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In today's world, more than ever before, global business has grown to rely heavily on the influential effects of advertising. Consumers are persuaded to part with billions of dollars every day in exchange for product and services that advertising has brought to their attention. Yet, despite the awareness of the advertising that surrounds them, the vast majority of consumers remain ignorant of the intensive research and psychological methodology that lies behind the multitude of ads, brochures, sales letters, and newspaper/magazine adverts. Psychology has long been associated with advertising, and teams of skilled consumer psychologists routinely consult with ad agencies to assist them in constructing adverts that will powerfully affect consumers on a psychological, even subconscious, level. Understanding these concepts of human psychology and their practical applications can help a company to improve sales, and aid consumers to gain an increased understanding of marketing strategies.
Persuasion lies at the…
Whereas the majority of advertising techniques adopt a peripheral route to persuasion, the inoculation theory is designed to encourage a central route. When correctly utilized, this strategy requires the consumer to use active cognitive thought in defense of their consumer attitudes and decisions, thus affirming their choice.
The technique works by presenting a weak attack on the consumer's attitudes and behavior, which forces them to actively defend their personal decisions and values. By attacking the consumer's personal ideas and decisions, the strategy encourages them to use cognitive thought in an effort to defend them. This process of active thinking involves the use of powerful psychological concepts, such as consistency and the avoidance of dissonance which, according to the studies of Cooper & Fazio (A New Look at Dissonance, 1984) and Cotton (Cognitive Dissonance in Selective Exposure, 1985) cause the consumer to strengthen their belief in their existing attitudes and consumer behavior.
The crucial concept in this technique is that the attack is weak, as a strong attack runs the risk of having the opposite effect and weakening, or changing the consumer's attitudes. This is a strategy that is becoming increasingly adopted by advertisers, who publicize competitors' criticisms of their company and turn them to their advantage in the form of weak attacks which, by means of inoculation theory, serves to reinforce and ensure their consumers' loyalty.
Persuasion lies at the heart of successful advertising and marketing campaigns. In attempting to persuade individuals and groups, advertising agencies and social psychologists face the enormous difficulty of changing attitudes. The following technique achieves attitude change by manipulating the underlying beliefs.
Although consumer attitudes are notoriously resistant to change, this technique achieves it through switching the focus of its attack away from the attitudes themselves and onto the underlying beliefs. This can be done in a variety of ways. The most difficult approach is attempting to change currently held beliefs, as human psychology dictates that even if our beliefs are inaccurate or inconsistent they are always strongly held and resistant to change. In order to influence beliefs, advertisers use images and statistics that appeal either to emotions, such as fear, humor, or guilt, or to the consumer's intellect, through factual evidence and examples. In this way,…
Consumer subjective personal introspection of your own buying behavior, and to relate this to the notion of products as extensions of the self and consumer behaviour theory.
Subjective personal introspection of your own buying behaviour as an extension of the self and consumer behaviour theory
It has been noted in many studies on consumer behaviour that the products that the individual purchases are very often closely linked to the identity and values of that individual. Consumer behaviour has been defined as, "The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products, and retailers)"and "The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media)..." (Lerner).
In other words, the products that one purchases are in essence often seen as an extension of one's self. This means that the customer purchasing behaviour is often best understood…
Bloom P. et al. (2006). How Social-Cause Marketing Affects Consumer Perceptions. Mit Sloan Management Review, vol.47, no.2, viewed 28 February, 2012, http://elab.vanderbilt.edu/research/papers/How%20Social-Cause%20Marketing%20Affects%20Consumer%20Perceptions%20%5BBloom,%20Hoeffler,%20Keller,%20Meza%5D.pdf.
'Brand image: definition', viewed 28 February, 2012,
The main purpose of this research study is to understand the psychology of decision-making and management of households with respect to Arab students living abroad. The study will take into consideration the impact of the difference in culture and also the influence of such culture in dealing with bank interest. The research model used in this study is the addition of a moderating variable. The data will be collected through questionnaires that will be designed, piloted, and distributed to the target population. Questionnaires will be designed in a way that can manage to gather accurate information on the aspects of psychology, financial decision-making and management of households. It is expected that the construction of accounts subsequent to considering the ambiguous expense, classification of expenses into different categories and psychology of belief in Islamic law, have a positive relationship with the level of spending and financial decision-making. Secondly, classification of expenses…
Psychology, Financial Decision-Making, and Household Management
Reason for Selecting Subject
The reason I chose this subject is that in the recent times, the aspect of financial education and understanding has become a contentious and significant one. Its importance has been realized largely because there is increasing intricacy of financial products and also the increasing accountability and liability of people with respect to their own financial well-being. It is imperative to note that knowledgeable, financially educated customers are more capable of making proper decisions for their households and as a result are better suited to enhance their economic and financial security and welfare (Hilgert and Hogarth, 2003). What is more, in accordance to behavioral economics, psychology plays a significant role in the financial and economic decisions made within the household. For instance, consumers with a great amount of money will spend less as compared to consumers with smaller amounts. The same…
1. Propose a type of message appeal to be used in the advertising, making sure to explain the rationale behind the appeal
Advertising message appeals purpose to impact the manner in which consumers perceive themselves and how purchasing particular products can end up being advantageous to them. The message communicated through advertising appeals impacts the buying decisions and patterns of consumers. The type of message appeal to be used in the advertising is the masculine/feminine appeal. This appeal is deemed to be the most ideal for the reason that it seeks particularly to depict the ideal male or female to consumers who aspire to attain society’s and their individual ideal view of being a man or woman. Secondly, this appeal is particularly common when the product being sold, such as this one is purposed to either men or women. In addition, more often than not, this appeal has a tendency…
The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.
Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)
3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.
1. To treat drug abuse
This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…
Crooked Brains. (2012, December 29). 20 Creative Smirnoff Advertisments. Retrieved from Crooked Brains: http://www.crookedbrains.net/2007/12/creative-ads-by-smirnoff.html
Experiment Resouirces. (N.d.). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/classical-conditioning.html
Prize, N. (2001, May 15). Pavlov's Dog. Retrieved from Nobel Prize: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html
One of the best things about the WAP program is the flexibility that it has. Every patient has their own individual needs that need to be met by a recovery program. Most recovery programs are very rigid and to not have much give to them. The WAP program is just the opposite. It allows each patient to recover at their own rate and using the best resources available to them.
The flexibility that the WAP program allows each patient to have helps to reinforce the idea of self-management recovery. This is so important is giving each patient the responsibility for their own recovery. Empowering each patient to design and implement their own recovery helps to ensure that they will follow through and be successful in recovering.
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). ecovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental…
Davidson, Laurie. (2005). Recovery, self-management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 14(1), 25-35.
Dewa, Carolyn S., Hoch, Jeffrey S., Carmen, Glenn, Guscott, Richard, and Anderson, Chris.
(2009). Cost, Effectiveness, and Cost-Effectiveness of a Collaborative Mental Health
Care Program for People Receiving Short-Term Disability Benefits for Psychiatric
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Consumer perspectives on the emerging culture of consumption in Singapore
The consumption style of consumers alludes to the mental approach or orientation a purchaser has towards settling on decisions. Although purchaser choice making style depicts a consistent trend of affective and cognitive responses, national culture has been demonstrated to have an effect on individual attitudes and values. In this way, culture has a noteworthy impact on consumption trend in Singapore (Mooij & Mooij, 2011). This study will embrace buyer research into consumption styles to improve comprehension of how culture shapes consumption trends across Singapore. Primarily, this study will evaluate and confirm to the identified Singaporean culture. Minimal research analyzes cultural factors shaping buyer decision making. There is confirmation of cultural aspects in the purchaser's styles of making choices for fashion although no study has covered if this impact extends to the purchase of general…
Gelfand, M.J., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (2011). Advances in culture and psychology: Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mooij, M.K., & Mooij, M.K. (2011). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Over the last several years, the issue of compulsive buying has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of individuals are making decisions that are not considered to be financially prudent. Instead, they are based the person feeling good about their purchase in the short-term. This is giving them a sense of emotional satisfaction. However, in the longer periods of time, is when these kinds of decisions can lead to varying financial consequences. As a result, marketers are more likely to target specific segments that are considered to be impulsive.
Two specific groups that were often perused include women and younger adults. This is because a number of studies were indicating, how these two segments are more than likely to engage in compulsive shopping. The main reason why is because women and young adults were often the focus of their surveys. This…
Men, Women have Similar Rates. (2006). Stanford School of Medicine. Retrieved from:
What is Comparative Effectiveness Research. (2012). AHRQ. Retrieved from:
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…
Cassell, Dana K, and Gleaves, David H. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating
Disorders, Third Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Grogan, Sarah. (2007). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Koocher, Gerald P., and La Greca, Annette. (2010). The Parents' Guide to Psychological First
As Farrell (June 14, 2000) states: "The idea is to make milk the "cool" drink. The "mustache" still runs, with current stars such as Britney Spears." The success of such milk advertising to teens, it seems, represents an especially skillful endeavor, since milk is otherwise so much (and traditionally) associated with babyhood and early childhood, life stages (and self-images and reflections by others) that teens in particular generally yearn to leave far behind. Moreover, the considerable success of the "milk mustache" campaign proves very well the fact that just about anything can be successfully marketed to teens, as long as it is marketed to them with enough imagination, research, and skill (and with plenty of advertising dollars).
Some advertising for teens is also currently undergoing some interesting media changes, internationally. Within one global mega-conglomerate, Coca Cola, according to Foust (March 1, 2004):
Coke has diverted money into new initiatives that…
Farrell, G. (June 14, 2000). Milk does a body good, but ads do the industry even better. USA today. Money Section. 7b. Retrieved October 14, 2005, from www.usatoday.com/educate/college/business/casestudies/20010831-
Foust, D. (March 1, 2004). Coke: Wooing the TiVo generation. Business week online. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.business week.com / magazine/content/04_09/b3872088.htm.
Grimaldi, V. (2005).What is branding? Brandchannel.com. Retrieved October
Alternative evaluation: At this instance, the customer evaluates the brands and products that are in their suggested set. Customers appraise substitutes in terms of the practical and psychological reimbursement that they present. The marketing association wants to recognize what benefits customers for what they are looking for and then which features are most significant in provisions of making a choice. The related inner psychological procedure that is linked with the alternative evaluation phase is attitude configuration. Note that attitudes are studies tendency towards an item. Attitudes include both cognitive and affective fundamentals that are together what an individual think and how they become aware of something. The multi-characteristic attitude form clarifies how customers evaluate alternatives on a series of characteristics. For a firm, identification for a number of tactics is necessary which can be worn to control it. Lastly, there are a variety of methods that customers relate to this…
Grunert, K.C. (1988). Research in Consumer Behavior: Beyond Attitudes and Decision Making. European Research.
Chisnall, P.M. (1992). Marketing: A Behavioral Analysis. London: McGraw-Hill.
Thus the indifference curve II passing through D. must have a negative slope. It is generally assumed that such curves are convex to the origin.
Now I-I is a particular indifference curve. We may think of the consumption of any bundle of goods on it as yielding a particular level of satisfaction, or utility, to the consumer. However there are indifference curves passing through every point on figure 2, each one negatively sloped and each one convex to the origin. Those which pass through points above and to the right of D. link
Indifference curves that cross are incompatible with the assumption that consumers order bundles of goods consistently.
Up bundles of goods that yield higher levels of satisfaction than those on I-I and those below and to the left yield lower levels of satisfaction. Such curves can never cross one another, for this would violate the rationality assumption. Consider…
Bailey, M.J., The Marshallian Demand Curve, Journal of Political Economy, June 1994, reprinted in Breit and Hochman (op. cit).
Hicks, J.R., Value and Capital (2nd edition), New York (Oxford University Press) 1946, Chs 1-3.
Marshall, A., Principles of Economics (8th edition), London (Macmillan) 1936, Book 3.
Skurski, Roger. New Directions in Economic Justice. University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.
Product use is usually a great interest to those in marketing, as this information can be used to best position a product for increased sales (Lars Perner, 2008). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and the idea of perceived behavioral control, you can see how these advertisements hope to influence the consumers purchasing decisions. They are hoping that they will buy their product not based upon the idea of simply just buying the product, but the feelings that they will have about buying the product. They want the consumer to buy the product in order to have a nice smelling house. All three of these products have the same end result, a nice smelling house. It is the delivery of the nice smell that is different among each product.
The manufacture is counting on the fact that the consumer will buy the product because it will produce the end result…
Mehrmann, John. Executive Blueprints. 2007. 9 March 2009. "Why People Buy. http://www.executiveblueprints.com/tips/080210_whypeoplebuy.htm
Perner, Lars. USC Marshall. 2008. 9 March 2009. "Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing.
Psychology of Consumer Behaviour
The relationship between money-making motives and subjective well-being
There is presently much controversy regarding the motives behind making money and the concept of subjective well being. Most people associate finances with positive feelings and thus come to focus on making as much money as possible regardless of the risks involved. The masses needs to understand that people are not necessarily interested in money as an object, as they are actually certain that finances are likely to satisfy a series of their needs, thus meaning that people want to achieve particular states of minds and believe that having money is the only method of doing this.
Although it is difficult to determine the exact effects that money has on happiness, studies have shown that "within nations people's finances correlate with their reported well-being, but that richer nations show no greater happiness than poorer ones" (Buunk & Gibbons,…
Buunk, B.P. And Gibbons, F.X. eds.,Health, Coping, and Well-Being: Perspectives from Social Comparison Theory (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997)
Diener, E. Sandvik, E. Seidlitz, E. & Diener, M. "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: RELATIVE OR ABSOLUTE," Retrieved February 10, 2012, from the Common Sense Atheism Website: http://commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Diener-The-relationship-between-income-and-subjective-well-being-Relative-or-absolute.pdf
Duncan Macrae, Policy Indicators: Links Between Social Science and Public Debate / (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1985)
Fuentes, N. & Rojas, M. "Economic Theory and Subjective Well-Being: Mexico," retrieved February 10, 2012, from the FLACSO Costa Rica Website:
Unfortunately, the above-cited paragraph on computer science does not achieve these standards. First and foremost, although directed to a general audience, it blatantly assumes that the reader agrees with the author when it states that computers have changed the world in a self-evident fashion. Even if the reader is an enthusiastic consumer of technology, the question arises of what evidence there is of a real change in terms of society, versus superficial and cosmetic shifts. Even the selection of 'fifty years' taken to manifest this change seems arbitrary rather than justified by any evidence. "What, if any, scientific research supports such claims? It appears that there are no scientific studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature that establish the validity of these statements. It is not just conclusions, such as those above, but also evaluative instruments that may lack a basis in research providing scientific evidence of their validity or…
Douglas, N.L. (2000). Enemies of critical thinking: Lessons from social psychology research.
Reading Psychology, 21(2), 129-144
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2003). Critical thinking: Teaching students how to study and learn (Part
III). Journal of Developmental Education, 26(3), 36-37.
Thus, the marketing message has impacted on consumer behavior in a specific and deliberate way. Marketers typically have significant control over the marketing message in the advertising, the packaging and sometimes even the placement of the product (ensuring Corona is available at every major beach resort around the world, for example).
In conclusion, there are a number of different ways in which firms can exert influence over consumer behavior. Among the most important levers are control over information, merchandising and control over the marketing message. That firms have so many powerful levers at their disposal reflects the nature of the impact of the firm on consumers. Consumer behavior is often not the direct outcome of a singular action on the part of the marketer, but as the outcome of a set of cumulative actions, each of which influences the consumers' behavior is a specific way. The ways in which marketers…
Law, D. & Yip, J. (no date). The impact of visual merchandising on the consumer decision process for intimate apparel. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://elearning.lib.fcu.edu.tw/bitstream/2377/3942/1/ce05atc902007000065.pdf
Mullen, B. & Johnson, C. (1990). The psychology of consumer behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nelson, P. (1970). Information and consumer behavior. The Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 78 (2) 311-329.
Vinson, D., Scott, J. & Lamont, L. (1977). The role of personal values in marketing and consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 41 (2) 44-50.
Emotional Drivers Swarovski
The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.
The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance…
Chevalier, M., & Mazzalovo, G. 2008. Luxury Brand Management. John Wiley & Sons.
De Mooij, M. 2005. Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage Publications, Inc.
Fionda, A.M., & Moore, C.M. 2009. The Anatomy of the Luxury Fashion Brand. Journal of Brand Management, 16(5/6), 347-363. doi.10.1057/bm.2008.45.
Fog, K., Budtz, C., Munch, P., & Blanchette, S. 2010. Storytelling: Branding in Practice. 2nd ed. Springer.
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…
Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm
Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
consumer behavior models: decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, Trait theory, learning process.
eflect individually on how your understanding and interpretation of the consumer decision-making process might influence your thinking when applying marketing principles in future business roles.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, all human beings are driven to fulfill certain needs and desires, but some needs are perceived as having priority over other needs. Until basic needs such as food and shelter are met, the individual cannot think about higher-level needs like social approval and self-actualization (Simmons et al. 1997). When consumers are making choices about what to buy and what not to buy, Maslow's hierarchy often seems to be operating in a clear and logical fashion. During a recession, most consumers cut back on luxury items designed to impress others, like restaurant meals and name-brand clothing. Consumers who are struggling with their budget…
Oxoby, Robert J. (2004, October). Cognitive dissonance, status and growth of the underclass
The Economic Journal, 114: 727 -- 749. Retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://people.ucalgary.ca/~oxoby/Oxoby%20EJ.pdf
Simons, Janet A., Donald B. Irwin and Beverly A. Drinnien. (1987). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychology: The search for understanding. West Publishing Company, New York, 1987. Excerpt retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
e. questionnaires and interview questions) in a manner that allows the researcher to explore specific areas of interest. For example, if the researcher wants to know what aspects of their products or services are most valuable to consumers, the survey instruments can focus on comparisons of value perception or ask consumers directly which variables are more important to them than others (Belch & Belch, 2006). Likewise, if market researchers want to know how important their corporate reputation or values are to consumer choice, they can ask specific questions about those issues. Finally, market researchers can also use survey-based research to determine how effective or ineffective their advertising and promotional efforts are (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Domtar Marketing Efforts
The Domtar Corporation is a good example of multi-level marketing. Its corporate websites present various different web pages, some of which are intended for consumption by an adult audience and others that…
Belch, G. And Belch, M. (2006) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. Irwin/McGraw-Hill: New York.
Domtar Corporation. (2010). Making Paper Fun. Accessed 17 October, 2010, from:
282). Furthermore, research supports that an audience is more likely to be persuaded when the persuasion technique matches their attitude functions. Thus, people in the advertising industry are far more likely to be successful persuaders when they carefully consider the predominant attitude type of their audience and tailor their advertisements to that specific group.
A final example of the contributions of psychology to advertising is a highly significant one. In 1957, Vance Packard wrote a book titled The Hidden Persuasion, which discussed the psychoanalytical techniques used by many advertising companies (Nelson, 2008). The book sold millions of copies, was translated into 12 languages, and remained on the U.S. bestseller list for a year. Nevertheless, it was highly criticized by many academics and people in the advertising industry who wrongfully assumed that it was focused mainly on subliminal messages. However, Packard never actually used the term "subliminal" and focused very little…
Gresko, J., Kennedy, L. & Lesniak, J. (1996). Social psychological factors underlying the impact of advertising. Retrieved from Miami University Website:
Kardes, F.R. (2005). The psychology of advertising. In Brock, T.C. & Green, M.C. (Eds.),
Persuasion: psychological insights and perspectives (p. 281-303). Thousand Oaks,
Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).
In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…
references and Marketing strategies for green shares: Specifics of Austrian market.' Journal of Bank Marketing 22, (4)
Grankvist, G., Lekedal, H., and Marmendal, M. (2007) 'Values and eco- and fair-trade labeled products.' Journal of British food 109, (2)
Green Label Thailand (2010) 'Thai Green Labal Scheme'. [online] available from [13 July 2010]
Gulf Daily News (2010) 'Toyota set to produce hybrid cars in Thailand.' [Online] available from [19 August 2010]
Gurau, C., and Ranchhod, A. (2005) 'International Green Marketing: A comparative study of British and Romanian firm.' Journal of International Marketing Review 22, (5) 547-561
Caffeinism: The Psychology of Caffeine, Coffee-Drinking, And Coffee-Addicts
Coffee has been generally considered as an addicting drink, primarily because it contains the vital ingredient, caffeine, which is known for its ability to stimulate the central nervous system. Despite this common knowledge, there is still insufficient literature and studies that will provide empirical evidence that indeed, coffee has psychological effects on the individual. Thus, this paper collates studies and related literature that proves empirically how coffee, due to its caffeine content, is a psychoactive drug that elicits psychological effects from the individual.
Studies looking into the affective dimension of coffee to drinkers show that there are three dimensions where "caffeinism" or coffee-drinking is characterized: coffee's psychoactive properties, predilection to substance dependence of coffee drinkers, and reinforcing behavior resulting to coffee (caffeine) addiction.
Coffee's psychoactive properties stem from the argument and observation that "low doses of caffeine have been shown to increase…
" (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010)
With a focus on Saudi Arabia it is reported that there is "no reliable local production in the fields of software or the hardware. The increased demand for ICTs is met by acquiring overseas technologies.
The trend towards increased reliance on ICTs by the Saudi people, in particular computers and internet services, is one of the highest when compared with other developing countries; however it is still far below the ownership rate in developed countries. Table 1 illustrates the ownership rate of equipment such as fixed-line telephones, cellular phone and personal computers. The ownership rate was calculated per 1000 persons in variant countries over the world." (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010) the goal of the study reported in the work of Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) is to enhancing the understanding of factors that influence adoption and usage of online services in Saudi Arabia.…
Molina, Alfonsa, Ben-Jadeed, Mohammed (2004) the Emergence and Evolution of e-Banking in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Samba Financial Group. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004
Jasimuddin, Sajjad, M. (nd) Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web. Online available at: http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/JIBC/0103_02.htm
Agarwal, R. And Prasad, J. (1998), "The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoptions," Decisions Support System, Vol. 22, pp. 15-29.
Ahmed, a.M., Zairi, M. And Alwabel, S.A. (2006). Global benchmarking for internet and e-commerce applications, Benchmarking: An International Journal 13(1/2), 68-80.
social media of hotel industy influence consume puchasing behavio 24/09/2015
Pominent examples of social media
Business Use of Social Media
Social media and consume puchasing
Role of Social media in Advetising and Maketing
Social Media Maketing
Evidence of impotance of Social Media Maketing
Impact of Social Media Maketing on Consume Puchasing Behavio
The Heding Effect
Theoy of Social Impact
Social Media Influence Factos on Consumes
Social Media in the Hotel Industy
Social media and Thailand Hotels
Appoaches to Methodology
Outline of eseach Method
Sample selection and Size
Obstacles in Reseach
: Data Analysis
: Ethical Consideations in Reseach
: Limitations of the study
Results and Analysis
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel subscibes
: Results fom Suvey of Hotel Maketing Officials
Infeence fom the Analysis
Social Media Factos Affecting Custome Puchasing Behavio 39
5.2: Recommendations fo Manages fo Use of Social Media 40
Chapte 1: Intoduction…
references and social tagging information. International Journal of Web Science, 2(1/2), p.80.
Balakrishnan, B., Dahnil, M. and Yi, W. (2014). The Impact of Social Media Marketing Medium toward Purchase Intention and Brand Loyalty among Generation Y. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, pp.177-185.
Book, L., Tanford, S., Montgomery, R. and Love, C. (2015). Online Traveler Reviews as Social Influence: Price is no Longer King. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.
Burke, R., Martin, G. and Cooper, C. (2011). Corporate reputation. Farnham, Surrey: Gower.
Chaney, P. (2009). The digital handshake. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley & Sons.
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…
Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.
Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.
Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.
West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
Consume Behavio: Puchasing Local Baby Food vs. Impoted Baby Food in Ethiopia
Liteatue Review Desciption
A systematic eview of the liteatue is povided in this chapte in ode to develop infomed and timely answes to the study's guiding eseach questions and to confim o efute its guiding hypothesis. In this egad, Faenkel and Wallen (2001, p. 48) advise that, "Reseaches find out what has aleady been witten about the topic they ae inteested in [by] investigating the opinions of expets in the field and othe eseach studies. Such eading is efeed to as a eview of the liteatue." Likewise, Gatton and Jones (2003) epot that a well-conducted eview of the liteatue epesents an essential pat of vitually any type of scholaly eseach poject today. Fo example, Gatton and Jones (2003, p. 51) note that, "No matte how oiginal you think the eseach question may be, it is almost cetain that…
references for foreign and domestic products." Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 151-162.
Kucukemiroglu, O. (1997, March). "Market segmentation by using consumer lifestyle dimensions and ethnocentrism: An empirical study." European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, pp. 470-491.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Business Dictionary. [online] available: http://www.business dictionary.com/definition/lifestyle.html.
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Dictionary.com. [online] available: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/lifestyle .
"Lifestyle definition." (2016). Merriam-Webster. [online] available: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lifestyle .
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Diversity and Psychology
Derived from the Greek word, psyche "meaning 'breath, sprit, soul' and the Greek work logia meaning the study of something," the study of psychology is "the science of the mind and behavior" (Nordqvist, 2009). In the medical dictionary, psychology is "The profession (clinical psychology), scholarly discipline (academic psychology), and science (research psychology) concerned with the behavior of humans and animals and, related mental and physiological processes" (Nordqvist, 2009). In short, psychology is the science that answers the ever fascinating questions of how and why people and organisms think and behave in the manner in which they do. Psychology is imperative in the study of understanding and exploring one another and the people that surround us- society often looks to the study of psychology to explain the diverse population that inhabits the world. To that end, the concept of diversity is also another essential concept to comprehensively understand.…
Manesse, Jeanne, Saito, Gloria, & Rodolfa, Emil. (n.d.). Diversity-based psychology: what practioners need to know. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkley; University of California, Davis and University of California, San Diego, Califonia, USA. Retrieved from http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/licensee/diversity-based.pdf
McClintock Greenberg, Psy. D, Tamara. (2010, January 28). What is diversity in psychology?. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/21st-century-aging/201001/what-is-diversity-in-psychology
Nordqvist, Christian. (2009, June 22). What is psychology? what are the branches of psychology?. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154874.php
Perner, Lars. (2010). Consumer behavior: the psychology of marketing. Retrieved from
" It is worth separating the two here, as the differences between the two highlight the diversity of the discipline. Behavioral learning is defined as "a change in behavior brought on by experience." (Psychological Approaches to Learning). Made famous through the Pavlov experiment, where dogs were shown to salivate at the sound of a bell once they had learned that food followed the noise, behavioral therapists seek to "re-condition" their clients. Thus, like their cognitive colleagues, behavioral therapists work with their clients to bring about conscious changes in their lives. epeated practice with different responses to troubling stimuli may allow a patient to adjust his/her behavior to be more productive.
In addition to these sub-disciplines, the diversity of psychology is further deepened by Humanism, Structuralism, and Functionalism, just to name a few. So much diversity has made the science appealing to a great diversity of practitioners, from therapists to patients.…
Cherry, Kendra. 2010. Psychology Theories. Available at: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories.htm
Psychological Approaches to Learning. Available at: http://www.wcupa.edu/_ACADEMICS/sch_cas.PSY/Career_Paths/Educational/subfield2
Types of Psychological Treatment: A Guide to Psychology and its Practice. Available at: http://www.guidetopsychology.com/txtypes.htm
One point in the evolution of social psychology that interests me is the Nazi influence upon social psychology in the United States. Before and after WWII, Nazis in various sciences sought and found refuge in the United States. Many of them, because of their experience and education, were put to work. Kurt Lewin is one of these notable Nazis that came from Germany, one of what were called, Gestalt psychologists. This is interesting for a few reasons. Average Americans forget or are ignorant of how many Nazis fled to the states and have had direct influences on many of the things we find in everyday life. It is somewhat ironic that a country that continues to vilify Nazis, especially in the media, owes so much to this group. It is interesting also in that the Nazis, though the agenda of their leader was extreme and flawed, were excellent…
BBC. (2013). Chile's judges apologise after coup. BBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-23967816 . 2013 September 04.
Preserve Articles. (2013). Brief notes on Social Motives from psychological point-of-view. Preserve Articles, Web, Available from: http://www.preservearticles.com/201104165507/brief-notes-on-social-motives-from-psychological-point-of-view.html . 2013 September 03.
Westaby, J.D., Pfaff, D.L. & Redding, N. (2014). Psychology and social networks. American Psychologist 69(3): 269-284.
Westaby, Pfaff & Redding (2014) attempt to fill a gap in the literature on social networks by focusing on how social networks influence goal striving via emotional pathways. The authors base their research on dynamic network theory, and the results can be applied to numerous practical or clinical settings including organizational-industrial behavior or even information science. The dynamic network theory orientation also sheds light on numerous types of social networks and organizations, illuminating both individual and collective behavior. Although not an experimental research or a meta-analysis, the study does direct psychologists and researchers toward potentially fruitful areas of investigation.
The authors explain dynamic network theory in depth, centering their attention on the importance of emotional responses in social networks, and then outline the most important roles social networks fulfill in human behavior. Dynamic network…
Mobile Crisis Program:
Effectiveness, Efficiency and Consumer Satisfaction, Questions
What are the goals of the Mobile Crisis Program?
The mobile crisis program of DeKalb County, Georgia is a component of the DeKalb Community Service Board, a comprehensive mental health service agency aimed at treating and reducing the threat of lash-outs from mentally ill persons throughout the county. The goals of the program are to provide community-based psychiatric services to stabilize persons experiencing psychiatric emergencies in the least restrictive environment, to decrease arrests of mentally ill people in crisis, and to reduce police officers' time handling psychiatric emergency situations throughout the county, thus freeing them to return to their regular duty serving and protecting their respective communities.
In allowing for this type of program within its communities, DeKalb county's overarching goal of achieving stability within its borders has the ability to come to fruition. Additionally, as the mobile crisis program's goal…
Hispanic psychology has allowed clinical researchers to study the unique complexities of the Hispanic experience. Among the cornerstones of Hispanic psychology include issues related to biculturalism, acculturation, the immigrant experience, racism, oppression, in-group/out-group relations, and identity construction. Hispanic psychology has both individual, behavioral-cognitive components, as well as social-psychological components.
This article is relevant to both the text and lecture material on ethnicity, identity, and psychology. Issues related to cultural competence, and the biases within the social science are also relevant. This article helps to remove cultural bias in the field of psychology in particular because instead of imposing culturally biased frameworks and paradigms, Hispanic psychology uses a culturally specific and relevant paradigm. Also, this article is relevant to specific lessons and readings on Hispanic culture. Hispanic culture is itself heterogeneous, and within the overall rubric of Hispanic culture there are many subsets of identity from Nicaraguan to Cuban.
Image 1: https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjHsLvG2aHQAhUWzWMKHYqyDfEQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dealerelite.net%2Fprofiles%2Fblogs%2Fa-recipe-for-connecting-hispanic-consumers-to-your-dealership&psig=AFQjCNG-EddH0a69-1l2n3tyhKXpbh9DOw&ust=1478987719707085
Image 2: https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fhispanic-marketing.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2014%2F06%2FGatorade-World-Cup-2014-Ad1-495x400.png&imgrefurl=http%3A%2F%2Fhispanic-marketing.com%2Fhispanic-culture%2F&docid=3sf5IC2qRhJNXM&tbnid=KIIetigIR8hY9M%3A&vet=1&w=495&h=400&safe=off&bih=676&biw=1191&ved=0ahUKEwi-m6Te2KHQAhUQ8GMKHSkQBIQQMwhxKDEwMQ&iact=mrc&uact=8
Padilla, A. M. (2002). Hispanic psychology: A 25-year retrospective look. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 3, Chapter 3), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA.
Analysis of the crime scene
After Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced, he was taken to the Correctional Institution of Columbia, located in Portage; a town in Wisconsin. During his first incarceration year, Dahmer was confined separately in order to keep him physically safe in case he interacted with other prisoners. With his consent, when the first solitary confinement year was over, Dahmer was taken to a unit that was less secure. Here, he was made to work for two hours each day; he used to clean the ablution block.
Apparently, Dahmer adapted well to life in prison, although he had at first been separated from the other inmates. He ultimately managed to convince the authorities to let him interact more with his fellow prisoners. Dahmer learnt religion from photos and books he received from his father. The Correctional Institution of Columbia even allowed him to go through baptism; it was…
The topic of the proposal is related to media psychology and reality television. Media psychology is an interdisciplinary field that works in collaboration with fields such as neuroscience, computer science, international relations, and philosophy. Media psychology seeks to understand the perceptions, interpretations, uses, responses, and relationships among media and media consumers. Media psychology identifies both the benefits and the drawbacks of media consumption. Media psychology reads media as a text and as an entity with behaviors, relationships, and cultures. Media psychology receives increasing attention in the 21st century as the media landscape of the times is much more rich, diverse, and abundant than other periods in human history. Media is a much larger fixture in more people's lives around the world in the 21st century. The growing consensus among media critics, researchers, theorists, producers, consumers, and distributors is that media affects human behavior and attitudes. Therefore, the…
Bagdasarov, Z., Greene, K., Banerjee, S.C., Krcmar, M., Yanovitsky, I., & Ruginyte, D. (2010) I Am What I Watch: Voyeurism, Sensation Seeking, and Television Viewing Patterns. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(2), 299 -- 315.
Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, New Jersey.
Hall, A. (2009) Perception of Authenticity of Reality Programs and Their Relationships to Audience Involvement, Enjoyment, and Perceived Learning. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(4), 515 -- 531.
Reiss, S, & Wiltz, J. (2004) Why People Watch Reality TV. Media Psychology, 6, 363 -- 378.
MANAGING CONSUME BEHAVIOS & UNDESTANDING CONSUME PECEPTIONS
Understanding consumer behavior is a pursuit that answers why, when, how, and where people buy or do not buy products. Consumer behavior is an area that combines topics such as economics, media studies, sociology, and psychology. Predicting and understanding consumer behavior is a challenge for experts and novices alike. Perception can be a biological process by which a person's brain interprets and organizes stimuli so as to gain awareness and understanding of one's environment. Perception can also be psychological and social phenomena. The paper surveys literature that proves the correlations and implications between consumer perception and consumer behavior.
Managing Consumer Behaviors & Understanding Consumer Perceptions
Perception is a large determinant or factor apart of behavior. Therefore, gaining understanding of consumer perceptions can illuminate the reasons behind certain types of consumer behaviors. With accurate data reflecting the connection between consumer behaviors and…
Christandl, F., & Garlin, T. (2011) The Accuracy of Consumers' Perception of Future Inflation Prices. Journal of Psychology, 219(4), 209 -- 216.
Schneider, B. (1973) The Perception of Organizational Climate: The Customer's View. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 248 -- 256.
Schneider, B., & Bowen, D.E. (1985) Employee and Customer Perceptions of Service in Banks: Replication and Extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 423 -- 433.
Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Goldstein, H.W., & Braverman, E.P. (1994) Do Customer Service Perceptions Generalize? The Case of Student and Chair Ratings of Faculty Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 685 -- 690.
designing tools to be used by consumers or workers, it is widely assumed that the product must be both visually appealing as well as ergonomically functional. In certain workplace applications, if specific tools are not used, injuries may occur. Previous research on hand tools required in factory work, such as gripping tongs, have found that the product may be ignored if it is perceived to be cumbersome to use. According to the article, "The influence of different hand tool designs on the perception of aesthetics, ergonomics and usability," a "hand tool must be perceived to be usable, ergonomic and visually appealing in order for the users to benefit from the tools" and knowledge of how to enhance the perception of the user of the product's value is an essential component in ensuring that the tool is used properly (Syed 2012: 241)
A statement of the research problem
"It has been…
Syed Mohamed, M.S. (2012). The influence of different hand tool designs on the perception of aesthetics, ergonomics and usability. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(3), n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/918783959?accountid=10901
However, these statements can certainly have some merit when Florin attempts to place it the category of an addictive/abusive substance. She further goes on to state that the withdrawal symptoms may qualify as a DSM disorder in and of themselves and merit further medical and psychiatric concern. She does admit that coffee users who have no risk factors, such as cardiovascular problems, diabetes, etc. may be able to manage a comfortable addiction to the substance.
While the research is interesting and yelds some provocative information, there are several problems with this article, not the least is the trivializing of addiction and substance abuse by associating it with a morning cup of coffee. Nehlig agrees, "Thus, dependence and abuse should not be associated, and, as pointed out recently, discussing caffeine in terms of drugs of abuse might in fact trivialize the dangers of drugs such as cocaine." (2004,…
Florin, Carla. (2004). "Crazy for Coffee." Psyched for Success. 5 November 2004 Retrieved on 11 May 2008 at http://psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-20.html
Nehlig, a. (Ed.). (2004). Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and the Brain. Boca Raton, FL: Routledge.
Satel, S. (2006). Is Caffeine Addictive?-a Review of the Literature. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32(4), 493+.
Crazy for Coffee
Human Psychology Drives Economy
Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.
The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.
The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…
Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ainslie, G. (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral / Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82 (4): 463 -- 496.
Alkerlof & Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human psychology drives economy and why it matters for global capitalism
Arrow, Kenneth and Gerard Debreu. (1954). "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy." Econometrica 22, no. 3 (1954): 265-90.
By losing touch with the natural world, we live only within our own bodies, where the soul is stifled because it needs anima mundi to exist. There is a danger in not connecting to the environment around us. There is a danger in not allowing our hearts to have thoughts. We become closed off to the entire world and our entire existence by ignoring nature; we become shells of people.
Hillman (1997) discusses the calling of individuals in his book The soul's code: In search of character and calling. The book talks about how we are all subject to fate at some point when we get this idea about what we want to do with our lives. He claims that these kinds of "annunciations and recollections determine biography as strongly as memories or abusive horror" (1997). And though we all have some sort of trauma from our earlier years, from…
Hillman, James. (1977). Re-visioning psychology. New York: Harper Paperbacks.
Hillman, James., Moore, Thomas. (1990). The essential James Hillman: A blue fire. New York: Routledge; 1st edition.
Hillman, James. (1997). The soul's code: In search of character and calling. New York:
Grand Central Publishing; 1st edition.
In Hartlieb and Jones' study, a company's ethical practices in the workplace are projected onto its products/services, making the products "ethical," resulting to the concept of ethical labeling (583).
Further into the 'trend' of promoting ethical work practices in the company, companies are also promoting their corporate image and improving their relevance to their communities by developing corporate social responsibility (CS) programs. Secchi (2009) explored the 'cognitive side' of CSs, and argued that CS programs act as a "reinforcement mechanism…that, when exercised…works as a social tie between user (communities, recipients) and provider (companies)" (578).
These trends in industrial/organizational psychology are reflected in P&G's corporate practices, through its branding, corporate governance, and CS programs. P&G's corporate governance promotes ethical work behavior by allowing its employees to have a stake in the company -- that is, P&G employees are also its stakeholders. P&G's ethical corporate practices are reflected in its branding efforts,…
Hartlieb, S. And B. Jones. (2009). "Humanising business through ethical labelling: Progress and paradoxes in the UK." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Pastorizo, D., M. Arino, and J. Ricart. (2009). "Creating an Ethical Work Context: A pathway to generate social capital in the firm." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Secchi, D. (2009). "The cognitive side of social responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Procter & Gamble official website: www.pg.com.
human resources and psychology is job satisfaction. Not surprisingly, people have noted that higher levels of job satisfaction are linked to improved job performance. Hackman and Oldham were some of the first researchers to really highlight the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. "Their Job Characteristics Model (JCM) argued that, essentially, enriched or complex jobs are associated with increased job satisfaction, motivation, and work performance. More specifically, they assumed that five core job characteristics…influence three critical psychological states…which in turn affect work outcomes (Fried & Ferris, 1987). The five core job characteristics include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from job (Fried & Ferris, 1987). The three critical psychological states include the experienced meaningfulness of the work, the experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of the work activities (Fried & Ferris, 1987). The work outcomes that are impacted by…
Cengage (2010). Skills application 4.2: Job diagnostic survey. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from:
Fried, Y. & Ferris, G. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: A review and meta-
-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 40, 287-322.
Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory
The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America. Edward Bernays, the father of marketing, was the nephew of none other than Sigmund Freud, and used Freud's sense that "man was motivated by passion" to manipulate the senses of consumers and plant seeds of desire within consumer memory (Jones, 2000, p. 283). Since the days of Bernays, all evidence indicates that marketers have utilized cognitive psychology in order to assist advertising effectiveness in relation to consumer memory. This paper will discuss this evidence and research surrounding this association and critically analyze and discuss it.
A Complex elationship
Developing brand awareness and brand loyalty are two of the biggest factors in successful marketing. Establishing either requires an effective campaign that essentially implants the brand in the mind of the consumer…
Aaker, D, Biel, A (2013) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building
Strong Brands, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Bloemer, J, Kasper, H (1995) The complex relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty, Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(2): 311-329.
Festinger, L (1957) A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, CA: Stanford University Press.
Internet is a significantly essential research place for sociologists examining hypothesis of technology transmission, as well as, media effects. The reason for this critical importance is because it is a channel exclusively competent of putting together ways of communication and structures of substance. This paper tends to highlight and analyze various researches conducted on the Internet's implications in the realm of societal psychology, as well as, community capital.
The word, "Internet," actually refers to the electronic network of networks that connects people, as well as, information through computers and other digital devices permitting person-to-person communication, as well as, information recovery. Even though the late 1960s witnessed the commencement of an inherited network devoted to scientific (as well as, subsequent to 1975, military) communication, the Internet did not materialize until 1982; it started its quick gradient only in the early 1990s, when graphical boundaries turned out to be extensively obtainable and…
Abbate J. 1999. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Agre P. 1998b. Presentation in Proceeding of a Congressional Breakfast Seminar on Information Technology and Community Change, pp. 14-19. Washington, DC: Consortium of Soc. Sci. Assoc.
Bogart L. 1956. The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life. New York: Ungar
Castells M. 2001. Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
Music on Grocery Store Shopper Habits
Marketers continuously attempt to influence shopper habits by manipulating their environment. It has been known since the early 1970s that factors such as lighting, layout, sounds, colors and temperature invoke emotional responses in consumers (Kotler, 1973). esearch has shown that the amount of time spent in a restaurant was directly related to the amount of money spent (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002). Musical preferences were found to play a factor in the restaurant experience. However, the tempo of the music was not found to be significant (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002). Several researchers have focused on the effects of music on consumer behavior (North, Hargreaves, and McKendrick, 1996; Yalch & Spangenberg, 1990; Milliman, 1982).
There have been two types of studies performed regarding the subject of environment and shopper behavior. The first group of studied treats the store atmosphere as a whole. Other studies focused on…
Alpert, J.L., & Alpert, M.I. (1990). Music influences on mood and purchase intentions.
Psychology & Marketing, 7, 109-133.
Areni, C.S., & Kim, D. (1993). The influence of background music on shopping behavior. Classical vs. top-forty music in a wine store. Advances in Consumer research, 20(1), 336-340.
Caldwell, C., and Hibbert, S. (2002) The Influence of Music Tempo and Musical Preference on Restaurant Patron's Behavior. Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 19(11): 895-917 (November 2002)
Globalization in Terms of Family Studies and Psychology
Globalization: The ealities of Families
Globalization can be defined as the unfolding resolution of the contradiction between ever expanding capital and its national political and social formations. While the expansion of capital once represented that associated with national capital and later that associated with corporations expanding from the national to the transnational, it has now come to represent that which occurs without the assistance of or located in nations. These changes have been brought about by globalization which has led to the shift of the main location of capital accumulation from the national to the supranational or global level. With the emergence of globalization, economics has gained a more important place in the matters of humans than politics and public policy has become superseded by corporate demands. These matters as well as those that suggest that the best interests of the private…
Carrington, V. (2001). Globalization, family and nation state: reframing family in new times. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 22 (2), 185-200.
Cheung, F. & Tsui, M. (2002)A wake-up call to the social work profession. Families in Society, 83 (2), 124-125.
International Labour Organization (2002). ILO tackles social consequences of globalization. Press Release, ILO News, (27 February 2002). Geneva, Switzerland.
Hetata, S. (1998). Dollarization, fragmentation, and God. In S. Fish, & F. Jameson, (eds). The cultures of globalization. NC: Duke University Press, pp. 273-290.
An additional negative aspect can occur when a seemingly green product really isn't, in the long run.
As an example, one of the most successful 'green' vehicles is the Toyota Prius. The hybrid Prius has become the status symbol for all of those wishing to flaunt their environmental conscience. However, the vehicle isn't nearly as eco-friendly as the Green Marketing campaigns lead consumers to believe. The nickel metal hydride battery the Prius uses is the primary culprit. The nickel is mined in Sudbury, Ontario, smelted nearby, shipped to ales to be refined, then sent to China to be processed into nickel foam. From there, it goes to Japan to become a battery, before it's placed into a car and shipped to its final destination, like the U.S. The global transportation of the manufacture of the battery uses a lot of fossil fuel. Goodwin cites CN Marketing as noting the combined…
Basic Information. 26 Oct 2009. Environmental Protection Agency. November 10, 2009 .
Chen, S. "Green with Status Envy." Psychology Today. 42. 5. Sept/Oct 2009: 12.
Dictionary. 2009. American Marketing Association. November 10, 2009 .
Goodwin, J. "The Not-so-Green Prius." WashingtonPost.com. 21 Jun 2009. The Washington Post. November 10, 2009 .
Contemporary Issues in Health Care
There are several factors that are driving up the cost of health care in the United States. ising drug costs are a major factor in the marketplace. A PriceWaterhouse Coopers (2014) study showed that new drugs in particular are a driver of cost increases in the health care system. New drugs come with monopoly protections, and drug companies use this to extract monopoly rents on their customers to recoup the high cost of new drug development. The use of new drugs over older, generic drugs that perform the same function drives up the total cost of health care.
Another major cost driver that has been identified for health care is a shift in where health care is performed -- for example hospitals charge more for the same care in an outpatient setting than physician offices charge. A move towards more health care delivered at…
PWC (2014). Behind the numbers, 2015: Physician employment. PriceWaterhouse Coopers. Retrieved March 11, 2015 from http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/behind-the-numbers/health-cost-inflators-physician-employment.jhtml
PWC (2014) Behind the numbers, 2015: Specialty drugs. PriceWaterhouse Coopers. Retrieved March 11, 2015 from http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/behind-the-numbers/health-cost-inflators-specialty-drugs.jhtml
(Snyder & Deono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6).
The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system.
2. Decision Making Process Theories
Dr. onnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at theUniversity of California, San Francisco, identifies a number decision-making criteria in her report, "Adolescent decision making: an overview." According to Halpern-Felsher, determinations of definitions for a competent decision, the process of how the decision was made, differ dramatically. The actual behavior or outcome, albeit, does not determine competent decision making, however, during the normative model of decision-making process, one does consider the consequences to not choosing a particular behavior or a specific event.
Normative models of decision making,…
'Advertising, Public Relations' N.d. < http://courses.umass.edu/bmat352/lectures_and_readings/KA_16.pdf > [25 May 2009].
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Journal of Advertising Research - January/February 1997.
I would incorporate much in the way of nonverbal communication to entice the students to remain engaged while listening to what I had to say. I think the best method of deliverance would be the use of live communication followed up by literature the students would take with them. The use of media, including interviews with other students and their experiences with drug and alcohol abuse would be relevant and useful in this context.
Using the Yale attitude changing approach, I would establish credibility by approaching students as a peer and victim of abuse; the messages I provided would allow for two sides of the argument, meaning students could offer their own objections to what it is I had to say. The messages given would be of support rather than designed to persuade students directly, so I would take a peripheral route to persuasion. Using these methods and approaches will…
Atwood, K.D. (2006,) Recognition of facial expressions of six emotions by children with specific language impairment. Brigham Young University. Retrieved November 2, 2007: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd1501.pdf
Block, L.B. & Keller, P.A. (1997), Effects of self-efficacy and vividness on the persuasiveness of health communications. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 6(1): 31.
Murphy, N.A. (2007). Appearing smart: The impression management of intelligence, person perception accuracy, and behavior in social interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(3): 325-39.
A group of authors continues, "Only a limited number of choices are based on conscious information processing strategies. The rest of the variance left to explain is caused by unconscious effects of all kinds of subtle cues in the environment" (Dijksterhuis, Smith, Van Baaren, and Wigboldus 200). Thus, when it comes right down to it, the consumer who chooses organic produce may be looking for a healthier alternative, or they may just be motivated by the healthy looking customer who just chose organic herbs and salad greens for their own dinner that evening, it is difficult to pinpoint just what motivates every customer.
Dijksterhuis, a.J., Smith, Pamela K., Van Baaren, ick B., and Wigboldus, Dani l H. "The Unconscious Consumer: Effects of Environment on Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology; 2005, Vol. 15 Issue 3. 193-202.
Harris, Brian. Burress, David, and Eicher, Sharon. Demands for Local and Organic Produce:…
Dijksterhuis, a.J., Smith, Pamela K., Van Baaren, Rick B., and Wigboldus, Dani l H. "The Unconscious Consumer: Effects of Environment on Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology; 2005, Vol. 15 Issue 3. 193-202.
Harris, Brian. Burress, David, and Eicher, Sharon. Demands for Local and Organic Produce: A Brief Review of the Literature. University of Kansas. 2000. 17 Nov. 2008. http://www2.ku.edu/~ipsr/resrep/pdf/m254A.pdf
Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M., James, Victoria K., and Foxall, Gordon R. Postreinforcement Pause in Grocery Shopping: Comparing Interpurchase Times Across Products and Consumers. Psychological Record; Fall 2007, Vol. 57 Issue 4. 483-500.
Tin, Sandar Tin, Mhurchu, Cliona Ni, and Bullen, Chris. "Supermarket Sales Data: Feasibility and Applicability in Population Food and Nutrition Monitoring." Nutrition Reviews; Jan. 2007, Vol. 65 Issue 1. 20-30.
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…
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Marketing in the Contemporary Organizations
The contemporary society is very dynamic and things change each passing day particularly propelled by the new inventions and technological improvements. There is provision for information to travel faster than it used to, hence posing a cut edge competitive environment for each organization. Each company that wants to remain relevant in the market must embrace techniques and trends that will enable it remain afloat and relevant, such as marketing.
The modern organizations has so many functions going on like production, resource development, finance departments, the human resource departments all in tandem. In order to align these functions within the organization with the needs and wants and expectations of the customers, there is need to involve a marketing strategy that will deliberately guide these functions towards that direction (ama ao, 2005). The key to success in the current organizations do not rest on marketing or any…
Business case Studies, (2012). Engaging consumers through word of mouth marketing: A
Red Bull case study. Retrieved September 22, 2012 from http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/red-bull/engaging-consumers-through-word-of-mouth-marketing/the-role-of-the-marketing-function.html
Centive, (2012). Keeping Up with the Changing Consumer and Information Consumption.
Retrieved September 22, 2012 from http://blog.centiv.com/index.php/tag/modern-era-of-marketing/
Apple has positioned the iPad Mini as a solid competito to the Amazon Kindle HD, which is vey compaable in fom facto and weight, in addition to the Google Nexus 7 tablet and the ove 50 diffeent Google Andoid-poweed devices now available as of late 2012 (O'Reilly, et.al.). Apple has diffeentiated the iPad Mini with an enhanced sceen, a faste pocesso than the majoity of competitos, and the unique value poposition of being a device that can be just as easily used fo ceating digital and witten content as consuming it. Apple has concentated on positioning this as a low-end vesion of the highly successful Apple iPad2, which has sold seveal million units since its launch (Allsopp, 28). The iPad2's unique value poposition is delibeately designed to povide customes with the expeience of having an iPad2 at a significantly lowe pice, with geate convenience. An infomal poll of fiends…
references of customers (Tariq, Ishrat, Khan,
Demand and Supply
There are a number of different factors that Edgar needs to take into consideration with his idea to invest in the gas station business. Let's pretend for a minute that he is not just paying the fair market value for the gas station -- he is -- and simply discuss his theory about the economics of the gas market. If the market for gas stations is even remotely efficient, the price of that gas station will be the present value of expected future cash flows, meaning that all of the knowledge about the determinants of the gas market are already priced into what Edgar is going to pay. His profit comes from the value that he can add to the station through his own management. But let us digress and get Edgar up to speed with what the market has already priced into that gas station.
AP. (2008). Stations hope you fill up with more than gas. NBC News. Retrieved May 23, 2014 from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23904590/ns/business-retail/t/stations-hope-you-fill-more-gas/
Energy Information Administration. (2014). Gasoline and Diesel fuel update. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2014 from http://www.eia.gov/petroleum/gasdiesel
Feldman, A. (2011). The tiger in Costco's tank. Fast Company. Retrieved May 23, 2014 from http://www.fastcompany.com/60019/tiger-costcos-tank
Haab, T. (2008). The long run elasticity of demand for gas. Environmental Economics. Retrieved May 23, 2014 from http://www.env-econ.net/2008/06/the-long-run-el.html
Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery
The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.
This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…
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