1000 results for “Construction”.
E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.
Gambatese, John a. "Liability in designing for construction worker safety." Journal of Architectural Engineering: September 1998: 107-112.
Gitter, obert J. "Wage Subsidy Programs in Apprenticeship Training in the Construction Industry." Journal of Vocational and Technical Education Fall 1985: 3-10.
Gould, John P. And Bittlingmayer, George. The Economics of the Davis-Bacon Act: An Analysis of Prevailing-Wage Laws. Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute of Public Policy esearch, 1980.
Korman, ichard, Kohn, David and et. al. "The jokes are very funny anymore." EN 7 Sept. 1998: 26.
Krizan, William G. And Winston, Sherie. "Craft Work is tough on bodies." EN, 27 May 1996.
Lund, John. "Union owned or sponsored building trades cooperatives: a review of labor law issues." Labor Law Journal. October 1990: 685-93.
Maloney, William F. Employee Involvement in Construction. The University of Michigan, March 1961.
Miscimarra, Philip a. And Altschul, Andrew M. "The Town and Country case:…
Baskin, Maurice. "The case against union-only project labor agreements on government construction projects." Journal of Labor Research Winter 1998: 115-24.
Brinderson, Gary L. "Don't punish safety violators." ENR 17 November 1997: 93.
Cox, Robert Francis. Case Studies of Employee Participation Programs in Construction and their Effects on Absenteeism. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 1994.
Cullen, Donald and Feinberg, Louis. The Bargaining Structure in Construction: Problems and Prospects. U.S. Department of Labor Management Services Administration, 1980.
If one is going to build a home or a business, one needs good materials with which to construct those dwellings. However, most of the materials that are used in construction projects in Iran are far from meeting international standards (Babai, 2011). They are of a low quality, and they do not hold up in the way that they would if high quality materials had been used. Many of the designers and others who are in charge of recommending and/or purchasing materials for the construction projects are faced with conflicting feelings about what they are using. They know that the items are substandard, but they have to meet a deadline and a budget. There is no room in that budget for materials that meet international standards, because they are much more costly. It is also not possible to order other materials that are better and wait for them…
Afshari, H., Khosravi, S., Ghorbanali, A, Borzabadi, M., & Valipour, M. (2011). Identification of Causes of Non-excusable Delays of Construction Projects. 2010 International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics. IPEDR vol.3 IACSIT Press, Hong Kong. p. 42-46.
Al-Momani A. (2000). Construction delay: a quantitative analysis. International Journal of Project Management, 20. p. 51 -- 9.
Asnaashari, E., Knight, A. & Hurst, A. (2010). Delays in the Iranian construction projects: Stakeholders and economy Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK. p. 699-704
Assaf, S.A, & Al-Hejji, S. (2006). Causes of delay in large construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 24(4). p. 349 -- 57.
"Brainstorming, scenario planning, and expert interviews is the tools highway engineers commonly use in routine engineering and construction management tasks." (U.S. Department f Transportation 2007 P. 2). Table 3 reveals the summary of the tools and technique in the risk identification process.
Table 3: isk identification tools and techniques
Work breakdown structure (WBS)
Team issues and concerns
Final project reports
isk response plans
Organized lessons learned
Published commercial databases
Nominal group methods
Crawford slip methods
Influence or risk diagramming
1.7: isk analysis
isk analysis is the process of identifying and quantification risk factors as well as estimating the likelihood of the impact of the risks in the construction lifecycle. El-Gafy (2008) argues that risk analysis is needed in order to determine the potential impact of…
BurtonShAw-Gunn, a.(2009). Risk and Financial Management in Construction. Asghate. UK.
Dey, P.K. (2002). Project Risk Management: A Combined Analytic Hierarchy Process and Decision Tree Approach. Cost Engineering.44(3):13-26.
Eid, K. (2007). Risk Anaysis Case Study. Article Base.
El-Gafy, M. (2008). Risk Analysis for Design-Build Construction Projects: A Simplified Approach. Illinois State University.USA.
This would help to cut costs, and was seen as a significant problem as evidenced by the table on page 2. Another important issue was the consequences of using construction material that is substandard, meaning that the materials may be more difficult to work with and they not be as reliable and durable. Most individuals did not want to use these products, but there are often no other choices. These substandard materials cause delays in construction, increasing costs, failures, and continued problems after construction that can be disastrous. Many companies use substandard materials, also, because they prefer to cut costs - but this often does not work the way they had hoped and can result in significant problems in the future.
There are many sanctions against Iran, and those are also not helping the construction industry in that country. According to those who participated in the study and answered that…
In addition, Sound Transit has installed eight sensing devices for the building, including probes that would register any soil shifting at the tunnel depth.
Such alerts would allow Sound Transit time to apply extra grout between the tunnel and the apartment building's basement.
6. Output Analysis and Discussion
Here, Sound Transit has taken reasonable and economically feasible precautions to reduce the risk of damage from soil sliding. At this point, the remaining hazards come from uncontrollable environmental factors, such as earthquakes and heavy rainfall, all of which are known to cause landslides and mudslides in the city of Seattle. Another factor which could cause damage to surface property is contractor negligence, for example when a contractor drills in a manner or pace which cumulates in excessive vibration and stress on surface structures.
7. Recommendation of the Improvement
In order to mitigate against uncontrollable environmental factors, Sound Transit should make sure…
Practical Risk Management 4
http://projects.soundtransit.org/Projects-Home/University-Link.xml; http://projects.soundtransit.org/x1698.xml http://projects.soundtransit.org/Projects-Home/University-Link/Capitol-Hill-Station.xml
University Link fact sheet, available at http://projects.soundtransit.org/Documents/pdf/projects/link/north/ULink/U-LinkFact201105.pdf; Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) fact sheet, available at http://projects.soundtransit.org/Documents/pdf/projects/link/north/ULink/Fact_TBM_2011.pdf
THIS PARTNERING AGREEMENT (this "Agreement"), is entered into on ____, by and between Capitol Home Improvement, LLC ("Capital Home Improvement") and The KEIMA CONSTRUCTION Corporation ("KEIMA CONSTRUCTION").
WHEREAS, KEIMA CONSTRUCTION represents that it has expertise in the area of [specify area of expertise of which partner is sought], and is ready, willing, and able to provide assistance in that area to CAPITOL HOME IMPROVEMENT and to the client of CAPITOL HOME IMPROVEMENT (the "Client") on the terms and conditions set forth herein; and WHEREAS, CAPITOL HOME IMPROVEMENT, in reliance on KEIMA CONSTRUCTION's representations, is willing to engage KEIMA CONSTRUCTION as an independent contractor, and not as an employee, partner or joint venturer, on the terms and conditions set forth herein; NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the obligations herein made and undertaken, the parties, intending to be legally bound, covenant and agree as follows:
This is exactly the same case as the cladding stones used in covering the pyramids, if we use the same technique.
We would break the quarry stone into pieces, move it to the construction site, and put the pieces back exactly as they were in the quarry. This method required the stones to be marked or numbered at the quarry in such a way that enabled putting them back together in the correct order at the construction site. The stones were arranged exactly as they were cut from the quarry but flipped (turned upside down) to hide the cutting marks under the stones (Halim).
Construction Utilizing Large Labor Force was Plausible
Petrie, one of the first great modern Egyptologists, thought that the huge labor force the Greek historian Herodotus reported (100,000 men) to have been used for the construction of the Great Pyramid was plausible. In his view, which continues…
Encyclopaedia Britannica. n.d. 18 Apr 2009 .
"Great Pyramid of Khufu." n.d. crystalinks. 18 Apr 2009 .
Halim, Hany. "THE BROKEN VASE THEORY." 2002. Exceptional Egypt. 18 Apr 2009 .
"Mystery of the Egyptian Pyramids." 2008. Ancient Egypt. 18 Apr 2009 .
Construction sites are inherently dangerous places. Construction insurance, then, is critical to reducing liability risks and protecting assets during a project. It allows an organization to reasonably safeguard interests in the work. Adequate insurance provides protection against property damage and worker related injury (Agron 1998, pp.267). Myriad coverage options are available, spanning a multitude of potential problems. This analysis is designed to provide basic information concerning construction risks faced by City Hall and the insurance coverages available to respond to these risks.
Risk Management and Insurance Considerations
For the Victoria City Hall restoration project, the importance of leadership cannot be overstated. Formalized approaches to understanding, analyzing and managing risk are necessary. Quality assurance checks should be embedded into the overall project management plan and communicated to all project members. The primary goal is to limit exposure to various operational risks that can cause damage or loss to assets,…
Wrap-up insurance will provide cost savings and allow City Hall to protect its interests. This coverage should be provided for employees and construction activities at or emanating from the any project site locations as defined in the construction contract documents (Korman 2011, pp.1). This is pertinent to project success -- the cost of solving resulting problems due to mishaps, hazards, or unforeseen events is normally many times higher than the cost of related insurance premiums.
• A construction worker carrying drywall hits and activates a sprinkler head causing water to be released. The Builder's Risk policy covers damage caused by the water regardless of fault.
Daily Field Construction Report
DeMatteis/Turner Construction Site
Temperature Conditions a.MP.M
Low Temperature: |_| Partly Cloudy . |_|
High Temperature: 50F |_| Cloudy |_|
|_| Windy |_|
Notes ? |X| Rain |X|
|_| Snow |_|
|_| Other ? |_|
Total Total Total
Abatement ? Field Staff ? Plasterers 1 Others: (list trade)
Balancing ? Finish Carpenters 1 Plumbers ? 1 safety officer ?
Carpenters 7 Flooring ? Roofers 1 laborer
Caulking ? Insulator ? Sheet metal
Ceiling Iron Workers ? Sheet rockers/Tapers
Concrete Finishers ? Laborers 12 Sprinkler 2
Control ? Landscapers ? Tile Setters ?
DDC ? Masons ? Watchmen ?
Electricians ? Operators ? Windows 2
Elevator ? Painters Totals:
Visitors to the site
There were few casual visitors to the site, which is of no special interest to tourists. However, there were a few onlookers who observed the site from safe…
Bullring team accepted some risks; however, the company developed the effective cost and schedule strategies to manage these risks. For example, the company allotted sufficient fund to militate against risks associated with the project costs and schedule. Table 2 presents the compressive list all the risks deemed to affect the outcome of the Bullring project.
Table 2: Associated isks on the Project
Cost elated isks:
Tight project schedule
Project variations from the client
Unsuitable construction project's program planning
Occurrence of dispute
Price inflation of project construction materials
Excessive approval procedures within the administrative government departments
Incomplete approval of document and other documents
Incomplete and inaccurate cost estimate
Inadequate program scheduling
Time elated isks:
Tight project schedule
Excessive approval procedures within the administrative government departments
Variations by the…
Baker, W. And Reid, H. (2005). Identifying and Managing Risk, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.:
Chen, H., Hao, G., Poon, S.W. And Ng, F.F. (2004) Cost Risk Management in West Rail
Project of Hong Kong, 2004 AACE International Transactions.
Minimum provisions also include the estimated time frame for construction and completion of a project, description of the work necessary to complete the project, the exact dollar amount of payment including taxes involved, as well as any necessary deposits or progressive payments desired by one or both parties involved.
One of the most important pieces of a contract is the section concerning what to do in the event of changes to the original order. Construction sites are prone to unforeseen events and necessary changes which develop after the onset of building has already commenced, despite how thorough and well drawn out the contract involving that project might be. Changes can occur for a variety of reasons, including unexpected difficulties at the build site, design problems, and owner initiated changes. The importance of the Order Change section of each project is to ensure that any necessary changes will be dealt with…
Bartholomew, Stuart H. Construction Contracting Business and Legal Principles.
Princeton Hall Publishing. 1997.
Construction Documents. American Institute of Architects. http://www.aia.org/docsFound on September 30, 2007.
Construction Documents. Associated General Contractors of America. http://www.agc.org/page.ww?section=Contract+Documents&name=About+Contract+DocumentsFound on September 30, 2007.
Chapman (2001) equated the dangers explained within the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency Publication "Management of Project isk" into the design threats that included however were not restricted to "trouble in catching and pointing out the individual requirements," "problem of approximating the time and resources needed to finish the design," "trouble of gauging development throughout the advancement of the design." Chapman likewise specified that the design group's thorough expertise of the sources of danger can considerably affect the recognition of threats in the design stage of a project. Abdou (1996) further categorized the different construction dangers into 3 teams, i.e. construction finance, construction time and construction design, and dealt with these threats in light of the various contractual associations that exist amongst the useful entities associated with the design, advancement and construction of a project.
Threat category is a considerable action in the risk management procedure, as it tries to…
Abdou, O.A. (1996) Managing Construction Risks, Journal of Architectural Engineering, 2(1), 3-10.
Ahmed, S.M., Ahmad, R. And Saram, D.D. (1999) Risk Management Trends in the Hong Kong Construction Indus try: a Comparison of Contractors and Owners Perceptions, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 6(3), 225-234.
Baker, W. And Reid, H. (2005) Identifying and Managing Risk, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education.
Baloi D., & Price a., 2003, Modeling global risk factors affecting construction cost performance, International Journal of Project Management 21, pp 261-269.
In the construction industry, a large majority of the work that is performed is completed by members of a closely knit group of individuals that form a construction union. With a modest contribution to union membership dues, members are entitled to a variety of benefits, including competitive wages, healthcare benefits, and other incidentals. As a result, it is most feasible for construction employees to join the local union rather than to serve as independent workers, or what are commonly known as field employees.
In a competitive economic society, construction projects are quite significant sources of revenue and income for field experts, regardless of their union affiliation. However, those that decide to join the union designated for the construction industry will find that their privileges are enhanced, their rights are better protected, and their wages are more competitive. As a result, these individuals are more likely to actively engage…
Luthans, K. (2003). Recognition: a powerful, but often overlooked, leadership tool to improve employee performance. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=prin& ; docId=5001777624& pgNUm=1
Construction Safety Issues: Wind and Solar-Array Farms
As the world's population continues to increase dramatically from the existing six billion people to more than nine billion by mid-century and global supplies of oil and gas continue to be depleted, the search for renewable sources of energy has become pronounced and even desperate. In response, wind and solar-array farms are being installed in countries around the world to help satisfy the growing demand for energy, especially the demand for renewable energy resources. To identify potential construction safety issues involved the large equipment; cranes and dirt moving equipment used in these projects as well as the potential electrical hazards that are routinely encountered, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
A number of renewable energy resources are being deployed around the world, including solar,…
Brown, B.T. & Escobar, B.A. (2007). Wind power: Generating electricity and lawsuits. Energy Law Journal, 28(2), 489-491.
Gale, S.F. (2010, April). A closer look. PM Network, 24(4), 34-36.
Hiserodt, E. (2010, November 8). The wind-farm eruption. The New American, 26(22), 17-19.
Schwartz, H. (2007). How Ontario and Ontario cities are coping with the cost of energy.
Construction of a Collective Memory etween Jewish and Islamic Turks
Assmann (2001) writes that sociologist Maurice Halbwachs and Aby Warburg, art historian developed two theories of "collective or social memory." (p.125) Assmann states of collective or social memory that the "…specific character that a person derives from belonging to a distinct society and culture is not seen to maintain itself for generations as a result of phylogenetic evolution, but rather as a result of socialization and customs." (2001, p.125) The cultural survival of this group or type of what Assmann refers to as a "pseudo-species" is stated to be a "function of cultural memory." (2001, p.125)
Cultural memory is defined as a concept "through a double delimitation that distinguishes it first, "from what we can communicative or everyday memory which in the narrower sense of our usage lacks cultural characteristics; and secondly, "from science which does not have…
Alaikum, Shalom (2009) Faced with growing prejudice, Turkey's tiny Jewish community is reaching out to its Muslim neighbors. Newsweek. The Daily Beast. 30 Jun 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2009/06/30/shalom-alaikum.html
Assmann, Jan (2001) Collective Memory and Cultural Identity. New German Critique.
Connerton, Paul (2008) Seven Types of Forgetting. Memory Studies. Sage 2008.
Connerton, Paul (nd0 How Societies Remember.
(in its turn, the financial environment must be understood with reference to the wider economic situation.) Cost control is the activity which compares cost performance against the cost plan, adjusting one or the other dynamically by reference to the changing circumstances in the project's financial environment. (Hughes, 1991, p.1)
2. Time Control -. Timing is influenced by many environmental factors, but the client's attitude to the timing of the project is an issue of policy. Therefore, when considering time, the policy of the client needs to be unambiguous. (Hughes, 1991, p.1)
3. Functional Control - the physical environment dictates the technology which is available. Technology includes the physical resources being utilized in the provisions of the built facility. This also ties in the ecological issues about the effect that the construction project has upon the physical environment. In terms of a control system, it is functional control which forms the…
Clough, Richard Hudson; Sears, Glenn a.; and Sears, S. Keoki (2000) Construction Project Management. John Wiley & Sons 2000.
Edum-Fotwe, F.T. And McCaffer (2000) Developing Project Management Competency: Perspectives from the Construction Industry. International Journal of Project Management 18 (2000) 111-124.
Burns, T. & Stalker, G.M. (1966) the management of innovation. London; Tavistock publications.
Hughes, W. (199) Effective Control of Construction Projects. Paper to 7th Annual ARCOM conference, University of Bath, Sept 1991.
Respondents to the questionnaire, who are in a first-hand position to assess the construction industry in Iran, agree on what all of the basic problems are and on many of the interrelationships and influences that these problems have on each other and on the industry itself. They are also in relatively strong agreement that Iran's foreign policy and its overall position in the geopolitical environment are having direct negative impacts on business as a whole and the construction industry specifically. This suggests that attitudes and understandings within the country are continuing to shift more toward Western perspectives regarding the free market, the exchange of information, and the mutual benefit of regional stability. It is only when such liberties and stability are achieved that the construction industry in Iran will be turned around, as it is through real and lasting social change that education and material exchanges can take place, trade…
Construction Project Control
To develop mitigating measures, preventive measures would need the design plan to be specific with specified sections that make up the whole plan, including technical specifications within the sections. The predictive measures should contain good controls that spot potential problems as they arise. Corrective measures should include continuous evaluation measures, such as risk appraisals and quality management. Organizational measures should align with the company's objectives and mission statement (Olawale, 2010).
How the design is planned is the most important part in preventing or controlling changes, inadequacies, risks/uncertainties, complexities, and non-performance of subcontractors and suppliers. The project design can be broken up into sections, such as the recreational fields, recreational centers, play areas, etc., to more effectively control the specifics of each area and define the technical specifications. The design should include governmental standards in technical specifications, health, and safety regulations. To mitigate for the risk of not…
Olawale, Y. & S.M., 2010. Cost and time control of construction projects: Inhibiitng factors and mitigating measures in practice. Construction Management and Economics, 28(5), pp. 509-526 Scopus EBSCOhost, viewed May 1, 2014.
Tuuli, M.M.R.S. & K.T.Y., 2010. Control modes and mechanisms in construction project teams: drivers and consequences. Construction Management & Economics, 29(5), pp. 451-465.
Construction Project Planning Phase
Your clients have secured the financing to develop 48 acres land into mixed-use buildings. They have asked you to draft a high-level project plan to begin the more detailed discussions. Forty percent of the site is an undeveloped field, and the project must include a nursery school.
here should you begin?
Based on your readings and your experience, identify the approach you would take to drafting this high-level plan.
Describe three key questions you would ask your clients and your rationale for starting your planning with those questions.
The beginning point for the project will be the planning phase. The planning phase is one of the most essential segments of the project because during this session the scope, schedule, and budget will be defined. The beginning of the planning phase is also equally important. One step that is often overlooked is to include all of the…
Lin, C., & Pervan, G. (2003). The practice of IS/IT benefits management in large Australian organizations. Information and Management, 13-24.
Northrop, G. (2011, August 20). Risk Management Planning. Retrieved from The 3rd Project Management Conference: http://www.saudipmc.com/eng/veikko-pdf/RMPlan.pdf
"Egyptian Project Management had over 200 years of experience with pyramid building which saw a clear evolution in learning. The approach was based on trial and error, or prototyping. This is exemplified by the ent Pyramid at DAHSHUR, clearly experimental, with two different slope gradients for the sides at the lower and upper levels. This experience gave them the confidence to take on the Giza project" (Miroslav, 1997).
"The Parthenon is a temple in the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their protector. Its construction began in 447 C and was completed in 438 C, although decorations of the Parthenon continued until 432 C. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art.…
Tarbell, F.B. 2004. A History of Ancient Greek Art. Ellopos.net. Accessed on November 13, 2010 from: http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/ancient-greece/history-of-ancient-greek-art-12.asp
Voggenreiter. a. 2009. Historischer Ruckblick. Archived from the original on 2010-11-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20061016094500/http://www.biw.fhd.edu/alumni/2002/voggenreiter/fachbeitrag/rueckblick.htm
Nebel, B. 2010. Julius Casars Brucke uber den Rhein. Accessed on November 13, 2010 from: http://www.bernd-nebel.de/bruecken/3_bedeutend/caesar/caesar.html
Barringer, J.M. (2008). Art, myth, and ritual in classical Greece. Cambridge. p. 78.
In this regard, Greenspan and his associates report that, "The construction manager at-risk, who also acts as the general contractor, is integrally involved in the design process, assisting with design, constructability reviews, cost estimating, and scheduling" (p. 14). In this emerging capacity, construction managers must possess a thorough knowledge of construction materials and be able to identify where cost savings can be achieved through alternative uses of different materials. For example, Greenspan et al. also note that, "This intervention maximizes the manager's opportunities to seek out and realize cost savings on the project. It also allows the manager to employ value engineering: weighing the benefits and costs of using recycled materials and factory-fabricated components such as steel framing, high-performance concrete mixes, and other new technologies" (p. 15). Value engineering was used to good effect by the construction manager for a series of construction projects completed in San Carlos, California in…
Applebaum, H. (1999). Construction workers, U.S.A. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Arain, F.M. & Pheng, L.S. (2006). Developers' views of potential causes of variation orders for institutional buildings in Singapore. Architectural Science Review, 49(1), 59-60.
Betts, C.P. (1993, August). Blueprint for hiring a design consultant. Security Management,
A report to sustainable retrofit options for Building 15 Harris Street Ultimo Sydney 622- 632 HARRIS STREET
For sustainable future attainment within the construction sector, it is recommended that the sector adopt a multi- disciplinary strategy which takes into account numerous features including energy conservation, more efficient material utilization, emissions and pollution control, and minimization of material wastage. Construction works’ present nature may be improved and controlled by various means, with a view to making it more ecofriendly whilst not reducing construction activities’ useful output. For effectively attaining an edge over competition by employing ecofriendly construction practices, edifices’ entire life- cycle ought to form the context of performance of these practices (Akadiri et al. 2012). A literature review on the subject gleans the following three broad aims that ought to shape the basis for sustainable building planning and construction implementation;
1. Cost- effectiveness;
1. Resource conservation; and
OverviewCustomer: Town of Leesburg VirginiaRFP Number 100710-FY19-12Location: Town of Leesburg, Virginia. 25 West Market Street, Leesburg, VA 20176Product or Service: Hangar Land Lease at the Leesburg Executive AirportWith this proposal the town of Leesburg, Virginia is looking to solicit proposals to build, finance, maintain, and operate an aircraft hangar facility at the Leesburg Executive airport. Here, the proposal reviewed is from Sky Harbor Group LLC, which is newly formed publicly traded entity. The company went public on Jan 25, 2022 and is looking to create the first nationwide network of home-based solutions for private aviation aircraft. The company is looking to establish a location in Leesburg Virginia as a means of offering private hangar solutions for private jet operators within the immediate market. The proposal will look to establish a Home Based Solution for private jet operators where they have unparallel and unmatched access to their aircraft. The company…
1. Bodapati, N. (1995). Managing Airport Projects. The Military Engineer, 87(569), 39–41. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44551583
2. Hagen, D. L. (1989). Environmental Health Overseas: World’s largest airport presents unique challenges. Journal of Environmental Health, 52(1), 338–340. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44541237
3. Jerome, A., & Nathanson, J. (1972). Socioeconomic implications of airport planning. Ekistics, 33(194), 30–34. http://www.jstor.org/stable/43617924
Borrowed elements from works of ancient art have played a crucial role in contemporary structural engineering development. As has been observed even in earlier times, a compilation of diverse artworks from ancient times may be assimilated using advanced technology to create a few of the best artworks across the globe (Snell et.al 198).
Domed dwellings constructed by utilizing locally- found material can be traced back to prehistoric times. Such edifices can be seen even in the contemporary age. While the precise time and place of construction of the earliest dome is unknown, the occasional primitive dome can be seen in ancient art history. One will come across references to brick domes in ancient Near Eastern art as well as corbelled stone domes across West Europe and the Middle East. The above examples, utilizing various materials like fabric, wood and mud bricks, suggest a shared source or several independent traditions. In the present age, indigenous…
This is when the available supply will address demand.
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In undestanding the facets of a PFI/PPT constuction endeavo, one must fist undestand the afoementioned facets of the patneship that will come into play fom the constuction poject's inception to its completion. The decision to engage in such an endeavo is clealy one that is subjective, but should be undetaken caefully in gauging the isks involved.
Akintoye, A., Bing, L., Edwads, P. And Hadcastle, C. (2004). Risk allocation pefeences in PPP/PFI Constuction Pojects. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.ics.og/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=2640&fileExtension=PDF on 17 Novembe 2011.
Dillon, M. (2009). PFI constuction contacts -- what they don't want you do know. Silve Shemmings LLP. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.silve-shemmings.co.uk / aticles/pfi-constuction-contacts-sept-2009.pdf on 14 Novembe 2011.
Feachem, R., Ni, A., and Sekhi, N. (2011). Public-pivate integated patneships. Health Affais, 30.8: pp. 1498-1508. Web. Retieved fom: LexisNexis Database.
Haiston, R. (2005). Pesentation: integating pocuement and poject management. 10th
Annual Intenational Supply Management Confeence. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.ism.ws/files/Pubs/Poceedings/BEHaiston.pdf…
references in PPP/PFI Construction Projects. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.rics.org/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=2640&fileExtension=PDF on 17 November 2011.
Dillon, M. (2009). PFI construction contracts -- what they don't want you do know. Silver Shemmings LLP. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.silver-shemmings.co.uk / articles/pfi-construction-contracts-sept-2009.pdf on 14 November 2011.
Feachem, R., Ni, A., and Sekhri, N. (2011). Public-private integrated partnerships. Health Affairs, 30.8: pp. 1498-1508. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Hairston, R. (2005). Presentation: integrating procurement and project management. 10th
Annual International Supply Management Conference. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.ism.ws/files/Pubs/Proceedings/BEHairston.pdf on 14 November 2011.
Homeowner agrees to provide Contractor with the necessary access to Homeowner's property and to reimburse Contractor for the purchase of building and other materials listed on the separate document entitled "List of Materials" attached hereto as a second page and bearing the initials of Homeowner next to each item.
Homeowner agrees to extent the period for the completion of this project by any delay caused directly by the unavailability of any necessary item or materials or to arrange for the delivery of appropriate substitute items or materials.
This agreement and the attached addendum referenced above constitutes the entire agreement between the parties and neither party may modify this agreement except in a writing bearing the signature of both parties.
Agreed to April 4, 2009.
As a result of these major issues and ineffectiveness of the project, future research on the project should focus on the development of a suitable alternative for the new high speed railway. The development of a cost-effective and less expensive alternative should be based on accurate financial analysis and precise projections of economic benefits. In literature review, there are 1,090 words between the background and conclusion sections.
BetterthanHS2.org (2011), A Better ailway for Britain, BetterthanHS2.org, viewed 28
Bluespace Thinking Ltd. (2010), A eview of High Speed ail -- HS2 Proposals, Bluespace
Thinking Ltd., viewed 28 December 2011,
Department for Transport (2009), Britain's Transport Infrastructure: High Speed Two,
Department for Transport, viewed 28 December 2011,
Greengauge21 (2011), Capturing the Benefits of HS2 on Existing Lines, Greengauge21, viewed
28 December 2011,
High Speed Two (HS2) Ltd. (2011), Demand for Long Distance Travel, High Speed Two (HS2)
Ltd, viewed 28…
BetterthanHS2.org (2011), A Better Railway for Britain, BetterthanHS2.org, viewed 28
Bluespace Thinking Ltd. (2010), A Review of High Speed Rail -- HS2 Proposals, Bluespace
Thinking Ltd., viewed 28 December 2011,
Construction for Apple
Increase earnings per share / revenues.
Improve dominance inside the marketplace.
Enhance market value.
Sell more units in contrast with competitors.
25% annual growth.
Increase market share to 30%.
Increase profit margins and decrease operating costs.
Promote different products as higher quality
Enhance customer satisfaction.
each out to a larger demographic of cliental.
Offer more products that are in demand.
Have better quality merchandise with great customer support.
Sell 60 million units per quarter.
Improve customer satisfaction with products.
Increase marketing efforts.
Have enhanced quality control, testing and responsiveness.
Listen to new ideas from employees and managers.
Establish reviews that will monitor for changes in attitudes and ideas.
Focus on streaming videos and next generation technology.
Effective management structure
Improve shareholder value.
Make the company more…
Global I Phone Sales. (2012). Statista. Retrieved from: http://www.statista.com/statistics/12743/worldwide-apple-iPhone-sales-since-3rd-quarter-2007/
Sebastian, A. (2012). Apple's Market Value. Extreme Research. Retrieved from: http://www.extremetech.com/computing/137707-apples-market-value-drops-60-billion-following-iPhone-5-scuff-quality-control-issues
Thompson, N. (2012). Does Apple have Bruise. New Yorker. Retrieved from: http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/comment/2012/10/apple-after-steve-jobs.html
Construction Project Financing/Valuation
A brief search of Internet-listed one-bedroom apartments in Abu Dhabi confirms a current yearly rental price of AED 75,000 for most properties in the city (Justentals.com, 2012). Many apartments located in different buildings and in different [arts of the city are listed for exactly this amount, though some were also found for lower (AED 60,000) and several were found that were higher (approx. AED 85,000), however as an average current price AED 75,000 seems quite accurate (Justentals.com, 2012). Likewise, an estimation of AED 120,000 as the current annual average rent for a two bedroom is also fairly accurate; there is a greater variance observed in prices for two bedrooms that is likely reflective of differences in actual size and also appears to be neighborhood- and building-driven to a greater degree than is the pricing of one-bedroom apartments, however AED 120,000 does seem to be a…
Jones, M. (2011). CEO Magazine Interview. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.ceoqmagazine.com/economicoutlook/gcceconomicoutlook.htm
JustRentals.com. (2012). Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.justrentals.com/abu-dhabi-rent/1-bedroom-abu-dhabi-apartments-for-rent.html
PropertyWire.com. (2012). Downturn for property rents in Abu Dhabi as market is flooded with new supply. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.propertywire.com/news/middle-east/abu-dhabi-rental-prices-201203286352.html
Reuters. (2011). S&P keeps Abu Dhabi outlook. Accessed 10 April 2012. http://www.emirates247.com/business/economy-finance/s-p-keeps-abu-dhabi-outlook-2011-05-24-1.396898
The relationships transcend the racial, economic and power limitations.
This disregard for the traditional relational constraints produces some unique outcomes as it is not unusual to see a white foreign professional woman in the arms of a rural male with limited education and even less income. These associations are desired by young males as it opens new vistas of opportunity for them. They are able to acquire some income, status and the possibility of an exit out of poverty to a foreign country.
As with any endeavor there are associated risks. There is the possibility that the woman may move on to another male who appears to be a better prospect. There are occasions when the males are taken to the home country of the woman they are unable to fit in. In the metropolitan country education is a premium, and he has little so his income earning potential is…
construction of created rubrics of checklists of goals have become increasingly popular as a way of rending the educational process more effective and efficient. Student-directed assessment involves students actively in the process of assessment and achieves the dual goal of student empowerment as well as ensures that real learning has taken place. "Constructing or drawing up rubrics jointly with students prior to them undertaking the related lesson or task provides an even richer, more authentic, learner-centered and empowering authentic assessment experience than merely providing them with a teacher-designed rubric" the latter of which may not be meaningful to them (Litz 2007). This is often called "negotiable contracting" and reflects the belief that "students who are given a role in the assessment process and provided with the appropriate direction by their teachers are able to accurately evaluate their strengths and weaknesses and better pinpoint areas where they need to focus their…
Writing learning outcomes. (2013). AALNET. Retrieved from:
construction of a person who feel disconnected from his social setting? What are the elements of a person's experiences that combine to disconnect him or her from his social environment, and create the archetype misfit? Sometimes the person's ethics create the desire within him to be separate from his social surroundings sometimes the person is thrust into a setting with which he does not share any connections. Sometimes the simple choices of the individual separate him or her form the social surroundings, and create an isolated individual who is searching for meaning, and purpose. Such is the case for the characters in Ethan Frome, and Recitatif.
In the case of Ethan Frome, to combat the silence, isolation, and loneliness in his life, he marries a woman who is dissimilar to him, names Zenobia Pierce after his mother's death. While Ethan wants to leave their home town of Starkfield, his new…
Gothic vs. Romanesque Architecture
The Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture are key to the artistic development of the Middle Ages. They are they result not only of an aesthetical development, a natural consequence of improving socioeconomic conditions and a growing interest of individuals and groups to showcase their wealth and power with churches and other constructions, but also a result of technological developments. Indeed, many of the components of these styles came about as architectural necessities: to support the new constructions, technical innovations needed to be implemented and this sometimes translated into stylistic expressions.
This paper will investigate each architectural style in part, focusing both on a separate, relevant description of the main elements and on a comparison between the Romanesque and Gothic styles. To the degree to which this is possible, the paper will aim to showcase the description and the comparison with concrete examples from the civic…
1. Rolf Toman, Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Konemann, (1997)
2. Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology.
3. Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004)
4. Pevsner, Nikolaus. An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books. (1964)
Project managers, by virtue of their position, have the ability to directly impact the projects they oversee. As such, the overall quality of the construction work, in part, is correlated to the manager's ability to direct others. By facilitating a mutual exchange of both information and responsibilities, project managers provide reassurance that work is completed in an effective manner. To best prepare for their roles and responsibilities project should undertake three primary tasks. First, project managers should consult with client to properly evaluate the overall contract terms, and requirements. Second, the project manager is to provide each member of their respective teams, key metrics of performance evaluation to meet contract requirements. Finally, project managers should create communication networks with the applicable clients to ensure that contract requirements are being met. By utilizing these three methods of preparation, project managers can ensure that their client's requirements are being met in an…
1) Bjarne Kousholt (2007). Project Management -- . Theory and practice.. Nyt Teknisk Forlag. ISBN 87-571-2603-8. p.34-59.
2) Joseph Phillips (2003). PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. ISBN 0-07-223062-2 p 45- 61
Conducting an informative safety meeting can seem like a large task. The purpose of a safety meeting is to effectively convey safety information to employees. Effective communication of safety guidelines and rules can help to reduce the chance of injury on the jobsite. Safety meetings are most often conducted by supervisors, the foreman, or even the company owner. Like everything else, if you follow a plan it can be done with minimal stress. Here is a detailed, step-by-step plan for conducting an informative safety meeting, using a construction company as an example.
The first step in the process is choosing a place to hold the safety meeting. You will want to choose a comfortable area, so the employees can focus their full attention on you and the information you are conveying. It can be hard to focus if an area is too hot or cold, or if there…
Postcolonial Masculinities in the 20th and 21st Centuries
"Can't understand/what makes a man." hile feminists have noted how masculinity is often considered a problem or as inherently fragile, the construction of masculinity has often proved to be particularly vexing in postcolonial nations. Both male and female colonial subjects have frequently been rendered as 'feminine' to justify their subjugation. The response in some regions, particularly Africa, has been the hyper- masculinization of resistance and the association of traditional gender binaries with traditional African culture. One of the central challenges of post-colonialism in an African context is to allow for feminine and masculine voices which resist such gender stereotyping.
As observed by Morrell (1998), masculinity is not a self-evident, cross-cultural construct any more so than femininity. "Masculinity is a collective gender identity and not a natural attribute. It is socially constructed and fluid. There is not one universal masculinity, but…
Epprecht, Marc. "Black Skin, 'Cowboy' Masculinity: A Genealogy of Homophobia in the African Nationalist Movement in Zimbabwe to 1983." Culture, Health & Sexuality. 7. 3 (May, 2005): 253-266.
Lee, Doreen. "Styling the Revolution: Masculinities, Youth, and Street Politics in Jakarta,
Indonesia." Journal of Urban History, 37 (2011): 933.
Morrell, Robert. "Of Boys and Men: Masculinity and Gender in Southern African Studies."
Construction design for safety in the construction industry encourages designers, contractors, project managers, site managers and engineers to design a safe construction site that, hopefully, reduces the risk and number of injuries and fatalities during the construction phase of a project. This study would focus on the different approaches used by the construction industry to ensure on-the-job safety and if there is one approach that is more efficient and effective than another.
The Construction industry represents one of the most dangerous workplace industries; with a high number of yearly deaths and injuries when compared to other industries. The construction industry has a very poor record on health and safety in Britain, and construction sites are known as very dangerous places to work. Every year roughly 70 -- 80 individuals die on construction sites and thousands of construction workers are injured.
The highest number of fatalities results from falls from scaffolds…
Thousand Oaks vs. Amelco Electric
Broward County Vs. Great American Insurance
Great Monument Vs. Pinellas County
Pasco County School Board vs. Norwood Co
Cho Dae Presbyterian Church vs. Norwood County Zoning Board
Lafayette ealty vs. City of Hawthorne
City of Hackesack vs. Bergen County
City of Thousand Oaks vs. Amelco Electric
Amelco Electric was awarded a contract by the city of Thousand Oaks' to construct the electric portion of the Civic Arts Plaza project. The contract was worth over 6.1 Million Dollars. City representatives paid Amelco $1,009,728 extra to make changes. Amelco committed a faux paus when it failed to utilize the additional funds towards making the new changes as stated. They also claimed that it was difficult to verify the problems as it was impossible. Amelco claimed damages as they believed that the changes were a betrayal of their contract. The management pressed for lost…
Public Construction Law, Cheri De Love, 2003 ( http://www.publiconstructionlaw.com/Cases.htm#PERFORMANCE%20SURETY%20OFFER )
Great Monument Construction vs. Pinellas County (Carlos Moncada, The Tampa Tribune, 2003)
Cho Dae Presbyterian Church vs. Zoning Board, Norwood County, (Adam Geller, 2000; Publication: The Record (Bergen County, NJ)
City of Hawthorne vs. Bergen County (Hugh R. Morley, The Record,1995)
Building Design Construction Methods and Collapse
General building design and construction methods
Contemporary building regulations are effective in ensuring the safety of occupants throughout the life cycle of the structure. Government agencies have the responsibility of inspection to ensure safety and enforcing compliance to regulations and codes during constructions. Building design and construction methods evolve in response to emerging trends and demands in the industry. Advancements within the design and construction industries transform the demands and orientation of structures as per the consumer demand.
Building designs and construction methods have associated types of collapse. Designs and construction methods determine the gravity resistance system of buildings. Different building designs and construction methods have related hazards from the collapse of structures.
Fire resistive buildings
Fire resistive building designs integrate the application non-combustible materials in construction. This prevents the construction materials from adding to the fire load and smoke within and spread from…
Bukowski, R., Jensen, R. & Laurel, A. (2012). Addressing the Needs of People Using Elevators for Emergency Evacuation. Fire Technology, 48: 127 -- 136.
Ling, F. & Soh, L. (2005). Improving the design of tall buildings after 9/11. Structural Survey, 23 (4): 265-281.
Mohammad, H. (2009). On the challenges of evacuation and rescue operations in high-rise buildings. Structural Survey, 27 (2): 109-118.
Randall, M. (2005). OSHA to the Rescue: Roofing industry benefits from agency's efforts. Professional Safety, 50 (2): 38-40.
As the general contractor of a medium size, one of the most important decision points in construction is a go no-go decision. Go no-go decisions have become common in the modern construction industry because of the changing marketplace that has in turn generated complex procurement choices. In light of the changing marketplace in the construction industry, construction companies face new challenges in identifying the most suitable project proposals to adopt and develop vetting measures that help in making the appropriate go no-go decision (Illia & ubin, 2014). Despite the complexities of such decisions, go no-go decisions remain very crucial choices in this sector because of their significance in weighing costs for the most appropriate project fit.
Contractors need to conduct a go no-go analysis in order to determine the best project fit depending on project specifications and needs. The analysis helps in several aspects including serving as a process…
Bagies, A and Fortune, C (2006) Bid/ no-bid decision modelling for construction projects. In: Boyd, D (Ed) Procs 22nd Annual ARCOM Conference, 4-6 September 2006, Birmingham, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 511-521.
Bryan Construction Inc. (n.d.). Design-Bid-Build Construction Projects. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from http://bryanconstruction.com/company/articles-info/design-bid-build-construction-projects/
Illia, T. & Rubin, D.K. (2014, October 6). Firms Refine Steps to Bid the Right Job. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from http://www.enr.com
Rudy, L.J. (2014, June 11). Getting Started with Go/No-Go Decision Making. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from https://business.tutsplus.com/articles/getting-started-with-gono-go-decision-making -- cms-21362
A second major facto in the growing trend for a new greener industry is that these measures also represent a more efficient operation from a financial perspective as well. For instance, recycling aluminum cans on the job is an example of a sustainable practice that contributes in a positive way to the bottom line (Shepherd, 2009). ecycling aluminum cans on the jobsite help to feed the local economy as well. These new cost-cutting measures are necessary, as green construction typically drives up the price of a new home by 10% (Shepherd, 2009). Companies must take measures to reduce costs in as many areas as possible.
How Can These New Innovations Affect a Career in the Construction Industry?
Changes within the construction industry will have an impact on those involved in the industry of the future. These new innovations represent changes in attitude toward the job site, project flow and project…
AGC (2009). National Construction Group calls for New Federal Incentives to Encourage
Recycling of construction Materials, Purchase of More Efficient Construction
Equipment.Concrete Producer Online. March 23, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://www.theconcreteproducer.com/industry-news.asp?sectionID=1419&articleID=916304
Baccinelli, M. (2008). New Features and Technologies Boost Refrigerator Efficiency. Building Products. March/April 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://www.ecohomemagazine.com/green-products/new-features-and-technologies-boost-refrigerator-efficiency.aspx
According to Montgomery (2003), "Higher floors of buildings tended to rent at a substantial discount, due to the need to climb several flights of stairs to reach one's workplace or residence. Otis's invention of the safety elevator at mid-century heralded the end of this constraint on vertical real estate development" (495). Likewise, Masden notes that the increasingly confident use of the relatively new ' elevators' also fueled demand for more steel frame structures; such new steel-framed buildings were known during this early period as "elevator buildings" instead of skyscrapers, a term that was first coined in 1883 (Marsden 78).
The underlying theory behind steel frame construction during its early use, though, fueled some well-intentioned but misguided efforts that adversely influenced future applications, selection of building materials, site selection and other salient factors involved in construction. In this regard, Mumford (1959) reports that, "Unfortunately, the skyscraper was an almost automatic response…
Code of Standard Practice. 2006. American Iron and Steel Institute: Committee on Framing Standards. Steel Framing Alliance Practice Guide CF06-1.
Fanjoy, Rob. 2006. "As an alternative to lumber, cold-formed steel framing has advantages and disadvantages. Here's what you need to know." Steel Framing Solutions. 18 Nov. 2006 http://forpros.lowes.com/articles.cfm?aid=103.
Marsden, Donald. 2005, January 1. "How Chicago Got All High and Mighty." The Daily Mail 78.
Montgomery, M.R. 2003. "Keeping the Tenants Down: Height Restrictions and Manhattan's Tenement House System, 1885-1930." The Cato Journal 22(3):495.
Decreasing Quality in Construction
In the modern estern world, quality construction is generally taken for granted. Although it was once expected that each member of a town or village participate in construction. few people today are involved in the building of their own homes. Only a small percentage of the population is involved in the construction of the roads on which the majority of the population drives. It is a vast minority of people that have played any part in the creation of the structures in which they live, work, or shop. To the average person, there is little connection made mentally between the solid floors supporting his or her weight many stories above the ground, or the protective roof keeping out the elements overhead, and the actual labor which was put into these things. If the construction process is flawless, then no one will have to think about it…
(2003, August 19) China launches crackdown on fake, inferior construction products. People's daily Online. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://english.people.com.cn/200308/19/eng20030819_122575.shtml
Chini, A.R., & Brown, B.H., & Drummond, E.G. (1999, April) Journal of Construction Education. ASC Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference, California Polytechnic State University. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://asceditor.unl.edu/archives/1999/chini99.htm
C-Risk. (2001) Construction defect. C-Risk Consultants in Risk Management. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://www.c-risk.com/Construction_Risk/CR_CDs_01.htm
Garrity, K. & Olson, S. (1998, May 5) Local groups trying to bring workers into construction. The Seattle Daily jounal of Commerce. Retrieved on February 27, 2005 from http://www.djc.com/special/constequip98/10038833.htm
Health and Safety in Construction Industry
The construction industry is by far the most dangerous one as it takes more lives every year and results in many short- and long-term minor or severe injuries. The UK government regulatory bodies have been playing a significant role in ensuring that proper health and safety procedures are followed. Throughout the last four decades, its role has been impeccable in decreasing fatalities in the construction industry, although the excessive rules and regulations, frequent changes, bureaucratic structure and lack of project management and risk management techniques have dented its efficiency in protecting small construction companies and contractors, resulting in a compensation and claim culture engulfed with individual profiteers such as insurance companies, lawyers and health and safety consultants. These excessive regulations have pushed constructors to adopt some illegal practices in order to decrease cost and probability of claims from injured workers. The risk management and…
Five steps to risk assessment. Viewed 27 October, 2012,
Hubbard, D. 2009. The failure of risk management: why it's broken and how to fix it. John Wiley & Sons. p. 46.
Health and safety executive. 2007. Managing health and safety in construction (Construction Design and Management) Regulations 2007 Approved Code of Practice.
Health and safety executive. 2011. Five steps to risk assessment, Viewed 28 October 2012
Outside unrendered. Set in woodland
Strawbale residential complex,
1. Strawbale multi-purpose conference / workshop/rehearsal space -- approximately 1,320 square feet; and,
2. Strawbale fully equipped communal kitchen/meeting place
Strawbale barn, Deanburn Cottage
Devon TQ11 0JQ
Post and beam/strawbale infill on limestone block foundation, approximately 30 square meters. Built in 1999 by Kevin and Helen Ireland. No cement or concrete used in building. Built with permission of Dartmoor National Park Authority; also serves as location for strawbale building seminars
Monkton Wyld Court
Dorset DT6 6DQ
Load-bearing strawbale walls on a raised wooden deck on telegraph pole "stilts," approximately 400 square meters, lime-plastered exterior, mud plastered interior, tin roof, underfloor straw insulation, stained glass window, built in 1999 during a workshop
Cork acecourse, Mallow
Co. Cork, Ireland
Load-bearing strawbale walls, lime-plastered exterior, thatched roof, built during a workshop as part of the…
Leedy, Phillip D. 1997. Practical Research: Planning and Design (6th ed). Upper Saddle
Pritchard, Mark Bigland & Adrian Pitts. 2006. "Evaluation of Strawbale Building: Benefits and Risks." Architectural Science Review 49(4): 372-373.
According to Finkel (1999), "The American construction industry is a vibrant and dynamic segment of the overall economy. It is annually responsible for nearly 4% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP)" (p. 3). The historic performance of the construction industry has remained positive, even during downturns in the national economy. In fact, the last decade has been a period of healthy growth from the construction industry worldwide; however, a continued economic slowdown may result in somewhat slower growth in the future (Law, 2008).
The historic growth patterns of the construction industry are shown in Table 2 below and illustrated in Figure 1.
Construction industry market analysis: 2001-2004.
Compound Annual Growth ate (CAG)
Source: U.S. Census Bureau cited in BPlans, 2008 at http://www.bplans.com/sample_business_plans/Construction_and_Engineering_Business_Plans/Formwork_Construction_Business_Plan/Market_Description_fc.cfm.
Figure 1. Construction industry market analysis: 2001-2004.
Source: Based on tabular data from.S. Census Bureau cited in BPlans, 2008.
The company's strategy…
BPlans. (2008). [Online]. Available: http://www.bplans.com/sample_business_plans / Construction_and_Engineering_Business_Plans/Formwork_Construction_Business_Plan / Market_Description_fc.cfm.
Classification of building related sitework. (2008). UNIFORMAT II. [Online]. Available: http://www.uniformat.com/classification-of-building-related-sitework.html.
Finkel, G. (1999). The economics of the construction industry. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Law, P. (2008, April 26). With lean times ahead, a positive image is needed. The Birmingham Post (England), 8.
Summary and Conclusion
There is no way to protect construction workers from every accident that could possibly befall them. The nature of the work is such that complete safety is not guaranteed or even realistically possible. However, that does not mean that the number of fall accidents that occur cannot be reduced. Quite often, it is not a true accident but actual carelessness that is the cause of injuries and deaths on construction sites. Many construction workers forego safety harnesses, for example, because they can be cumbersome and inconvenient. They can make the work take longer, and make it more difficult for the worker to move around. That is especially true in cases where required work means the construction worker will have to unhook and re-hook his harness frequently. This aggravation is a small price to pay for saving lives, but the value of a harness is only seen if…
Burke, K. & Tracy, T. (2014). Queens construction worker is dead in horrifying accident. New York Daily News. Retrieved from http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/fatal-accident-queens-article-1.1247254
Controlling Construction Cost:
It is seldom that the initial bid estimate to carry out a specific construction activity is the same as the actual cost of doing the work. Generally, the estimate cost tends to be higher or lower due to the various unforeseeable factors that contribute to the differences. Therefore, it is increasingly essential for the project manager and contractor to keep current on the costs of a project through maintaining an accurate and reliable cost control system, especially if a contractor is to make a profit. However, the project manager has an overriding role of providing the project management team with necessary strong and proactive leadership during the construction period. This overriding role and task includes ensuring that the most effective approach to control construction has been adopted and tracking construction activities and costs.
Since the construction phase of a project is usually affected by various external factors…
Chartered Institute of Building 2010, Code of practice for project management for construction and development, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Olawale, Y.A & Sun, M 2010, 'Cost and time control of construction projects: inhibiting factors and mitigating measures in practice,' Construction Management and Economics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp.509-26.
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices
Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…
Carlisle, R. (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingenuity -- From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven. Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Depalma, A. (2003, August 25). 'Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics.' The Scientist, vol. 17, no.
16, pp. 44-47.
P Construction Gas Pipe Line
THE ROLE OF P IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE AKU-TILISI-ERZURUM
The aku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline is a massive project that involves three countries -- Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. It is a project that is based on the natural gas deposits, of more than one trillion cubic meters, in Azerbaijan's portion of the Caspian Sea, an area known as the Shah-Denz gas field- 12km in width and 30km length of a stripe of the Caspian Sea. The stripe has a depth of 50m on the northern side and 500m on the southern side. The deposit is the biggest gas deposit situated in Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea. This pipeline was constructed being parallel to the aku-Tsibili-Cyehan oil pipeline that runs from Azerbaijan to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The TE pipeline is also known as either South Caucasus (gas) Pipeline or Shah Deniz pipeline.…
Baloghlanov, Elshan. Azerbaijan & New Energy Resources. June 8, 2009. www.azconsulatela.org.
Muttitt, Greg, and James Marriott. Some Common Concerns. Lincolnshire: PLATFORM Campagna per la Riforma della Banca Mondiale, CEE Bankwatch Network,, 2002.
Petersen, Alexandros. "The Case of the East-West Transport Corridor." Integrating Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey with the West, 2007: 1-20.
Shenoy, Bhamy, Gurcan Gulen, and Michelle Michot Foss. "Analysis Suggests Economic Viability of Trans-Caspian Sea Gas Line." The Oil & Gas Journal, 1999: 51-58.
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…
Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20
October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>
"CSR Building Materials Rockwool Insulation," 2008, viewed 20 October 2010,
Sustainability, a word most often discussed, yet least understood is a topic of interest in today’s growing society. With various interpretations offered, some treat sustainability in a superficial way. However, for many businesses, nations, and individuals that believe in the future sustainability has to offer, the word is a serious one aimed at promoting efficient use of resources, a chance at stable economic growth, and continued social progress. In modern society, construction plays a part in how one lives, goes to work, and buys and purchases services/products. If sustainable construction can provide a chance for less consumption, less use of resources, and a means of promoting a way of living in line with balance and moderation, then perhaps the world will be open to change, especially if the cost to do so is less than traditional methods; structure insulated panels are a cost-effective green solution aimed at use in…
Concrete, Iron, ceramics, pipes are important in the structure of buildings and in Iran a lot of times these materials are substandard and would not withstand an earthquake or other significant trauma.
Iran must explore new and better ways of constructing buildings so that safety becomes the most important factor. By looking at and examining the obstacles that the Iranian construction industry faces and gaining a better understanding of these is key to ensuring that in the future there is a chance that construction in Iran is safer, cheaper and overall better for everyone. Positive solutions can come from this research and study and new, safer methods and practices can be implemented to ensure that construction in Iran is successful.
In conclusion it is apparent that Iran must explore new and better ways to fund construction projects and programs as well as find ways to ensure that the buildings…
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers (AISEE) pushed for a "national conference on safety" and as a result the Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC) was held (in 1912) and out of that meeting the National Council of Industrial Safety (NCIS) was founded. Later, the NCIS evolved into the National Safety Council (NSC) (Goetsch, p. 6).
On-the-job accidents "and even fatalities" were "an accepted fact of life in the construction industry" during the early 1900s, writes author Richard Hislop on page 4 of his book, Construction Site Safety: A Guide for Managing Contractors. Construction workers helping to build the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, for example, were in harm's way constantly. hen the budget was established and the projections for the Golden Gate were prepared, "it was expected that there would be on fatality for each million dollars of construction work," Hislop explains (1999, p. 4). And since the…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2007.
Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/cfoi.nr0.htm .
Goetsch, David L. (2003). Construction Safety and Health. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).
The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…
Derry, T.K. And Williams, T.I. A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to a.D. 1900. Oxford University Press. New York. 1961. Chapter 5.
Sttraub H. A History of Civil Engineering. (Eng. trans. By E. Rockwell). Hill, London, 1952.
Edwards I.E.S the Pyramids of Egypt. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1950.
Toy, S. A History of Fortification from 3000 B.C. To a.D. 1700. Heinemann, London, 1955.
Also noted by Piard is that once a new stadium is constructed the necessity to construct additional parking facilities is dealt with by the community. The city of Auckland Australia conducted an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with building a waterfront stadium and in its reports stated that the projected costs of construction initially stated at $500 million would in the end actually cost $1 billion and that this amount would construct eight high schools and simultaneously Auckland opted out of the stadium construction proposal.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
Construction of a new stadium is a serious issue and there are a great many factors that must be taken into consideration and those factors have been noted in this study. Unless there is no stadium existing in the city in which a new stadium is being considered and there is no other option but to build a stadium then…
Marchek, Jason (2004) Minor League Baseball Stadium Construction: A Primer on the Key Issues and Considerations. The Confluence Research Group.
Nesbitt, Jimmy (2008) Two Measures of Stadium Reveal Different Results. Courierpress. 21 July 2008. Online available at http://www.courierpress.com/news/2008/jul/21/defining-success/
The Pros and Cons of Building a New Football Stadium in Winnipeg (2008) the River City Sports Blog 23 Sept 2008. Online available at http://www.rivercitysportsblog.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-building-a-new-football-stadium-in-winnipeg/
Waterfront Stadium Fiasco (nd) Auckland Civic Trust. Online available at http://civictrustauckland.org.nz/Documents/WaterFrontStadium.pdf
Heavy on the other hand refers to everything bigger and heavier including skyscrapers, high rise hotels, airports etc.
Even if construction industry is suffering slightly, it is the commercial construction sector that provides the much needed stability. Commercial real estate in 2002 accounted for the biggest share of the construction industry.
Those who are thinking of entering the market and succeeding need to consistently come up with new and better projects that meet the requirements of the community. It is widely believed that the more a dealer or builder pays closer attention to smaller details of community's needs and requirements, the better are his chances of coming up with just the product that community would respond to.
Knowledge is critical for success and therefore a person entering the market must build on solid market information. He must come into the industry fully equipped with the right arsenal. he/she should know…
Martin Sinderman, Commercial Construction: State Of The Market, National Real Estate Investor, August, 2000
Late rebound, Construction & Demolition Recycling, Jan-Feb, 2005
If rejected, the subcontractor can at least feel that the choice was a fair one - that her or his organization was not perfectly suited to the job at hand. If selected; however, a potentially long-lasting relationship is created, one that is based on mutual trust, shared goals, and a feeling of true partnership.
Numerous potential problems exist in the main contractor/subcontractor relationship. These problems range from subcontractors' lack of understanding of the work (or main contractor's inability to explain it) through to subcontractors' lack of skills, size necessary to take on the project, financial difficulties, and lack of feeling that there exists any kind of joint effort or partnership between the main contractor and subcontractor. Any one of these difficulties might lead to delays, cost overruns, poor workmanship, or even outright failure within the context of the project. The foregoing study is designed to discover which concepts are…
Applebaum, H. (1999). Construction Workers, U.S.A. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bosch, G. & Philips, P. (Eds.). (2002). Building Chaos: An International Comparison of Deregulation in the Construction Industry. London: Routledge.
E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997. Gambatese, John a. "Liability in designing for construction worker safety." Journal of Architectural Engineering: September 1998: 107-112. Gitter, obert J. "Wage Subsidy Programs in Apprenticeship…Read Full Paper ❯
Building Materials If one is going to build a home or a business, one needs good materials with which to construct those dwellings. However, most of the materials that…Read Full Paper ❯
"Brainstorming, scenario planning, and expert interviews is the tools highway engineers commonly use in routine engineering and construction management tasks." (U.S. Department f Transportation 2007 P. 2). Table 3…Read Full Paper ❯
This would help to cut costs, and was seen as a significant problem as evidenced by the table on page 2. Another important issue was the consequences of using…Read Full Paper ❯
In addition, Sound Transit has installed eight sensing devices for the building, including probes that would register any soil shifting at the tunnel depth. Such alerts would allow Sound…Read Full Paper ❯
Construction Contracting PARTNERING AGREEMENT THIS PARTNERING AGREEMENT (this "Agreement"), is entered into on ____, by and between Capitol Home Improvement, LLC ("Capital Home Improvement") and The KEIMA CONSTRUCTION Corporation…Read Full Paper ❯
This is exactly the same case as the cladding stones used in covering the pyramids, if we use the same technique. We would break the quarry stone into pieces,…Read Full Paper ❯
Construction Management Construction sites are inherently dangerous places. Construction insurance, then, is critical to reducing liability risks and protecting assets during a project. It allows an organization to reasonably…Read Full Paper ❯
Construction Daily Field Construction Report DeMatteis/Turner Construction Site Contractor: DeMatteis/Turner Report No: Weather Temperature Conditions a.MP.M Low Temperature: |_| Partly Cloudy . |_| High Temperature: 50F |_| Cloudy |_|…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
5.4: Accept Bullring team accepted some risks; however, the company developed the effective cost and schedule strategies to manage these risks. For example, the company allotted sufficient fund to…Read Full Paper ❯
Minimum provisions also include the estimated time frame for construction and completion of a project, description of the work necessary to complete the project, the exact dollar amount of…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Chapman (2001) equated the dangers explained within the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency Publication "Management of Project isk" into the design threats that included however were not restricted to…Read Full Paper ❯
Construction Performance In the construction industry, a large majority of the work that is performed is completed by members of a closely knit group of individuals that form a…Read Full Paper ❯
Construction Safety Issues: Wind and Solar-Array Farms As the world's population continues to increase dramatically from the existing six billion people to more than nine billion by mid-century and…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Construction of a Collective Memory etween Jewish and Islamic Turks Assmann (2001) writes that sociologist Maurice Halbwachs and Aby Warburg, art historian developed two theories of "collective or social…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
(in its turn, the financial environment must be understood with reference to the wider economic situation.) Cost control is the activity which compares cost performance against the cost plan,…Read Full Paper ❯
Respondents to the questionnaire, who are in a first-hand position to assess the construction industry in Iran, agree on what all of the basic problems are and on many…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Construction Project Control To develop mitigating measures, preventive measures would need the design plan to be specific with specified sections that make up the whole plan, including technical specifications…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Construction Project Planning Phase Your clients have secured the financing to develop 48 acres land into mixed-use buildings. They have asked you to draft a high-level project plan to…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
"Egyptian Project Management had over 200 years of experience with pyramid building which saw a clear evolution in learning. The approach was based on trial and error, or prototyping.…Read Full Paper ❯
In this regard, Greenspan and his associates report that, "The construction manager at-risk, who also acts as the general contractor, is integrally involved in the design process, assisting with…Read Full Paper ❯
A report to sustainable retrofit options for Building 15 Harris Street Ultimo Sydney 622- 632 HARRIS STREET Introduction For sustainable future attainment within the construction sector, it is recommended…Read Full Paper ❯
OverviewCustomer: Town of Leesburg VirginiaRFP Number 100710-FY19-12Location: Town of Leesburg, Virginia. 25 West Market Street, Leesburg, VA 20176Product or Service: Hangar Land Lease at the Leesburg Executive AirportWith…Read Full Paper ❯
Borrowed elements from works of ancient art have played a crucial role in contemporary structural engineering development. As has been observed even in earlier times, a compilation of diverse…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
This is when the available supply will address demand. eferences Construction Logistics Management, 2010, CMS. Available from: [21 February 2012]. Construction Materials, 2009, Encyclopedia Iranica. Available from: [18 February…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Conclusion In undestanding the facets of a PFI/PPT constuction endeavo, one must fist undestand the afoementioned facets of the patneship that will come into play fom the constuction poject's…Read Full Paper ❯
Homeowner agrees to provide Contractor with the necessary access to Homeowner's property and to reimburse Contractor for the purchase of building and other materials listed on the separate document…Read Full Paper ❯
As a result of these major issues and ineffectiveness of the project, future research on the project should focus on the development of a suitable alternative for the new…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Construction for Apple Apple Measure Target Action Financial Increased profitability Greater dominance Increase earnings per share / revenues. Improve dominance inside the marketplace. Enhance market value. Sell more units…Read Full Paper ❯
Construction Project Financing/Valuation Market eview A brief search of Internet-listed one-bedroom apartments in Abu Dhabi confirms a current yearly rental price of AED 75,000 for most properties in the…Read Full Paper ❯
The relationships transcend the racial, economic and power limitations. This disregard for the traditional relational constraints produces some unique outcomes as it is not unusual to see a white…Read Full Paper ❯
construction of created rubrics of checklists of goals have become increasingly popular as a way of rending the educational process more effective and efficient. Student-directed assessment involves students actively…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
construction of a person who feel disconnected from his social setting? What are the elements of a person's experiences that combine to disconnect him or her from his social…Read Full Paper ❯
Gothic vs. Romanesque Architecture The Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture are key to the artistic development of the Middle Ages. They are they result not only of an…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Project managers, by virtue of their position, have the ability to directly impact the projects they oversee. As such, the overall quality of the construction work, in part, is…Read Full Paper ❯
Safety Meeting Conducting an informative safety meeting can seem like a large task. The purpose of a safety meeting is to effectively convey safety information to employees. Effective communication…Read Full Paper ❯
Postcolonial) Man: Postcolonial Masculinities in the 20th and 21st Centuries "Can't understand/what makes a man." hile feminists have noted how masculinity is often considered a problem or as inherently…Read Full Paper ❯
Construction design for safety in the construction industry encourages designers, contractors, project managers, site managers and engineers to design a safe construction site that, hopefully, reduces the risk and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Construction Cases Thousand Oaks vs. Amelco Electric Broward County Vs. Great American Insurance Great Monument Vs. Pinellas County Pasco County School Board vs. Norwood Co Cho Dae Presbyterian Church…Read Full Paper ❯
Building Design Construction Methods and Collapse General building design and construction methods Contemporary building regulations are effective in ensuring the safety of occupants throughout the life cycle of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Decision As the general contractor of a medium size, one of the most important decision points in construction is a go no-go decision. Go no-go decisions have become common…Read Full Paper ❯
A second major facto in the growing trend for a new greener industry is that these measures also represent a more efficient operation from a financial perspective as well.…Read Full Paper ❯
According to Montgomery (2003), "Higher floors of buildings tended to rent at a substantial discount, due to the need to climb several flights of stairs to reach one's workplace…Read Full Paper ❯
Decreasing Quality in Construction In the modern estern world, quality construction is generally taken for granted. Although it was once expected that each member of a town or village…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Health and Safety in Construction Industry The construction industry is by far the most dangerous one as it takes more lives every year and results in many short- and…Read Full Paper ❯
Outside unrendered. Set in woodland Strawbale residential complex, Powys, Wales 1. Strawbale multi-purpose conference / workshop/rehearsal space -- approximately 1,320 square feet; and, 2. Strawbale fully equipped communal kitchen/meeting…Read Full Paper ❯
According to Finkel (1999), "The American construction industry is a vibrant and dynamic segment of the overall economy. It is annually responsible for nearly 4% of the nation's gross…Read Full Paper ❯
Summary and Conclusion There is no way to protect construction workers from every accident that could possibly befall them. The nature of the work is such that complete safety…Read Full Paper ❯
Controlling Construction Cost: It is seldom that the initial bid estimate to carry out a specific construction activity is the same as the actual cost of doing the work.…Read Full Paper ❯
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today.…Read Full Paper ❯
P Construction Gas Pipe Line THE ROLE OF P IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE AKU-TILISI-ERZURUM GAS PIPE-LINE The aku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline is a massive project that involves three countries…Read Full Paper ❯
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction Sustainability, a word most often discussed, yet least understood is a topic of interest in today’s growing society. With various interpretations offered, some treat sustainability in a superficial…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Concrete, Iron, ceramics, pipes are important in the structure of buildings and in Iran a lot of times these materials are substandard and would not withstand an earthquake or…Read Full Paper ❯
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at…Read Full Paper ❯
The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers (AISEE) pushed for a "national conference on safety" and as a result the Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC) was held (in 1912)…Read Full Paper ❯
One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information…Read Full Paper ❯
Also noted by Piard is that once a new stadium is constructed the necessity to construct additional parking facilities is dealt with by the community. The city of Auckland…Read Full Paper ❯
Heavy on the other hand refers to everything bigger and heavier including skyscrapers, high rise hotels, airports etc. Even if construction industry is suffering slightly, it is the commercial…Read Full Paper ❯
If rejected, the subcontractor can at least feel that the choice was a fair one - that her or his organization was not perfectly suited to the job at…Read Full Paper ❯