Consumerism Essays (Examples)

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Advertising Is to Make the

Words: 2591 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15920729

Barbie doll top ten viral commercials as of 2013 rely mostly on You Tube, Dailymotion, Facebook and Twitter.

The third doll brand, subject to this study is Bratz. As evidenced from the four commercials assessed in the course of this study, Bratz deploys a slightly different mode of advertising, which involves marketing adult entertainment to kids. Social psychologists have argued that this strategy is very effective within the realm of modern-day material culture. Adult entertainment, which often involves depiction of violence, sex, strong language and obscenity, has become very popular among children

. For Bratz, one of the most popular commercials involves cowgirls in Texas fighting crime modelled along the risque film group Charlie's Angels. The use of guns to depict violence is central to this commercial, which has since increased the brand's digital reach through pervasive advertising on TV and in the internet. In a similar commercial, Bratz acquired…… [Read More]

Meyers, Laurie. "Dangerous dolls? Psychologists push back against market forces and products that sexualize young girls." American Psychological Association September 2006, Vol 37, No. 8

Eglinton, Kristen Ali Youth Identities, Localities, and Visual Material Culture: Making Selves, Making Worlds New York: Springer, 2013

Doeschka, J. Anschutz and Rutger, C.M.E. Engels. "The Effects of Playing with Thin Dolls on Body Image and Food Intake in Young Girls" U.S. National Library of Medicine
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Bra Burners in the Reading

Words: 809 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82068077

The end of the chapter talks about how the face of the woman has changed over time form the 1900's to 1970's. The end of the chapter also expresses the impact that consumerism had on the American family, and how this has become more driven by what they have ( materials) rather than the structure of the family and the time they spend together. Now, there is a push of why settle when you can have the next big thing. The author explains that consumerism poses a threat to the work ethic. The writer states that the drive behind a work ethic and consumerism are the same.

One thing is evident, the role of women has changed dramatically since the early 1900's, this chapter does a great job of drawing the time line, as well as shows the markers of significant change. Another thing pointed out is the way that…… [Read More]


Coontz, S. (1992). The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved October 7, 2010, from Questia database:
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Consumers' Attitudes Towards the Environmental

Words: 5591 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84236366

In a report on recent research in this area, Hickman (2008) states that, "Although the public recycle newspapers and bottles, only one eighth of clothes are recycled through charity shops

About 70 per cent goes straight to landfill or incineration" (Hickman). This is telling example, of the way that Fast Fashion can affect the environment.

The fact that these fashions are relatively cheap means that they are more easily discarded that would be the case with more expensive garments. Furthermore, the finding that almost all discarded Fast Fashion is not ecologically processed in an environmentally friendly way is a central factor that will be explored in detail.

The same study by Hickman referred to above contributes to the overall picture of the potentially negative outcomes of Fast Fashion in countries like the United Kingdom. " aste volumes from the sector are high and growing in the UK with the advent…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ANALYSIS: Do consumer concerns threaten fast fashion? 2007. 9 Feb. 2008 

Antonides, G. & van Raaij, W.F. Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 1998

Betts K. Margareta van den Bosch. Style & Design, Vol. 170, 2007.

Cheap Fashion, Fast Fashion. 9 Feb. 2008.
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The Culture Industry and How it Makes Culture a Commodity

Words: 459 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49452184

Frankfurt School is group of German-American theorists, 1920s-30s -- first neo-Marxiann theorists to examine the effects of mass culture/consumerism on working classes: they consist primarily of Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Leo Lowenthal and Erich Fromm

Devised theory of "culture industry" -- mass communication, media production -- the industrialization and commercialization of culture under capitalist relations of production: Hollywood, basically

The School noted the social and ideological effects of mass media in the U.S.

Mass-media productions exhibited same features as other mass-produced consumer items: commodification, standardization, massification

Popular media/culture resulted in populace control

Dialectic of Enlightenment (1948) (by Horkheimer and Adorno): film, radio, news -- all controlled by advertising and commercial imperatives, and served to make consumers slaves of consumer capitalism

The School generally makes sharp distinctions between high and low culture

Ideology forms the basis of media culture

Adorno stressed the need to examine television's effects on many…… [Read More]

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Consumer Habits Men Versus Women

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43172870

omen and Men as Consumers

Consumer habits: Men vs. women

"Men buy, women shop" (ilder 2007). This statement succinctly sums up the differences between the sexes and their approach to consumerism. omen shop as a social experience for pleasure, men view entering a store as a goal-directed activity. This is immediately seen in how retailers lay out stores, depending on whether the store is primarily directed at women's shopping habits or men's shopping habits. For example, "women are happy to meander through sprawling clothing and accessory collections or detour through the shoe department. They like to glide up glass escalators past a grand piano, or spray a perfume sample on themselves on their way to, maybe, making a purchase. For men, shopping is a mission. They are out to buy a targeted item and flee the store as quickly as possible" (ilder 2007).

Setting up a store so that premium…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Fast Facts." M2W. 2007. April 19, 2009. 

Loechner, Jack. "Women Do Most Shopping Online; Men Outspend Them." Research brief:

Media Post. December 23, 2004. April 19, 2009. 

Poggi, Jeanne. "Men's shopping shrines." Forbes. September 20, 2008. April 19, 2009.
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1950's Fashion

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60773647

1950s Fashions

Fashion and makeup trends in the 1950s reflected shifts in popular culture and were heavily influenced by film stars and television. A thriving youth culture contributed to changes in fashion, which were generally less conservative than in past decades. The exception was men's fashions, which became more subdued in the 1950s and included dark gray, blue, brown, and black suits. However, the Beatnik generation also contributed to fashion trends, and leather, denim blue jeans, and sneakers were also popular in the 1950s, especially among teenagers. Rock and roll also influenced the "greaser" look that developed around that time. The cult of the housewife similarly impacted new looks developing throughout the decade. A rise in consumerism encouraged many people to amass large, colorful wardrobes.

One of the most well-known fashion trends from the 1950s was the poodle skirt. Poodle skirts were round-cut, calf-length, full skirts, cinched at the waist.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Perfect Day for a Picnic." Online at .

Thomas, Pauline Weston. "1950s Glamour: Fashion History 1950s." Fashion Online at .

Yeager, J. "History of Fashion: 1950-1960." History of Fashion. Online at .
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Commercials and the Media

Words: 2875 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58900493

Selling (to) Kids: Advertising, Children, Youth and Commercial Culture
Advertising for children and youth has always had a special appeal. Gen X’ers remember the Toys ‘R’ Us song, “I don’t want to grow up, I’m a Toys ‘R’ Us kid,” and link it to their childhood—even if they never went to a single Toys ‘R’ Us store. They invariably saw the commercials multiple times if they had a TV in their home. The commercials showed children blissfully happy because they had toys galore—and the aim of the ad campaign was to get kids interested in consumerism. On the surface, it seems like a harmless engagement. However, from the standpoint of critical theory, turning kids into consumers perpetuates the power structure of the capitalist system in the U.S.—that is how the Frankfurt School would argue it. This paper will use critical theory—the idea of the Frankfurt School that media can be…… [Read More]

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Popular Culture it Is Not a Popular

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97263935

Popular Culture

It is not a popular notion in today's culture that little girls are supposed to love dolls and little boys are supposed to love trucks and other masculine toys (itt) However, if the toy is packaged in a new way it seems that it may be all right. The My Twinn may at first seem one of extreme socialization and not a desirable place to shop for a young lady, but on further examination at least that part of the equation is not disturbing. The purchaser is buying a friend for the girl that looks as close to her own self as a doll can. However, once socialization is taken out of the picture, it is disturbing in other ways. Modern culture gurus bemoan the commercialization of everything in this free market culture that has developed in the United States and seems to be taking over the world.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Class Dismissed: How TV Frames the Working Class. Dir. Loretta Alper. Prod. Sut Jhally. Media Education Foundation. 2006. Film.

Fiske, John. Understanding Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 1990. Print.

Jhally, Sut. "Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture." The World and I, 1990. Article.

Kornreich, Jennifer L., Kimberly D. Hearn, Giovanna Rodriguez, and Lucia F. O'Sullivan. "Sibling Influence, Gender Roles, and the Sexual Socialization of Urban Early Adolescent Girls." The Journal of Sex Research 40.1 (2003): 101- 113. Print.
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Individuals Consume to Align Themselves

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16238439

.. To an active fashion accessory. Most significantly the logo itself growing in size, ballooning from a three quarter inch emblem into a chest-sized marquee."

From the perspective of social stratification and social stratification through branding, today, our main motivation to consume is our desire to be similar to some people and different from others. Consumerism stands rudimentary to social stratification, or vice versus. According to Miller (2013), "Social stratification may be defined as long-standing power, wealth, and status between groups within a single society. These groups are typically separated into classes or castes, but may also extend to ethnic separation." Miller (2013) contends that "placement into a social hierarchy is dependent on an individual's access to valued resources: stratification is a system where groups are treated differently based on their societal roles or social status." Members of society can align with various social status groups or separate themselves from…… [Read More]


McLaren, Warren. (2008). Logo no go for Nau. A peek at branding and consumerism . Available: Last accessed 12th May 2013.

Miller, Rene. (2013). What is social stratification. Available: Last accessed May 12, 2013.
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Consumer Driven Health Movement Impacted

Words: 894 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94354155

The price of most health care is felt subjectively. Therefore, it is felt that no one else can make better decisions other than patients themselves. Only few would argue against the significance of the active association of consumers in their own healthcare to attain affordability along with quality as well as security. (Vitt; Werntz, 2008)

2. What is the impact of Bachman's five building blocks of healthcare consumerism for health care managers?

Healthcare consumerism is thus changing the health benefit strategy of employers into one that vest the price and also the decision making power with the consumers. It involves the provision of relevant information and all support to make the decisions they actually require, of course with financial incentives, rewards and advantages that enhance the personal association with variation in health and the purchasing patterns in healthcare. Healthcare consumerism is free from the plan design. Healthcare consumerism associates the…… [Read More]


Bachman, Ronald E. (2006) "Healthcare Consumerism: The Basis of a 21st Century

Intelligent Health System" Center for Heath Transformation.

Herzlinger, Regina E. (2004) "Consumer-driven health care: implications for providers, payers, and…." Josey-Bass.

Vitt, Lois a; Werntz, Ray. (2008) "Listening to Consumers: Values-Focused Health
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Exploring Online Consumer Behaviors

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25827314

Online Consumer Behaviors

Consumer Behavior

Consumer Perceptions of Online Shopping and how this Influences Purchasing Decisions

Exploring Online Consumer Behavior

Internet usage has increased rapidly in the past few decades. Accompanying this trend has been the increase in online retail shopping by consumers. However, many consumer behaviors, motivations, and attitudes toward shopping via this medium are still being researched and there are many opportunities for further research. This paper will examine the following research questions: (1) How do factors previously researched affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers and (2) what are the significant consumer behaviors both positive and negative that affect internet consumerism? The purpose of this research paper is to integrate the varied research information together and draw coherent linkages to how consumer thoughts, attitudes and motivational behavior affect online buying, thus building a broader framework of analysis in which to build upon. By identifying these relevant factors,…… [Read More]


Vazquez, D., & Xu, X. (2009). Investigating linkages between online purchase behaviour variables. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 37, 408-419. doi: 10.1108/09590550910954900
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Feminism Matrilineal History or Girls'

Words: 2088 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20992133

"Lady Gaga in part because she keeps us guessing about who she, as a woman, really is. She has been praised for using her music and videos to raise this question and to confound the usual exploitative answers provided by 'the media'… Gaga's gonzo wigs, her outrageous costumes, and her fondness for dousing herself in what looks like blood, are supposed to complicate what are otherwise conventionally sexualized performances" but this complication does not necessarily lead to a feminist liberation (Bauer 2010).

Still, Gaga has been embraced by a generation of women, some who shun and some who embrace the feminist label. "Lady Gaga idealizes this way of being in the world. But real young women, who, as has been well documented, are pressured to make themselves into boy toys at younger and younger ages, feel torn. They tell themselves a Gaga-esque story about what they're doing. hen they're on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bauer, Joy. "Lady Power." The New York Times. June 20, 2010. June 21, 2010. 

Love, Meredith A. & Brenda M. Helmbrecht. "Teaching the conflicts: (Re)engaging students with feminism in a postfeminist world." Feminist Teacher. 18(1).

Maloney, Malori. Lady Gaga: "I'm not a feminist. I hail men, I love men." Bitch.
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Culture and Electronic Media

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66195185

American pop culture has been cultivated and molded by mass media. The recent iteration of mass media, electronic media, has a profound and significant influence on the daily lives, thoughts, perceptions and desires of every single person in the United States, whether people are aware of this influence, or not. The potential for media to influence people has been the subject of much debate since the earliest forms of mass media; newspaper, radio, and television have all contributed to our individual and collective psyche in America. This paper will discuss the roles that music, radio, television, and the motion pictures have played in the development of American popular culture as well as discuss some of the trends propagated by the electronic media and will provide a personal perspective on the relationship between media representations and consumerism, the human body and justice, law, and order.

Bagdikian (2000, pg. 185) notes that…… [Read More]


Bagdikian, B. (2000) The Media Monopoly, Sixth Edition. Beacon Press.

Bhattacharya, P. (July, 2003) Back to the future: Urbanization, globalization and consumerism. Retrieved from 

Zoubkov, P., Johnson, S., Young, N., Fletcher, H. & Thomas, B. (2004) Global Bits: Corporate influence in the media. Global Education Center, 3, 87-93 Retrieved from
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Live Concert Analysis How Doing Good Makes

Words: 6286 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68417534

Live Concet Analysis

How Doing Good Makes Us Feel Poweful and Poweless at the Same Time

Design Activism vs. Design fo Social Change

The Awakening Consciousness of Designes 1960's


Thee has been lukewam inteest in public sevice design, social impact and design activism. But in most convesations, all othe designs wok to enhance the standad of living of the people; some of it must be activism. The agument is seldom boosted by the notion that achitectue has been impacted by intellectual movements and ats fo instance, modenism which fuels an idea of a evolutionay society. These movements had ideal poposals fo society's efoms. They wee elated deeply to commece and aesthetics as well (Jose et al., 2008). Conside the diffeence between modenism and activism fo that matte. The modenism idea states that people stand equals to each othe, while society became united in evey aspect fo instance uniting laboes,…… [Read More]

references and charitable habits of Generation Y, Generation X, Baby Boomers and Matures. Convio and Edge Research. (2010).

Boehnert, J. "In the Front Line," Creative Review, October 2008.

Borasi, G., & Zardini, M. (Eds.). Actions: What you can do with the city. Canadian Centre for Architecture. (2008).

Brown, T., Sklar, A., Speicher, S., Solomon D. And Wyatt, J. "Design For Social Impact," (New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2009), 80-81.

Cowan, G. "Street Protest Architecture," Bad Subjects, January 2004.
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Art Can Be Used to

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52775342

On some level, all art tells the viewer something about its sociological context. A painting by Vermeer says much about gender roles and norms in Flemish society; just as a painting by arhol says much about consumerism in American society.

One irony that Bennett points out is, "Art collectors have paid millions of dollars for some of arhol's pieces, but shoppers at Target, where the limited-edition soup cans are on sale, will have to shell out only 75 cents for a 10.75-ounce can." arhol's art is the ideal bridge between "low" and "high" art, evidenced by this differential in pricing. The "authentic" painting by arhol is worth millions, but the authentic item that arhol depicted on the canvas is only worth 75 cents. Consumers place a high demand on something that is deemed valuable and irreplaceable, but not as high of a demand on food.

Andy arhol's "100 Cans" points…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albright-Knox Gallery. "100 Cans." Retrieved online: 

Bennett, Katherine Dorsett. "Andy Warhol's '15 Minutes' of Fame are not up yet." CNN. 5 Spet, 2012. 

Vogel, Carol. "Warhol Soup Cans, Now at Your Local Target." New York Times. Retrieved online:
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New Look by Dior

Words: 494 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7785837

New Look

In the postwar year of 1947, fashion designer created a line he called "Corelle" which is the botanical term for the frail petals at the center of a flower (Christian). In his autobiography, Dior wrote that, "I wanted my dresses to be constructed, molded upon the curves of the feminine body, whose sweep they would stylize" (Dior). He theorized that women were tired of the uniformity and simplicity of the war years where they would have to dress without excess. Dior wanted to create clothing that a woman would enjoy wearing and that would reintegrate her into the world of femininity. Experts in the industry would grow to call this line the "New Look." A 1947 issue of Vogue described the line saying, "from the era of Madame Bovary…wasp-waisted Gibson Girl shirtwaists, pleated or tucked…slow-sloped, easy shoulders…wrapped and bound middles -- barrel (almost hobble) skirts -- longer, deeply…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Christian Dior's New Look." The Vintage Connection.
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Mainstream Culture the First Installment of the

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50033177

Mainstream Culture

The first installment of the Iron Man franchise can be analyzed in the context of whether it either reaffirms or criticizes mainstream culture. Indeed, the film does a bit of both. The movie script itself as well as the underlying method and motives of the filmmakers and actors in terms of how the film is being marketed and portrayed potentially irrespective of what is being asserted directly in the movie itself will also be assessed.. Iron Man and films like it play a two-sided game of both glorifying and condemning ideas that are political and ideological in nature but often does so in a way that is not even-handed or is otherwise not grounded in reality.

Iron Man Observations

hat is clear straight away with the interactions and the developments surrounding Tony Stark (Downey) and Obadiah is that the movie is making a statement about corporate greed and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fisje, John "The Cultural Economy of Fandom," pp. 30-49, in Adoring Audience

Friday, Kirster "A Generation of Men Without History": Fight Club, Masculinity, and the Historical Symptom," Postmodern Culture 13:3 (2003), 

Henry A. Giroux and Imre Szeman, "Ikea Boy Fights Back: Fight Club, Consumerism,
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Jamer Hunt Offers a Critique

Words: 459 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42023992

The following photograph illustrates the trend of modern McDonalds restaurant design:

If the golden arches were not displayed proudly on the screens, viewers would scarcely know they were in a fast food restaurant. Instead, the decor looks like a typical corporate lounge or a waiting area at an airport. Gone are the old fashioned swivel chairs and welcome are comfortable-looking and colorful cushioned seats with personal tables.

The design overhaul attempts to accomplish the bottom line of attracting new consumers to the fast food chain. However, Hunt would point out that it is not possible to eradicate the everyday from such a consumer-oriented place. Even this new and improved McDonalds has a sterile, impersonal, cookie-cutter feel to it. While the McDonalds looks better than its predecessors, it remains the ubiquitous restaurant with the predictable menu.

It is possible, however, to create the illusion that one is seated in a more…… [Read More]

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Female Sexual Subjugation and Domesticity

Words: 1848 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20984703

Particularly, as
slavery and segregation had contributed to the establishment of a wealthy
ownership class in the United States, so had the nature of its 20th century
consumer culture helped to enforce separate racial societies. Thus, even
as white women struggled for recognition and equal rights, the climb from
domestic servitude would be a great deal more arduous for a female African
American culture which had been conditions through centuries of slavery
toward assumed domestic servitude. To this extent, the parallels which
Odem's text draws between slavery and female inequality bear a shared
relationship in defining America's gendered culture.
Today, women have in many ways been relieved of the domestic roles
once foisted upon them with no outlet of relief. Indeed, it is
increasingly common and standardized to find women in all walks of
professionalism and at positions of authority. Moreover, the premise that
the woman should be expected to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Breines, W. (2001). Young, White and Miserable: Growing Up Female in the
Fifties. University of Chicago Press.

Odem, M.E. (1995). Delinquent Daughter: Protecting and Policing
Adolescent Female. The University of North Carolina Press.

Schrum, K. (2004). Some Wore Bobby Sox: the Emergence of Teenage Girls'
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U S History -- 1950's the

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16736623

During the Eisenhower Administration, America underwent a number of radical changes in its political and social arenas, the most important being the rapid rise in consumerism which before Eisenhower was limited to the wealthy and those in the upper classes. When World War II ended, American factories began to manufacture a huge range of goods which were then purchased by average Americans for use in their homes and businesses. This immense increase quickly led to the creation of millions of jobs which allowed consumerism to climb to new heights, thus creating an economic boom for all Americans.

In the late 1950's, the Civil ights Movement became a powerful American entity, mostly due to the influence of the Brown v. The Board of Education decision by the Supreme Court which made school segregation illegal. After the passage of a bill by Congress which enforced the 14th and 15th amendments of the…… [Read More]


Lubell, Samuel. (1956). Revolt of the Moderates. New York: Random House.

Politics of Consensus." (2006). FAQFarm. Internet. Retrieved at .

Schultz, Stanley K. (1999). "Dynamic Conservatism." American History 102. Internet. Retrieved at
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Warhol and Koons How Does

Words: 3543 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44192116

But the cool tone of the images in arhol's works is one reason why a viewer might be tempted to read a kind of backhanded affection for advertising and consumption in arhol's series, as well as satirical parody. hat Hughes calls this affectlessness, a fascinated and yet indifferent take on the object, arhol does not obviously express a point-of-view, rather he simply deploys sameness in different contexts -- advertising in an art gallery, movie stars tinted with flat paints. hether he does this with love as well as humor might be possible, but because there is such a visual parallel between the parody or the art and the real, it is hard to assign a definitive tone, other than coolness, to arhol.

For instance, a viewer might ask, is there, in the repetition of stars' faces such as Elizabeth Taylor, Jackie O. And of course Marilyn, as well as Marlon…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, D.S. "Jeff Koons and the Paradox of a Superstar's Phenomena," Bad Subjects, Issue 4: February 1993.

Eldredge, Charles C. "Warhol, Andy." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. 6 Jan. 2005.

Hughes, Robert. American Visions. New York: Knopf, 1997.

The Jeff Koons Handbook. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.
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Lead Us Into Temptation Briefly

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22838832

If consumers robotically obeyed advertising messages, then 80% of all new products would not be destined for failure, despite the over 200 billion dollars (in 1997 figures) spent by producers to bombard the senses of the consumer through every possible venue, from television to the Internet. (45; 50)

Twitchell concludes that the presence of consumer culture paradoxically gives consumers the tools of empowerment by offering them new tools of self-fashioning. Through buying products and exercising individual choice, persons can remake themselves into new individuals, much like the rituals of the church provided similar tools of self-improvement and self-fashioning.

However, one must ask the question -- does the existence of consumerism replace other moral aspirations of humankind? For example, a person who believes the rhetoric of advertising might decide that personally buying an ecologically sound product is a replacement for actually writing his or her congressman as part of a widespread…… [Read More]

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Oppressed Edible Woman the Edible Woman --

Words: 1991 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49650896

Oppressed Edible Woman

The Edible Woman -- Margaret Atwood

The Edible Woman offers a look at the conventionalized aspects of society that result in a version of cultural violence which is gender-oppressive. In kaleidoscopic fashion, the protagonist undergoes a series of transformations that are fundamental to her self-identity, her current and future places in society, and her rediscovery of mediating levers to overturn the cultural violence boulder that has come to rest on her shoulders.

The Warping of Marian's Self-Identity

The Marian the reader first meets is a liberated young woman with the clear-headed ability to assess the society in which she lives. She appears to have rejected the role that society has described for women her age. Her relationship with a young lawyer is relaxed by the standards of the day -- a time before hard-line feminism had been articulated -- and her job is meaningful and situated beyond…… [Read More]


Atwood, ME 1969 The Edible Woman. New York, NY: Anchor, 1998.

Beauvoir, SD 1978.The Second Sex, tr. & ed. By HM Parshley. New York, NY: Knopf.

Ferguson, A and Hennessy, R "Feminist Perspectives on Class and Work," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved 

Kelly, D 1995 "Either Way I Stand Condemned': A Woman's Place in Margaret Atwood's The Edible Woman and Margaret Drabble's The Waterfall." English Studies in Canada.21(3): 320-32.
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Media Even Today Has Such a Profound

Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 976794

media, even today, has such a profound impact on popular culture as that of print media. Since man first scribbled and chiseled onto stone tablets, words have persuaded and guided people to do, to conform, to think in certain ways. With the advent of Johannes Gutenberg's printing press, and the consequent development of movable type, words have served to mold and conform ideas. With the 20th century development of "yellow journalism," newspapers went beyond simply conveying information, beyond providing news to people, and served to sway people as journalists sought. This paper will discuss the roles that print media have had on the development of American popular culture as well as discuss some of the trends created by print media and how such trends have influenced consumerism, work, social responsibility, happiness, the human body, as well as justice, law, and order.

Print media has had a profound and significant impact…… [Read More]


PEDIATRICS (2006). Committee on Communications. 118, 6, pp. 2563-2569. Retrieved from: 

Consumers Union (2005). Selling America's kids: commercial pressures on kids of the 90's. Retrieved from:
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Challenges Facing American Higher Education

Words: 2801 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72529302

American Higher Education

Higher Education is ading in Deep ater in 2014

Is there anything to celebrate about higher education in the 21st century? hat are the most troubling issues facing America's campuses that have emerged in particular over the past twenty years? These questions cry out for thoughtful, scholarly answers. On the one hand, there are crises related to university finances, student financial programs are bogged down by endless congressional haggling, federal financial backing for important research and development has withered away to a significant extent, and scholarships and grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have not been able to meet the demand of qualified scholars (Thelin, 2013). On the other hand, according to the Knight Foundation Commission, many university presidents (if not most) are admitting that they no longer have control of their NCAA-governed athletics programs, and moreover, deans in medical schools are being urged to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrett, P.M. (2014). In Fake Classes Scandal, UNC Fails Its Athletes -- and Whistleblower.

Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from .

Barrett, P.M. (2014). The NCAA Will Investigate Fake-Classes Scandal at UNC. Bloomberg

Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from
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The Boundary of Art Andy

Words: 1513 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41111912

Coplans, John. Andy Warhol. England: The Curwen press, 1989

Kinsman, Jane, "Soup can mania." Artonview, no. 49 (2007): 38-9.;hwwil

Ratcliff, Carter. Andy Warhol. New York: Abbeville Press, 1983.

Revy, Louisiana. Andy Warhol and his world: Nykredit, 2000

Image Source

Image 1 :

Image 2 :

Image 3 :

Image 4 :
Warhol-Elvis--1963--double-Elv.jpg… [Read More]


Bauer, Claudia. Andy Warhol. Nw York: Prestel, 2004.

Coplans, John. Andy Warhol. England: The Curwen press, 1989

Kinsman, Jane, "Soup can mania." Artonview, no. 49 (2007): 38-9.;hwwil 
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Print Art and Advertising and

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15637229

Indeed, Rodrigue was very pleased to be commissioned in this way. Another artist who followed this trend was Yuri Gorbachev, painting the bottle during the early 1990s. After this, the artist created a "Christmas present" for tolichnaya. This proved so successful that the company retained this artistic service on a yearly basis. Many of these ads have found their way into collectors' homes, where they are framed and displayed. In this way, the boundaries between art and advertising have blurred even further.

The success of such advertisements, along with the associated respect for the artists involved, is indicative of consumer reaction to such advertising. The reason for this is ascribed to the qualities of fine art: the quality, strength and emotion associated with art is communicated to the product being advertised, which finds its way into the consumer heart and mind on a multiplicity of levels. Using art in this…… [Read More]

Sources (2003). From the Fine Art of Advertising to the Advertising of Fine Art. 

Admedia Solutions Ltd. (2007). Magazine Advertising Trends - the story so far.

Tarateta, Maja. (2001, April). Advertising & Art: A modern-Day Marriage. Art Business News.
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1950s Advertisment One of the

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22259453

It is also interesting that, somewhat differently from the first advertisement, we are no longer looking for efficiency, productivity increase and lower costs. Since consumerism is the key to this advertisement, the word of order now is spending. This is why this is the "costliest process on Earth."

The three advertisement are very interesting, because, despite still reflecting well the period of time in which they were created, they are somewhat different. On one hand, we have a society that stresses the importance of higher productivity rates and lower costs to be able to face the current challenges. On the other hand, we have individuals simply enjoying their existence, despite the existent challenges.



2. May Tyler, Elaine. Homeward ound: American Families in the Cold War Era. asic ooks, 1990. Page 91.



May Tyler, Elaine. Homeward ound: American Families in the Cold War…… [Read More]

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Corporate Roles in Environmental Ethics

Words: 5925 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39363295

Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics

Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…… [Read More]


Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: .

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC

Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from:
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Genetics Option 3 Darwin's Perspective According to

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51827752


Option 3: Darwin's Perspective

According to Darwin, the survival of a species is determined by the degree of strength of its members. Thus, the "fittest" in terms of physical prowess as well as to a degree mental capacity survives. Human beings have long used their mental capacity to overcome the challenges of the physical environment. The very first discoveries of tools, fire and the wheel have set the species apart from the rest of life on earth. Human beings use their mental capacity to create tools in order to ensure and facilitate their survival in the face of challenges such as weather, predators and illness. From the Darwinian viewpoint, genetic engineering is simply the next step in the evolution of the human capacity to ensure the survival of their species. Some of the unforeseen results of technological advancement have admittedly been devastating, but another uniquely human capacity is accountability.…… [Read More]


Chartrand, Sabra. "Patents: A Human Gene Is patented as a Potential Tool Against AIDS, But Ethical Questions Remain." Human Genome Sciences Inc. (

Ehrenreich, Barbara. "The Economics of Cloning."

Kolata, Gina. "A Clone is Born." Reprinted from: Clone: The Road to Dolly and the Path Ahead 1998.

Longstaff, Simon. "Genes for Sale."
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Great Gatsby Values in 1920 America Were

Words: 1162 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20152934

Great Gatsby

Values in 1920 America were changing rapidly from the Victorian attitudes that preceded them, and the novel "The Great Gatsby," by F. Scott Fitzgerald clearly epitomizes these changing values. In business and in pleasure, the people Gatsby associates with are shallow, materialistic, nihilistic, and disloyal. These people lived hard, played hard, and often died young, as Myrtle and Gatsby indicate. They were celebrating the end of World War I and a new beginning for America, when it was prosperous and excessive. These new young Americans frightened their elders because they danced risque dances like the Charleston, smoked, drank, and spent large amounts of cash as often as they could. There were increasingly interested in material possession, including the ostentatious mansions of East and West Egg. Continually throughout the novel, Fitzgerald portrays them as shallow, uncaring, selfish, and incapable of real friendships and relationships. They are mostly interested in…… [Read More]


Browne, Karyn Gullen, et al., eds. Gatsby. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. "The Great Gatsby." 2004. 24 June 2004. 

Gale, Robert L. An F. Scott Fitzgerald Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Gross, Dalton, and Maryjean Gross. Understanding the Great Gatsby A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
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Consumer Society or Capitalism

Words: 2650 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81909579

Consumer Society or Capitalism

Consumer society which evolves out of capitalism has its advantages as well as its disadvantages. But even with its disadvantages, consumer society has now become an accepted from of modern society.

Under the pressure of corporate politics, the commercialization of culture and the influence of mass media, the conventional literary values of Western society are deteriorating. For the public in general, the mixing and transformative experiences of culture have been restored by the joint viewing experience and by contribution in consumer trends. (Cronk, Consumerism and the New Capitalism) George Orwell described consumer society as the air we breathe. High worker output and high general levels of consumption typify efficiently improved societies of late 20th century. Though this prosperity is endorsed with making benefits like raised education and health care, it is also linked with much extended work hours, raised lose-lose social rivalry, uneven communities, economic disparity,…… [Read More]


Cronk, R. "Consumerism and the New Capitalism" Retrieved from  Accessed on 20 April, 2005

"False atheism or the new-sacred ideologies - Page 5 / 7" Retrieved from  Accessed on 20 April, 2005

"Features of a Consumer Society" Retrieved from Accessed on 20 April, 2005

'"Global Capitalism Has Developed A Planetary Consumer Culture Based Upon Exploitation And Exclusion: Discuss" Retrieved from  Accessed on 20 April, 2005
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Sustainable Behaviours Using Life History

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29308057

These meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretative process that is used by individuals in dealing with the things they encounter (Blumer,


A proposed timetable of work is provided at Appendix a.


Policy implications. There are a number of important policy implications involved with the proposed study, including the following:

1. An improved understanding of what compels consumers in the UK to pay a premium price for food products they perceive as being environmentally friendly.

2. An improved understanding concerning what green consumerism marketing methods are regarded as being effective when they are applied to food products, and why.

3. An improved understanding concerning what green consumerism marketing methods are regarded as being unethical when they are applied to food products, and why.

Taken together, consumers, government regulating agencies as well as companies which are competing in the food industry in the United Kingdom today and…… [Read More]


Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism. Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice-Hall in Muchmore at p. 4.

Bromley, R.D.F. & Thomas, C.J. (1999). Retail change: Contemporary issues. London: UCL

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Postmodern Cities and Consumption Postmodernist

Words: 1909 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37984485

In a world that is marked by homogeneity, capitalism has favorable conditions to grow. However with changes in thinking and urban theory, instead of describing this concept in terms of production, it is now consumption that defines our times. We are living in a consumer society or a consumerist culture because consumption drives production instead of it being the other way around. People have now become more liberal in the way they live their lives. There are no specific rules to follow and changing lifestyles mean everyone would want something different. This results in increased variety and expanded range of goods and services at people's disposal. Combine this with more disposable income and you have consumerism on hands. People are no longer afraid to live their dream lives and this often means fewer savings. Interestingly, consumers are not worried about that. It appears as if the fears that drove people…… [Read More]


Arnold, J. (2001) 'Why consumer confidence matters', BBC Online, 25 September 2001, at 

Baudrillard, J (1998a) the Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, Sage, London.

Baudrillard, J. (1995b) 'The virtual illusion: or the automatic writing of the world', Theory, Culture and Society, 12, 97-107.

Bauman, Z. (1983) 'Industrialism, consumerism and power', Theory, Culture and Society, 1(3), 32-43.
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Corporations Send Out Messages Constantly

Words: 10552 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75275540


The analysis cited above continues to describe the ways in which corporate "life" (in the sense of how many different individuals and entities are vital to the running of a corporation in the current climate):

Businesses today must be consumer, profit, and publicly oriented. Only a few years ago, the first two would have sufficed. But, in support of our dualistic argument regarding the marketing concept, that is -- creating exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives more effectively and efficiently than the competition -- Philip Kotler (2000) has labelled marketing as inappropriate in a world of environmental deterioration, population expansion, world hunger and poverty, and neglected, under-funded, and business-like social services. Thus, marketing as exchange has been augmented by the need to preserve or enhance consumer and societal well being, too. Increasingly, this extends beyond 'seeming' to the needed 'substance' of corporate social responsibility.

The above touches on…… [Read More]


Aaker, D.A., Brand Portfolio Strategy, New York: Free Press, 2004.

Balmer, John and Alan Wilson, "Corporate Identity: There Is More to It Than Meets the Eye," International Studies of Management & Organization, Vol. 28, 1998.

Bridson, K., and Evans, J., 'The secret to a fashion advantage is brand orientation', International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 32(8): 403-11, 2004.

D'Alessandro, David, Brand Warfare, New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
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Birth of the Phenomena Known as the

Words: 1265 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36244245

birth of the phenomena known as the consumer society is unknown but there is no doubt that, at least in the western world, it has existed since the advent of the Industrial evolution.

In the consumer society a high value is placed on the use and possession of material goods. Prior to the industrial revolution, most of society was concerned about mere sustenance and there was little demand for goods other than those needed to live from day. With the advent of the Industrial evolution mass production became possible and suddenly the producers had an excess of goods and needed to create a market for them.

The concept of consuming more than what one needed did not suddenly emerge with the birth of the consumer society as the ancient omans and Egyptians were well-known for their hedonism but such behavior in those societies was limited to a select few in…… [Read More]

Referenced November 29, 2010,
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Global Business Cultural Analysis

Words: 8186 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23504537

business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…… [Read More]


Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.

Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink 

Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Reaction to Business Terminology in Clinical Med

Words: 2031 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67282051

Business Terminology in Health Care

The Health Care Industry, idealistically is a large conglomeration of helping individuals and organizations who's sole purpose is to help people become more healthy, be that through prevention of disease or treatment of disease. Yet, it is known among nearly all health care professionals and almost all people who have ever been treated in the health care industry, even in the most minor way, which includes nearly all of the population, that the "Health Care Industry" is just that, an industry. This industry is governed by profit and loss just as any other; possibly even more so in the sense that the more loss there is the less people can be helped.

Over the past fifty years, as technology expands and costs rise there has been a noticeable change in health care delivery, for better and for worse most would say.

Change in the United…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2001 International Conference and Exhibition on Health Facility Planning, Design and Construction "Shaping the business of health care" Feb2001 Health Facilities

Management 14/2 PG. 12-13.

CDC Report "Average hospital stays shorter" June 2003 Case Management Advisor, 14/6 pg. S1.

L. Chordas "Risky business: health-care risk managers are focusing more on the business side of organizations and assuming more responsibility for insurance." April 2004
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Surrealism and Fashion

Words: 2277 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7984272

romanticism of man with imagination and the curiosity to attach meaning to inanimate objects spills over in many forms- dreams, art, literature, and of late pervades the space in commercial forms like films, advertisements, fashion exhibitions etc. Surrealism has enamored and consequently influenced intellectual and academic pursuits in the past in all fields- social behavior, politics, religion and culture. The import of psychological realms and psychoanalysis on surrealism has been multivariate. Key historical figures- Marx, Freud, Dadi have shaped surrealism since the beginning of the twentieth century. In modern times, fashion and clothing make use of surrealism to evoke extreme emotions by way of animating the inanimate as well as pushing the subjects (inanimate and women) to the limits of obscenity (over-consumption) and grotesque. An analysis of the travel of surrealism through the times shows that the original concepts continue to have an impact on the thought that goes behind…… [Read More]


-- -- . (2015b). The Art Story. Accessed April 20. .

"Surrealism Movement, Artists and Major Works." (2015a). The Art Story. Accessed April 20.
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Social Changes for the American Family Today

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31106690

Social Changes for the American Family: Today and in 10 Years

The next ten years will see a greater variation in the structure of families and marriages, with much greater variations and flexibility than has ever been the case in the past. This will be primarily driven by the recognition that children, regardless of the composition of a family unit, need the structure and stability of long-term relationships at the adult level of stabilize their emotional maturation

(Milot, 2001). This shift to as much greater tolerance of marriage structures in addition to a questioning of consumerism, and if economic conditions continue to be turbulent, anti-consumerism, will mark the next ten years. The American family will shift from the prototypical nuclear family definition to one marked by more of a polyglot of roles, responsibilities and lifestyles (Milot, 2001).

Analysis of the American Family Today and in Ten Years

Clearly the economic…… [Read More]


Ali, A.J., & Wisniesk, J.M. (2010). Consumerism and ethical attitudes: An empirical study. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 3(1), 36-46.

Milot, L. (2001). Restitching the american marital quilt: Untangling marriage from the nuclear family. Virginia Law Review, 87(4), 701-728.

Perrone, K.M., & Worthington, Everett L.,,Jr. (2001). Factors influencing ratings of marital quality by individuals within dual-career marriages: A conceptual model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(1), 3-9.