithstanding that the plaintiff had the last opportunity of avoiding or could by the exercise of reasonable care, have avoided the consequences of the defendant's act or might otherwise be held guilty of contributory negligence, the defendant shall not for that reason be entitled to judgment, but the Court shall reduce the damages which would be recoverable by the plaintiff if the happening of the event which caused the damage had been solely due to the negligence of the defendant to such extent as the Court thinks just in accordance with the degree of negligence attributable to the plaintiff.
This statute specifically applies to the facts of this case. There is no question that Michael's refusal to wear the seat belt contributed, in the smallest of degrees, to the injuries that he suffered. However, to hold Ms. Jones 100% liable and exact damages upon her would be a miscarriage of justice. The statutory language clearly states that the Defendant would not be in a position to win the case; however, the Court does have the authorization to reduce the amount of damages awarded to the Plaintiff to equal the negligence committed on behalf of the Defendant. In other words, this statutory language gives the court to assign a dollar amount to the Defendant's negligent actions and therefore award the Plaintiff damages in that amount.
Based on the facts of the case that are not disputable and the clear statutory language, the senior partner is in a strong position to argue the amount of damages awarded to the Plaintiff should be equal to the damages caused by the direct negligence of the Defendant. Therefore, this statutory provision authorizes the court to reduce the damages by exacting from the award the amount attributed to the Contributory Negligence of the Plaintiff.
Today, when they go out to eat it is not unusual for the Warners to pay for the meal of another family in a restaurant, to show their seven young children the value of charity (Battista 2010). Warner has also unapologetically proclaimed his devout Christian faith throughout his long career, crediting God with his success. This has earned him the respect of even his non-believing teammates.
Brenda, a former Marine, is known for being a strict yet loving parent. The Warners are determined to instill humble Midwestern values in their children: one reason that Warner's faith is accorded such respect is because of his sincerity and lack of hypocrisy. Before every meal, the family prays, and children must obey certain rules such as "after ordering at a restaurant, be able to tell Mom the server's eye color," and "throw away your trash at the movie theater and stack plates for…
Battista, Julia. (2010, January 10). Cardinal's Warner walks away after 12 improbable years.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com /2010/01/30/sports/football/30warner.html
Crouse, Karen. (2008, September 26). The rules of the family.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2010 from
The soldier is simply unable to live with this corruption. Instead, the narrator continues as his voice by proxy, indicting the society that caused the war and created the atrocity the killed the solder. Likewise, Graves is forever changed by his experience, losing the respect he used to hold for the values and norms of the society that caused the war and failed to understand the effect of the war upon all that was beautiful and young.
In concussion, assoon's and Graves's work compare well as commentaries and criticisms upon what both authors appear to regard as the atrocity of war. assoon's very brief work has its impact in this very brevity, while Graves's detail and individual focus achieves the same effect. Both protagonists are severely traumatized by their experiences. In both works, this trauma does not remain unaddressed. Both authors provide their central characters with a mouthpiece to denote…
Buzzle.com. Siegfried Sassoon -- War Poet. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/7-27-2006-103706.asp
Graves, Robert. Good-bye to All That. Providence: Berghan Books, 1995.
Sassoon, Friedrich. Suicide in the Trenches. Retrieved from http://community.livejournal.com/afoxhuntingman/3587.html
. he American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(3), 384-394.
2 groups of 70 patients with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts were assessed 2 years following surgery. No significant differences were noted in terms of activity, although more patients in the P group experienced pain and loss of motion for a longer span of time than did patients in the hamstring tendon group. On the whole, patients with hamstring tendon grafts performed similarly to patients with patellar tendon grafts although more beneficial results seemed to incline towards the groups that had experienced hamstring tendon graft replacements.
Monaco, E., Labianca, L., Conteduca, F., De Carli, a., & Ferretti, a. (2007). Double bundle or single bundle plus extraarticular tenodesis in acl reconstruction?: a caos study. Knee Surgery, Sports raumatology, Arthroscopy, 15(10), 1168-1174.
he goal of this study was to evaluate the effect on the internal rotation of the tibia of lateral reconstruction…
This technical study was intended to measure the in situ force applied to the ACL during load and injury. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterolateral structures (PLS), and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured in response to 110 N. anterior tibial loading. Changes in knee kinematics associated with ACL deficiency and combined MCL and ACL deficiency were also evaluated. Findings demonstrated that impact is equally shared between the various bone ligaments and anterior bones during tibial loading of the knee leading researchers to conclude that the MCL and osteochondral surfaces may also be at significant risk during ACL injury.
Smith, F., Rosenlund, E., Aune, a., MacLean, J., & Hillis, S. (2004). Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(3), 279-284.
The objective was to examine return to competitive sport and general recuperation of ligaments within 12 months of ACL reconstruction. A postal questionnaire 43 months after surgery was mailed to 109 selected athlete patients, 77 of whom responded. The Cincinnati sports activity scale (CSAS) and Cincinnati sports function scales were used as instruments. 62 patients had returned to activity 12 months following treatment, whilst 55 patients had regained their former level of ability. 12 patients admitted to major problems, whilst 38 patients were actively involved in sports at least four times a week. Competitive and male patients had higher scores at restoration than did non-athletic and female patients respectively. Results supported the researchers' hypothesis.
Emotional reactions to the onset of injuries as well as a patient's attitude toward the injury itself and the proposed treatment have great impacts on the length of time it will take for the patient to recover (VAN RIJN 2007). Therefore, it is in the medical staff's best interest to maintain the patient in a positive, reinforcing paradigm in order to create an atmosphere of positive goal-orientation so the patient may experience significantly reduced levels of anxiety during post-operative procedures as well as reduced rehabilitation time.
N.A.. (2010). Ligament Injury Recovery. Available: http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/ligament-injury.html. Last accessed 17th Nov 2010.
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin, the University of Houston and NASA severed the medically collateral ligaments in the knees of lab rates. Three to seven weeks after the incision mechanical and morphological properties were measured in ligaments, bones and muscles. Ligament testing revealed that there were significant reductions in…
As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.
In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…
Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
There are rumors, the Forbes report goes on, "that the owners are looking to sell the team, which has sizeable debt and has had a hard time attracting season ticket holders" (Forbes).
Another struggling franchise mentioned often in analysis as a financial loser is the Atlanta Thrashers. Forbes reports the team lost 10% of its value in the 2008-09 season and is now worth $143 million. Local revenue per fan is $10 and the Thrashers' debt is 46% of its total value; player salaries were $39 million and gate receipts were $23 last season. "A nasty and continuous legal battle amongst the eight owners…has resulted in the team turning to Goldman Sachs for investors"
(Forbes). Although the Thrashers are not in the so-called Sun Belt, Atlanta is not known for ice, snow, and cold, like the more traditional hockey venues experience.
The financial struggles of some teams today is not…
Badenhausen, Kurt, Ozanian, Michael K., and Settimi, Christina. (2009). "NHL Team Valuations: The Business of Hockey." Forbes Magazine. Retrieved Dec. 1, 2009, from http://www.forbes.com .
Baird, Michael (2005). "NHL Finances: Skating On Thin Ice." Sports Facility Reports. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2009, from http://www.law.marquette.edu/s3/site/images/sports/facilityarticlelled.pdf .
Forbes (2009). "NHL Team Valuations: #18 Tampa Bay Lightning." Retrieved Dec. 2, 2009 from
You may think that you have recovered from your previous hard workout and you think you are ready to stress your muscles again (Gabe).
If you push yourself without the proper rest your joints, muscles, and tendons will start aching. If you continue to push though the soreness you may find that the aches and soreness never leave and you may start feeling tired all the time.
Runners that plan hard workouts one to two times a week and rest or jog on the other days may find the recovery time to be faster. y doing this it will help your muscle form more fibrous tissue which helps reduce injuries.
Avoiding Associated Injuries
While avoiding injuries is straightforward, many athletes, runners and joggers included, fall short in proper preparation to avoid injuries. Even if a runner uses the correct preventive techniques in training, it doesn't guarantee that an injury won't…
Cluett, Jonathan. "Running Injury." 17 Aug 2008. About.com: Orthopedics. 30 May 2009 .
Gabe, Mirkin. "Avoiding overtraining." AMAA Journal (Peer-reviewed) (2002): 1.
Matava, Matthew J. "RUNNING AND JOGGING INJURIES." 29 June 2006. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. 31 May 2009 .
Rodriguez, Carlos. "Traumatic injuries to runners." AMAA Journal (Peer-reviewed) (2006): 1.
Rick Fisher has never had it easy. Confined to a wheelchair, he is often overlooked for jobs, has trouble finding a girlfriend, and there are days when performing the simplest tasks takes twice as long as it used to.
"He was an athletic kid. He played third base in the spring and wide receiver in the fall. I don't think he ever thought he would face the kind of challenges that he has today," said Fisher's father, Jerry.
When he graduated high school, Fisher worked all summer to save money for a motorcycle. Three days after buying the bike, he had trouble handling a curve in strong winds, and lost control of his motorcycle. "I saw a truck coming and I panicked. I overcorrected and the next thing I knew I was in a hospital bed." Rick had avoided the truck, but went off the road and hit a culvert.…
It would then become incumbent on the experienced coder to be able to read through the injuries and determine the accurate code to use. Another issue Kramer, Barancik, and Thode, Jr. (1990) found was that certain areas of the body lacked a code when injured to a very specific area of the body.
The training and education one needs to be a successful medical coder, and in particular a remote medical coder, is extensive. If we examine Figure 1 below, we can understand why this is so:
AAT (alpha-1 antitrypsin) deficiency 273.4
AAV (disease) (illness) (infection) - see Human immunodeficiency virus (disease) (illness) (infection)
Abactio - see Abortion, induced
Abactus venter - see Abortion, induced
Abasia (-astasia) 307.9
Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome (cystinosis) 270.0
Abdomen, abdominal - see also condition
Kramer, Barancik, and Thode, Jr. (1990) found
Abduction contracture, hip or other joint -…
American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA). (2011). Quality healthcare through quality information. Retrieved from http://www.ahima.org/Default.aspx/ .
Kramer, Caroline F., Jerome I. Barancik, and Henry C. Thode, Jr. (1990). Improving the sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated injury scale coding system. Public Health Reports, Vol. 105, No. 4, pp. 334-40.
Rodecker, Kristy. (2010). Medical billing and coding. Retrieved from http://www.medicalbillingandmedicalcoding.com/ .
Taylor, JM. (2008). [Emergency Department] Management. Experienced coders help ED create excellence. The Monthly Update On Emergency Department Management, Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 123-5.
E Nurses -- Evaluated situation, helped calm Hally, retook vital signs, prepared for NP
E Nurse Practitioner -- Examined Hally, ordered X-ay, reviewed all symptoms and signs; interpreted x-ray, with Nurse, administered muscle relaxer and anesthesia, set arm in cast.
X-ay Technetium -- Took X-ay films of Hally's right arm; processed for NP's review.
General Practitioner -- Follow up after E visit, watched for signs of infection or discoloration; insured blood flow to arm, managed pain and swelling medication. emoved cast at appropriate time.
ehabilitative Personnel -- Specialized to help Hally gain full use of her arm through exercise therapy, ultrasound, Jacuzzi, and massage therapy.
Part 3 -- in its very basic form, broken bones are quite common in children. However, there were a number of factors that needed to be assessed by health professionals during Hally's incident:
Location and type of Break -- Ensure no bone or part of…
Kids and their Bones: A Guide for Parents. (January 2011). NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. Retrieved from: http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/bone/Bone_Health/Juvenile/default.asp
Wrist Bone Connected to the…. (2011). Castoo.com. Retrieved from:
Baniukiewicz, a., et.al., (2011). Broken Arm. EMedicineHealth. Retrieved from:
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
State vs. Stennett Case
This article in The Baltimore Sun serves as an outlet for many of the jurors involved in the "State vs. Stennett" case to speak out regarding what they feel are inaccurate accusations regarding their acquittal of 17-year-old Eric Stennett. April 20, 2000 was a night that many police officers will never forget, but it was also a night that saw the tampering of evidence, the mishandling of evidence, as well as the confusion among the police officers who were there regarding what had actually happened. Police procedure was forgotten, and that is just the beginning of the prosecutions problems when it came to building a solid case against their defendant. All the defense had to do was produce some reasonable doubt, which the jurors obviously felt the defense had done its job.
It would seem that there is no disputing the fact that Eric Stennett was…
attle of ristoe Station led many to question the Confederacy's grasp of tactics as it was a strategic blunder. In many respects, it confirmed assumptions made after the battle of Gettysburg that the leadership of the Army of Northern Virginia's officer corps was not infallible. It is the principle battle of the ristoe campaign, one in which General Lee attempted to separate the Army of the Potomac from its supply lines and prevent the North from sending more troops to Georgia to make inroads into the Confederate interior. On October 14, A.P. Hill's corps stumbled on two Corps of the retreating Union army at ristoe Station and attacked without proper reconnaissance. In fact, his opponents were Union soldiers of the II Corps, that lay to his right. elieving re-enforcement troops to be close at hand, Hill ordered Henry Heth's division to attempt to breach General Warren's well-fortified line behind the…
Downey, Fairfax. The Guns at Gettysburg. New York: D. McKay, 1958. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=6839287
Draper, John William. History of the American Civil War. Vol. 2. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1867. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=14877569
Robin Higham, and Steven E. Woodworth, eds. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=1712535
Hosmer, James Kendall. Outcome of the Civil War, 1863-1865. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1907. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=9901102
Frightening Event in My Life
THE MOST FRIGHTENING EVENT IN MY LIFE
Three years ago, I was driving home from the first social affair with co- workers from my new job. It was late, but I always enjoyed driving late at night when the roads are almost empty. As the trees zipped past my windows, I was still contemplating the evening's events and trying not to obsess about the cordial way my boss had greeted me when I might have expected him to be a little friendlier, under the circumstances. Now, I understand his personality much better, but at the time I was worried that he didn't like me too much.
During the day, two-way roads such as the one I was on at the time always made me very nervous, because the two opposite directions of traffic are separated by nothing more than yellow lines painted on the asphalt.…
Evolution of Prison Life
hat were prisons like, how were prisoners treated and classified through American history -- including prison environments in the last few years? This paper delves into those topics and provides the available literature that validates the points to be made in this essay.
The History of Prisons and Prisoner Life in America
According to author and Professor Jack Lynch, prisons were among the very first public buildings when settlers began to populate and develop the New orld. And there were few long-term punishments that were meted out, and among those were individuals convicted of being "debtors" (Lynch, 2008). The problem with putting the poor in prison because they couldn't pay their debts was that "…they could never earn the money they owed"; but it wasn't until the 1830s that the U.S. began to "…abolish debtor's prisons" (Lynch, 3). Instead of being imprisoned, convicted criminals were forced…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2013). Prison Conditions. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from https://www.aclu.org .
Austin, J., and Hardyman, P.L. (2004). Objective Prison Classification: A Guide for Correctional Agencies. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.jfa-associates.com.
Lynch, J. (2008). Cruel and Unusual Prisons and Prison Reform. History.org. Colonial Williamsburg. Retrieved March 19, 2014, from http://www.history.org .
Schwirtz, M. (2014). Mental Illness and Violence Rise at a Vast Jail. The New York Times.
Psychological aspects of combat
Extreme high-stress incidents can trigger a number of possible experiences and responses including intrusive thoughts slow-motion time, sharper focus, dissociation, visual clarity and temporary paralysis. The occurrence of 'dissociation,' which is a disconnection from emotional and physical reality, might be a sign of danger for the start of post traumatic disorder or PTSD. One of the common and seldom discussed matters is the loss of bowel and bladder control that occurs during intense moments and it's also used as an exemplification by Grossman of the reluctance that people feel in talking about their natural reaction towards the fight against their condition (Grossman and Christensen, 2007).
According to some studies, there were far number of psychiatric calamities as compared to the physical casualties during the Second World War. 98 per cent of the individuals participating in the war would emotionally breakdown after no more than 60 continuous…
Grossman, D. And Christensen, L.W. (2007). On Combat: The Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Conflict in War and Peace. 2nd ed. PPCT Research Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bksum/grossman-on-combat
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer S.C., McGurk, D. Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa040603#t=articleTop
Litz, B.T. (2006). A Brief Primer on the Mental Health Impact of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/pdfs/impact-of-the-wars-in-afghanistan-iraq.pdf
Williamson, V. And Mulhall, E. (2009). Invisible Wounds: Psychological and Neurological Injuries Confront a New Generation of Veterans. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans of America. Retrieved from: http://iava.org/files/IAVA_invisible_wounds_0.pdf
The author of this report has been asked to review an article on a ministry-related website and offer a retort or support for the message extended and explained on that page. While the page seems to be fully educated and informed in many ways, the page exudes anti-psychology animosity that very much mirrors and patterns itself after the anti-Christian rhetoric that is spewed by many scientific minds and/or psychology experts. While the AWMI article makes some good points but it's an overcorrection from the anti-God sentiments on the other side of the argument.
As noted in the introduction, the AWMI article is not entirely bad. However, it delves a little too much into being simplistic and anti-psychology. Further, there is more than enough room for both psychology and spirituality (of any sort) to exist side by side. Both sides have some valid points and both sides have some benefit.…
Keating, P. (2012, March 17). After the aftermath. Retrieved January 7, 2015, from http://espn.go.com /nfl/story/_/id/7930585/nfl-junior-seau-suicide-raises-more-questions-nfl-handling-concussions-espn-magazine
Krause, R. (2009). War and living with PTSD: Vietnam 1969-1970 and the Cambodia
incursion in 1970: A grunt in the infantry: Personal reflections of the 60's and how war affects today and the future. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Wommack, A. (2015, January 7). Psychology vs. Christianity - Article - Andrew
discrimination, assessment and some of the related consequences. The first question asks what the general definition of item discrimination is. The second question asks how topic of item discrimination can be assessed. The problem then asks what the consequences for item selection when the criteria are total test scores as opposed to external scores. While there are going to be some consistencies and patterns and while this will even exist with external scores, one should be very careful to analyze items correctly and in the proper context.
McGrory et al. notes that performance on psychometric tests is key to diagnosis and the monitoring of dementia treatment, among other psychological treatments and assessments. esults are often assessed based on the total score. However, there is often additional information in individual items of tests which vary based on several values. These values are known as difficulty and discrimination. Item difficulty…
Foorman, B.R., Kershaw, S., Petscher, Y. (2013). Evaluating the Screening Accuracy
of the Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading (FAIR). REL 2013-
008. Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, National Center for Education
Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Psychoanalytic Theory Approach
The first step in determining the goals of any counselling is to determine whether the individual needs counselling or other forms of interventions and in this case study, it is apparent that the 24-year-old client whose origin is Guatemala needs counselling. There are several goals that are to be met in the counselling session, one of them being the enhancement of the coping skills of the new mother with a one-year-old son who just lost her job as a loan officer as well as the coping with the new life in the U.S.A. The intervention tat will be used here is strengthening the ties between the mother and the son through designing schedule of activities that will make the social life of the two more interactive and interdependent. This interdependency will make the mother develop close ties that she would not want to see the son suffer…
Hongu Nobuko et.al, (2015). Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss. Retrieved 12 September 2015 from http://www.joe.org/joe/2011february/tt5.php
Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, (2015). Contemporary Psychoanalysis. Retrieved 12 September 2015 from http://icpla.edu/contemporary-psychoanalysis/
Cause: My Name Is Jess Overton
From Case to Cause: My Name is Jess Overton
The client, Jess had done so well for the 30 days while sheltering that she almost enrolled in a training program. She had wanted to be a lab technician, but due to the lack of funds, her parents could not to send her to school. She was also preparing to move into a transitional apartment, but with all these excitements, David was still fighting for the custody of the children. The court had also given visitation rights to David, but it would be under supervision and Nick had refused to visit his father. For Shannon and Marty, they would go to the court every week and see their father for one hour. When Shannon went to sleep, there are moments when she would cry for her daddy (Mcintosh, 2015). The above things and moments were…
Ethics, Hypocrisy, and Transformation in the Film Jerry Maguire
Jerry Maguire is a film set in the 1990's which shows the clear differences between idealism and ethical thinking and the hypocrisy of the workplace, where lip service is paid to doing the right thing, but actions contradict the rhetoric. A clear theme in this film is therefore hypocrisy, with the feel good factor of redemption through transformation (Gayules & Bird, 2005). This romantic comedy -- drama is set in the 1990s, starring Tom Cruise as the title character who evolves though the film, who has difficult in adopting ethical perspectives as they undermine his business position, making tis film an interesting anthropological study of the world of the sports agent (Gayles & Bird, 2005).
Jerry is a sports agent, in the movie he is portrayed as being at the top of his game, he is making a lot of money…
People v. Goetz (1986)
1. Give an overview of the case.
The controversial People v. Goetz (1986) involves the Defendant, Bernhard Goetz (Defendant) who shot and injured four young black men on a subway train in the Bronx. Four black youths, Troy Canty, Darryl Cabey, James Ramseur and Barry Allen were riding the subway train; two of the youths had screwdrivers hidden on their person, later admitting the intention of using these screwdrivers to unscrew the coin boxes attached to arcade games. The defendant was also riding the train and had an unlicensed .38 caliber pistol, a gun he had procured in 1981. Canty approached Goetz with possibly one of the other young men beside him, and said, “Give me five dollars”: there was no use of force nor was their a display of a weapon. The Defendant answered by standing and releasing four shots from his unlicensed gun, the…
Bullying can be a difficult topic to tackle. That is why this bullying essay will help offer an idea of what will comprise a good paper and what potential areas of research to cover within this controversial and popular subject. From developing a good thesis, carrying it throughout body paragraphs, and closing with a brief and concise conclusion, this essay will show what to do to obtain a high grade. The first step before the thesis, the body, and the conclusion, is a unique and informative introduction. This will help lead to an idea of where to start the paper and when all is finished, an abstract can be created, thus putting a successful end to any writing project.
Understanding a Bully
What Makes Others Bully?
Bullying: The Need to Control
Identifying the Four Common Types of Bullying
Themes and ideas in the film I Am
The film I Am is a globally celebrated non-fiction film by the renowned filmmaker Tom Shadyac. In its in-depth analysis, the film is actually a provocative piece asking some two fundamental questions; what’s wrong with our world, and what can we do to make it better? These two are the basic questions that guide the entire 80 minutes film that engages different authority figures in various fields like religion, philosophy and science.
Having produced several other blockbusters, majorly in the comical side of production, Shadyac here comes up with a totally different thought provoking film that tackles reality in life rather than injecting fun into lives. This shift in paradigm was occasioned by the real life experience that Shadyac had. He was involved in a bike accident there after suffered Post Concussion Syndrome, a condition that incapacitated him. Though Shadyac later recovered from…
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…
Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1
The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#
Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html