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Consumer Protection Agency is tasked with ensuring that products which are deemed unsafe are removed from the market either permanently or until they meet federal safety standards. The agency provides a list of these products for the public, and they are generally announce in some fashion also. The agency maintains a website via which it keeps a list of the products that have been recalled and for what reason. The press release gives a full description of the product, why it was recalled, and where it could have been purchased. This is both to let the people who were going to buy it and those who had already purchased it, that the product is faulty and for what reason. The release also gives the people who have already purchased the product information regarding where they can go to have it fixed or the contact information of the firm that can…
Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, H.R. 4040, 101th Congress.
Findlaw. (2012). Defenses to negligence claims. Retrieved from http://injury.findlaw.com/accident-injury-law/defenses-to-negligence-claims.html
US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). (2012, Nov 28). Trampolines recalled by Sportspower due to injury hazard: Sold exclusively at Sports Authority. News from CPSC. Retrieved from http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/prerel/prhtml13/13051.html?tab=recalls
Which do you believe presents the greatest threat to civil society: a corporation that commits crimes (e.g., murder, environmental crimes, or bribery, etc.), or persons who commit crimes that harm businesses (e.g., embezzlement, fraud, or larceny, etc.)? Defend your response, using at least one example from current events.
The greatest threat to civil society is corporations that commit crimes. This is due in part the overall prevalence of the business community within a capitalistic society. Many developed nations depend on business to improve overall societal growth and development. Through business, the overall quality of life for society improves. Simply looking over the last 100 years of America, a minimum wage employee now has a better quality of life than John D. ockefeller did over a century ago. This is due primarily to business within the context of a capitalistic society. As such, due to their prevalence, crimes by…
1) Alan Miller & Ronen Perry (1990), The Reasonable Person, New York University Law Review
He defined the ideals that people share about how people ought to behave a "categorical imperative" - a transcendent concept of "rightness of action." No one would want to be taken advantage of the way Countrywide did, and under no circumstances did they themselves believe their actions were "right."
Egoism or self-interest ethics may explain the Countrywide rationale, after all, they were acting to advance own interests, over all else. Although some conduct is "right" when it advances personal interests, Countrywide's motive was actual "greed" because greed includes "excess" -- demanding more than one is entitled to. Egoism assumes that there is no "entitlement," others also have interests, and interests can and should compete. No one is "more deserving" than another. This also is Adam Smith's view of the market: buyers and suppliers with opposing interests (buyers want the lowest price and suppliers want the highest price) seek a transaction,…
Michaelson, Adam (2009) "The Foreclosure of America: The Inside Story of the Rise
and Fall of Countrywide Home Loans, the Mortgage Crisis, and the Default of the American Dream," Berkley Publishers
Kirchick, James The Irresponsiblity Of Countrywide, Wall Street Journal, December 6, 2007.
Staff, Countrywide Settles Predatory Lending Charges for $8.68 Billion, Business Week,
Memo: Consumer Protection
In their article in the Harvard Business Review, Robinson, Viscusi & Zeckhauser (2016) argue that consumer warning labels are not effective. They resoundingly assert that the labels do not communicate adequate information for consumers, especially in terms of benefits and risks. Essentially, the current labeling system is miserably ineffective in differentiating between significant and insignificant risks, or between "wolves" and "puppies" as the authors put it. Most of the consumer warning labels place the same emphasis on both small and huge risks. Such a warning system, according to the authors of the article, is of little benefit to the consumer. In the long-term, consumers tend to disregard warnings as they come across considerably more insignificant risks (puppies) than significant risks (wolves). In other words, treating both minor and major risks with the same weight tends to increase consumers' skepticism about warnings, which may cause truly…
Potential Concerns about the Consumer Financial Protection Agency
Despite the multitude of benefits revealed by the CFPA, commercial banks and mortgage lenders continually present their growing dissatisfaction with the act. epresentatives of this side include reputable organizations such as JP Morgan Chase or Wells Fargo, as well as a series of independent mortgage brokers and mortgage lenders and local and regional banking institutions. Their most compelling reasons for the dismissal of the Consumer Financial Protection Agency are succinctly presented below:
1. The banks feel that there is no real necessity for new regulatory legislation as the economy is already showing sighs of recovery; these financial institutions feel that the resources would be better spent otherwise. Additionally, the CFPA does not introduce any real new elements, but politically enforces the lessons already learnt from the economic crisis
2. The state could abuse its power through the Consumer Financial Protection Agency in…
Allen, M., Javers, E., Barack Obama to Create Consumer Financial Protection Agency, Politico, 16 June 2009, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0609/23790.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
Andrews, E.L., Banks Balk at Agency Meant to Aid Consumers, New York Times, June 30, 2009
Geithner, T.F., Written Testimony of Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner, House Financial Services Committee, Financial Stability, http://www.financialstability.gov/latest/tg231.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
Hall, K.G., Banks Fight to Kill Protection Agency, McClatchy, September 24, 2009, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/227/story/75997.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
This is achieved by forcing them to maintain a list of individuals who do not wish to be conducted about purchasing a variety of products and services. Furthermore, these protections were enacted to ensure that businesses are not engaging in tactics that are abusive by limiting the times when they can call and what they can say. (Caudill, 2000)
In contrast with the Consumer Privacy Bill of ights, the proposed regulations are designed to enhance protections. This is occurring over the Internet vs. On the telephone. These differences are showing how there is a loop hole in existing regulations as to how these laws are applied. The new guidelines are building upon the provisions from the Telephone Consumer Protections Act of 1991 by establishing procedures as to the way confidential information is used and collected from firms. This is occurring is through placing limits on an organization's online activities. ("Consumer…
Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights. (2012). CNN Money. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2012/02/22/technology/bill_of_rights_privacy/index.htm
Fact Sheet. (2012). White House.gov. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/02/23/fact-sheet-plan-protect-privacy-internet-age-adopting-consumer-privacy-b
Barlough, R. (2003). The Do Not Call Registry Model. Marshall Journal Computer and Information, 22, 79 -- 85.
Caudill, E. (2000). Consumer Online Privacy. Journal of Public Policy, 19 (1), 7 -- 19.
Closing the loan is also known as firm commitment, and involves the completion of all key paperwork within a designated time. A closing date is set, and the closing costs are established. hen the client pays the costs and completes the paperwork, the loan is closed.
The next step is to service the loan. Servicing refers to the management of the payments. The loan creates an obligation on the part of the borrower to make payments as specified in the agreement. The role of the bank is to ensure that those payments are received. Servicing may be contracted out to a secondary party. In the U.S. that might be Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, who provide a secondary market for mortgages. In a servicing arrangement, the bank would collect the payments and remit most of this money to the secondary market investor. The bank would keep a portion of the…
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation website. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from http://www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/rules/6500-1400.html
Rajan, Raghuram G. (no date). Why Bank Credit Policies Fluctuate: A Theory and Some Evidence. University of Chicago. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/raghuram.rajan/research/fluct.pdf
Penwell, Tracy L. (2009). The Credit Process: A Guide for Small Business Owners. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from http://www.newyorkfed.org/education/addpub/credit.html
No author. (2009). Closing. Mortgage X. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from http://mortgage-x.com/library/closing.htm
protection of personal rights. For instance, in the case of the U.S. Supreme Court on Griswold V. Connecticut, married couples should have the rights to privacy when it comes to birth control.
PROTECTING THE RIGHTS TO PRIVACY
Imagine the state telling people how many children they can have, what birth control methods they can use, and blasting the personal information of individuals on the television, computer, radio and etc. Personal information about what diseases, medical health, salaries, how many times an individual has been married, how many divorces, and other personal rights should be protected by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments. Should the state laws have the ability to give personal information to others? Should companies or individuals have the right to get personal information about a person off the computers? hat should individuals do to keep their privacy?
In Connecticut, it is a crime for a person to use…
Electronic Privacy Principles" CPSR Available Online at http://cpsr.org/program/privacy/privacy8.htm
Epic.org Electronic Privacy Information Center" Latest News October 16, 2002 Available Online at http://www.epic.org
Privacy and Civil Liberties" CPSR Available at http://cpsr.org/program/privacy/privacy.htm
Junk' Mail: How Did They All Get My Address" Fact Sheet 4: Reducing Junk Mail Oct 1992 Available Online at http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs4-junk.htm
Sometime the debtor is able to successfully reduce its liability and returns to profitability but quite often it returns to seek the court's protection again and sometime the end result is liquidation.
Under Chapter 11 protections, the debtor gets an automatic protection from all creditors. The unsecured creditors cannot lay a claim on assets and secured creditors are also prevented from foreclosing on their collateral. A Chapter-11 company also gets the advantage of discarding or renegotiating union agreements, ability to freeze or cut wages and benefits and restructures its staffing requirement. Retirement and pension plans can also be reviewed or the company can transfer its pension obligations to the Federal Pension enefit Guaranty Corporation.
The reorganization is carried out by the bankruptcy and the court appointed trustee. The trustee appoints committee(s) to represent the creditor's interests and work out a plan for reorganization of the company. The reorganization plan must…
Boser, R.J., Has the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 adversely affected airline safety? Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.airlinesafety.com/faq/faq3.htm
Delaney, K.J., Strategic Bankruptcy (Review), Retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/5725.html
Fix, J.L., The chaotic skies: A look at how deregulation has affected the airline industry, 2001, retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://www.freep.com/money/airtravel/dereg2_20010302.htm
Isidore, C., U.S. Air files Chapter 11 -- "again, retrieved from Internet on 8 Nov 2005. http://money.cnn.com/2004/09/13/news/fortune500/usair_bankruptcy
ecommendations for Organizations
The many factors of data mining and their use for profiling customers and their needs also create opportunities for organizations to build greater levels of trust with their customers as well. And trust is the greatest asset any marketer can have today. The following are a series of recommendations for how organizations can address demographic influences that impact their marketing strategies in light of concerns surrounding the ethics of data mining.
First, it is imperative, across all demographic segments that marketers make a deliberate a very clear effort to explain their opt-in and opt-out policies and also provides evidence that they do what they claim to in this area. The greatest challenge for the consumer is controlling their personal information online and ensuring it is well managed to their preferences (Pratt. Conger, 2009). Marketers who give consumer control over their data in this way will…
Adams, N.M. (2010). Perspectives on data mining. International Journal of Market Research, 52(1), 11.
Bose, I., & Chen, X. (2009). Hybrid models using unsupervised clustering for prediction of customer churn. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 19(2), 133.
Kaiser, C., & Bodendorf, F. (2012). Mining consumer dialog in online forums. Internet Research, 22(3), 275-297.
Kiron, D. (2012). Why detailed data is as important as big data. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(4), 1-3.
This study will incorporate consumer perceptions and attitude green products, green values, green label and green environment. Finally, it will provide insights on areas of green buying commitment and green purchasing intention (Biel, Hansson & Ma-rtensson, 2008).
Abele, E., Anderl, ., & Birkhofer, H. (2005). Environmentally-friendly product development: Methods and tools. London: Springer.
Ahvenainen, . (2003). Novel food packaging techniques. Boca aton, FL: CC Press
Biel, a., Hansson, B., & Ma-rtensson, M. (2008). Individual and structural determinants of environmental practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Charter, M. (2009). Greener marketing: A global perspective on greener marketing practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf.
Denison, E., & en, G.Y. (2007). Thinking green. Hove: oto Vision.
Farnworth, C., Jiggins, J., & Thomas, E.V. (2008). Creating food futures: Trade, ethics and the environment. Aldershot, England: Gower.
Grunert, K.G., Thogersen, J., & O-lander, F. (2005). Consumers, policy and the environment: A tribute to Folke O-lander. New York: Springer.
Abele, E., Anderl, R., & Birkhofer, H. (2005). Environmentally-friendly product development: Methods and tools. London: Springer.
Ahvenainen, R. (2003). Novel food packaging techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Biel, a., Hansson, B., & Ma-rtensson, M. (2008). Individual and structural determinants of environmental practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Charter, M. (2009). Greener marketing: A global perspective on greener marketing practice. Sheffield: Greenleaf.
Consumer subjective personal introspection of your own buying behavior, and to relate this to the notion of products as extensions of the self and consumer behaviour theory.
Subjective personal introspection of your own buying behaviour as an extension of the self and consumer behaviour theory
It has been noted in many studies on consumer behaviour that the products that the individual purchases are very often closely linked to the identity and values of that individual. Consumer behaviour has been defined as, "The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products, and retailers)"and "The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media)..." (Lerner).
In other words, the products that one purchases are in essence often seen as an extension of one's self. This means that the customer purchasing behaviour is often best understood…
Bloom P. et al. (2006). How Social-Cause Marketing Affects Consumer Perceptions. Mit Sloan Management Review, vol.47, no.2, viewed 28 February, 2012, http://elab.vanderbilt.edu/research/papers/How%20Social-Cause%20Marketing%20Affects%20Consumer%20Perceptions%20%5BBloom,%20Hoeffler,%20Keller,%20Meza%5D.pdf.
'Brand image: definition', viewed 28 February, 2012, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/brand-image.html
Burnett, J 2008.CoreConcepts of Marketing, viewed 28 February, 2012, http://globaltext.terry.uga.edu/userfiles/pdf/Core%20Concepts%20of%20Marketing.pdf. Date of access: 1 Nov. 2011.
Copely, P 2004. Marketing communications management: concepts & theories, cases & practices, Elsevier, Oxford.
During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity
Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm
Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Australian Consumer Law (ACL) is a broad-based law the impacts both businesses and consumers. The ACL represents a unified codification of a variety of prior product liability laws. In fact, one of its main benefits is that the law is applicable throughout Australia. Another major component of the law is that it imposes a strict liability standard on manufacturers and suppliers of goods, which was not a uniform standard prior to the introduction of this law. This is a relatively new law; the need for it was identified in 2009 after a Productivity Commission reviewed existing consumer protection laws and found glaring inconsistencies, which made it difficult, if not impossible, to enforce those laws that did exist.
Perhaps the greatest change to the law is that the ACL is now a strict liability law. Strict liability "means that a breach may be committed without negligence" (The FindLaw Team, 2012). In…
Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. (2012). Overview of the Trade Practices
Act: Consumer protection provisions. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from Commonwealth of Australia website: http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/788555
Australian Consumer Law: Memorandum of Understanding. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2012
from Australian Consumer Law website: http://www.consumerlaw.gov.au/content/the_acl/downloads/acl_mou.pdf
History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.
Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.
Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…
Jackson, Charles O. (1970). "Food and Drug Legislation in the New Deal." Princeton University
Palumbo, Francis B. "The Development of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising
Regulation." Food and Drug Law Journal 57.3 (2002). 423-443.
" (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010)
With a focus on Saudi Arabia it is reported that there is "no reliable local production in the fields of software or the hardware. The increased demand for ICTs is met by acquiring overseas technologies.
The trend towards increased reliance on ICTs by the Saudi people, in particular computers and internet services, is one of the highest when compared with other developing countries; however it is still far below the ownership rate in developed countries. Table 1 illustrates the ownership rate of equipment such as fixed-line telephones, cellular phone and personal computers. The ownership rate was calculated per 1000 persons in variant countries over the world." (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010) the goal of the study reported in the work of Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) is to enhancing the understanding of factors that influence adoption and usage of online services in Saudi Arabia.…
Molina, Alfonsa, Ben-Jadeed, Mohammed (2004) the Emergence and Evolution of e-Banking in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Samba Financial Group. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004
Jasimuddin, Sajjad, M. (nd) Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web. Online available at: http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/JIBC/0103_02.htm
Agarwal, R. And Prasad, J. (1998), "The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoptions," Decisions Support System, Vol. 22, pp. 15-29.
Ahmed, a.M., Zairi, M. And Alwabel, S.A. (2006). Global benchmarking for internet and e-commerce applications, Benchmarking: An International Journal 13(1/2), 68-80.
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.
Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…
VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)
MY ROUGH IDEA:
1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
A. The entity receives payment in exchange for providing a consumer report
B. The entity regularly assembles or evaluates information about consumers
C.The entity furnishes consumer reports
D.The entity uses means of interstate commerce for the purpose of preparing or furnishing consumer reports
Suppose a consumer reporting agency (falsely) reports that a consumer has defaulted on a credit card debt, which of the following is true?
A. The consumer can sue the CRA for defamation
B. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau can take enforcement action against the CRA for violating the reasonable procedures requirement
C.The consumer must dispute the inaccurate information in order to have any right to sue.
D. Only the consumer can take action against the CRA.
Suppose that a bank (falsely and negligently) tells a CRA that a consumer has defaulted on a credit card debt, which of the following is true?
A. The consumer can sue…
social media of hotel industy influence consume puchasing behavio 24/09/2015
Pominent examples of social media
Business Use of Social Media
Social media and consume puchasing
Role of Social media in Advetising and Maketing
Social Media Maketing
Evidence of impotance of Social Media Maketing
Impact of Social Media Maketing on Consume Puchasing Behavio
The Heding Effect
Theoy of Social Impact
Social Media Influence Factos on Consumes
Social Media in the Hotel Industy
Social media and Thailand Hotels
Appoaches to Methodology
Outline of eseach Method
Sample selection and Size
Obstacles in Reseach
: Data Analysis
: Ethical Consideations in Reseach
: Limitations of the study
Results and Analysis
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel subscibes
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel Maketing Officials
Infeence fom the Analysis
Social Media Factos Affecting Custome Puchasing Behavio 39
5.2: Recommendations fo Manages fo Use of Social Media 40
Chapte 1: Intoduction…
references and social tagging information. International Journal of Web Science, 2(1/2), p.80.
Balakrishnan, B., Dahnil, M. and Yi, W. (2014). The Impact of Social Media Marketing Medium toward Purchase Intention and Brand Loyalty among Generation Y. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, pp.177-185.
Book, L., Tanford, S., Montgomery, R. and Love, C. (2015). Online Traveler Reviews as Social Influence: Price is no Longer King. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.
Burke, R., Martin, G. and Cooper, C. (2011). Corporate reputation. Farnham, Surrey: Gower.
Chaney, P. (2009). The digital handshake. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley & Sons.
evolution Movies Marketing
Workers Protection Acts
Investigate ways in which community arts organizations develop and maintain an audience
In the recent past, there has been a notable improvement in the field of arts. Many people in the community are now garnering interest in arts like never before. As a result, there has also been an increase in the community art organization. This is of course due to the need to fulfill the demand for the interest in art. However, it is an enormous challenge for organizations to acquire audience. Furthermore, the bigger challenge is to maintain the audience that they already have. Therefore, it is imperative that there are strategies that can happen in both situations. Community art organizations need to use all the appropriate methods to acquire a new audience. This is possible through advertising although the most suitable is to get to know the target group. There should…
Carpenter, G., & Blandy, D.E. (2008). Arts and cultural programming: A leisure perspective.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Cherbo, J.M., Stewart, R.A., & Wyszomirski, M.J. (2008). Understanding the arts and creative sector in the United States. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press
Daragh O'Reilly. & Finola Kerrigan. (2010). Marketing the arts: A fresh approach. Taylor & Francis. London.
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…
"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.
Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.
Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.
Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
A second loss refers to the reduced ability to sustain cultural experiences, as the number of tourists to and from the United States is restricted by financial criteria. This could easily translate in not only social and individual loses, but also issues related to the country's ability to acquire knowledge on the culture and civilization of other global regions. Additionally, it could also cost the United States as it would limit its inhabitants' abilities to share knowledge with specialists in other countries, include their own expertise, and as such sustain the development of their native country.
A protected airline industry has the third impact of reducing the quality of the products and services offered to the customer. This is generically possible due to the reduced levels of competition, which allow airline operators to rely on the services they offer, rather than striving to improve their offering. This translates into reduced…
Cleveland, P.A., Jared, R., October 2002, Airline Protectionism Hurts Travelers, the Freeman Ideas on Liberty, http://www.thefreemanonline.org/featured/airline-protectionism-hurts-travelers / last accessed on October 26, 2009
2007, Leading Article: The Absurd Economics of a Protected Industry, the Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/leading-article-the-absurd-economics-of-a-protected-industry-441441.html last accessed on October 26, 2009
World Tourism Organization, 1994, Seminar on GATS Implications for Tourism, ISBN 9284401461
World Trade Organization, 1998, Tourism Services, http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news01_e/w51.doc last accessed on October 26, 2009
sorts of legal protections should UG have.
ug automatically has protection of its trade secrets, which involve confidential issues such as product plans and new designs, any sort of business proceedings, and products under development prior to patent application. ug does not need to file anything to maintain these rights other than take all reasonable precautions to keep them secret, such as informing employees that these are trade secrets, refraining from making press releases regarding these secrets, and in very sensitive areas they might consider requiring employees to sign confidentiality agreements. These reasonable measures are necessary to validate any later claim that industrial espionage had occured or intellectual property rights had been violated. ug should obviously also copyright original works in terms of form, and patent original inventions in terms of function. These protections prevent other business from using their technology. Patents for function are valid for about 17 years,…
Copyright" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright
Patent" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent
Privacy" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privacy
RICO (law)" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RICO_%28law%29
Legal Protection for E-Commerce
The Internet is one of the lucrative facets in the global technology market. The Internet has taken the centre stage in illuminating everything taking place in the global commerce environment. With the presence of the Internet, diverse business activities can be executed in different environments. Nonetheless, the positives that have been realized from the Internet use come with dissimilar negative effects and uses among users. As far as the Internet has served to promote business activities, it has a number of disadvantages and negative effects. This has facilitated the establishment of laws to cater for these misappropriations.
This law handles intellectual property. Patents are facets that allow business individuals and organizations to formulate and sell various types of inventions like software programs, manufacturing processes, and mechanical processes. The federal law enables these people to have a rightful ownership and performance of their activities with…
Plotkin, M.E., Wells, B., & Wimmer, K.A. (2003). E-commerce law & business. New York,
Qin, Z. (2007). Introduction to E-commerce. Berlin: Springer Berlin
Invest in the global consumer" deals with the subject of expanding market for international goods and how companies must understand the new dynamics of the increased purchasing power of consumers from China and India. This article was published in the Forbes in July, 2009. The article is exceptional in its research considering how little sophisticated research could be done for a business magazine. The author has cited examples from financial news and also given current statistics to support his argument that the new global consumer is more interested in hi-tech products than anything else and the reason one must invest in hi-tech products in the U.S. is because there is little competition offered by China in this field.
The idea of a global consumer is interesting but not very new. We have been learning about the new consumer since the growth of the Internet and the ever-increasing influence of globalization.…
Whittington, Rick. 2009. Invest in the Global Consumer. Forbes. July.
Integrity: Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites
Privacy Protection in e-Commerce Websites
Back in the 90s, websites were more or less digital brochures that did little more than serve their registered users with monthly electronic newsletters. Today, however, websites are powerful and complex information platforms that not only store and process data, but also allow for the sharing of information across a wide range of online platforms. We share personal data on these websites, and unfortunately, the same passes on to numerous other parties, compromising our own security as well as that of our families in the process. The situation is even worse in the case of e-commerce websites. Whilst they have made shopping a whole lot easier by bringing specialty retail within a few clicks, they have also sprawled up opportunities for thieves who now find it a whole lot easier to obtain personal information and credit card numbers from…
Ackerman, M.S. And Davis, D.T., 2003. Privacy and Security Issues in E-Commerce. In. D.C. Jones (Ed.), New Economy Handbook, San Diego: Academic Press. Chapter 5.
Amazon Inc., 2014. Amazon.com Privacy Notice. Amazon Inc. [online] Available at https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=468496
Best Buy Inc., 2014. Best Buy Privacy Hub. Best Buy Inc. [online] Available at http://www.bestbuy.com/site/legal-privacy-policies/privacy-policy/pcmcat204400050062.c?id=pcmcat204400050062
protect the privacy of the individual via EU Directive for Protection of Personal Data
The internet revolutionized the human life as we know it. It established a culture of liberty aided by not just ingenuousness but also standardized protocols. This was achieved by transmitting the essential products for business-related growth, adopting a model of governance with no formal existence of regulations along with free availability of abundant software packages. This internet revolution can't be underestimated as it has its pros and cons, which also comes under discussion in this paper. With the surging popularity of internet, there happen to be a plethora of new dilemmas knocking at the door. There are tons of merits of Internet for that matter while its demerits have been ignored and hidden along the sidelines. These issues have materialized in the preceding decade and the demand is urgent to solidify a legislation which is tasked…
Andrew, S. (2011). The Federal Trade Commission and Privacy: Defining Enforcement and Encouraging the Adoption of Best Practices, 48 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 809, 854 -- 56.
Aquilina, K. (2010). Public security vs. privacy in technology law: A balancing act? Computer Law & Security Review. Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 130 -- 143
Asinari, M and Poullet, Y. (2004). Public security vs. data privacy -- Airline passengers' data: adoption of an adequacy decision by the European commission. How will the story end?' Computer Law & Security Report, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 370 -- 376.
Bambauer, D.E. (2013). Privacy vs. Security. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Vol. 103, No. 3.
Protection desired (Safety Factor)
Importance of Considering the level of Protection
In current decades, the industrial and process businesses have experienced fundamental changes with bringing in new types of safety protection when it comes to things such as electronics and microprocessor-based type of equipment in every feature of the industry. It is clear that these changes have introduced a new, very difficult class of gear with random failure design and a need for refined troubleshooting skills in regards to safety protection. As a result, when it comes to the importance of considering the level of protection desired it is important to develop management strategies in order to make sure that the required levels of plant uptime, cost and industry risk are met at the lowest likely cost.
When it comes to the importance of considering the level of Protection desired one of the first things that need to be addressed…
Charlton, J.A. (2002, April 4). Safer choices for older. Victoria: Monash University Accident Research Centre.
Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries. (2015, May 9). Retrieved from http://www.fcai.com.au/sales.php/2005/12/segmentation.html
Harris, L. (2010, April 7). The forth survey of attitudes of the american people on highway and auto safety. Retrieved from Prepared for the Advocates of Highway and Auto Safety: www.saferoads.org/press/press2001/
Hurnall, J. (2005, May 7). Benefits of consumer crash testing. Retrieved from http://www.officeofroadsafety.wa.gov.au / Facts/papers/benefits_of_consumer_crash_testing.html
An additional negative aspect can occur when a seemingly green product really isn't, in the long run.
As an example, one of the most successful 'green' vehicles is the Toyota Prius. The hybrid Prius has become the status symbol for all of those wishing to flaunt their environmental conscience. However, the vehicle isn't nearly as eco-friendly as the Green Marketing campaigns lead consumers to believe. The nickel metal hydride battery the Prius uses is the primary culprit. The nickel is mined in Sudbury, Ontario, smelted nearby, shipped to ales to be refined, then sent to China to be processed into nickel foam. From there, it goes to Japan to become a battery, before it's placed into a car and shipped to its final destination, like the U.S. The global transportation of the manufacture of the battery uses a lot of fossil fuel. Goodwin cites CN Marketing as noting the combined…
Basic Information. 26 Oct 2009. Environmental Protection Agency. November 10, 2009 .
Chen, S. "Green with Status Envy." Psychology Today. 42. 5. Sept/Oct 2009: 12.
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Goodwin, J. "The Not-so-Green Prius." WashingtonPost.com. 21 Jun 2009. The Washington Post. November 10, 2009 .
On all four levels of the PEST test, this product appears to be exceedingly feasible. There are currently no patent protection against using central home networking systems via either existing market players or specific electronic retailers. Since this is an emerging field, political and legal barriers are almost non-existent and therefore pose no real threat to future product advancement problems. Although the current economic trend is towards a cooling of the overall economy, the consumer electronics market is still very strong. This is because both technology as well general consumer spending has not declined along with the economy. The sociocultural forces surrounding this current circumstance does not explicitly affect the home networking market. Since it is an addition to current home electronics, acceptance of this product is contingent upon already existing technology within the sector. Finally, the technological climate in the current era is extremely conducive for home networking systems.…
Mobile Crisis Program:
Effectiveness, Efficiency and Consumer Satisfaction, Questions
What are the goals of the Mobile Crisis Program?
The mobile crisis program of DeKalb County, Georgia is a component of the DeKalb Community Service Board, a comprehensive mental health service agency aimed at treating and reducing the threat of lash-outs from mentally ill persons throughout the county. The goals of the program are to provide community-based psychiatric services to stabilize persons experiencing psychiatric emergencies in the least restrictive environment, to decrease arrests of mentally ill people in crisis, and to reduce police officers' time handling psychiatric emergency situations throughout the county, thus freeing them to return to their regular duty serving and protecting their respective communities.
In allowing for this type of program within its communities, DeKalb county's overarching goal of achieving stability within its borders has the ability to come to fruition. Additionally, as the mobile crisis program's goal…
Patent Protection on Clinical esearch: The Primary Sources of Innovation in the Drug and Device Development Process
When it comes to biopharmaceutical research, the United States is the best country in the world and it is currently the largest pharmaceutical market. It has invested immensely in research and development, especially in the biopharmaceutical sector, and it holds numerous intellectual property rights for a majority of the drugs developed. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA (2014), all drug companies have to seek the organization's approval before they sell new drugs, and these drugs have to be tested accordingly to guarantee the safety of the public. Adherence to these requirements often makes markets increasingly competitive and in the recent past, the increasing demand for innovation in pharmaceutical companies has necessitated new approaches to be applied in the drug and device development process. This is particularly because pharmaceutical companies have…
Gold, R, E., Kaplan, W., Orbinski, J., Logan, S.H., & Marandi, S.N. (2009). Are Patents Impeding Medical Care and Innovation? PLoS Medicine Vol. (7)1 e1000208. Retrieved 13 March 2015 from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000208&representation=PDF
The United States Food and Drugs Administration (2014). FDA Basics. About FDA. Retrieved 13 March 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/Transparency/Basics/ucm194949.htm
Technology and Product eview for Endpoint Protection Solutions: Kasperksy Lab
Whereas technological advancements have presented important advantages for business organisations, they have increased security concerns. Viruses, worms, hacking, identity theft, and other cyber threats have been on the rise, with cyber criminals advancing in skill, expertise, and shrewdness. These threats, which are increasingly targeted at the point of the end user, can result in the loss of critical and confidential information such as customer data and business secrets, consequently leading to dire consequences on an organisation, such as reduced customer confidence, loss of revenue, and expensive lawsuits. To avoid this risk, it is important for ed Clay enovations to have a strong endpoint protection platform. This is particularly crucial given the widespread usage of intermittent cellular devices by employees to access the internet and the organisation's network while in the field. Endpoint protection platforms provide endpoints with defence…
Consumer Affairs (2016). Consumer complaints and reviews. Retrieved from: https://www.consumeraffairs.com/computers/kaspersky-anti-virus.html
Kaspersky Lab (n.d.). Company overview. Retrieved from: https://www.kaspersky.com/about/company
Rouse, M. (2015). Endpoint security management. Retrieved from: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/endpoint-security-management
Rubenking, N. (2016). Kaspersky antivirus. Retrieved from: http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2460689,00.asp
Patents are a source of protection for intellectual property in any industry. The value in a patent is that it allows a company that has developed a product or proprietary technique to enjoy monopoly power over that, thus enabling the company to recoup its investment in the development of the proprietary product or technique. Patents are published as a matter of public record, and this is not deemed harmful because of the strength of law protecting patents. The typical response of competitors to patents is that they either build on the patent in a meaningful way, so as to receive their own patent for a new product that may be built on the original product. Alternatively, a competitor may develop a similar product that performs the same function as the one covered by patent, and receive its own patent on the new product. Patents typically can only be held…
Cadigan, S. (2015). Nurturing a culture of innovation. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from http://www.inc.com/steve-cadigan/nurturing-a-culture-of-innovation.html
Morah, C. (2015). Patents are assets, so learn how to value them. Investopedia. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/fundamental-analysis/09/valuing-patent.asp
QuickMBA (2010). The value chain. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/value-chain/
Waldron, D. (2013). Online education companies facing new disruption. Seeking Alpha. Retrieved July 25, 2015 from https://seekingalpha.com/article/1703392-online-education-companies-facing-new-disruption
Mandatory Data etention Laws in Australia
Ethics on Communication Details Being ecorded and Stored
The main issue concerning the topic is the aspect of whether it is right or wrong to keep data and information with respect to privacy and confidentiality as the data retention implies that the private information of the public will be accessed without their consent. There are many parties who are likely being impacted by these concerns. To start with, there is the general public whose private information will be accessed and retained devoid of any informed consent (Coyne, 2015).
The other parties who are likely to be impacted will be companies whose sensitive information will be accessed and hacking of such data could have adverse effects on their business operations. As opined by Coyne (2015), with the introduced aspect of protection class warrants being voted down, it implies that even journalists who might have information…
Asha. (2013). Issues in Ethics: Confidentiality. Retrieved 24 September 2015 from: http://www.asha.org/Practice/ethics/Confidentiality/#sec1.2
Coyne, A. (2015). Mammoth last-ditch effort by Greens, indies knocked back. Itnews. Retrieved 24 September 2015 from: http://www.itnews.com.au/news/australia-passes-data-retention-into-law-402127
Dalby, S. (2014). Protecting your privacy: Our stand against 'mandatory data retention'. Iinet. Retrieved 24 September 2015 from: http://blog.iinet.net.au/protecting-your-privacy/
Daly, A. (2014). The Ethics of Big Data. Electronic Frontiers. Retrieved 24 September 2015 from: https://www.efa.org.au/2014/11/06/ethics-big-data/
Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.
The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages educed," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…
Feinman, J.M. (2000). Law 101: Everything You Need to Know about the American Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Exxon Valdez Damages Reduced," June 2008, Business Law Prof Blog Retrieved November 18, 2008. http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/business_law/2008/06/on-wednesday-th.html
Greely, J. (1989, May 29). Alaska over the Barrels: The Spills and Spoils of Big Oil. The Nation, 248, 721.
Jasanoff, S. (2006) "Transparency in Public Science: Purposes, Reasons, Limits." Law and Contemporary Problems 69.3, 21.
Response 1: Robyn Finster
You make a good point about asymmetry of information. There was no third party made available to draw up this contract to make it equitable, or explain its terms. The Commercial Credit Loan drafted the agreement. There was no opportunity for the borrower to allow a lawyer or other individual to examine the terms of the agreement, given the pressure Commercial Credit exerted upon the borrower for an immediate signature.
Response 2: Elizabeth Laage
Your personal story indicates how even when consumers seek out information, frequently the language used is so confusing it sounds contradictory. Part of the notion of contractual unconscionability, I believe, should include consideration of language that is deliberately misleading to one of the parties. Consumers often are confused and agree to lopsided legal contracts, based upon biased information they hear, or because of the way the agreement is phrased.
Response 3: Derek…
Additionally, he argued that the best interest of the consumers, as promoted by Gate's organization, was in fact not the core element of new endeavors, as the company had argued, but that whenever a new product or service was being projected, this would be done in order to serve the financial interests of the organization rather than increase customer utility (Kegel, 2006).
In order to better understand why the above mentioned actions were ethical or unethical, it is best to assess them in light of three ethical perspectives. From the standpoint of the utilitarian perspective, the company is able to seek out those actions which maximize its gains, but in doing this, it must remain aware of the needs of others. More specifically, they can work towards their goals as long as these do not impede with the goals of others (Leiss, 1988). From this standpoint, the behavior of Microsoft…
Cooper, C., 1999, Microsoft Antitrust Judgment: Winners and Losers, ZD Net, http://news.zdnet.co.uk/software/0,1000000121,2074984,00.htm last accessed on August 14, 2009
Dale, N.B., Lewis, J., 2004, Computer Science Illuminated, 2nd Edition, Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Hunter, D., 2005, More Microsoft Employees to Get Antitrust Training, HunterStrat, http://www.hunterstrat.com/news/more-microsoft-employees-to-get-antitrust-training / last accessed on August 14, 2009
Kegel, D., 2006, Corporate Ethics, Dan Kegel's Web Hostel, http://www.kegel.com/corporate_ethics.html last accessed on August 14, 2009
Internet Ethics and the consumer's private existence in an unstable regulatory environment -- untapped economic waters in a wild, wild west of identity theft and chronic consumption
hen it comes to Internet ethics, even in the absence of legal requirements, businesses must themselves self-regulate when it comes to consumer privacy. If they do not, it is likely that the government will step in to do so, as the government has done in the European Union. This will only hurt businesses economically, and do damage to the equal ethical obligation corporations owe to shareholders. Furthermore, good business sense is about trust between the consumer and the business, and this is not honored when businesses unfairly spy upon casual surfers of their websites, or use consumer data for their own profit as well as research and marketing purposes.
Americans, according to a recent poll cited by J. Hodges in the journal of…
Ewald, Helen. (April 1, 2003) "You're a Guaranteed Winner: Composing the You of Consumer Culture" Journal of Business Communication.
Hodges, J. (Feb 2001): No Faith in the System - consumer service shows Internet users concerned about privacy." Internal Auditor. Retrived 8 Jan 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4153/is_1_58/ai_71268466
Kaess, Ken. (June 2004) "Emotion in Advertising." Journal of Advertising Research.
Lofton, Lynn. (October 2004) "Offices Enforce Acceptable Policies to Keep Up with Tech." Mississippi Business Journal.
egulating Internet Privacy
Privacy regulation has remained pinnacle of issues that got birth with internet. Every innovation in technology is at the expense of privacy; it is no more there as most of technicians believe. A layman using internet does not find how and when his personal information is can be traced by someone else; privacy at workplace that was once enjoyed by the employees is no more at one's disposal, and the never ending cookies and internet bugs allow heightened levels of internet surveillance. General public, heedlessly, isn't aware of such issues and is jolted only when such issues are raised on media. Marc otenberg tells us about its importance, "Privacy will be to the information economy of the next century what consumer protection and environmental concerns have been to the industrial society of the 20th century" (Spinello, 2003).
What is the extent of privacy erosion? Where is it…
Lugaresi, N. (2010). Electronic privacy in the workplace: Transparency and responsibility. International review of law, computers & technology, 24(2).
OECD guidelines on the protection of privacy and transporter flows of personal data. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://www.oecd.org/internet/ieconomy/oecdguidelinesontheprotectionofprivacyandtransborderflowsofpersonaldata.htm
Schwartz, Paul M. (2000). Internet privacy and the state. Connecticut Law Review, Vol. 32, spring.
Spinally, R.A. (2003). Cyber Ethics: Morality and law in cyberspace. Canada, CA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.
Harmony, History, Shopping & Digital Privacy
HARMONY, HISTORY, SHOPPING
Growing numbers of people are turning to online access for a number of rather ordinary activities. And increasingly they are learning that in doing so they are becoming involved in a world of business and to some extent deception that is at best built on a rather fragile foundation of trust and market forces. We have known for some time that as users of the virtual universe of opportunities, we are sharing with others information about us and what we want. ut the extent to which this information is otherwise being used has been left in the hands of a relatively unguarded concept of openness and honesty. We seem to like the idea of putting ourselves out in the world to see what happens of its own accord, no matter whether we are looking for love, our family's past or good…
But this search for convenience has tremendous disadvantages that we often easily overlook. Clearly, it involves giving away information whose value we have little appreciation for. But just as importantly, we do this without recognizing that those who gather this information do so with the intention of reshaping our future. They use the information to determine where we might like to go in future searches for information. The privacy pages of sites like Ancestry.com (2012), as one example, openly tell us if we read them that their software is using the information they give us to decide what we might like -- effectively cutting out the world of luck or chance in the searches we seem to want to make for ourselves.
PROTECTIONS: For the most part the experience of exploring the virtual world of access is very much like the adventure itself: it is built on us having a sense of trust that the system itself will guard our interests. Most advanced nations have some acceptance in core human rights being based on people being free to exploit their own privacy; but how this happens in practice remains unclear. So what we find is that collectively we seem to use the power of our numbers and this interest in privacy to be its own source of protection. There are consumer protection laws and common sense rules (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011), and these make up the majority of what we count on for protections.
Mostly though we trust that if people or businesses do something with the information that we provide them that is not as expected, masses of people -- usually through the media -- will create a
Adamson, John. Law for Business and Personal Use. Mason: South -- Western, 2008.
Lamb, Charles. Marketing 5. Mason: Cengage -- South Western, 2011.
Simms, Mary. "What are the Different Consumer Groups." E. How. Last modified 2012. http://www.ehow.com/info_8060212_different-consumer-groups.html
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/03/
Mary Simms, "What are the Different Consumer Groups," E. How, last modified 2012, http://www.ehow.com/info_8060212_different-consumer-groups.html
"Community," American Marketing Association, last modified 2012, http://www.marketingpower.com/Community/Pages/sigs.aspx
"The American Citizen Interest Groups," Twyman-Whitney, last modified 2012, http://www.twyman-whitney.com/americancitizen/links/lobbies.htmv
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
John Adamson, Law for Business and Personal Use (Mason: South -- Western, 2008) 164 -- 178.
Charles Lamb, Marketing 5 (Mason: Cengage -- South Western, 2011), 35 -- 39.…
"Community." American Marketing Association. Last modified 2012. http://www.marketingpower.com/Community/Pages/sigs.aspx
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Adamson, John. Law for Business and Personal Use. Mason: South -- Western, 2008.
Lamb, Charles. Marketing 5. Mason: Cengage -- South Western, 2011.
Marketing context, problem recognition is having an awareness of need. The marketer needs to understand the difference between the desired state and the actual condition. This is the first stage of the consumer buying process (No author, 2012). Consumer needs are determined by a variety of influences. The situational influences include time and place in which the consumer is. Consumer influences include the consumer's preferences, available money and the level of need or desire at a given moment in time. The marketing influences are the awareness that the consumer has of different product/service options, and the feeling that the consumer has about those products/services.
Hunter (2012) outlines five types of shoppers. Loyal customers are the biggest customer group for most businesses. They do not need to be attracted to the product, but can be induced to purchase more, or more frequently. Discount customers tend to purchase the product/service only when…
BSI. (2011). Balanced scorecard basics. Balanced Scorecard Institute. Retrieved February 16, 2012 from http://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/tabid/55/Default.aspx
FTC. (2012). CAN-SPAM Act: A compliance guide for business. Bureau of Consumer Protection. Retrieved February 16, 2012 from http://business.ftc.gov/documents/bus61-can-spam-act-compliance-guide-business
Hunter, M. (2012). The five types of shoppers. Business Know How. Retrieved February 16, 2012 from http://www.businessknowhow.com/marketing/shoppertypes.htm
Law, G. & Lee, S. (1999). Consumers' trust in a brand and the link to brandy loyalty. Journal of Market Focused Management. Vol. 4 (1999) 341-370.
This document contains legal advice made on request of Zmags, an Australian Holiday Brochure. Paper covers the customer law, contract law and other legal issues as found in the brochure for Coasts and Bays. The brochure claims to make the holidays 100% rejoicing for the clients and to offer them a lifetime experience. The brochure offers guidelines about the travel routes as well as the resorts. There are legal concerns involved in the advertisement made by any company. Often an advertisement campaign is too tempting or misleading that the customer's rights are violated. Australia has strict laws against the rights of customers that are almost universally applicable in all the states and regions of the country. The report advises what to include or exclude from the report to make it legally effective.
The consumer law of Australia generally bans all the misleading activities in the business…
1. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 2013, Retrieved from;
2. Bradbury, H.D., 2010, the Australian Consumer Law, Retrieved from:
Social equity is a key issue of public administration and forms the basic theme of the 2013 "Social Equity Leadership Conference," in June. This white paper discusses the key goals of the conference based on the conference issue for social equity as global engagement and local responsibility. These are the issue facing social equity among domestic and global public leaders in public and private agencies in the education, immigration, transportation, environmental, policing and corrections sectors. A review of theories on public administration identifies that public leadership networking, collaboration, and cooperation with leaders and agencies is necessary. This is associated with public leadership practices like public policy development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, social equity, and public advocacy.
Globally Engaged, Locally esponsible: New Challenges for Social Equity
Emerging Issues in Social Equity and Leadership Covered in the Conference:
2. Policing and corrections
3. At risk communities, which…
Brian, A.E., & Adam, J.N. (2010). Building the reservoir to nowhere: The role of agencies in advocacy coalitions. Policy Studies Journal, 38(4), 653-678.
Buss, T.F. & Morse, R.S. (2008). Innovations in Public Leadership Development. Armonk, New York; M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Candler, G., & Dumont, G. (2010). The price of citizenship: Civic responsibility as the missing dimension of public administration theory. Public Administration Quarterly, 34(2), 169-201.
Cichocki, D., Laberschek, M., & Rusanowska, M. (2011). Analysis of strategy of culture development in krakow 2010-2014 as an example of public policy implementation. Zarzadzanie Publiczne, 13(1), 103-115.
Health Care eform:
In March 2010, after protracted public and political debate, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was enacted into law by President Barack Obama. This legislation was one of the many health care reforms initiatives that have sought to rectify major features of the health care system in the United States such as service delivery, care coordination, and financing. Since its enactment, PPACA is considered as a milestone along the historical continuum of health care reform in America. Generally, health care reform in the United States is an issue that has continued to evolve based on the ever-growing health care needs of the population. However, this issue has been characterized with several challenges that are mainly influenced by the public's response to reform efforts.
Principal Features of U.S. Health Care System:
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which is commonly known as the Affordable…
Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2012). Understanding health policy: a clinical approach (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
"Key Features of the Affordable Care Act by Year." (n.d.). Features of the Health Law.
Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/facts/timeline/timeline-text.html
Leflar, R.B. (2013, July 12). Reform of the United States Health Care System: An Overview.
Earnings were strong for employees as well as shareholders. Many employees owned stock or were dependent upon a rising balance sheet to ensure that they received their bonus and salary. Additionally, as at HealthSouth, there can be kind of a 'groupthink' effect, where people assume that something is 'okay' because everyone else, including powerful upper-level managers, are 'doing it.'
There are a number of laws that protect whistleblowers. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street eform and Consumer Protection Act was established to encourage individuals to report financial fraud to the SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission). ecognizing the profound financial sacrifice many whistleblowers make, Section 922 of the Dodd-Frank Act mandates that the SEC reward individuals who provide original information that results in sanctions in excess of $1 million in civil or criminal proceedings against the offending company (Oswald & Zuckerman 2010).
In a HealthSouth-like situation, being a whistleblower is not simply a…
Capitalize definition. (2010). Investopedia. Retrieved December 17, 2010 at http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capitalize.asp
Kelley, Pat. (2010). Definition of depreciation in accounting. Retrieved December 17, 2010 at http://www.ehow.com/about_7237480_definition-depreciation-accounting.html
Oswald, R. Scott & Jason Zuckerman. (2010). Whistleblower provision of the Frank-Dodd Act.
Employment law group. Retrieved December 17, 2010 at http://www.employmentlawgroup.net/Articles/ROswald/DoddFrankWhistleblowerProvisions.html
Baker (2006) reports that Google has worked hard to balance its entrance into the restrictive media market that is China with its own values. Baker defends this balance by reporting that "the company's contention that it believes it furthers its mission more by being present in China than it does by not is at least a rational response to a set of unpalatable choices." (Baker, 1) Other sources have not been as forgiving, arguing instead that Google's censorship of its search returns according to the demands of the Chinese government is active participation in the repression of information freedom. This denotes that even where a company presents itself as desiring to behave in a responsible and socially conscious way, a certain scale of success can make this an increasingly difficult achievement.
Microsoft has received similar criticism for its attempts at entering into the Chinese software market. However, the bulk of…
Amaria, K. (2007). Giving and Reaping… Microsoft's CSR Offensive. Digicom 4 Social Change.
Baker, M. (2006). Google's Growing Pains. Mallenbaker.net.
China CSR. (201). Google Faces Corporate Social Responsibility Problem in China. ChinaCSR.com.
Cockaday, J. (2004). CSR, Google and Philanthropy. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
David E. Sorkin, Technical and Legal Approaches to Unsolicited Electronic Mail, 35 U.S.F.L. Rev. 325 (2001).
Google and other search engines:
Encarta Encyclopedia online. 2006
Articles collected for Review so far (just a sampling of articles on SPAM laws) www.spamlaws.comSpam Laws: Articles
David E. Sorkin, www.jcil.orgSpam Legislation in the United States, 22 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 3 (2003).
David E. Sorkin, www.spamlaws.comTechnical and Legal Approaches to Unsolicited Electronic Mail, 35 U.S.F.L. Rev. 325 (2001).
David E. Sorkin, www.spamlaws.comUnsolicited Commercial E-Mail and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, 45 Buffalo L. Rev. 1001 (1997).
David E. Sorkin, Revocation of an Internet Domain Name for Violations of "Netiquette": Contractual and Constitutional Implications, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 587 (1997).
Dominique-Chantale Alepin, Note, "Opting-Out": A Technical, Legal and Practical Look at the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, 28 Colum. J.L.…
Again, Mc Donald's has managed to deal with competitive threats posed by both these market players due to the fact that the prices that Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee charge are much higher than that charged by Mc Donald's. The primary reason behind higher prices of Costa Coffee and Starbucks is the fact that their target market is much stronger and niche as compared to that of Mc Donald's. The recent economic crunch however, has benefitted Mc Donald's as many people who prefer sophisticated ambience, due to their lower purchasing power and increased inflationary pressures now prefer Mc Donald's over the likes of Starbucks and Costa Coffee. As a result, Mc Donald's is the strongest market player in the Global region today.
Mc Donald's target market includes all the people who travel for leisure and/or business purposes and prefer to have a luxurious accommodation. The cafe provides best possible…
Afuah, A. 2009, Strategic innovation: new game strategies for competitive advantage. UK,
Taylor & Francis.
Akhter, S 2003, Strategic planning, hyper competition, and knowledge management. Business Horizons.
Black, J. (2004). Integrated Marketing Communications. College and University, 80(1), 53+. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045074006
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
In this particular case all three apply, because the Lloyds would take advantage of the age of the elder undy to exert pressure on him to sign the note.
Description of How the Law Applied to the Facts
The court applied four factors of the law to this case these include: that terms of the agreement were unfair, there were undue amount of pressure exerted, undy's bargaining power was severely limited and there was a lack of having independent financial advice. Together, these different principals of the law would lead the court to determine that an inequality of bargaining power existed. Under these different areas, undy was not of sound mind to make an accurate determination as to what was the right decision. Under the principals of English law, one is not obligated to agreements that were made without independent financial advice and there was property that was transferred. In…
Carr, Christopher. 'The Inequality of Bargaining Power.' (1975) 38 Modern Law Review, 4, 463 -- 466.
Giles, Peter. Concise Contract Law.(1988) [188 -- 190].
Irving, Shae. Nalo's Encyclopaedia of Everyday Law. (2008).
Waddam, S. Case Materials and Contracts. (2005) [604 -- 609].
Mobile phones are another major area of emerging technologies. Not just for phoning home anymore, mobile phones are becoming more and more robust, integrating full PDA functionality and even permitting streaming video content. Communications providers offer the biggest obstacles in seamless digital streaming, because of the confusing array of services and relatively poor download speeds. Finally, consumers are becoming increasingly sensitive to the possibility of identity theft. As technology becomes increasingly versatile, the potential for the usurpation of privacy rises too. The government has yet to step in decisively and will soon be forced to develop a new wave of consumer protection laws as well as creative laws protecting intellectual property.
Anderson, Mark. "MIT's Energy 'Manhattan Project'" ired News. Aug 11, 2006. Retrieved Aug 12, 2006 at http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,71574-0.html?tw=wn_index_3
Doggs, Alpha. "Could Your Keyboard Spy on You?" Network orld. Aug 8, 2006. Retrieved Aug 12, 2006 at http://www.networkworld.com/community/?q=node/6550&ts
Anderson, Mark. "MIT's Energy 'Manhattan Project'" Wired News. Aug 11, 2006. Retrieved Aug 12, 2006 at http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,71574-0.html?tw=wn_index_3
Doggs, Alpha. "Could Your Keyboard Spy on You?" Network World. Aug 8, 2006. Retrieved Aug 12, 2006 at http://www.networkworld.com/community/?q=node/6550&ts
Gizmodo. Retrieved Aug 12, 2006 at http://gizmodo.com/
Joe. "I Just Called To Say I'm Sorry (For Exposing Your Personal Search Data)." TechDirt.
Arthur Anderson: Questionable Accounting Parctices
Arthur Anderson: Questionable Accounting Practices
Arthur Andersen LLP was founded in 1913, and for over 90 years, the company would have become one of the "Big Five" largest accounting and auditing firms in the United States with the same standard comparable to PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte & Touche, KPMG and Ernst & Young. In the 80s, Arthur Anderson name was synonymous with integrity, trust, and ethics. Such values are critical to the success of firms charged with auditing and firms confirming a company's financial statement, whose accuracy of a company's financial statements generally influence investor's investment decision. (Ferrell, Linda, 2012).
In the 1990s, Arthur Anderson became one of the fastest growing accounting and auditing firms in the United States with huge financial success during the period. However, starting from 2001, the company faced several lawsuits for accounting irregularities. In May 2001, "the company paid $110 million to…
Ferrell, O.C. Linda, J.F. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases: 2009 Update. Cengage Learning
Fraedrich, J. Ferrell, O.C. Ferrell, L.(2011). Ethical Decision Making for Business. Cengage Learning.
McGlynn, M (2010). Arthur Andersen Case Studies in Business Ethics. Carnegie Mellon Temper School of Business.
electronic money, and a description into the various types of electronic money.
Computers and telecommunications devices may come in place of paper currency and checks - during a course of time. Also, electronic ways of transaction of money have turned out widely prevalent. Anyhow, in the recent past debate about "electronic money" has witnessed a dramatic change, narrowing down to the level to which new ways of electronic money will in course of time turn central banks out of date, making them fragile that they cannot manipulate inflation. (Stevens, 72) Electronic money can be considered in terms of electronic substitute for coins and banknotes, which is saved on an electronic gadget such as a chip card or computer memory and which overall is meant for the reason of influencing electronic payments of restricted loans. (Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2)
Electronic money is not…
Bank of International settlements, (BIS). Security of Digital Money. Basel, 1996, 1-11
Board of Governors (BoG) of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve System: Purpose & Functions. Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve System. 1994, 1-18.
Bonorris, Steven. Institute for Technology Assessment (ITA) (ed.): Digital Money: Industry and Public Policy Issues. Washington: ITA, October 1997, 44
Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2000, Official Journal of the European Communities, 27 October, 2000, 1-10
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
Today, credit rating agencies such as Moody’s, S&P and the Fitch Group wield global influence by assigning credit ratings to bonds and even countries that have an enormous impact on investor confidence. Following the 2008 subprime mortgage meltdown and the Great Recession of 2009 that resulted, there were growing calls for reform of the rating processes used by credit reporting agencies. To determine the facts with credit rating agencies, this paper reviews the literature to provide an overview of these for-profit organizations and a description of the purposes they serve. An examination of the regulatory environment in which credit rating agencies operate is followed by an analysis of current issues with credit rating agencies in the United States and abroad. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning credit ratings agencies and ways to improve them are provided in the conclusion.
Credit Agencies Overview
What are credit…
Custom Woodworks, Inc.
Overview of Small Business in America
Finding a definition of what is meant by small business can be difficult. Even the small business administration has difficulty agreeing as to what is meant by a small business. Currently, the small business administration considers a small business to be one that has fewer than 250 employees, or wholesalers whose annual sales amount to less than $5 million. For retail establishments, they must have less than $1 million a year (Blackford, 2003). This was the definition that has been used since 1953. However, 30 years later, of the size of businesses grew and the small business administration adjusted their definition to any firm with 500 or fewer employees. However, it also noted that an acceptable number of employees differed by industry group. etail sales only firms must have 100 or fewer employees to be considered in the small business category…
Arkansas Small Business and Technology Center (ASBTDC) (n.d.) Marketing for Small Businesses. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://asbdc.ualr.edu/business-information/4502-small-business-marketing.asp
Bassi, L., & McMurrer, D. (2005) What to do when people are your most important asset, Handbook of Business Strategy, 6 (1): 219-224.
Black, T. (2010). How to Improve Your E-Mail Marketing. Inc.com. Retrieved February 16, 2010 from http://www.inc.com/guides/2010/05/email-marketing-tips.html
Blackford, M. (2003). A History of Small Business in America. Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press,
Improving consumer protection is a less vital factor in the reform package. It focuses on ancillary issues such as predatory lending and credit card interest. Improving protections may help to reduce the incidence of consumer bankruptcy, but has two negative consequences. The first is that the illusion of protection can encourage increased risk-taking behavior among consumers. The second is that increasing consumer protection fails to address the underlying issue, which is the atrocious level of financial literacy among the general population. These reforms, therefore, may not be effective.
The fourth set of reforms addresses the ability of government to respond to the crisis. The Federal Reserve's involvement in stabilizing the financial industry may have been needed at the time, but is inappropriate in the context of the Fed's tradition role. Furthermore, the FDIC has been forced into desperate action as its reserves have run low in the face of 100+…