Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Contemporary History Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

History Painting
Words: 997 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88220131
Read Full Paper  ❯

Artistic works are often referenced in categorized by their particular genre or style. For example, in painting there are a number of different genres such as Abstract, Impressionism, Modernism etc. (Harrison, 2009). The term "history paintings" or sometimes called "historical paintings" refers to a particular genre of painting where the genre is defined by the subject matter as opposed to the artistic style of painting (Wolfflin, 2012). The distinction between "history paintings" and "historical paintings" is a fine one; however, historical paintings are typically considered to be scenes from secular history, whereas history paintings can include depictions from history, mythology, or can simply contain allegorical material. Thus, most of the works of art that would be classified as his store coal paintings most likely are subsets of history; however, history paintings are not limited to the depiction of historical scenes. The term "history painting" has been traced back to the…

References

Harrison, C. (2009). An introduction to art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Mitchell, W.J. (2005). There are no visual media. Journal of Visual Culture,4 (2), 257-266.

Wolfflin, H. (2012). Principles of art history. Mineola, NY: Courier.

History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization
Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 16341967
Read Full Paper  ❯

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.

History of Africa
Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88645817
Read Full Paper  ❯

Harmony to Holocaust

The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the…

References

Beard, Oscar L. "Did We Sell Each Other Into Slavery." Hartford-Hwp.com Web Site.

24 May 1999. 5 May 2003. http://www.hargord-hwp.com/archives/30/145.html.

Hooker, Richard. "The Forest Kingdoms." Washington State University Web Site. 6

June 1999 5 May 2003. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/FOREST.htm

History of the World in 6 Glasses Compare and Contrast 3 Drinks
Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16705836
Read Full Paper  ❯

Histories of the orld in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage

'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and…

Works Cited

Standage, Tom. The History of the World in Six Glasses. New York: Walker & Co., 2005.

History of the Areas of
Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93612485
Read Full Paper  ❯

It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.

Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).

The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…

History of the Rosicrucian Order
Words: 5816 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46875287
Read Full Paper  ❯



ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…

References

Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.

Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian

Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,

1985. Print.

History of the Modern Era
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28715355
Read Full Paper  ❯

The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.

In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…

History of Communication
Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37691919
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Communication Timeline

TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION

(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.

Wikipedia.org

History of Construction Technology Time
Words: 6960 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 51255638
Read Full Paper  ❯

It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .

The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…

History of American Law Enforcement
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 474698
Read Full Paper  ❯



During the first era of American policing, constitutional standards of criminal procedure including formal policies of arrest, interrogation, evidence procurement, and the treatment of prisoners was substantially subject to local authorities and varied tremendously from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (Conlon, 2004; Scmalleger, 2008). So-called "street justice" was routinely administered by police officers either in conjunction with arrest or (more commonly) in lieu of formal arrest, mainly because it was more convenient for officers and considered more effective at motivating lawful compliance among career criminals (Conlon, 2004).

Contemporary American Policing

In terms of organizational structure, the modern era of American policing had already evolved by the early 20th century, but the industry would still have to endure the limitations of widespread political corruption and cronyism left over from the scandals such as the infamous Tammany Hall dynamics in 19th century New York City politics. Subsequently, the consequences of the Prohibition era would…

Bibliography

Conlon, E. (2004). Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead.

Johnson, B. "A Look at Fusion Centers: Working Together to Protect America." FBI

Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 76, No.12 (2007).

Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

History of Art Italian Painters
Words: 305 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41651563
Read Full Paper  ❯

On the contrary, Giotto di Bondone had been a revolutionary, as he seemed to be determined to desert long-standing concepts in favor of newer, and more evolved ones.

Byzantine paintings have a general tendency to represent scenes from a two-dimensional perspective, and, most probably, in order to compensate with the lack of spatial depth, they use a greater number of details. In Giotto's Christ Entering Jerusalem, viewers feel as if they are part of the painting, with the painter's desire to involve three-dimensionality into his painting being obvious. Also, the painter simplified the painting by abandoning complexity and focusing on the essential. Duccio, on the other hand, has involved much more details in his portrayal of Christ Entering Jerusalem. Regardless of the attention paid by Duccio to details, his painting lacks realism, viewers being able to observe that the figures in it appear to be floating.

History of Racism and the
Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5709741
Read Full Paper  ❯

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…

References

Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24

Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52

Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at  http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005

History Naval Warfare What Was Naval Power
Words: 2454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74689093
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Naval Warfare

What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?

"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…

BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]

Conclusion

The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.

Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.

Endnotes

History of Egyptian and Mayan Writing Egyptian
Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37558866
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing

Egyptian writing

The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.

Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.

Smith, Tony)

Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…

Bibliography

Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004.  http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm 

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004.  http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm 

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004.  http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm

History of Capital Punishment Background
Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59110716
Read Full Paper  ❯

and, that do to so would contradict Judeo-Christian values of morality (Wilson, 2009). Additionally, opponents of the death penalty note that there is no evidence that lethal punishment has any effect whatsoever on whether or not criminals will commit a murder; and, that retribution here does not help to bring about closure. ather, it perpetuates the underlying violence and had a tendency to bring about more anger as opposed to peace. In the words of Jesuit Priest and Community Professor, aymond a. Schroth, S.J., "It [capital punishment] contaminates the otherwise good will which any human being needs to progress in love and understanding" (Schroth, 2008). Thus, capital punishment as a means to provide retribution for families fails to take into consideration the immense toll that the process of putting another human being puts another under.

In addition to the foregoing reasons against capital punishment, a review of the implementation of…

References

America's Tug of War over Sanctioned Death. (2009, September 9). Retrieved from Random House.

Banks, Cyndi. 2005. Punishment in America. Contemporary World Issues. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Banner, Stuart. 2002. The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.

Budziszewski, J. (2004). Capital punishment: The case for justice. Journal of Government and Philosophy. Retrieved from University of Texas at Austin.

History of Satan Since the
Words: 4478 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21876124
Read Full Paper  ❯

These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).

This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.

Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…

Works Cited

Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html

Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.

Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.

History of the World in
Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1853217
Read Full Paper  ❯

Anyone can virtually make wine out of grapes. The quality of the grapes is the first and most important feature in the wine production and only after that are there other factors involved that influence the final product.

Standage considers the first distinction between Eastern and Western thught and civilization closely linked to the attitude the two cultures from two opposite regions of the globe had when it came to wine consuming. While Greeks drank wine at formal parties, making it more a part of a ritual destined to loosen tongues and relax while sharpening the minds and setting imagination loose, the Persians, mostly drank beer as a part of their nourishment and even when they drank wine, it was not for intellectual purposes of for the pleasure of savoring it, but more as a display of wealth and power, as it was the case mentioned before. Based on such…

Like, beer, the wine was nourishment, the beverage for feasts, celebrations and intellectual gatherings, but also an element of religious rituals and even medicine. As alcoholic beverage on the table of the poor and rich alike it is still praised for its benefits just as it is blamed for the destruction of families and the perversion of whole societies that fell its victim. It is, of course, not the wine, but the human nature, subject to greed and sometimes the victim of its own inability to keep moderation in sight at all times.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

McGovern, P. Ancient Wine: the Search for the Origins of Viniculture. 2003. Princeton University Press. Princeton Historical Timeline. Georgian Spring. A Magnum Journal. Retrieved; Oct 18, 2009. Available at: http://www.georgianspring.com/timeline.php

History of America Through 1877
Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 27861139
Read Full Paper  ❯

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had…

History of Landscape Patterns
Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 80446079
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Landscape Patterns

Although historical ecology remains a relatively recent conceptualization, it provides a useful framework in which to understand the relationship between the historic uses to which terrain has been placed and its modern applications (Balee, 1999). The research to date in this area has focused in part on the history of landscape patterns. For instance, Balee reports that, "The concept of landscape, above all, seems paramount in historical ecology. These usages, when comprehended technically, facilitate a more holistic (and therefore more accurate and empirically sound) analysis of human ecology" (1999, p. 1). This point is also made by Swetnam, Allen, and Betancourt (1999) who discuss historical ecology and the importance of knowing the history of a landscape when making contemporary management decisions concerning new applications. In this regard, Swetnam and his associates note that, "Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of…

References

Balee, W. (1999). Advances in historical ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veglen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997). Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78(3), 678-692.

In Mendeley. Retrieved from  http://www.mendeley.com/research/blowdown-history-and-landscape-patterns-in-the-andes-of-tierra-del-fuego-argentina-1/ .

Swetnam, T.W., Allen, C.D. & Betancourt, J.L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage the future. Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1189 -- 1206.

History of Punishment Critically Assess
Words: 4559 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95135347
Read Full Paper  ❯

Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).

Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…

References

Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,

pp. 125-146.

Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel

Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.

History of Social Psychology Past and Future
Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12479081
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions

The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…

References

Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Allport, F. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Allport, G.W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17c 18c
Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13465288
Read Full Paper  ❯

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C

This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.

Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…

References

Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners

Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.

Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

History of the Early National
Words: 1208 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72452668
Read Full Paper  ❯



Aside from the practical considerations provided by the system which split the federal and local authorities, there was also the matter of the limitation of powers. In this sense, the central government was built in such a manner as to express the boundaries of the influence even the elected office representatives had on the particular issues concerning each state. Thus, the Congress and the House of epresentatives were established and these institutions came to represent the essence of the American epublicanism and democracy.

Despite these revolutionary ideals, the interpretation of the epublican creed came to be associated with the industrial aspects of the economy. As the country began to flourish and the economic development came to be associated more and more with the industrial revolution, so did the epublican political thought. The issue related to the taxation without representation and the subsequent debates that emerged gave way to an increasingly…

References

Appleby, Joyce. Republicanism and Ideology. American Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 4, Republicanism in the History and Historiography of the United States. (Autumn, 1985), pp. 461-473.

Mcgurk, John. "A New Look at Civic Republicanism." Contemporary Review, Vol. 283, October 2003.

Slaughter, Thomas P. The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

History of Human Services
Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31976697
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Human Services

When the Kalamazoo Foundation began in 1925, the welfare state in the U.S. was minimal, and on the federal level almost nonexistent. Problems of poverty, hunger, racism, unemployment, and inadequate education were largely left to the start and local levels to be dealt with by private charities and religious organizations. This only changed with the expansion of the federal safety net during the New Deal of the 1930s and the Great Society of the 1960s, although it has been contracting again over the last thirty years. During the Progressive Era of 1900-20 and into the next decade, civic-minded philanthropists and capitalists often took the lead in dealing with the social and economic problems of urban, industrial America, among them Dr. W.E. Upjohn, founder of Upjohn Pharmaceuticals. In addition to donating the first $1,000 in stock to establish the Kalamazoo Foundation, Upjohn also founded Bronson Methodist Hospital,…

REFERENCES

Kalamazoo Community Foundation (2011). The Lifeline Initiative.

 http://www.kalfound.org/AboutUs/AbouttheCommunityFoundation/tabid/259/Default.aspx   http://www.kalfound.org/InitiativesImpact/OurInitiatives/LifelineInitiative/tabid/247/Default.aspx 

Miller-Adams, M. (2009). The Power of a Promise: Education and Economic Revival in Kalamazoo. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Rakstis, T.J. (1967). "Grass Roots Philanthropy." The Rotarian, March 1967, pp. 34-37.

History of Economics the Way
Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20653031
Read Full Paper  ❯

These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.

Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…

References

Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001

Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004

Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, http://www.philosophy-101.com/2007/06/29/aristotles-view-on-wealth-acquisition/last accessed on February 4, 2009

Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, http://www.businessbookmall.com/Economics_3_Basic_Characteristics_of_Capitalism.html. Ast accessed on February 4, 2009

History of Multicultural Psychology History
Words: 2799 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68026623
Read Full Paper  ❯

It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).

Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…

References

Adams, J.Q. & Welsch, J.R. (2009). Multiculturalism: The Manifest Destiny of the U.S.A.: An

Interview With Ronald Takaki. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(4), 227 -- 231

American Psychological Association (2012). Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in

The New Century. American Psychological Association: 1-18

History of Construction Technology of
Words: 4755 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 70233119
Read Full Paper  ❯

One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).

The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…

References

Derry, T.K. And Williams, T.I. A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to a.D. 1900. Oxford University Press. New York. 1961. Chapter 5.

Sttraub H. A History of Civil Engineering. (Eng. trans. By E. Rockwell). Hill, London, 1952.

Edwards I.E.S the Pyramids of Egypt. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1950.

Toy, S. A History of Fortification from 3000 B.C. To a.D. 1700. Heinemann, London, 1955.

History of Psychology and Hysteria 1
Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95011493
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Psychology and Hysteria

Hysteria, symbolize women in the field of psychology during history and in many different cultures for the reason that the issues that society goes through are reflected in the area of psychology. Hysteria has been broken down into various parts in history that had to change influences on the diagnosis and its implication for women. History has shown that parallel patterns can be observed in the growth of menstruation and sexuality. Hysteria is unquestionably the first mental disorder attributable to women, precisely labeled in the second era BC. This was until Freud looked at it as being an entirely female illness. Above 4000 years of history, this syndrome was reflected from two viewpoints which were the scientific point-of-view and the demonological standpoint.

What is Hysteria?

esearch shows that Hysteria was the ?rst psychological disorder that was labeled at women. This condition is known for having…

References

Pearson, C. (2016, March 12). Female Hysteria: 7 Crazy Things People Used To Believe About The Ladies' Disease. Retrieved from ***

(1).pdf

History of Construction of 10
Words: 7023 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 9752980
Read Full Paper  ❯



The earliest divisions of the temple still standing are the barque chapels, just in the rear the first pylon. They were constructed by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The central division of the temple, the colonnade and the sun court were constructed by Amenhotep III, and a later on addition by Rameses II, who constructed the entry pylon, and the two obelisks connected the Hatshepsut structures with the core temple. To the back of the temple are chapels constructed by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander. During the Roman age, the temple and its environment were a legionary fortress and the residence of the Roman government in the region (Johnson, 1988).

There was a girdle wall constructed around the temple that was made up of self-sufficient massifs of sun-dried brick adjoining at their ends, constructed of courses set on a triple arrangement that ran concave horizontal concave. The gate through which…

Works Cited

"Ancient Babylonia - the Ishtar Gate."n.d., viewed 14 November 2010,

"Ancient Egypt Brought to Life With Virtual Model of Historic Temple Complex." 2009, viewed 14 November 2010,

"Babylon and the Ishtar Gate." 2010, viewed 14 November,

Andrews, Mark. 2010. "Luxor Temple of Thebes in Egypt," viewed 14 November 2010,

History of Women in Law
Words: 2227 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66426936
Read Full Paper  ❯

"y the end of the 1980s many departments had set up detailed procedures to ensure equality and had employed full-time and specialist staff to promote and pursue such policies." (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 60)

The number of females in law enforcement was to increase rapidly and in 1986 about 9 per cent of U.S. officers were female. (Adler 1990) One of the key issues that had to be overcome was the concern about women policemen on patrol. In 1968 "Indianapolis sent two women out on patrol... ut the decision of Washington, DC to deploy eighty-six women on patrol in 1972, and to evaluate their performance, is perhaps the best-known example." LOCH P, and ANDERSON D., et al. 1973)

With these advances of women's rights and the continual evidence of female ability and accomplishment in the field of law enforcement, women were able to apply for all specialist posts in the Unites…

Bibliography

ADLER Z. (1990), a Fairer Cop, U.S. Police Record on Equal Opportunities, Wainwright Trust Study Tour Report No. 1 (Wainwright Trust: London).

BLOCH P., and ANDERSON D., et al. (1973), Policewomen on Patrol: Major Findings: First Report, (Police Foundation: Washington, DC)

Baksys G. Montrose names first woman as police chief. Retrieved 16 December from Daily Gate City.  http://www.dailygate.com/articles/2004/11/17/news/news2.txt 

FEINMAN C. (1986), Women in the Criminal Justice system (2nd edn., Praeger: New York).

History of Dada Art Movement
Words: 2082 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28092106
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Dada Art Movement

There is a long list of movements that were begun for the sake of art, for instance cubism and surrealism. These two movements experienced grave criticism as they touched nihillism. On the other hand, movements like Dada have been admired and honored by the majorities (Mobileeference).

If truth be told, the early 20th century brought a turbulent and disorderly change in the world. The First World War and the ussian evolution tainted people's understanding of their worlds in an overwhelming manner. This new mind set of people was strongly reflected in the early twentieth century art movements as well. They were all, if seen in technical terms, were boldly modern and groundbreaking. In order to look into and explore the structure of realization, these movements moved further than the unruffled surface of traditional painting. However, perhaps Dada must be looked for its most compelling explorations…

References

"Dada." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

Duchamp, M. "The Richard Mutt Case." Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Eds. Kristine Stiles, Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California, 1996. 817. Print.

Essak, S.. "Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23)." About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 24 Apr 2012. .

Hopkins, David. Dada and Surrealism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .

History of Rhetoric and Rhetorical
Words: 5731 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22191044
Read Full Paper  ❯

hile these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly, and more importantly, they actually do not provide much insight into the uses of rhetoric, because Aristotle implicitly inserts an ethics into his discussion of rhetoric that precludes it from having as robust an application to the real world as would be desired, due to the fact that rhetoric does not equally "target the emotional and rational attitudes and convictions" of the audience (Martina 567). In particular, Aristotle's theory suffers from assumptions regarding human beings receptivity to logic and a belief that rhetoric is ultimately "a means of attaining truth and knowledge" (Hugenberg 1). In fact, rhetoric is more often than not deployed as a means of avoiding or otherwise obscuring the truth, and but Aristotle's moralizing attitude precludes him from effectively…

Works Cited

Archer, Lauren Renel. "The Rightful Place of Science: Understanding the Intersection of Rhetoric, Politics, and Science in President Obama's First 100 Days." Communication,

2010. United States -- Colorado: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT).

Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 1. 29-53.

Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 2. 118-191.

History of Food in Germany
Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39277390
Read Full Paper  ❯

History of German cuisine is one that links diet with culture and region: food ever follows function in the history of the Germanic people. hether due to region, custom, or contact with others, the German culture has seen a distinct cuisine emerge from its heritage and history. Historical events are responsible for bringing about certain fare. For instance, because of the scarcity of cream in Germany in the Middle Ages, bread was used as a binding ingredient in sauces, and baking itself served a culture significance for Germans throughout the centuries (from the use of bread in Christianity to the pagan heritage use of bread) culminating in the special decorative braiding and twisting of the dough (as seen in Bavarian pretzels) designed as a special treat. In other cases, geography is important in the cuisine that developed in particular regions (the ales in the North for example). This paper will…

Works Cited

Davidson, Alan. National and Regional Styles of Cookery. UK: Prospect Books, 1981.

Print.

Heinzelmann, Ursula. Beyond Bratwurst: A History of Food in Germany. UK:

Reaktion Books, 2014. Print.

American Religious History Defining Fundamentalism and Liberalism
Words: 2705 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82017601
Read Full Paper  ❯

American Religious History

Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…

WORKS CITED

Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.

Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.

Contemporary India
Words: 2543 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89729857
Read Full Paper  ❯

Women Status Contemporary India

The Status and ole of Women in Contemporary India

The women in contemporary India have a very significant role as they fulfill crucial responsibilities in almost every sector including family life, agricultural development and industrial development. However, it is unfortunate that such contributions have remained mostly indistinguishable to the planners and policy makers due to which the Indian women have always experienced an unstable status in the country. Even in this modern era of science and technology, women in India are still considered a disadvantaged group as there has been no change in the conventional structure of society as well as cultural and moral standards (Chakrapani and Kumar, 1994).

In addition, a majority of women are still unaware of the social laws that have been designed to alleviate the problems women face in the society. As a consequence, distressed situations influence Indian women more than Indian…

References

Berman, B.J., Bhargava, R., & Laliberte?, A. (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. Vancouver: UBC Press. Print.

Chakrapani, C., & Kumar, S.V. (1994).Changing Status and Role of Women in Indian Society. New Delhi: MD Publications. Print.

Chowdhuri, J.P. (2012). Caste System, Social Inequalities and Reservation Policy in India: Class, Caste, Social Policy and Governance Through Social Justice. Saarbru-cken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. Print.

Jain, T.R., & Ohri, V.K. (2006). Indian Economy: Issues in Economic Development and Planning in India and Sectoral Aspects of Indian Economy. New Delhi: V.K. Publications. Print.

History of Discrimination in the United States
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77758358
Read Full Paper  ❯

History of Discrimination in the United States

Discrimination

The Europeanization of North America

Greater than 99% of the population of the United States originated from another country, having immigrated here between the time of Christopher Columbus' arrival and the present day (Spickard, 2007, p. 4). Despite estimates that suggest close to five million Native Americans were living on land that would eventually become the United States in 1492, diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, and cholera wiped out an estimated 95% of this demographic at a relatively rapid pace, thus helping to pave the way for European immigration into North America (Spickard, 2007, pp. 36-37).

The earliest permanent (successful) white settlements included the Spanish in the southwestern territories that would become Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, and on the east coast in Florida (Spickard, 2007, pp. 37-40). The primary goal of the Spanish settlements was economic, but this was not…

References

Hagy, J.W. (1991). Mosquitoes, leeches and medicine in Charleston, South Carolina (1670-1861). Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 2, 65-68.

Min, Pyong Gap. (2002). Mass migration to the United States: Classical and contemporary periods. New York: Altamira Press.

Spickard, Paul. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identiy. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Fancis Group

U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). National Population by Race, United States: 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/.

History of Crime Measurement as Well as
Words: 3197 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52358775
Read Full Paper  ❯

history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.

The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…

References

Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from  http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/advantages.shtml 

Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from  http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=brRgAYhyhsoC&pg=PA82&dq=NIBRS+limitations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0R0MUZePBs7Y4QTogoCQAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NIBRS%20limitations&f=false 

Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from  http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf 

Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from  http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-Z_xfTn1hT8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+Methods+for+Criminal+Justice+and+Criminology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McwOUfO7PLCV0QXx0oDIBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA

History of the Future Strathern
Words: 3036 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 34895497
Read Full Paper  ❯

This became an age in which visionary thinkers said, "see, we told you so," and were able to garner additional support from not only the activist type, but the regular citizen.

Talking Points

Malthusian dynamics (overpopulation and resource allocation) became a focus of futurists. Marshall McLuhan, for one, combined futuristic predictions with analysis of global media and advertising trends.

Noam Chomsky was revolutionizing the idea of linguistics as a way to view our innate cultural mechanisms.

Science fiction writers like Clarke, Asimov, and Lem pushed the boundaries of science as far as possible -- insisting that the reader ask very difficult questions about what it truly means to be human, what it truly means to have conservatorship of a planet, and whether or not we have the wisdom to maintain life on earth as we know it.

Chapter 6 -- Fast Forward

Arthur C. Clarke made an interesting remark about…

History Reconstruction
Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63271952
Read Full Paper  ❯

Reconstruction a splendid failure?

The Reconstruction period after the Civil ar was a time when America attempted to rebuild the structures and things that had been lost during the war. However, the reconstruction was not only about building the building again, but was about rebuilding and redefining I American values. The entire economic structure and socioeconomic culture was to be re-defined. America had to rediscover itself and many of the institutions that it had held dear had to be reexamined. Some consider the Reconstruction Period to be one of the most splendid failures in American History. They content that the Civil ar did nothing to raise the economic or political status of the black person or other minorities. It also contends that the Reconstruction was a miserable failure on the part of industry as well.

One of the key issues surrounding the Civil ar was the issue of slavery. There…

Works Cited

Foner, Eric. "Rights and the Constitution in Black Life during the Civil War and Reconstruction," Journal of American History (December 1987), 74:3. Pp. 863-83.

Foner, Eric. ed., The New American History. rev. ed., Temple, 1997.

Foner, Eric. "Slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction," in Foner, The New American History.

A rev. ed., Temple, 1997.

History of Americanization Through Benjamin Franklin
Words: 1609 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22007091
Read Full Paper  ❯

Americanization of Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin played a major role in the American evolution and its history and his contributions changed the history of America as we know it.

One of the most interesting and influential characters in American history is Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was a brilliant man that contributed deeply to both the scientific and political community. Much of what there is to know about his life can be found in Gordon S. Wood's book titled "The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin." The purpose of this paper is to examine the life of Benjamin Franklin through the provided text in order to answer these significant questions:

How come Benjamin Franklin was an unlikely revolutionary?

What caused Franklin to join the revolution?

How can we compare and contrast Franklin's mythology with his reality?

Franklin Preferred London to Philadelphia and royal governments to democracy, why?

How come American colonists were suspicious of…

References"

1) Wood, G. (2004). The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. Penguin Books.

History of Mosaic Art A
Words: 1096 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74418537
Read Full Paper  ❯

Roman mosaics were more frequently used to adorn the floors, and thus used less glass, gold, and elaborate materials. Perhaps the most famous Byzantine mosaics are those found in the Hagia Sophia, the most famous church in Eastern Christianity. On the South Gallery or Catechumena is displayed a depiction of Christ, Mary, and St. John the Baptist known as the Deesis. Christ's "face is strikingly realistic and expressive…All [figures] are set against a golden background" ("Byzantine art," Art Lex, 2010). Of almost equal fame are the glittering, gold mosaics of Ravenna's holy buildings. "Ravenna's most famous Byzantine mosaics are of an emperor, his empress and their retinues. On one wall of the choir of San Vitale in Ravenna, built for Justinian and consecrated in AD 547, the emperor stands with crown and a golden halo" (Gascoigne 2001). Although the ostensible purpose of the structure is a holy one, the Emperor…

Works Cited

"Byzantine art." Art Lex. May 6, 2010. http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/b/byzantine.html

Gascoigne, Bamber. "History of mosaic." History World. 2001. May 6, 2010.

 http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac36 

"History of mosaic art." Joy of Shards. 2008. May 6, 2010.

History of the League of Women Voters
Words: 4175 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19333396
Read Full Paper  ❯

history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.

The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…

Bibliography

A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005..  http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/ 

Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:

The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.

History Mercy International Centre Dublin Catherine Mcauley
Words: 1959 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90960019
Read Full Paper  ❯

history Mercy International Centre Dublin Catherine McAuley . ( http://www.mercyinternational. ) A history significance Jonathan Swift St. Patricks Cathedral Dublin ( http://www.stpatrickscathedral. ) A synopsis Kilmainham Jail, years functioning description peat bogs Ireland, (significance) The Famine Memorial Dublin ~ established built? Connemara marble churches Ireland? A explanation current political system Ireland .

The Mercy International Centre in Dublin is the hallmark of the mercy mission and its background is essential in providing people with a better understanding of the principles that help build this type of ideology. The building's architecture is not necessarily special, but it compensates through its history and through the intense feelings that numerous people coming here experienced. hile being acquainted with its history a person is very probable to look at it very different from how he or she would have been inclined to perceive it in the beginning.

The building came to function as a…

Works cited:

Cunningham, L. Reich, J. "Culture and Values, Volume II: A Survey of the Humanities with Readings," (Cengage Learning, 16 Jan 2009)

"Brief History of the Peat Industry in Ireland," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from  http://www.heartland.ie/articles/brief-history-peat-industry-ireland 

"Famine Memorial," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from  http://www.discoverireland.ie/Arts-Culture-Heritage/famine-memorial/31500 

"Galway Cathedral," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from  http://www.dochara.com/places-to-visit/galway-cathedral/

History of Huey P Long
Words: 4624 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 53698843
Read Full Paper  ❯

The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment

. This became known as "loody Monday." This time, Long's bullying tactics did not work.

Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office

. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed. Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well

. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…

Bibliography

Andrews, James and Zarefsky, David. American Voices: Significant Speeches in American history 1640-1945. (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1989.)

Authier, Philip. Duplessis, warts and all. 22 May 1999. Wednesday-Night. Available from  http://www.wednesday-night.com/Duplessis.asp . Internet: accessed 29 September 2008.

Botting, Gary. Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. (Calgary, Alta: University of Calgary Press. 1993).

Corner, Richard. The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996).

History of Music
Words: 3511 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98767640
Read Full Paper  ❯

Cool Jazz

A Brief History of Cool Jazz

December 6, 2012, would have marked the ninety-second birthday of pianist Dave Brubeck. The nonagenarian was looking forward to performing at the Palace Theater near his home in aterbury, Connecticut. Sadly, Brubeck died of heart failure just one day shy of the celebratory concert. The concert went on as scheduled, but it was a memorial rather than a birthday party. It is what Brubeck would have wanted. Brubeck was one of the originators of a jazz style that became known as "cool jazz." He was a brilliant pianist who loved to experiment with rhythms and instrumentation in ensemble work. Brubeck never stopped innovating over his long career during which he composed symphonies, classical and religious music, ballets and film scores He valued musical integrity over commercial reward. "You never know what's going to work," he said. "You just go with what you…

Works Cited

Dave Brubeck Quartet. 1961. YouTube. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. .

Dryden, Ken. "Take five: The public and private lives of Paul Desmond." All About Jazz.

2 Feb. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.  http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=17894 >.

History of Project Management in
Words: 9431 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 93486490
Read Full Paper  ❯

A more definitive explanation is; "... A proposed explanation for a phenomenon." (Scientific Reference) a hypothesis should be able to be tested and functions as a directive for further research.

In my research study for example, the hypothesis that was explored was that certain circumstances in different historical periods affect the development of the areas of expertise and their application to project activities. These circumstances include social and cultural movements; the development of scientific and technical knowledge, among others. This hypothesis provides the incentive for further research and determines to a large extent the direction or trajectory of the research outcomes.

5. Explain briefly why applied research instead of basic research will typically be done in industry and commerce, and describe two examples of applied research

The answer to this question becomes clear when the looks the difference between basic and applied research. Basic research is theoretical and is aimed…

What Is Scientific Knowledge? Web.

What is the difference between observation and measurements?

Web.

contemporary art 21st century asia
Words: 1566 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47954456
Read Full Paper  ❯

Modern art in the Asia-Pacific region reflects the rapidly changing geo-political landscapes, as well as becoming increasingly integrated into architecture and urban planning. In the Asia-Pacific region, the art of the 21st century can be large scale and includes ambitious installation projects as well as graphic art, graffiti, and urban art. Although influenced by European trends like abstraction and surrealism, the art of the Asia-Pacific region is dedicated to communicating a localized aesthetic. Contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region can also be politically powerful, designed to make statements. In some cases, art has become a critical component of social justice and communications. The work of Ai Weiwei reflects the fusion of art with politics at critical junctures. In Japan and Korea, political statements were less concerned about protests against governmental institutions and more about gender and oppression in general. Throughout the 20th century, Korean art aimed to celebrate the history…

history and context of the tao de ching lao tzu
Words: 1797 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42321701
Read Full Paper  ❯

Tao de Ching is one of the most influential and important philosophical texts in human history. Attributed to Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu between 500 and 400 BCE, the teachings contained within the Tao de Ching have become collectively known as Taoism. The term "tao" or "dao" is usually translated straightforwardly as "the way," but the entire title of the text Tao de Ching may refer to a cluster of concepts including "the way of integrity" (Walter 1) or the "way and its power," ("Lao Tzu: The Father of Taoism," 1). Knierim points out that the term "ching" means scripture, and the term "te" means both strength and virtue. Thus, Tao de Ching does refer to a scriptural text about the way or path of strength and virtue. The Tao de Ching is not a narrative text, but a prescriptive one written as short verses containing wisdom quips and advice for…

History of Management Accounting
Words: 2266 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30844540
Read Full Paper  ❯

history of Management Accounting in a ten-page paper and review product costing, investment analysis and organizational performance evaluation over the past 150 years.

Read Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting and reference four other articles that describe the evolution of Management Accounting.

This paper examines the role of management accounting over the years as a system for determining an organization's performance and profitability. This paper further analyses the evolution of certain management accounting practices and their role in global competition and productivity.

Today's management accounting information, driven by procedures and the cycle of the organization's financial reporting system, is too late, too aggregated, and too distorted to be relevant for managers' planning and control decisions.

"In attempting to understand the genesis and scope of modern cost and management accounting systems, accounting historians adopting what has been labeled as a "Foucauldian" approach have been rewriting the history of…

HYPERLINK http://www.acct.tamu.edu?

www.acct.tamu.edu?, "A Short History of Accounting"

Dan R. Hansen & Maryanne M. Maven, Management Accounting, 5th Ed., Oklahoma State University

History of Organized Crime in the US
Words: 4392 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65336839
Read Full Paper  ❯

Org Crime

Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…

References

Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth

Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.

Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.

Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961

History of Christianity in Romania
Words: 1598 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74557595
Read Full Paper  ❯

history of Christianity within the country of Romania goes back to such a degree that the foundation of the country itself is often linked with its Christian theology. "By 360 Dacia was a part of Christendom. "

Miller 28) The foundation of the country is to some degree synonymous with its theology, known today to be largely Orthodox.

Romania occupies, roughly, ancient Dacia, which was a Roman province in the 2D and 3D cent. A.D.; The ethnic character of modern Romania seems to have been formed in the Roman period; Christianity was introduced at that time as well. After the Romans left the region, the area was overrun successively by the Goths, the Huns, the Avars, the Bulgars, and the Magyars.

("Romania ")

Romania itself has a rough history of imperial rule and bloody tyranny, yet to some degree each successive conqueror was exposed to if not converted to Christianity…

Works Cited

Alecse, Rev. Fr. Constantin "News, Views, Community Announcements" The Christian Life 2001 Vol. 44 / Issues1-3 Retrieved May, 15, 2004 at:  http://biserica.org/Publicatii/2001/NoI/XV_index.html .  http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001871459

Bria, Ion. "Evangelism, Proselytism, and Religious Freedom in Romania: An Orthodox Point-of-View." Journal of Ecumenical Studies (1999): 163. Questia. 19 May 2004

History and Development of Sound Technologies and Sound Design in Film
Words: 11249 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 80180588
Read Full Paper  ❯

sound technologies and sound design in Film

Sound in films

Experiments in Early Age

Developments

Crucial innovations

Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan

Sound Design

Unified sound in film production

Sound designers in Cinematography

Sound Recording Technologies

History of Sound Recording Technology

Film sound technology

Modern Digital Technology

History of sound in films

Developments

Sound Design

Sound Recording Technologies

The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…

Bibliography:

Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.

Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.

Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.

Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.

History Islam
Words: 1503 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97834923
Read Full Paper  ❯

Islam

The Ottoman Empire itself was a colonial entity, creating the illusion of cultural unification under the rubric of Islam. Yet beneath the surface uniformity, there were vast differences in ethnicity, worldview, and beliefs. The weakening of the Ottoman Empire toward the end of the modern era created opportunities for European colonial powers to divide and conquer, ruling mainly from afar but also imposing the modern nation-state construct as the new normative vision for geo-political entities. Many Islamic nation-states did, and continue to, see their membership in a broader nation of Islam as trumping nationalism.

However, the method by which colonial European powers managed former Ottoman colonies has determined much of the 21st century's political landscape. There were also vast differences in methods and policies toward Islamic colonies, as France, Britain, and Italy had different political agendas. This can be seen throughout Africa and the Middle East, even today. Esposito…

References

Esposito, J. (1999). The Oxford History of Islam.

PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ub5Ng8MMiH4  Part 1 and Part 2