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Conspiracy Theories Ion 1960s to Explain Assassinations
The concept of conspiracy theories was not anything new in the 1960s within the wider American society or even I other regions of the world. However, in the 1960s there was an increased trend in the assassination carried out particularly within the U.S.A. With this increase in assassinations of great leaders within the U.S.A. In this period, there were more attempts than ever before to try and explain the cause of the rampant assassinations and majority of these were linked to conspiracy theories.
The increase in the conspiracy theories at this time was a clear indication of a clear belief in the cause being the increased class struggle and stratification that was getting worse in this period. The 1960s saw the emergence of class struggles with more pressure groups and civil societies forming an actively participating in the politics and social life of…
Harrison, Brigid C. And Thomas R. Dye (2008). Power and Society: An Introduction to the Social Sciences Custom. Thomson Wadsworth. http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=g9ZcxwEU0lwC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=Power+and+Society:+An+Introduction+to+the+Social+Sciences+Custom&source=bl&ots=qKQMm6Wehs&sig=7SWNrVhZHB1HROMv3Y1OIYqeN7E&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CAL8UfGhB4e3hAea7oCQDQ&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Power%20and%20Society%3A%20An%20Introduction%20to%20the%20Social%20Sciences%20Custom&f=false
Many believe that the compelling phone calls passengers made to their loved ones that day were, in fact, staged (News One Staff 1). One report states that "a key piece of evidence claimed for this theory is that the mobile phone calls the victims recorded as having made to loved ones from the doomed planes were not possible because of the altitude of the aircraft and therefore faked using voice morphing technology" (McGreal 1). Yet, phone records indicate that many of the passengers made these calls from the satellite phones that are equipped on most airplanes for passengers to use during flight for a nominal fee. As such, it is clear that these passengers did reach out to their family and friends in their last minutes. This whole theory is contradictory to what the federal government is reporting about Flight 93. Federal reports show that the brave passengers of the…
Works Cited Entry: Annotated Bibliography
Grossman, Lee. "Why the 9/11 Conspiracy Theories Won't Go Away." Time Magazine. 2006. Web. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1531304,00.html
This source explains why the theories are still so popular today, nearly 12 years after the attack. It first reviews the events of that day. Then it moves on to discuss some of the major conspiracy theories that are most popular in the current popular discourse. Grossman then moves to explain why these theories remain so prevalent. He explains why the American people are so distrusting of the whole situation. Also, he shows how some of the inconsistencies would lead to the creation of such conspiracy theories.
Grossman's source is reliable and interesting. Not only does it provide some of the conspiracy theories discussed in the analysis, it also describes why they are so popular. This content will be used to help show why so many still believe in such theories. It will be a good way to conclude the investigation. It takes an honest look at who is creating some of the more outlandish theories. Yet, it also makes us look at ourselves, as the American public. It helps this research answer the question as to why the public is so obsessed with conspiracies regarding the tragic event.
McGreal, Chris. "9/11 Conspiracy Theories Debunked." The Guardian. 2011. Web. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/sep/05/9-11-conspiracy-theories-debunked
Jerry appears to be a lunatic during the first few scenes of the film and it is actually difficult to determine whether the stories that he relates to are true or whether he is just another crazy person that one might find during a casual taxi ride. The most impressive thing about both of these characters is that they do not seem capable to do a great deal of things in order to defeat their antagonists, considering that Langdon is just a simple teacher in charge of putting down some of the most evil individuals belonging to the feared Illuminati group and that Jerry is a taxi driver who wants to fight agencies like NASA and governmental agents who are in charge of one of the most intricate conspiracy in all of history.
Even with this, both of these characters manage to complete their missions successfully as they come across…
Dir. Richard Donner, Conspiracy Theory, Warner Bros. 1997
Dir. Ron Howard, the Da Vinci Code, Columbia Pictures, 2006
Charleston Insurrection Conspiracy as Interpreted by M. Johnson, E. Pearson, D. Egerton, and D. obertson
In its October 2001 issue, the history journal William and Mary Quarterly featured a review essay in its Forum section entitled, "The Making of a Slave Conspiracy, Part I." This feature focused on the historical issues about black slavery in America particularly the Denmark Vesey insurrection conspiracy in Charleston, South Carolina in 1822. A review essay penned by Michael Johnson, a professor of history at the Johns Hopkins University, which is entitled, "Denmark Vesey and His Co-Conspirators," offered a new interpretation of the famous (and foiled) uprising of the Negroes in Charleston in the early 19th century.
Johnson started his essay with a brief background information on some significant events that occurred before the planned uprising was discovered, and he also included a brief biography of Denmark Vesey, the suspected leader of the black slaves,…
Egerton, Douglas. "Forgetting Denmark Vesey; Or, Oliver Stone Meets Richard Wade." William and Mary Quarterly January 2002. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//59.1/egerton.html.
Johnson, Michael. "Denmark Vesey and His Co-Conspirators." William and Mary Quarterly October 2001. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//58.4/johnson.html.
Pearson, Edward. "Trials and Error: Denmark Vesey and His Historians." William and Mary Quarterly January 2002. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//59.1/pearson.html.
Robertson, David. "Inconsistent Contextualism: The Hermeneutics of Michael Johnson." William and Mary Quarterly January 2002. 6 April 2002 www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm//59.1/robertson.html.
Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand"
There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as a creation of nature, a work of breathtaking art, scientific breakthroughs that benefit human kind, and acts of bravery are, without doubt, worthy of the admiration and the sentiment that they inspire. Unfortunately, however, human beings also fruitlessly admire a great many more things that are illusory in nature and, therefore, not really worthy of respect. Take, for instance, the human desire to be good looking, rich, successful and powerful. These qualities seem desirable purely because people who possess these attributes appear to be better off in life. But, are they really? Or, do these qualities give rise to admiration only because we don't really understand what being beautiful, wealthy, successful or powerful entails?
Perhaps, it is precisely the recognition that…
Cool Nurse. "Marijuana." Cool Nurse Web site. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004:
MDCH. "Key Facts from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Michigan
Department of Community Health. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004: http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-2941_4871-79336 -- ,00.html
normal I offer. hy? Because I potential a false flag attack London Olympics worth researching. Okay,'s deal. You write a paper length normal extra credit assignment explained Extra Credit Unit.
Conspiracy theory or terrorism? -- The 2012 London Olympics
There has been a lot of controversy in the recent years regarding conspiracies and how some of the world's most influential individuals are actively engaged in a plot to exploit mankind. False flag attacks are believed to be attempts performed by these individuals with the purpose of justifying their intervention in particular areas that they are interested in. This year's London Olympics represents one of the most intriguing opportunities for certain actors to put their strategies into work, considering that the world's attention is focused on the event and that the number of people present there would surely draw significant responsiveness from an international public concerned in penalizing individuals and groups…
Donald, Brooke, "Q&A: Stanford terrorism expert Martha Crenshaw on Olympic security," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Stanford University Website: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2012/july/terrorism-expert-olympics-072712.html
Jennings, Will, "London 2012: Olympic Risk, Risk Management, and Olymponomics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the University of Southampton Website: http://soton.academia.edu/WillJennings/Papers/132752/London_2012_Olympic_Risk_Risk_Management_and_Olymponomics
Joseph Watson, Paul, "Whistleblower Reveals Plan To Evacuate London During Olympics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the InfoWars Website: http://www.infowars.com/whistleblower-reveals-plan-to-evacuate-london-during-olympics/
Nieuwhof, Adri, "UK security firm G4S provides services to Israeli prisons, police and army," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Open Democracy Website: http://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/adri-nieuwhof/uk-security-firm-g4s-provides-services-to-israeli-prisons-police-and-army
In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.
Influence on America
Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played…
Crowe, F. (2003). Things a Freemason should know. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Decker, E. (Unknown). Masonic rituals for the Blue Lodge. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from Saints Alive in Jesus.
Web site: http://www.saintsalive.com/freemasonry/blue_lodge/blue_lodge_index.htm
How it began. (1998). Retrieved April 13, 2009 from Grand Lodge a.F. & a.M. Of North
There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)
In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…
Arfaniarromo, A. (2001). Toward a Psychosocial and Sociocultural Understanding of Achievement Motivation among Latino Gang Members in U.S. Schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(3), 123. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from Questia database:
Various versions of the conspiracy theories link the purported involvement of Giancana with Castro, Giancana with the CIA, and Oswald to one or the other, or to both. Finally, other conspiracy theories even linked then Vice
President Lyndon B. Johnson to the assassination plot, at least in terms of having been made aware of the operation in advance if not necessarily as a co-conspirator (Galanor,
Several specific individuals later emerged, providing information of their claimed involvement in the assassination conspiracy, including James Files and David Morales
(Benson, 1998). Files was linked to both the CIA after working as a former covert military operative in Laos as well as to organized crime through his association with Charles Nicoletti, a Mafia hitman operating in the Illinois area. Files specifically claimed to have been recruited by Nicoletti to act as a backup shooter positioned in the vicinity of the grassy knoll and…
Benson, M. (1998). Who's Who in the JFK Assassination: An a to Z. Encyclopedia.
New York: Citadel.
Galanor, S. (1998). Cover-Up. New York: Kestrel Books.
The President's Commission on the Assassination. (1992). The Warren Commission
alarm clock will break and so you'll oversleep. When you do wake up, you will burn your lips, tongue and liver on your coffee. Your car will refuse to start, and when it does you will discover that one of your tires is flat. While changing your flat tire you will be bitten by a black-widow spider. Just as you arrive at the emergency room, the nurses will go out on strike. A small earthquake will then strike, crushing your car in the hospital garage. You will develop gangrene after you leave the hospital without being treated - but not before a bicyclist runs into you as you walk home, knocking you down and breaking your glasses.
Okay, maybe we haven't all had days that were exactly this bad, but sometimes they come close - which is no doubt one reason that many people are so attracted to conspiracy theories.…
Crossfire by Jim Marrs is an encyclopedic collection of information about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. As a trained journalist, Marrs fills the more than six hundred pages of his book with details both commonly known and potentially revelatory. Virtually every conspiracy theory ever applied to the assassination is examined along the supporting and disproving evidence.
The biggest problem with this book is the sheer amount of information it provides. There are so many minute details covered, it is easy to loose sight of the big picture. For instance, regarding the pace of the motorcade through Dealey Plaza, Marrs offers the following:
The [Presidential] party had come to a temporary halt before proceeding on to the underpass." Phil Willis (p. 24)
A]fter the third shot, I heard Roy Kellerman tell the driver, 'Bill, get out of line.' And then I saw him move, and I assumed…
However, most people who are looking for verifiable information are not going to sift through the detritus of YouTube, but will instead go to reliable sources: books, journals, studies, and reports that present verifiable facts and information. There is a place for YouTube as an entertainment medium, but that is perhaps its limits -- at this point in time. Peter Levinson (1999, p. 146) sums up YouTube when (speaking of the internet) he says:
"In other words, in terms of our understanding of media, the biggest contribution of the personal computer revolution and the Internet may be the light they shed on television as they render it, incredible as it may seem to our television age sensibilities, into an art form."
The art form meaning that we can rely upon television news media in a journalistic way, and as one that saves us from suffering hours upon hours of amateur…
Blue Man Group and Venus Hum, I Feel Love. YouTube 2010, viewed 11
May 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5d04D3CgSIQ&feature=related .
Matt Damon Absolutely Shreds Sarah Palin. YouTube 2010, viewed 10 May
2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvKFJ6iyGrI&NR=1 .
Flood (Pantheon Books) James Gleick a unified essay
There are a number of fairly sensational, possibly conclusions and premises that exist within the Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood, which was authored by James Gleick and was received to a host of critical responses in the early part of 2011. On a fundamental, basic level, this manuscript traces the myriad links throughout history to the beginning of the conception of the word information, and explains what it initially denotes. By applying a fairly exhausting and certainly thorough chronology of this topic, which burgeoned considerably within the midway point of the 20th century, Gleick actually concludes with a redefinition of the cultural, social, scientific, and biological significance of the term -- which naturally has certain unavoidable repercussions for those living in today's world, which is dominated by technology and the information it carries. The author is able to support his…
Carr, Nicholas. "Drowning in Beeps." The Daily Beast. 2011. Web. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/03/01/the-information-by-james-gleick-review-by-nicholas-carr.html
Gleick, James. The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon Books. 2011. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/20/books/review/excerpt-the-information-by-james-gleick.html?ref=review
Nunberg, Geoffrey. "James Glecik's History of Information." The New York Times. 2011. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/20/books/review/book-review-the-information-by-james-gleick.html?pagewanted=all
Narco- terrorism can be seen from a number of perspectives. The term is commonly applied to the use of terrorist techniques by drug traffickers and dealers to distract attention from and facilitate drug abuse. An accepted definition in this regard is as follows:
DOD) Terrorism conducted to further the aims of drug traffickers. It may include assassinations, extortion, hijackings, bombings, and kidnappings directed against judges, prosecutors, elected officials, or law enforcement agents, and general disruption of a legitimate government to divert attention from drug operations. (Narco-Terrorism: definition)
From a broader sociological perspective Narco-terrorism can also be seen in terms of its emphasis on the aspect of terrorism per se. From this broader and more inclusive perspective a number assessments of the meaning of the term may be made. Firstly, in this wider context narcotics can be used as another weapon in the terrorist's arsenal to influence and detrimentally affect…
A" Level Sociology Deviance and Social Control. October 27, 2004. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:_H3h_VLu1H4J:www.sociology.org.uk/devs1.doc+Durkheim%27s+anomie+theory+of+suicide+and+Japan&hl=en
Flynn, Stephen. "Worldwide Drug Scourge: The Response." Brookings Review Spring 1993: 36+. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Consumption, Society and Culture
There are two social processes which are linked with each other and provide the basis of popular culture in modern capitalist societies. These two processes are related with production and consumption of cultural goods. In the first step, the commodities are produced in the light of customers' desirable features and packaged in culturally acceptable methods. In the second step, the products are used by their respective target markets as status symbols to satisfy self-esteem needs. The identification of the target market as a considerable portion of society is largely based on its presentation in fine arts particularly TV programs, music shows and films (Benjamin, 1968).
Social system is a comprehensive study, whose knowledge is mandatory to understand the popular culture. Artifacts represent the cultural symbols, yet these artifacts are strongly influenced by the taste and choice of professionals and cultural elites. There are many…
Adorno, Theodor W., "Art, Autonomy and Mass Culture," in Art in Modern Culture: An Anthology of Critical Texts, ed. By Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris (New York: Icon Editions, 1992), 74-79.
Adorno, Theodor W., Critical Models; Interventions and Catchwords, trans. By Henry W. Pickford (New York: Colombia University Press, 1998).
Adorno, Theodor W., "The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture, " (London: Routledge, 2001).
Adorno, Theodor W. et al., The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row Publications, 1950).
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Atzerodt also made a statement claiming knowledge of a Confederate plot to bomb the White House. The Union's failed raid on Richmond was also approved by Lincoln, and it was later believed that he ordered the death of Jeff Davis in a strategy to end the war. Such speculations were extremely damaging for the strength of the government, and similar conspiracy theories fascinate historians to this day. In this, at least one part of ooth's ideal was realized: government weakness. This however did not result in a revival for the South, which was in fact the ultimate aim.
In conclusion, Lincoln's death meant that his attempts at countrywide reform were immediately nullified. Without his leadership, and in concomitance with the many conspiracy theories at the time, the government was unable to carry further such work. The country was not nearly strong enough to benefit from the good work done by…
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln75.html
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. Conspiracy Theories. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln74.html
The White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html
Lincoln's speech during the dedication ceremony of the military cemetery at Gettysburg (the White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. (
Social Institution and Organized Crime
Viewing organized crime as a social institution can enable law enforcement agencies to better understand how organized crime operates and maintains its structure and standing in society. A social institution is simply a system in which behaviors and relationships governed by the mechanisms of the system's structure; it consists of a group of social positions, relationships and social roles, all of which combine to give the institution its character. While organized crime may seem like a group that operates below the surface of society or in the underground, the fact of the matter is that organized crime is very much a social institution, in which relationships are fostered, hierarchies are evident, behavioral norms are expected, and goals are projected. This paper will discuss organized crime as a social institution using empirical and speculative theories to better understand how the term social institution applies to organized…
Lyman, M., Potter, G. (2007). Organized Crime, 4th Ed. NY: Prentice Hall.
Organized Crime. (2016). Act for Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.actforlibraries.org/organized-crime/
Takagi, D., Ikeda, K., Kobayashi, T., Harihara, M., Kawachi, I. (2016). The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26(2): 164-178.
Loose Change: An American Coup and Its Critics
Loose Change: An American Coup is a documentary film directed by Dylan Avery that challenges the official version of what happened on September 11, 2001. The film alleges that the official explanation provided by the government is untenable and full of contradictions. The film describes 9/11 as a false flag operation, an inside job disguised as an act carried out by foreign terrorists. The film also alleges that the Twin Towers in New York could not have collapsed because of an airplane explosion and thus must have been brought down by a controlled demolition and that the Pentagon was hit by a cruise missile rather than an airplane. The film claims that 9/11 was a conspiracy used by the Bush Administration to justify imperial goals in the Middle East.
Many journalists have criticized Loose Change, including George Monbiot who was also critical…
Avery, Dylan. Loose Change: An American Coup (2009).
Monbiot, George. "A 9/11 Conspiracy Virus is Sweeping the World, But it has No Basis in Fact." The Guardian, 5 Feb. 2007. Web. 10 Oct. 2011.
Smith, Patrick. "Ask the Pilot." Salon, 19 May 2006, Web. 10 Oct. 2011.
Gottlieb writes this book not just as a Clinton hater, though he is that, but as a conspiracy theorist who finds links to an unknown and unproven conspiracy virtually everywhere. Several members of the Maine Corps who had ridiculed Clinton die in a helicopter crash after three had flown with Clinton to the Roosevelt in the Potomac: "Definitely a far cry from conclusive evidence, but certainly a very intriguing coincidence" (117). That type of hint with no evidence is how conspiracy theorists build a vision of what they believe but cannot prove, and the fact that there is no proof becomes proof that someone is keeping anyone from finding the truth.
One of the other hot buttons for right-wing conspiracy theorists is the town of Mena, Arkansas, a town with an airport once used by the CIA to send material to the Contras and later used for smuggling cocaine into…
For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.
In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.
Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…
References (March 18, 1998). The Untold Story: AIDS and Black American: A Briefing on the Crisis of AIDS among African-Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of African-Americans on HIV / AIDS.
Andriote, John-Manuel. (2005). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans: A 'State of Emergency. Population Reference Bureau.
CDC. (2003) Late vs. early testing of HIV -- 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 581-86.
A de la Vega, Ernesto. (March, 1990). Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population With Sexuality and HIV / AIDS Information and Education. SIECUS Report 18 (3), p.3.
Essien et al. (2005). Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health: 5: 3.
remain ingrained in the hearts of the people of Arizona. On this day, Jared Lee Loughner, a 22-year-old, attempted to kill Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords and he opened fire in a supermarket parking lot in Tucson, shooting and severely injuring 14 people, including Giffords, his target, and killing six people. While the incident sparked outrage and condemnation from different parts of the country, there have been numerous other cases where young American citizens carry out mass shootings. According to Siegel (2012), such incidences have prompted criminologists to devote their careers to understanding both the good and bad side of human nature in order to find out the motives that trigger people like Loughner to commit atrocities like the one in Tucson and why they behave the way they do. Where exactly should blame be apportioned -- societal or individual factors?
In the aftermath of mass murders, a look into the childhood,…
Cables News Network, CNN (2011). Jared Loughner's Background Reveals Series of Warning Signs. International Edition. Retrieved 24 April 2015 from http://news.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/13/jared-loughners-background-reveals-series-of-warning-signs/
Fox, J.A. & Levin, J. (2012). Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder. California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Houser, A. (2012). Tragedy in Tucson: Arizona Shooting Rampage. Minnesota: ABDO Publishing Company.
Siegel, L.J. (2012). Criminology. (11th Ed). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Hyperrealism in Literature
The following criticism was made by Michael izza on Don DeLillo's Libra:
In Libra, Don DeLillo offers solace for the issue of achieving historical certainty; however, despite rendering fictive order to historical confusions, the attempt to describe events, like the assassination of John F. Kennedy, has been complicated by him, through transferring individual agency to external forces. ejecting these forces' caricatures by astrology, paranoia and conspiracy, he lets characters makes decisions (izza 2008). Nevertheless, independent actions, apparently initiated by characters, become a system's products, while design springs from and in spite of individual intentions. Though chaos and system theories help shed light on the conjunction of determinism and randomness, the individual is incorporated in the global. Moreover, the unstable identity of Oswald is performative; he performs for a changing audience, which dictates every new act.
While the above critique has its views, I would agree with it.…
DeLillo, Don. Libra.Penguin Books, 1991. Print.
Horst, Bredekamp. Hyperrealism - One Step Beyond. UK: Tate Museum Publishers, 2006. Print.
Johnston, John. "Superlinear Fiction or Historical Diagram?: Don DeLillo's Libra." Modern Fiction Studies . 40.2 (1994): 319-342. Web..
Parrish, Timothy . "From Hoover's FBI to Eisenstein's Unterwelt: DeLillo Directs the Postmodern Nove." Modern Fiction Studies. 45.3 (1999): 696-723. Web..
I. Novikov. It is not clear whether Bolotov himself was a Mason, but he certainly personally belonged to the same social circles as many leading Freemasons in Russia. In his Entsiklopediia, 128, 990, Serkov mentions Bolotov as a possible member of the Konigsberg military lodge of Joanna Krestitelia (John the Baptist) working in Elagin's system around 1773. (Cross, 105)
The Freemasons continued to grow and improve Russian society until the death of Peter III, when his wife Catherine took over the throne. During the reign of Peter III, the numbers and lodges grew substantially and it became fashionable in Russia to be a member of the Freemasons. In fact, many nobles from other countries were traveling to Russia to be a part of the new and growing movement.
Catherine the Great
One of the longstanding rules and traditions of the Freemasons is that members must be men, as women were…
Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1994. Print.
Hosking, Geoffrey a. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2001. Print.
Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.A History of Russia. New York: Oxford UP, 1984. Print.
Dmytryshyn, Basil. Modernization of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II. New York: Wiley, 1974. Print.
He is the last resource of the dying; he is the instrument of heavenly mercy. Sire, we supplicate you with clasped hands and bended knees, as the Deity is supplicated! Madame Fouquet has no longer any friends, no longer any support; she weeps in her poor deserted house, abandoned by all those who besieged its door in the hour of prosperity; she has neither credit nor hope left. At least, the unhappy wretch upon whom your anger falls receives from you, however culpable he may be, the daily bread which is moistened by his tears. As much afflicted, more destitute than her husband, Madame Fouquet- she who had the honor to receive your Majesty at her table; Madame Fouquet, the wife of the ancient Superintendent of your Majesty's Finances,- Madame Fouquet has no longer bread."
eality v Fiction
There are many ways in which Dumas stretches the reality of not…
Meade replied (p. 189) that "...neither the United States Government, myself, nor General Kilpatrick authorized, sanctioned, or approved the burning of the city of Richmond and the killing of Mr. Davis..."
Subsequent chapters in Schultz's book deal with the complications of retrieving Dahlgren's body and giving it a proper burial in the north, and with an ill-fated attempt by the Confederates to create chaos and draw blood in northern cities (Chicago among them) by sending disguised mercenaries down from Canada.
But Chapter 22 ("Desperate Measures: ho rote the Dahlgren Papers?") is loaded with Schultz's own beliefs and the views of others as regards the legitimacy of the papers. The people in the south believed the papers were real, and those in the north chose to believe the opposite. On pages 242-245 Schultz reprints what he asserts are the actual orders that Dahlgren was carrying with him. Back and forth, back…
Hall, James O. 1999. Gunning for Davis. Civil War Times Illustrated 37 (February): 66-68.
Mullen, Richard. 1999. Civil War Comes to Virginia. Contemporary Review 275 (September):
Schultz, Duane. 1998. The Dahlgren Affair: Terror and Conspiracy in the Civil War. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company.
Post-orld ar II Japan: A Nation in Transition
Devastated by the Allies in orld ar II, Japan has emerged as one of the world's most economically and technologically advanced societies today. Some observers have suggested that the "Japanese miracle" was the result of a collusion between the government and industry to prosecute economic growth through a series of subsidies and favorable business climates, while others maintain this explosive growth was due to the industrious and business-savvy Japanese people themselves. In order to determine which is correct, this paper will provide a review of Japan from the time of the signing of the peace treaty bringing an end to orld ar II and the years that followed. A review of the peace treaty and what was demanded of Japan to bring an end to the war after the bombing of Nagasaki will be followed by an examination of the role of…
Carlile, Lonny E. And Mar C. Tilton. Is Japan Really Changing Its Ways? Regulatory Reform and the Japanese Economy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
Johnson, Chalmers. Miti and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925- 1975. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1982.
Moore, Joe. The Other Japan: Conflict, Compromise, and Resistance since 1945. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
Nakamura, Takafusa, The Postwar Japanese Economy, 2nd ed., Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1995.
David Fromkin's "A Peace to End All Peace." From the beginning, the review provides intriguing information, including the fact that the title relates to the ideal of "a war to end all wars." The ironic nature of this phrase has been the subject of discussion and occasional mirth for all the years after the war. I was delighted to find out the name of the originator of the term, British commander Archibald Wavell, since this is not something I knew before.
The review provides several pieces of interesting information, including the fact that the British, and particularly Kitchener, were largely ignorant about the social and cultural nature of the Middle East, making the British policy for this region largely ineffective at best and explosive at worst. Another piece of interesting information is the mistaken belief that a conspiracy was underway to undermine the position of the British in the Middle…
This was done so that the flag would stand out from the flagpole... The bar was also not quite the full width of the flag, so that it was slightly furled to give a 'wave look' to it." (Red Zero, 2003) Other complaints, such as mismatched shadows in the moon-landing photographs also seem to have simpler explanations. While having a photo being faked does seem to simply explain multi-angled shadows, allowing that the rough ground alters the lay of shadows is even simpler. So it would be possible to generally apply Occam's Razor and say that evidence points to the moon landings being real, even though faking the landing would be easier than actually doing it.
Cosnette, D. (2003) the faked Apollo landings. Retrieved September 30, 2004 at http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html.
Easton, K. (2002) Occam's Razor. Paranormality.com: the a to Z. Of paranormal, supernatural and unusual phenomena. Retrieved September 30, 2004…
Cosnette, D. (2003) the faked Apollo landings. Retrieved September 30, 2004 at http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.html .
Easton, K. (2002) Occam's Razor. Paranormality.com: the a to Z. Of paranormal, supernatural and unusual phenomena. Retrieved September 30, 2004 at http://www.paranormality.com/occam's_razor.shtml
Kaku, Michio. (1995) Hyperspace: a scientific odyssey through parallel universes, time warps and the tenth dimension. New York: Anchor.
Marrs, J. (1997) Alien agenda: investigating the Extraterrestrial presence among Us. New York: HarperPaperbacks
The latter was an important member of this party, and also a staunch anti-Semite. The association with Eckart therefore further solidified Hitler's prejudice against Jews and other non-Aryan races (Fuchs 12)
Like many Germans, Hitler was deeply shocked by Germany's surrender. At the time, he was lying in a military hospital, recovering from a mustard gas attack. Recalling the anti-Semitic and political pamphlets he read as a teenager, Hitler came to believe that Jewish politicians had signed the armistice, thereby surrendering Germany at the point of victory (Schwaab 46).
The German surrender thus served as a catalyst for Hitler's entry into politics
Hitler believed that these Jewish politicians were preparing the way for a communist takeover of the German nation.
Shortly after meeting Eckart, Hitler produced his first anti-Semitic writing, advocating for a solution to the growing German problem. Hitler's solution involved "rational anti-Semitism." He vowed not to use traditional…
Fuchs, Thomas. A Concise Biography of Adolf Hitler. Boston: Berkly, 2000
Haffner, Sebastian. The Meaning of Hitler.
Boston: Harvard University Press, 2004
Housden, Martyn. Hitler: Biography of a Revolutionary? New York: Routledge, 2000.
g. volcanoes, etc.), but not on schedule; 3) Just because something is plausible does not make it true. The events on popular television series like Star Trek or Star Wars are not only plausible, but have scientific merit. That does not make them true, only possible (Kraus, 2007; Cavelos, 2000); 4) Conspiracy theories abound in numerous genres and surrounding numerous events. Examination of Marshalls' prose and "science," while seemingly credible does try to sell a product and only hints and speculates at facts without peer-reviewed data sources (Yowcrooks, 2009). While positive in tone, it also appears that if one believes conspiracy theories, most of us have only 133 weeks to live; or simply turn the calendar to a new page?
Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.
"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:
Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth."…
Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.
"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:
Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth." Cited in: http://www.climatecrisis.net .
The Order of the Knights Templar (Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon) was founded in 1118 to protect Christians on pilgrimage to Jerusalem (Blacktorne, 2011). The Order was sanctioned by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and he quartered the nine original knights in the old stables at the Temple of Solomon. All members had to give over all of their wealth and goods to the Order and take vows of poverty, chastity, piety, and obedience just like other monks (Langue, 2011). A majority of the members joined for life, although a select few were also allowed to join for specific duration.
The Templars' were considered the first international banking organizations. Although this wasn't there specific title they charge a fee (interest) for issuing letters of deposits (checks). Some also view them as a multinational corporation; however the banking reference seems to hold more…
6- BCCI "Bank of Credit and Commerce International
The Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) was a major international bank founded in 1972 by Agha Hasan Abedi, a Pakistani financier. The Bank was registered in Luxembourg. It operated in 78 countries, had over 400 branches, and had assets in excess of twenty billion making it the seventh largest private bank in the world by assets (Kanas, 2005). In the late 1980's BCCI became the target of a two-year undercover operation conducted by the U.S. Customs Service. This operation concluded with a fake wedding that was attended by BCCI officers and drug dealers from around the world who had established a personal friendship and working relationship with undercover Special Agent Robert Mazur (Lohr, 1991).
After a six-month trial in Tampa, some of the key bank officers were convicted and received lengthy prison sentences. BCCI came under the scrutiny of regulatory bodies and intelligence agencies in the 1980s due to its perceived avoidance of falling under one regulatory banking authority. It was actually set up to be not under any regulatory bodies' control at all. Thus the international bank could help people who wanted to hide money from taxation or even launder money. The true extents of the ties with other banking institutions were never fully uncovered. The prosecutors claimed that they busted the largest money laundering system ever yet many reports at the time feel like they barely scratched the surface (Baquet, 1991).
Anti-science is nothing new and in fact has been seamlessly woven into the story of human progress. Locating historical incidents linked to the repercussions of anti-intellectualism or anti-science is easy. One of the first European examples of the repercussions of anti-intellectualism is the story of Socrates's death sentence due to his philosophy of reason contradicting the established religious authorities in ancient Athens. Anti-intellectualism permeates European history, culminating with the excommunication of prominent scientists like Galileo and Kepler. Science, truth, and intellectual inquiry can present clear threats to an established authority like the Catholic Church or any other religious body, as well as threatening powerful political authorities or social systems like patriarchy. Any social system that relies on propaganda and myth-making to preserve its integrity is naturally going to be threatened by science and intellectual or critical inquiry. On the surface, there is a sort of quaintness about anti-intellectualism that appeals…
Achenbach, J. (2015). Why Do Many Reasonable People Doubt Science? National Geographic. Retrieved online: http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2015/03/science-doubters/achenbach-text
Casey, S. (2015). Love in the age of measles. Dissertation for Arkansas State University. Retrieved online: http://gradworks.umi.com/15/86/1586034.html
Desilver, D. (2017). U.S. students' academic achievement still lags that of their peers in many other countries. Pew Research. Retrieved online: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/15/u-s-students-internationally-math-science/
Dixon, W.E. (2015). Anti-intellectualism and the fracking of psychology. Training and Education in Professional Psychology 9(4), Nov 2015, 286-291.
Though it was certain that at this point Jones had many powerful political connections, it is suspected by many that there were secret ties that provided the real impetus for his move to Guyana, either as a means of escaping the hidden power structure that was after him, or perhaps of aiding the CIA in covert operations they were conducting in Guyana (Moore, 2002).
In 1978, Congressman Leo yan traveled to Jonestown to investigate the various claims regarding his group. When he left with four defecting members, Jones (or someone else) ordered his assassination, then led his group of 913 followers in a mass suicide by drinking Kool-Aid heavily laced with cyanide -- unless the bodies were a cover up of something still yet to be brought to light (Kurtz-Nichol, 1993; Moore, 2002). The explanation for the suicide is both to fulfill the religious promise of equality upon which the…
Chidester, D. (2003). Salvation and suicide. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Kurtz-Nichol, J. & Miller, C. (1993). "Jonestown: Examining the People's Temple." Rice University Academic Websites. Accessed 23 January 2009.
Moore, R. (2002) "Reconstructing reality: Conspiracy theories about Jonestown." Journal of popular culture, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 200-20.
The Aryan Nations Web site describes edfearin as "an individual of cunning mind, violent tendencies and radical outlook who aided in the evolution of the Aryan Nations worldview as the organization moved into a future which was very different than that perhaps originally envisioned by the Aryan activists of past generations."
Aryan Nations as a Terrorist Organization
Setbacks since the 1990s has largely left the Aryan Nations a "shadow of its former self," (Hoffman 2006, 110). However small its membership might be relative to the population as a whole, the Aryan Nations remains a formidable force. The organization's Web site indicates a slight ideological change, towards more radical and violent approaches to creating a constant state of "revolution" to dismantle the current social and political order (Aryan Nations). The Aryan Nations remains committed to racial purification but "it is prerequisite and indeed necessary that 'the System' be disrupted and broken…
Al-Khattar, Aref M. 2003. Religion and Terrorism; An Interfaith Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Aryan Nations. http://www.aryan-nations.org / (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
Borgeson, Kevin, and Valeri, Robin. 2009. Terrorism in America. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Aryan Nation." http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/anation.htm (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
In the same year, the founders started a new company for computer development called the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. By 1949, this company launched the BINAC or Binary Automatic computer. This computer made use of magnetic tape for the storage of data. Then this company was bought by emington and Corporation and the name was changed to Univac Division of emington and. This company was the organization to bring out UNIVAC which is one of the originals of the type of computers that are used today. (Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly)
1951 - UNIVAC begins to take over the business industries market:
Presper Eckert and John Mauchly set up their company and found their first client in the United States Census Bureau. The population of United States was growing very fast due to the baby boom that was taking place…
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Atanasoff-Berry Computer the First
Electronic Computer - John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry." Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050898.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly" Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa060298.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Harvard MARK I Computer - Howard
9/11 and the ITPA
Under the National Security Act of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was charged with the task of coordinating all national intelligence activities within the U.S. government. One major reason for this change was the failure of coordination and analysis across the intelligence agencies in predicting the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Indeed, so glaring were the failures to 'connect the dots' in determining the intentions of the Japanese that they gave rise to at least as many conspiracy theories as the September 11 attacks, such as the idea that Franklin oosevelt knew about the attack in advance and permitted it to happen so the U.S. would enter the Second World War. In practice, the coordination of intelligence activities never really occurred, and many similar failures occurred in the future, such as the CIA's inability to predict the outbreak of the Korean War or…
Best, R.A. And A. Cumming. (2011). "Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals." Congressional Research Service. 7-7500, January 12, 2011.
Fingar, T. (2008). "Analytic Transformation: Unleashing the Potential of a Community of Analysts." Office of the Director of National Intelligence, September 1, 2008.
Hearing of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. (2007). Progress on Intelligence Reform, January 23, 2007.
Progress on Intelligence Reform. (2007). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, January 23, 2007.
In return, Lincoln denounced Garrison and other abolitionists as "zealots" who would destroy the Union and dismantle the constitution for their cause.
In summary, DiLorenzo challenges the very foundations of classical Lincoln scholarship. He paints Lincoln as a power-hungry politician who put economic interests of his own group ahead of the interests of the country. He craved dictatorial power and willingly prolonged a bloody war in order to further his statist agenda. Finally, Lincoln's actions regarding colonization, his defense of slaveowners and his contempt for abolitionists belie his reputation as the Great Emancipator.
Analysis of arguments
DiLorenzo makes provocative arguments, ones that have been gleefully reported by right-wing columnists like Walter Williams and Joseph Sobran. However, a cursory reading shows that DiLorenzo's statements are hardly new. Instead, much of these are a rehashing of pro-Confederate writers from Jefferson Davis.
Some of DiLorenzo's statements are supported by facts. For example, Lincoln…
Cold War Era
Many films about the cold war era, especially the early films, speak out against its ideals, while others support these ideals. elow is a consideration of selected Cold War era films, and how these were influenced by the Cold War.
Dr. Strangelove is subtitled "How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the omb." Its producer/director is Stanley Kubrick and the film was released during 1964. The film is a satire with the aim of exposing Cold War politics that could result in absurd accidents such as a nuclear attack. The more serious film Fail-Safe, released during the same year, has often been compared with Dr. Strangelove. This is discussed in more detail later.
Part of Dr. Strangelove's theme is the evils of technology. This is the culprit causing the disastrous accident. It is interesting that a disclaimer had to accompany the film's release shortly…
Dirks, T. "Fail-Safe." 1996-2002. http://www.destgulch.com/movies/fsafe/
North by Northwest." 1996-2002. http://www.filmsite.org/nort.html
Heise, H. "Dr. Strangelove." Hannover, 1996-2000. http://www.filmsite.org/drst.html
Hinson, H. "The Russia House" film review. The Washington Post, December 12, 1990.
Cinema and American Politics
The modern politics of the U.S. and their imperialistic manifestations within the global political economy (GPE) have often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result. For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent ridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity, and democracy). Yet…
Benoit, William; Nill, Dawn. "Oliver Stone's Defense of JFK." Communication
Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2 (1998): 127-143.
Cole, David. Republican Party Animal. WA: Feral House, 2014.
Elliott, William; Schenck-Hamlin, William. "Film, Politics and the Press: The Influence
Anthrax as a Weapon of Mass Destruction
In 2001, a handful of anthrax letters wreaked havoc. What impact might a sackful have? -- Donald Donahue, 2011
Just one week following the deadly terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, three dozen envelopes were mailed through the U.S. Postal Service, including one to Senate majority leader Tom Daschle's office and others to news media containing anthrax that killed five people and injured more than a dozen others. These events, falling hard on the heels of the most destructive domestic terrorist attack in U.S. history, had many already-nervous Americans wondering if their own mailboxes would also come under attack. Since that time, though, concerns over new anthrax attacks have diminished but some observers caution that the threat remains as serious as in the past. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to determine the impacts of anthrax when used as…
Ake, D. C. (2011, September). Technology only a small part of detecting bioterrorist threats. National Defense, 96(694), 38-41.
Allison, G. (2012, September 8). Living in the era of megaterror. International Herald Tribune, 8.
Amerithrax. (2015). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/anthrax-amerithrax .
Anthrax-CDC review. (2003, October). Journal of Environmental Health, 66(3), 42.
music composer Wolfgang Mozart and his life and death. The writer concentrates on the theories that have been put together regarding what may have killed the composer, including bad pork, bad heart and a jealous peer. There wee 12 sources used to complete this paper.
One of the greatest composers in history was composer Wolfgang Mozart. He put together musical marriages that were unheard of in his time and today are still considered genius. Mozart was a man of many traits and was well-known for his quirky personality especially at the end of his life. His death has been shrouded in mystery for many years and theorists still work to try and draw s conclusive picture about what may have happened to the man in his final days. Before one can begin to understand the various theories surrounding his death one must have a grasp on who the man was…
HE ASSOCIATED PRESS, "New Theory on Mozart's Death." Newsday, (2001).pp A18.
Author not available, "Did pork cutlets kill Mozart?.," Reuters, (2001). pp 00
STEPHEN MANNING, Associated Press Writer, "Researcher: Bad Heart Killed Mozart.," AP Online, 92000)..
Joyce Howard Price, "Doctor believes rheumatic fever led to Mozart's death," The Washington Times,(2000). pp A3.
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin
Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from https://vialogue.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/why-evolution-is-true-notes-review/
Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=4953
olf did not choose this word arbitrarily. She is well aware of it portents and the fact that it is loaded with meaning for women, albeit unconsciously for many. It is guilt she is attempting to highlight for them, and guilt that she attempting to free them from by pointing out that its source is both external and patriarchal. Ironically, she adds yet another layer of guilt whilst doing so - Are you doing enough to be free of the patriarchal clutches? Have you realised that the world is yours for the taking? The sleight-of-hand of her prose is as illuminating as it is frustrating; olf wants women to free themselves from media-inspired guilt by loading themselves down with the guilt of not reacting enough against what she claims are aggressors and inhibitors of strength, peace and health. That she was successful in this endeavour is self-evident; the book's sales…
Wolf, N. The Beauty Myth. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.
The abrupt and mysterious disappearance of an entire civilization
The Mayans civilization was so well developed and had such a large population that it has perplexed researchers for years as to why the civilization disappeared so quickly. They were mathematicians and developed a calendar and had actually developed a calendar system that is fairly similar to the one we still used today except it had13 months and 28 days per month. They also had a thriving culture that spread across much of South America and there was even a system of governance that was based on their religion.
One of the most interesting cities in the Mayan territory, the city of Tikal, was located in the middle of a dense forest in the city of Flores, Mexico. The city was one of the most advanced cities in the territory and also one that researchers use to investigate the devastating…
Alex, T. (2007, June 19). Explaining the Mystery of the Vanished Maya. Retrieved from Neatorama: http://www.neatorama.com/2007/06/19/explaining-the-mystery-of-the-vanished-maya/
Bhanoo, S. (2012, November 8). Maya's Rise and Fall Matches Climate Change. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/13/science/for-maya-climate-change-may-have-been-blessing-and-curse.html?_r=0
Minster, C. (2004). The Ancient Maya: War and Warfare. Retrieved from Latin American History: http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/Maya/p/The-Ancient-Maya-War-And-Warfare.htm
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…
"Girls Who Danced before Hitler Praise His Personality." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current
File): A. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). Aug 03
In this almost tragically naive account of a 1939 performance for Hitler, this article gives some insight into the dominance of personality as the means by which Hitler was considered in the press.
In her article, "Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11 -from an organizer's point-of-view" the military could have done more. In particular the author asserts that General Myers who controlled such military operations, couls have done more to prevent the attacks (Brouillet). Instead the general was awarded one of the highest military honors for his inaction prior to 9/11 (Brouillet). The author also explain that she organized rallies and showecd people a film entitled "The Great Deception" which was the first televised show that contradicted the claims that were being made by the mainstream media in the aftermath of 9/11.
Mark Dunlea is one of the most outspoken voices on the events of September 11 and the lack of cooperation from the Bush administration in reference to a bipartisan review of the terrorist attacks. Dunlea is a member of the Green Party of New York city. In fact, Mark Dunlea…
Brouillet, Carol Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11
from an organizer's point-of-view. Retrieved January 2, 2005 from;
Dunlea, Mark. Madame President: The Unauthorized Biography of the First Green Party President. Big Toad Books: New York.
Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816.
Images of Hurricane Katrina, found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,2005,retrieved 1 March 2009.
Images of Brittany Spears, found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAV16M6q9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.
Bloggerhead.com, found online at, retrieved 1 March 2009.
Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009
Earhart did not handle the controls rather the two men with her piloted the craft manned the plane. Although Earhart gave ample credit to these men, their names are forgotten to history, and Earhart's legacy lives on.
ut Lovell's tone is grating when she only grudgingly concedes that when Earhart crossed the Atlantic on the fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's successful flight in 1932, Earhart's accomplishment was her own. That time, no one else was in charge of the craft. Clearly, Earhart had improved as a pilot since her early foray into the air. Still, that does not stop Lovell from arguing that Earhart was not a natural pilot and her fame was based more in notoriety and sensationalism than her contribution to the aviation. For the first time, in national newsreels, and through clips seen in movie theaters, the American public could follow a celebrity, famed not for acting or…
But Lovell's tone is grating when she only grudgingly concedes that when Earhart crossed the Atlantic on the fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's successful flight in 1932, Earhart's accomplishment was her own. That time, no one else was in charge of the craft. Clearly, Earhart had improved as a pilot since her early foray into the air. Still, that does not stop Lovell from arguing that Earhart was not a natural pilot and her fame was based more in notoriety and sensationalism than her contribution to the aviation. For the first time, in national newsreels, and through clips seen in movie theaters, the American public could follow a celebrity, famed not for acting or politics, but for doing daring things -- first Lindbergh, and now Earhart.
Finally, Lovell more convincingly argues that the practical value of the circumnavigation of the globe, the flight that resulted in Earhart's disappearance, was also of more financial value to her husband than to the history of flight. Putnam and Earhart's finances rested upon the lucrative speaking and celebrity endorsement engagements that Earhart would gain, if she completed the flight successfully. Lovell demonstrates that Earhart's plane and route was hastily and poorly planned and equipped. The route's navigator, Fred Noonan, also had a reputation for drinking. However, some of the details Lovell includes about the navigation, such as the fact the plane took off at exactly 00:00 Greenwich Mean Time suggests Noonan was more meticulous than Lovell might credit (Lovell 272).
Lovell believes there is no real documentation to support the outlandish theories that Earhart survived, was a spy for the American government, or was captured by the Japanese, or arranged her disappearance so she could live in seclusion, in refuge from fame after the flight (as most of the book is intent on portraying Earhart as a fame-seeker rather that someone who shied from publicity). Instead, Lovell believes the evidence on record supports the theory that Earhart and her navigator while flying from New Guinea to Howland Island during the last part of their journey did not have enough fuel to get to the island and instead crash-landed without enough supplies to survive. The science Lovell assembles in her book to discuss the history of aviation, navigation across the waters, and flight, is clearly and effectively deployed in his analysis of the final disappearance. However her text's refusal to acknowledge any of the contributions that Amelia Earhart made to the ability of women to pursue alternative careers, and to demonstrate the ability that both men and women could overcome, if only briefly, the constraints of the air, seems churlish at best.
If a butterfly's wings beating in Tibet can cause el Nino, then a gigawatt of electromagnetic radiation ought to be good for something.
* HAARP is an earthquake machine. Also based on a bunch of weird stuff Tesla discovered. Somewhat offset by the fact the HAARP array is clearly pointed at the sky.
* HAARP is a doomsday machine ripping a hole in the earth's atmosphere. Colorful, but scienfitically questionable. How do you rip a hole in air?
* HAARP has something to do with UFOs. Either signalling them, blasting them from the skies, or feeding babies to them.
* HAARP is a giant Mind Control broadcasting machine. Appealing, but if it works, why are people still such assholes? (clarky003)
Though an anonymous blogger is hardly likely to be considered a credible source the reality is that the full implications of this research device are unknown and real scientists who…
Bellis, Mary "History of Dynamite" 2009 at: .
clarky003 [Blogger] "H.A.R.R.P a weapon to end all wars?" at: .
Digg [Earhtfirst Comentator] "The 5 People Responsible for Mankind's Most Toxic Inventions" at: < http://earthfirst.com/the-5-people-responsible-for-mankinds-most-toxic-inventions/ >.
HARRP Website FAQ at: .
and, outlandish as it may seem to most Americans today, it is possible that... Chomsky's interpretation will be the standard among historians a hundred years from now. (November 20, 2001)
Since the time of its initial, mainly negative reviews, Noam Chomsky's sharply critical appraisal of America's hegemonic military endeavors, in the form of what Chomsky calls terrorism, as much so as similar aggressive acts anywhere else, by anyone else, may have (as a result of the now-protracted Iraq War and its lack of any resolution yet in sight, perhaps come into its own. For example, with no weapons of mass destruction (America's supposed reason for invading Iraq) found in Iraq; combined with the fact of the now hugely unpopular George W. Bush Presidency, based on the war's length and failure; and Bush's stubbornness about withdrawing American troops, Chomsky's major point within 911, that American military might and bullying of others…
Barsky, R. (1997) Noam Chomsky: A life of dissent. Cambridge, MA: The MIT
Chomsky, N. (November 2003). Hegemony or survival: America's quest for global dominance. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Chomsky, N. 911. (October 2001) New York: Open Media.
Cutter, in an attempt to vindicate the young woman, and also to clear Bone's name, develops a conspiracy theory that fingers J.J. Cord, a prominent businessman, as the murderer. While many people dismiss Cutter's theory as being a delusion, he is proven to be correct at the end of the film. Cutter's Way falls under the category of horror because of the suspense that is built up throughout the film. The audience, like many of the characters, is lead to believe that Cutter is delusional and it is only until the end that they realize he was right all along, and that Cord orchestrated the murders of other people as well. This film is especially successful in emphasizing man as monster.
Jacob's Ladder's is representative of psychological horror as the film illustrates, or implies, the effect the Vietnam War had on Jacob Singer, played by Tim Robbins, who is shown…
The Untold Story of the Lost Inventor of Moving Pictures by Christopher Rawlence
History as a concept was created within the human mind thousands of years ago. It most likely arose from tales told around flickering campfires of great deeds performed by fathers and mothers, dangerous beasts which were conquered, nourishing plants and fruits which were discovered and distinguished from poisonous ones. Gradually, even before the invention of writing, these stories were incorporated into ever more complicated sagas that involved not only wondrous accomplishments but details of day-to-day living. These sagas were handed down to succeeding generations who enlarged them and eventually used them as the bases of various religious practices. Virtually all of the really ancient religions devote extensive portions of their writings to the presentation of racial or ethnic history.
For most of the existence of the human race, history was confined to the spoken or…
othschild family descended from a man who established a banking business in the 1760s, so they have been a name associated with international banking since the beginning (Corti, 2001). Their ancestor was Mayer Amschel othschild, who was a court Jew (Corti, 2001). Unlike many in that position before him, he was able to bequeath the wealth he had to his family. Through his five sons, he established a dynasty in the international banking world (Wilson, 1988). That dynasty was strong enough to surpass the Berenbergs and Barings, who were among the strongest and wealthiest banking families of the day (Ferguson, 2000). Many lines of the family have been elevated to nobility in Austria and been given titles such as Baron (Ferguson, 2000). The British side of the family also became nobility, becoming Barons and Baronets (Corti, 2001).
The othschild family was at its height during the 19th Century, when it…
Corti, E.C.C. (2001). Rise of the House of Rothschild, B. Lunn (translator), NY: Books for Business.
Ferguson, N. (2000). The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker, 1849 -- 1998. NY: Penguin Books.
Wilson, D.A. (1988). Rothschild: A Story of Wealth and Power. NY: Andre Deutsch Ltd.
Government & Politics
The arguments contrast two observations. Which of them is the best and why? Give a detailed and substantial response.
Charles eard and John Roche had differing views regarding the American constitution as they hailed from different background. Due to their diverse backgrounds, they have their own views regarding American constitution. A deep study of both authors shows that, John Roche is an optimist and a reformer, while Charles eard attempts to expose the inner intentions of the founding fathers (Thesis Statement, 2014). oth authors give interesting insight into the minds of the founding fathers with rock solid evidence. eard (1913) proposes that founding fathers had huge properties to protect while Roche (1961) argues that constitution united the nation quite effectively.
Those penning the constitution had sold commercial and financial interest of their own (p. 36)
The authors of the constitution were bent on penning a…
Berg, S. (2012). The Founding Fathers and the Constitutional Struggle over Centralized Power. Baltimore County: University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/pdf/The_Founding_Fathers_and_the_Constitutional_Struggle_PF.pdf
Dalleva, N. (2010, August 30). An Analysis Of John Roche's Essay "A Reform Caucus in Action." Retrieved from Essencearticles.com: http://www.essencearticles.com/book-reviews-politics/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay-a-reform-caucus-in-action
Dalleva, N. (2010, September 15). Education. Retrieved from articlesfactory.com: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/education/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay.html
Folsom, B. (2009, June 11). The Freeman. Retrieved from Fee.com: http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/the-founders-the-constitution-and-the-historians
But it did make me wake up a little to the fact that this was not a true date and fact biopic, but a Stone biopic, which looks more into the heart of darkness of the topic than most others in the genre.
While the humor was there another unexpected feeling I walked away with was fear. This is just not fear of this particular president's way with words or from his gut decision making cowboy politics. It is the fear and the reality that the president is after all is said and done a human being making, often, inhuman decisions. One tends to think of the president as on a pedestal and the scrutiny there is so much higher that any error or misstep or malapropism is multiplied a hundred fold. But in this particular president, Stone by way of implication is saying that if you are not fit…
Short to military dances. The book is riddled with anecdotes such as these that indicate the military was ill prepared for a surprise attack, and in fact were arrogant in their ignorance.
In fact, Clausen's investigation showed the American military knew Japanese codes but ignored them in seeking intelligence; the agencies were unprepared for war or a surprise attack. As the author notes, "Although vested with high commands and responsibilities, they were surprised by the attack. They were unprepared for war. Thus, they were really guilty of criminal neglect of duty" (Clausen & Lee, 1992, p. 228). There was little joint action between the services during and after the attack, and that had a midnight message been decoded, it might have prevented the attack. In short, Pearl Harbor was a series of bungles that resulted in the most horrific naval losses the U.S. has ever endured.
Clausen, H.C. And…
Clausen, H.C. And Lee, B. (1992). Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…
Anders, Chris. "Senators Demand the Military Lock Up of American Citizens." ACLU.
23 Nov 2011. Web. 13 Feb 2012.
Buchanan, Patrick. "Why Are We Baiting the Bear?" 23 Aug 2011.
Corbett, James. "9/11: A Conspiracy Theory." Corbett Report. 11 Sep 2011. Web. 13
" The 'number' of witnesses later turned out to be a single witness who was not even sure about who he saw at the window.
Palm prints on the cardboard box: Similarly Oswald's palm prints were said to have been found on a cardboard box found at the window of the depository building from which Oswald allegedly shot Kennedy. Oswald's prints were not found anywhere else in the room except on a 'convenient' carton that could easily find its way to the police station where Oswald was kept in custody. (Lane,
Apart from these, not insignificant, inconsistencies in the "evidence" presented by the Dallas Attorney General, it is highly unlikely that Oswald, using the Carcano, could have shot with the accuracy and speed required at a moving target.
According to the arren Commission that investigated Kennedy's assassination, three shots were fired from the Depository window, the first and…
Lane, Mark. "Oswald Innocent? A Lawyer's Brief." A Guardian Special. Nov. 22, 1963, December 7, 2004. http://karws.gso.uri.edu/JFK/the_critics/lane/Natl-Guardian/Natl_Guardian.html
Roffman, Howard. "Presumed Guilty." Chapter 9 Oswald's Rifle Capability. A Book by a.S. Barnes and Co., Inc. 1976. http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/PG/PG.html#TOC
Oswald insisted that he was innocent and said he would prove it when he was brought to trial; he persisted in his denial despite the fact that he was questioned for 48 hours without the benefit of counsel; he even refused to admit to the killing as he lay dying
Even this 'fact' has not been proven beyond a shadow of doubt, but we will discuss the point later.