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One of the first lessons that nearly every one of us learns is that it is important to share. We are told to share our snacks with our fellow kindergarteners and to share our toys with visiting cousins. We are told to share the dinner table conversation and our good wishes. And these admonitions are generally cross-cultural: Different cultures and different religious traditions all ask that their members act generously in the world or that they cannot consider themselves to be good people.
But what is it that we are ethically obligated to share? Certainly anything that we can live without that does not harm another living creature. We must share food unless we or those under our care are starving. We must donate blood in times of crisis unless to do so would harm us. We must offer water to those who are laboring in the sun,…
Coral reefs [...] their status, purpose, and benefit to the environment. Coral reefs serve a vital purpose in the ocean's ecological balance. eefs provide substantial benefits to the ocean's ecosystem, to their populations, and to man. They provide stunning tourist opportunities, chemicals used in medical research, and protection for vulnerable beaches and islands during storms. Saving the coral reefs of the world is of vital importance, and more effort should be made to save and rebuild reefs that have been damaged by time and man's influence.
Coral reefs are found in most tropical zones of the planet, and they must have an annual water temperature of at least 74 degrees Fahrenheit to survive, and they typically do best in shallow water, where sunlight can reach them (Ekman 4-6). eefs are extremely beneficial to their environment because of the varied and abundant life forms that populate the reefs. They…
Chepesiuk, Ron. "Stressed Reefs May Get Relief." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.9 (2000).
"Coral Reefs." The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. 2000.
Ekman, Sven. Zoogeography of the Sea. Trans. Palmer, Elizabeth. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1953.
Potera, Carol. "Is Sewage Destroying Coral?." Environmental Health Perspectives 111.4 (2003): 207.
Pollutants Compound Threats to Coral eefs and What That Means for the Ocean and Us Humans
POLLUTANTS AND COAL EEFS
All over the world, the existence of coral reefs in the oceans face a lot of danger caused by pollutant compounds. A lot of consideration therefore needs to be put in place to access the effects caused by these pollutants on human beings and possible remedies on the impact of the pollution to the ecosystem as a whole.
The beauty and bio diverse nature of coral reefs qualify them as a resource with a lot of worth in the ocean. Among the many uses they have include, but are not limited to, provision of shelter for marine life, human leisure, source of organisms for medicinal value, creation of sandy beaches, and acting as shoreline buffers. The use of excess carbon dioxide in the water from the air to make limestone…
The Importance of Coral Reefs. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://marinebio.org/oceans/coral-reefs/index.aspx
Pastorok, R., & Bilyard, G. (2010). Effects of sewage pollution on coral-reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series,21, 157-157. Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/21/m021p175.pdf
Remote sensing can be utilized in order to give succinct information regarding the arrangement and the constituents of coral reef materials. The biological and physical attributes of the water bodies in which the coral reefs exist are monitored over a period of time and the changes note. This paper explores the different technologies available in the field of remote sensing. Over time, there has been a large improvement as the access to remotely sensed data is concerned. This turn of events mainly fueled by the advancements in the field of Information Technology has resulted in better, improved and more accurate and faster information extraction techniques. This has been accelerated by the fact that governments and institutions have heavily invested in improved technology that has enabled faster results and dissemination of the data obtained over the internet. This paper provides a complete and detailed approach as to the various methods that…
Curtis, Gregory (2006). The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the World's First
Artists. NY, USA: Knops
Bastin. J. (1988). Measuring areas of coral reefs using satellite imagery,
Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Coastal Zone, Gold Coast
Coral reefs are often coined as the rainforests of the sea, and they are one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. Although they cover less than 1 percent of the Earth's surface, coral reefs house about one-third of all marine species. It is estimated that there are about 3.2 million species that inhabit coral reef ecosystems. The coral reefs not only provide biodiversity, they also play a vital role in the local economies. Tourism is one of the ways that nearby countries benefit from coral reefs. Coral reef fisheries produce about 6 million metric tons of fish annually and they provide for one-quarter of the fish that is caught in developing nations. Coral reefs are also associated with building materials, coastal protection, and pharmaceutical discoveries. However, coral reefs have been declining mainly due to stresses that result from human activity like overfishing and pollution. The rises in carbon…
De’ath, G., Fabricius, K. E., Sweatman, H., & Puotinen, M. (2012). The 27–year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(44), 17995-17999.
Graham, N. A., McClanahan, T. R., MacNeil, M. A., Wilson, S. K., Polunin, N. V., Jennings, S., . . . Letourneur, Y. (2008). Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems. PLoS ONE, 3(8), e3039.
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…
BBC/Discovery Channel (2006). Planet Earth: Shallow Seas, documentary film,
Discovery Channel, 12 October 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009915994
Carrier, J.G., & Macleod, D.V. (2005). Bursting the Bubble: The Socio-Cultural Context of Ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2), 315+. Retrieved October 26, 2008, from Questia database:
Goods Ideas: Platforms and Conclusion
The Internet is similar to a coral reef in that both are platforms that provide enormous opportunities for the emergence, growth, and development of other ideas or life-forms. Coral reefs are very dense and diversely populated ecosystems that are entirely dependent on the platform of the coral skeletons that make up the physical structure of the reef, just as the internet has become richly and very diversely populated with different ideas, applications, and capabilities all of which are dependent on the communication capabilities and certain fundamental Internet protocols that allow this information to be created and shared. Both the Internet and coral reefs are also, interestingly, built on other platforms -- computer networks and volcanic islands, respectively -- demonstrating the "stacked" nature of many platforms and platform systems that exist in both the natural and man-made worlds.
McAslan's architectural projects build on their…
(?Recognized as the official photographer for a promotional website, www.oldsanjuanpr.com.
CERTICATION & TRAININGS
Certified Professional Final Cut Pro-End-User Level 1, the Edit Center, New York, NY
Pursuing Certification Motion and DVD Studio Pro 4 HD End-User, the Edit Center, New York, NY
Screenwriting 101: Introduction to Screenplay Writing, Mark Troy, Writers.Net
Screenwriting 102: Advanced Screenplay Writing, Mark Troy, Writers.Net
SILVER HILL HOSPITAL
New Canaan, CT
Residential Counselor/Psychiatric Technician
Responsible for ensuring efficient, quality functioning for adolescent unit in 28-day Transitional Living Program. Assign, assist and supervise residents in weekly duties. Supervise and participate in-house staff meetings. Manage and operate equipment safely and correctly. Cover house operations in the absence of the Senior Residential counselor. Carry out admission and discharge process for residents, while ensuring transitional living experience fosters growth and independence in residents.
( Promoted to Residential Counselor after 5 months of employment as…
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…
Begley, S. The Truth About Denial. Newsweek. August 13, 2007.
< http://www.newsweek.com/id/32482 > Accessed June 1, 2009.
Canadell, J., Le Quere, C., and Raupach, M., et al. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric
CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sink.
Dredging the Port of Miami
Dredging refers to the activity needed to be conducted for removal of unwanted deposits present in water pathways. However, even though this activity facilitates marine traffic regularity, it isn't without its drawbacks[footnoteef:2]. Dredging poses a great threat to the aquatic environment, and should be carried out very carefully, facilitated only using the assistance of the appropriate dredges and dredgers. As a port for international cargo, the Port of Miami is a significant section of the Miami economy. A project, to expand the port area by means of dredging, has been planned for. This is intended to provide ingress and egress for the new larger PanaMax ships that will be coming through the improved Panama Canal, and thus is expected to draw more business in cargo shipping to the locality[footnoteef:3]. The proposed expansion zone is, however, also the site of a key ecosystem. Thus, arguments and…
In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges iver deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)
After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two…
Bernard, Eddie N; Robinson, Allan R. The Sea Tsunamis.
Harvard University Press. 2009.
Bilham, R; Engdahl, E. R; Feldl, N; Satyabala, S.P. Partial and Complete Rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847-2004. University of Colorado, Boulder.
Seism. Res. Lett. 2005.
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
Clarke, T. (September, 2003). "North sea fish have shrunk." Nature Science - European
Cetacean Bycatch Campaign. 1, December 2004: http://www.eurocbc.org/northsea_number_small_fish_increased_due_to_overfishing_25sept2003page1290.html
CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
Dayton, P.K., Thrush, S.F., Agardy, M.T., & Hofman, R.J. (1995). "Environmental effects of marine fishing." Aquatic Conservation 5: 205-32
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
Colin Woodward's book Ocean's End: Travels Through Endangered Seas describes the seas around Belize including those of Caye Caulker. Many of these are tourist areas, but with a low development footprint. As Woodward points out, most people walk and there are no cars anywhere on Caye Caulker. Although the author underestimates the intelligence and geographic awareness of Americans by stating that most of them have "never heard of this little nation," Woodward does do Belize justice in showing that increased rates of tourism to the island are wreaking havoc on the reefs, even though the type of tourism Belize attracts is "ecotourism."
Yet not all is idyllic on this stretch of paradise. As Woodward first points out, Caulker used to have a glut of spiny lobsters, so common that the locals were able to simply coax them ashore using palm fronds (p. 132). Tourism has increased the demand for fresh…
NOAA (2015). Coral anatomy and structure. Retrieved online: http://coralreef.noaa.gov/aboutcorals/coral101/anatomy/
Palumbi, et al. (2014). Mechanisms of reef coral resistance to future climate change. Science 344(6186): 895-898
Woodward, C. (2000). Ocean's End. Basic Books.
Political Issue and Tourism
Over the years, there has been concern over the fats shifting weather pattern occasioned by the global warming. Extreme and erratic weather conditions have been experienced in almost every part of the world. This essay will review the literature that is available on the definition of Global warming, the causes of global warming, effects of global warming on the community and nations, what the government is doing to stop global warming, as well as what Non-Governmental Organizations or Non-State Organizations are doing to stop global warming and finally what should be done to stop global warming.
The essay will also review the impact of global warming and community of Nations on tourism and how the changing weather patterns have impacted on the tourism trends from the human perspective as well as from the flora and fauna perspective. This will show how global warming has affected the…
Admin, (2011). Definition of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.definitionofglobalwarming.com/
African Safari Vacation, (2010). Effects of Global Warming on Tourism in Africa. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.kenyaonetours.com/african-safari/events/global-warming-on-africa.htm
Anita Pleumaron, (2007). Tourism Feels the heat of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11,
2011 from http://www.google.co.ke/#sclient=psyab&hl=sw&source=hp&q=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&oq=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=94883l112644l1l113205l35l34l4l0l0l14l3892l25307l5-18.104.22.168.4l22l0&bav=cf.osb&fp=a55a91a0191aef52&biw=12
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Nevertheless, it is a conceptual change from government-sponsored conservation efforts of the past, which might have focused specifically in the same region on the manatee population, and thus played a pure game of numbers. To regard the Florida manatee instead as part of a larger ecosystem that must be monitored in numerous different ways requires a change in approach which is not always easy for a government agency to implement.
2. The chief conservation implication of introduced invasive species is that the invasive species is often very difficult to eradicate without serious disruption to the host ecosystem. An excellent example of an invasive species is presented by the zebra mussel, a small freshwater species of shellfish originally native to the freshwater lakes of southern ussia. The introduction of zebra mussels into the freshwater habitats of North America has allowed them to spread at astonishingly fast rates: the zebra mussel reproduces…
Barnes, C. et al. (2006). "The Ecosystem Goal Team of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Exploring an Ecosystem Approach to Management." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved online at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/improvement/pdfs/eam_lit_review.pdf
CBC News. "Manitoba to Blast Zebra Mussels in Unique Experiment." May 11, 2014. Retrieved online at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/manitoba-to-blast-zebra-mussels-in-unique-experiment-1.2639258
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…
Antonio, R. & Brulle, A. (2011). The unbearable lightness of politics: climate change denial and political polarization. The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 (2011) 195-202.
Cox, P., Betts, R., Jones, C., Spall, S. & Totterdell, I. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate change model. Nature. Vol. 408 (9 November 2000) 184-187.
Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science. Vol. 289 (14 July 2000), 270-277.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S., Clausen, H. Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C., & Oeschger, H. (1984). North Atlantic climate oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity.
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.
Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.
Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.
Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
Hamilton Island produces a wide array of entertainment that comes in many shapes and forms. The latest addition to the activity list is a nine-pin bowling alley that aims to provide endless family fun. And to top it off, other attractions the island will boast this year will include the Australian Ballet and the Great Barrier Feast event. (2009, p. 37)
Moreover, beyond the innovative use of social media networks to promote their campaign, Tourism Queensland also ensured the international mainstream media would be included in their media mix. For instance, Nolan empirically reports that during his visit to the island preparatory to the announcement of the finalist, international interest in the competition was at a frenzied level: "When I left Hamilton Island the following afternoon, it already was gearing itself up for next Wednesday's announcement. U.S. TV crews, the Aussie networks, the BBC et al. are flying in to…
Grier, G. (2011) 'Hamilton Island Earns Top Award.' The Daily Mercury, p. 37.
'Hamilton Island Destination Information.' (2011) Qantas. [online] available: http://www.
King, B.E. (1997) Creating Island Resorts. London: Routledge.
ebsite Three: http://www.sciencedaily.com.
Authority: Respected science-based online magazine
Accuracy: (a) since the ocean's food chain is based on "the growth of billions upon billions of microscopic plants" (including phytoplankton), and since new satellite data shows that ocean warming is "reducing these plants" this imperils marine life and ocean fisheries
Currency: Data for this Science article take from the journal Nature.
Purpose: Global warming is due to rising levels of carbon dioxide (burning of fossil fuels is largely responsible for the heating up of the planet).
Lindell, Nicole. "A Discordant Sea: Global arming and its Effect on Marine Populations."
About.com. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from http://geography.about.com. 2008.
Mackenzie, Brian R., and Schiedek, Doris. "Daily ocean monitoring since the 1860s shows record warming of northern European seas." Global Change Biology, Vol. 13, 1335-
Murphy, Kim. "U.S. suggests no emissions limits to protect polar bears." Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved May 1,…
Lindell, Nicole. "A Discordant Sea: Global Warming and its Effect on Marine Populations."
About.com. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from http://geography.about.com . 2008.
Mackenzie, Brian R., and Schiedek, Doris. "Daily ocean monitoring since the 1860s shows record warming of northern European seas." Global Change Biology, Vol. 13, 1335-
Murphy, Kim. "U.S. suggests no emissions limits to protect polar bears." Los Angeles Times.
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
These are valid scientific measurements, which prove that atmospheric CO2 equilibrium has been drastically disturbed by human activities. [Ross Glebspan]
At this rate of increase, the atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected to increase the average global temperature by around 3 to 7 degrees F. y the end of this century. This increase over a hundred-year period represents a huge shift compared against the entire time scale of the planet. Those who argue that global warming is a natural happening have to explain why nature would shift gears all of a sudden? Also, how could increased CO2 levels also be part of the claimed natural process?. These questions and the true facts make it unambiguous that global warming is definitely a man-induced phenomenon. These arguments can be buttressed with the recently documented drastic climatic shifts.
The eleven hottest years of the previous century occurred between 1983 and 2000 while 1991-95 happens…
Environmental Defense, 'Global Warming: The Facts are Clear', available at http://www.undoit.org/pdfs/factsheet_factsclear.pdf Accessed On Nov 14th 2006
Environmental Defense, 'Hurricanes and Global Warming: Is there a Link,"
Available at, http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?contentID=4804&linkID=67 Accessed on Nov 14th 2006
PIPA, 'Global Warming', available at http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/global_warming/gw1.cfm
egion that I have chosen is the South Pacific, or more broadly Oceania. If we exclude Australia and New Zealand, the two highly developed economies, this region is characterized by island nations, mostly small, with tiny economies. Many such islands are independent nations, while others are colonies (i.e. French Polynesia, Cook Islands, Guam). Most nations within this region have ties to larger economies, either the U.S., New Zealand or Australia, regardless of their political status.
For the most part, these regions are politically stable. The Pacific islands are, in many cases, subject to many political issues. At the global level, these nations are among the most vulnerable to climate change. ising sea levels are an existential threat to countries like Tuvalu, which is almost entirely at sea level (Allen, 2004). Thus, many of these island nations have become the leading spokespeople for action on climate change, increasing their profile in…
Allen, L. (2004). Will Tuvalu disappear beneath the sea? Smithsonian. Retrieved November 30, 2014 from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/will-tuvalu-disappear-beneath-the-sea-180940704/?no-ist
Hoegh, O. (2007). Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science. Vol. 318 (2007) 1737-1742.
The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated to transportation, sightseeing fares, souvenirs (compulsory sombrero) and the exploration of the night life; $100 is saved (all the money saved in one location is used to pay the counter value of the larger expenses, such as a cruise to Africa).
(*) Three days in Brazil -- a budget of $525 (925.755 Brazil reais, at an exchange rate of 1 USD = 1.76 BL); $300, or 529.01 BL will be spent on boarding within a three start hotel; $50 will be saved and $125 will be spent on bus transportation, sightseeing fares and food.
(*) Estimated cost of the trip from Brazil to Nigeria - $400
(*) Three days in Nigeria -- $180 per hotel room (26,865 Nigerian naira, at an…
Antarctica, Enjoy Chile, http://www.enjoy-chile.org/antarctica-attractions-chile.php last accessed on December 10, 2009
Australia Tourist Guides, Sino, 2009, http://www.sino.net/australia-tourist-guides/attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
India Tourist Attractions, Info India, http://www.info2india.com/rajasthan/india-attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
Italy Tourist Attractions, Vacation Idea, 2009, http://www.vacationidea.com/articles/italy_tourist_attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
St. Croix has the largest amount of land under cultivation. Sugarcane was once the most important crop but its importance has declined. Manufacturing is most developed on St. Croix, where rum, refined petroleum and watches are produced.
Tourism is the islands' leading industry. St. Thomas and St. John are the chief tourist centers. Among attractions are the pleasant climate, beautiful scenery, and water sports. Another attraction is the free port, which sells at bargain prices goods imported from all over the world.
Famous People from the Islands
Kelsey Grammer (born 1955), actor was born in St. Thomas. Kelsey grew famous with roles in 'Cheers' and 'Frasier'. He trained at the Juilliard School located in New York City.
Hanik Milligan was born 1979 in St. Croix, is an American football safety for the National Football League. He was originally drafted by the San Diego Chargers in the sixth round of the…
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
9% of total GDP in Colombia (U.S.$3,524 million) and generates 386,000 direct jobs, equivalent to 1.8% of total employment in the country (Tourism Industry in Colombia).
The Composition of Tourism in Colombia
With 3,208 km of coastline (1,760 km on Caribbean Sea and 1,448 km on Pacific Ocean),
and 400 km of Amazon forest and Andean mountains, Colombia has a vast array of possible tourist destinations.
Some of the reasons tourists are interested in visiting Colombia would be its privileged location on the continent. All the environments of the tropics are present: glaciers, beaches, plains, rainforests, and deserts, which all add to its desirability (Where to go?).
Colombia also has countless tourist destinations offering a wide array of activities. Even the most jaded traveler can't help but be swept up by the magic of Cartagena, steeped in history and gentle people. Oozing romance, the old city is a warren of…
"1995-2000 Tourism-Sector Development Program." 2000. Mexico's Tourism Policy. 16 Apr 2009 .
"About Mexico." n.d. visitmexico. 15 Apr 2009 .
"Colombia Tourism." 1988. Geographic org. 16 Apr 2009 .
"Costa Rica has something for everybody." n.d. Costa Rica Tourism and Travel Bureau . 15 Apr 2009 .
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into pyla, wile "plants" are subdivided into divisions.
Kingdom of Protista
Laminariales (kelps) etc.
Te Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Teir distinctive greenis-brown color comes from te pigment fucoxantin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies sow teir closest relatives are te yellow-green algae.
Te red algae (Rodopyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of te coralline algae, wic secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building…
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
Tourism vs. The Environment
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries. In fact, it is believed that tourism will grow at approximately four percent per year through the year 2010. Tourism is usually good for the economy but is it is not always good for the environment. Mankind does have a way of messing up whatever we touch. Whenever something is taken out of its natural environment and placed elsewhere, there is an effect on something. Hikers generally stay on paths. Every so often a hiker just must have a photograph of a flower in the middle of a field and trounces off to get it. In doing so, rare vegetation might be killed. Destroyed vegetation, air pollution, water pollution and refuge are just a few of the problems irritated by tourism.
Sprawl is - no pun intended - a growing problem. In Lancaster ounty, Pennsylvania, sprawl and relative…
Campbell, page 4.
Lindberg, page 11/
Sierra Club sues state of Hawaii before it funds tourism," http://www.mnplan.state.mn.us/issues/scan.htm. Retrieved 4 November 2002.
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…
Anon., n.d. [Online]
Available at: http://www.enesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/interagency_blue_paper_ocean_rioPlus20.pdf
Anonson R., B. B. J. F. P. W. e. a., 2003. Causes of Corol ref degradation.. [Online].
Business Dictionary, n.d. [Online]
Suppot fo global phones
Medium to High. Social events ae pevasive duing skiing season
Medium to High; on Tous thee is much planned out and taken cae of; a chance to enjoy the sites and visit histoic places
High fo shopaholics; boing fo anyone who doesn't enjoy this type of activity
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
Less than $100 fo camping out in a tent to ove $2,000 fo a cabin ental
Fom $3,000 to ove $10,000 each depending on the package selected
$2,000 to $4,000 depending on the package selected
$650 to $1,000 fo high taffic aeas including London o Pais;
Fom $2,000 to ove $10,000 pe peson
A full week including flights up and back
Fom a weekend to ove a week
A minimum of a week o moe due to tavel
Fom one week to a month
Fom one week to a month…
references. The need for self-actualization, consistent with applicability of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs to the travel industry as studies previously have successfully done (Huang, Hsu, 2009) illustrate how powerful the need for self-actualization and peak experiences are in differentiating one travel experience form another. Segmentation of travel alternatives by the layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is critical for travel providers to be effective marketers and speak in terms their clients can understand and act on. The provider of Alaskan cruises would be wise to discuss how the cruise is a "trip of a lifetime to reward the decades of service to others" as the Asian women has most likely given huge blocks of her time and effort to her family and the family business. The self-actualization and "grand experience" of the Alaskan cruise is exceptionally successful as a marketing and messaging strategy that aligns to the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model, hence the very high participation rates on these events from senior citizens who are empty nesters.
Likewise the Maslow Model when applied to the university student and successful businessman has comparable analysis and results. For the university student the need is less on self-actualization, more on safety and psychological needs to challenging one's self against foreign countries and getting a glimpse into what traveling globally in freedom are. The university student may aspire for a self-actualized and exceptional experience, yet their focus the majority of the time will be on the development of their own self-confidence in tackling challenges of getting around and potentially staying in a foreign nation for a period of time. In studies that have applied the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs to travel programs and initiatives, insights have been gained into which demographic and psychographic groups have the greatest need for self-actualization, self-esteem, love & belonging & safety (Huang, Hsu, 2009).
While the Asian woman is clearly most interested in self-actualization and the sense of accomplishment and reward that comes from the cruise to Alaska, the students are looking for the esteem and confidence of being able to navigate through foreign nations. For the business man and the exotic diving trip to Thailand the need for esteem of conquering or mastering the specific region or waters of interest, combined with self-actualization of confronting uncertainty and risk underwater and still being able to see incredible sights, the businessman is unique in his mix of Maslow Needs Assessments. Yet for travel marketers to excel in their selection and marketing of travel destinations and experiences, these factors all must be taken into account and communicated with clarity and focus. This is in effect best practices in travel marketing today; the integrating of needs assessment of behavioral models including the Maslow Hierarchy of needs and the relative market positioning of travel experiences relative to potential clients.
The Herzberg Two Factor Theory that integrates Hygiene Factors and Motivators into the same model has also successfully been integrated into the travel industry's knowledge base of research (Chan, Baum, 2007). Specifically concentrating on how to most effectively satiate or satisfy travelers with the Hygiene Factors to meet minimum expectations of travelers has proven to be critically important in the development and fine-tuning of marketing messages. The aspirational values of the Motivators of the Herzberg Model are what the Asian woman and the businessman are looking for. Herzberg primarily completed research on
The section will provide non-alcoholic drinks and an environment where Christians can feel like they are in "paradise." This will as a result ensure that the hotel enlarges its target group. By including this, Paradise Hotel will be a suitable destination for all including domestic tourists who will get an opportunity to enjoy their local delicacies as well as a taste of international delicacies.
The hotel will feature fully renovated and modernized guestrooms with an extra intimate hot tub and relaxation space. The new look hotel will include an elegant late-night poolside lounge which will comprise of sun-loungers, day beds and decks. The main idea behind the renovations of the pool is to transform outdoor spaces into outdoor living rooms that offer flexible dining, drinking, events and relaxing spaces. The intimate spa will have floor cushions and new striking lights. ith these renovations in place, the hotel will therefore provide…
Atzmon, Gilad. Web Log post. Peacepalestine. Peacepalestine, 24 Oct. 2005. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. .
"Easy to Implement & Maintain 5-Step Action Plan." Best Perfomance Systems: Keeping People and Profits Healthy. Bestperfomancesystems.com. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. .
"Investing in Kenya: Tourism Industry." Article Garden:Sustainable Living Articles. Article Garden. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. .
Muhoho, Robert. "Mombasa Beach Hotels- Top 10 Beach Hotels in Mombasa Kenya." Buzzle.com: Intelligent Life on the Web. Buzzle.com. Web. 22 Mar. 2010. .
Over last five years, the government has begun to change focus in regards to its policies towards the Amazon. Where, it has designated a number of different areas as protected national parks. Currently, there are nearly 201 million hectares that are protected from development. Then, in 2006, a law was passed creating an agency to manage the forests and protect them. With the law stating, that all protected forests should remain public land and that these areas should maintain their forest cover. This is significant because it would reduce the total amounts of destruction that was occurring. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the State Acre. Where, deforestation decreased by over 50% since 1998. The main reason for the drop was: the enforcement of the new laws by razilian official and increased funding for social development in the area. According to the state's…
"Amazon Deforestation Rate has Tripled." Fox News. 29 September 2008. Web. 6 Apr. 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,430401,00.html
"Land Use and Rural Development in the Brazilian Amazon." Wilson Center. 24 Feb. 2010. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
Cochrane, Mark. "Priority Areas for Establishing National Forrest in the Brazilian Amazon." Conservation Ecology. 6 (41) (2002).4. Print.
Hallowell, Christopher, and Walter Levy. Listening to Earth. Longman, 2004. 210-211. Print.
" (SD, 1)
McClintock goes on to connect this to pointedly negative consequences for marine life, arguing that many invertebrates are distinctly vulnerable because their protective shells require many of the nutrients naturally available in their surrounding water to maintain hardness or to develop at all. This is a concern which is also raised in the article by Monroe (2009), where the results of an experiment designed to confirm this effect were as expected. Accordingly, "[Victoria] Fabry, a biological oceanographer and visiting researcher at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, studies the effects of ocean acidification on the mollusks known as pteropods. In one experiment, only 48 hours of exposure to slightly corrosive seawater caused normally smooth shells to become frayed at the edges on their way to eventual dissolution, severely diminishing their owners' chances of survival." (Monroe, 1)
This demonstrates that the increased acidification of the ocean's…
ANI. (2010). CO2 Negatively Affecting Environment of World's Oceans. Thaindian News.
Monroe, R. (2009). Carbonated Oceans. Explorations: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Pechenik, J. (2004). Biology of the Invertebrates. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.
Pinet, P.R. (2009). Invitation to Oceanography. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Europeans call upon Christendom to "applaud their courage and justice" as they persecute the natives for merely defending themselves. This simple, human response of self-defense is seen as evidence of barbarism by the Europeans. Of course, when the natives have accommodated the Europeans and treated them in a friendly fashion, this is likewise seen as a weakness and portrayed as evidence of the people's fitness for servitude.
Tom's identification with the Polynesians might seem to be unrealistic, given that he is supposed to be a simple sailor. However, Melville implies that he may be liable to be very sympathetic to the people of Typee because he has been persecuted and treated unjustly by his captain. Tom, under the influence of Polynesian life, decides to cast off his miserable existence on the Dolly and desert. In contrast to the miserable life on the ship, the native people of Typee are able…
Melville, Herman. Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life. New York: Penguin Classics, 1996.
This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is polluting the Earth's atmosphere along with damaging coral reefs and marine life and has impacts that are irreversible. Scientists believe that this will be important for potentially getting to a viable carbon dioxide-capture material with ultra-high selectivity. They are optimistic that is within their reach. Potentially, they think that they could create a material that could convert carbon dioxide into a fuel, or a material that can separate carbon dioxide with greater efficiency (Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture, 2010).
Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). etrieved
February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:
Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). Retrieved
February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:
http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2010/02/100211141144.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
U. (Website of the European Commission, 2007).
Educational institutions have also taken an interest in the matter. Stanford University for instance has been engaged in promoting responsible behavior of the consumers. They have also conducted studies to reveal the impact of global warming and the performances achieved in reducing its negative effects. They have also promoted the sources of alternative energy (Stanford University, 1995).
The governments in several American states have also formed alliances to fight off the malign effects of global warming. "As more and more states band together to fight global warming, their efforts are moving beyond mere symbolism and becoming big enough to make a real dent in the problem [...] More than half of the nation's 50 states -- including populous California, Texas and New York -- have joined together in regional coalitions aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, boosting the use of…
Kelly, E., March 25, 2007, States Work to Reduce Global Warming, Gannett News
1995, Avoiding Global Warming, Stanford University, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/avoid.htmllast accessed on October 31, 2008
2008, Ambitious Targets Agreed to Reduce Global Warming, Website of the European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/070309_1_en.html . Ast accessed on October 31, 2008
Threat of Climate Change, EcoBridge, http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_tht.html . Ast accessed on October 31, 2008
That looks outrageously fun!
The research showed that humans have been naturally drawn to bodies of water since day one, and the technology now exists that allows people of all walks of life to safely and routinely explore the underwater depths in various ways for fun and profit. The research also showed that notwithstanding its current hefty production price at $1.4 million per vehicle, it is clear that the sQuba has a lot going for it in terms of high-quality design and performance, and mass production of the vehicle could reasonably be expected to reduce its final sticker price to the typical consumer for such a car. In the final analysis, there may never be the flying cars promised by science fiction writers and analysts in the mid-20th century, but there is a submersible car made today that can take ordinary people below the surface of rivers, lakes, and…
Rinspeed's Zero-Emission World Debut at the Geneva Motor Show - a Green "Fish" with Q- Factor. Rinspeed. [Online]. Available: http://www.rinspeed.com/pages/cars/squba/pre-squba.htm.
Grosvenor, M.B., Severy, M., & Park, E. (1963). Great adventures with National Geographic: Exploring land, sea, and sky. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.
Hemingway, S. (2004). The horse and jockey from Artemision: A bronze equestrian monument of the Hellenistic Period. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Klapper, B.S. (2008). No fins but Rinspeed's 'sQuba' car still swims. Really! USA Today. [Online]. Available: http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2008-02-15-squba-car_N.htm .
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…
Author not Available. "About the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." IPCC.ch. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm
Editors. "Climate Change." EPA.gov. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Jordan, Stuart. "The Global Warming Crisis." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2005: 23+.
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
A three: 63% of Americans in a recent study believe that "regulations and laws" that are intended to protect our oceans are not strict enough, while 16% say laws are ok;
c) the knowledge most people have about the science related to the ocean and coast is not high.
A one: citizens are unaware of threats to the oceans, though the threats are immediate two: 50% of people recognize that factories are a pollution source, but only 24% recognize that "runoff" is what causes the pollution from factories and oil refineries three: 75% of people in one survey believed trees and forests give off more oxygen than oceans; and 60% of respondents didn't know that there are more plant and animal species on oceans than on land.
A four: about 45% of those polled between that between 11 and 20% of U.S. coastal regions are now in federally protected zones;…
Coyle, Kevin J. "Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy: How Public Opinion and Knowledge Research Helps Inform Ocean and Coastal Science Education Programming at NOAA." National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. 2005.
Imagining architecture as the structure upon which meaning grows and contributes to the phenomenon of a place is particularly helpful when investigating Holl's Linked Hybrid, because the design expresses a desire to meld the objective, concrete of the building itself to the experience of the residents living and moving within.
Construction on Linked Hybrid began in 2003 and completed in 2009, when Holl's design won the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's award for Best Tall Building (CTBUH 2009). Part of a slew of new developments born out of Beijing's revitalization as a result of its hosting of the 2008 Olympic games, Linked Hybrid is a mixed-use development consisting of "a ring of eight 21-story towers, linked at the 20th floor by gentling sloping public sky bridges, lined with galleries, cafes, restaurants, bars and shops" (Busari 2008). Each tower is rectangular, with some towers being additionally linked at the…
Busari, Stephanie. CNN, "Beijing embraces Brave New World of buildings." Last modified June
24, 2008. Accessed November 6, 2011.
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, "2009 Awards." Last modified October 2009.
Fate of the Earth
Unfortunately, even if someone could wave a magic wand that causes all of the nuclear weapons on earth to disappear, many believe that due to the depletion of natural resources, the earth would still be in danger of catastrophe, and humankind in danger of extinction.
Jonathan Schell's book "Fate of the Earth" is an alarming portrait of the nuclear power in the world. Since the end of orld ar II, nuclear arms have kept the world's population in a state of constant concern that "something" could happen, whether by design or accident. As tensions continue to build throughout the Middle East, particularly between India and Pakistan, and more recently the nuclear potential of North Korea and China, the nuclear arms race may have subsided between the United States and Russia however, it is still alive and thriving around the globe. As Schell writes, "These bombs were…
Borenstein, Seth. "Study blames global warming for early springs."
St. Louis Post-Dispatch; 5/17/2005; pp.
Hanley, Charles J. "Ocean Study Confirms Global Warming."
Wisconsin State Journal; 4/28/2005; pp.
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
Rules to Live by -- a Biostatement
Yes, the human race is quite "species-centric," and we are already paying for it. Our planet has changed greatly over the billions of years it has existed, but it has changed far more rapidly since humans entered the picture, and it has changed even more rapidly since humans have developed increasing technology. We are an advanced race, but we are advancing at the expense of the planet we call home. It is clear the Earth cannot last forever, and if humans keep using up the resources the planet has to offer, then eventually, the entire planet will look like Easter Island -- barren, rocky, and uninhabitable.
While the idea of environmental resistance is indeed applicable to many of the ecosystems on Earth, humankind has overcome much of the natural environmental resistance with technology and sheer might, and so, that is no longer a…
"Over the past century, human activities have released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The majority of greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels to produce energy, although deforestation, industrial processes, and some agricultural practices also emit gases into the atmosphere" (EPA). These greenhouse gases play a critical role in global warming; they trap energy in the atmosphere, acting like a blanket around the Earth. From what is known about Earth's atmosphere at prior points in history, when these greenhouse gases were more abundant in the atmosphere from natural sources, there is no real argument that greenhouse gases do not trap heat. Moreover, science can prove that human activities produce those same greenhouse gases. However, the argument that climate change deniers make is that human activities are contributing only a nominal amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and, therefore, that human activity cannot…
Cook, John. "Is There a Scientific Consensus on Global Warming?" Skeptical Science. N.p.
2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2012.
Cook, John. "What Evidence Is There for the Hockey Stick?" Skeptical Science. N.p. 2012.
Web. 26 Nov. 2012.
Sustainable tourism does not destroy the environment, economy, or cultural aspects of the tourist destination (David Vaughan, 2000). Sustainable tourism is aimed at ensuring that those concerned are not affected in any way and that a positive development is realized through it. Back in the 1980s, ecotourism which consisted of activities such as wildlife exotic cultures and nature, became more common with remarkably few people understanding what the impacts of such tourism are, this led to its pitfall (Erlet, 1993). Therefore, sustainable tourism helps to improve all associated impact of tourism as a whole, and this can steadily be achieved through seeking partnership between various governments, local community and any stakeholder in the tourism industry.
How sustainable tourism can be achieved
esearches done in this field indicate that for sustainable tourism to be achieved all efforts should be channeled towards fostering co-ordination and cooperation between managers of the tourism destination…
CEVAT, T. 2001. Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: the case of Turkey. Tourism Management, 22, 289-303.
COLIN, H. 1997. Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 850-867.
DAVID A. LERTZMAN & HARRIE VREDENBURG 2005. Indigenous Peoples, Resource Extraction and Sustainable Development: An Ethical Approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 56, 239-254
DAVID VAUGHAN 2000. Tourism and Biodiversity: A Convergence of Interests? International Affairs, 76, 283-297.
Ginger - Smart Basics
The country's environmental factors
This study focuses on a PESTEL analysis touching on the tourism industry in India as encountered by Ginger - Smart Basics Company. PESTEL is a framework of employed in identifying key factors that drive organizational changes in the strategic environment. It entails environmental, legal, technological, social, economic and political factors.
Political violence and the public have damaged the tourism industry significantly in the past few years. However, experts within the industry argue that the damage is not long-term. Industry leaders and the government say there is much to do in rebuilding the tattered reputation of tourism. In broad daylight, the world has witnessed scores of terrorist killing masses across the city of Mumbai. Although India has been notorious for orchestrating the political violence, this recent horrific attack was primarily targeting foreigners and travelers. This attack was televised across the globe…
Das, G.D. (2011). Tourism marketing. Delhi: Pearson.
Kamplikar, M. (2011). Ginger -- Smart Basics. Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited Vol. 1 No. 1 pp. 1-12,
Kumar, S. (2009). Marketing of Hospitality & Tourism Serv. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
Wirtz, J. (2012). Essentials of Services Marketing. California: FT Press.
Global Warming Trends and Impact
Global warming refers to the warming of the earth's temperature, in particular oceans and the layer of the atmosphere closest to the planet (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 114). Thus far, the total temperature increase is documented at only about one degree (Weart 43). However, even this seemingly minor change can create ripple effects that present challenges for earth and mankind. Global warming and other climate change issues are thought to be the result of both natural phenomenon and man-made activity. In order to sustain life as we know it, the earth must maintain a consistent temperature. The rapid elevation in temperature has created an imbalance making it evident that the phenomenon of global warming is real.
The rate at which arctic sea ice is melting is faster than normal which has caused sea levels to rise (Prothero 15). In addition, weather is becoming more extreme,…
Prothero, Donald R. "How We Know Global Warming Is Real And Human Caused." Skeptic 17.2 (2012): 14-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Thompson, Lonnie G., and Gioietta Kuo. "Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options." World Future Review 4.2 (2012): 114-122. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Weart, Spencer. "Global Warming: How Skepticism Became Denial." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67.1 (2011): 41-50. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Diane Blake Art Exhibition
King Island, Bass Straits -- Diane Blake. Diane is a native of the Eastern Shore, but has travelled all over the world to capture her images. She has been an artist and photographer for over 30 years, and loves to use her artistic lens to examine the natural environment. In particular, we focus on Diane's view of the seascapes and natural beauty of King Island, Tasmania (Art with Al, 2013).
Description and ationale - Dianne Blake celebrates the natural beauty of Mother Nature with her interpretations of the land and sea of a number of environments, in this case, King Island, Tasmania. Her work focuses on texture, color, and combinations of both that create natural wonder in paintings. In this case, Diane focuses on kelp, sponges, anemones, works, barnacles and the myriad of life in tide pools and rock ponds near the ocean shores. Each of…
Art with Al. (2013). King Island, Bass Strait by Dianne Blake. Artwithal.com. Retrieved from: http://www.artwithal.com.au/exhibitions/king_island_bass_strait/artwork/
Board of Studies, NSW. (2006) Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Retrieved from: http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/arts/k6_creative_arts_syl.pdf
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
Action eport (AA)
The importance of this coursework has certainly been underscored over the course of the past several days as Hurricane Sandy ravaged the East Coast of the United States. While the devastation is not unprecedented on the American continent, hurricane Sandy was a contemporary anomaly for the region with respect to the severity of damages and the scope of the devastation. As Mayor Cuomo stated, after a succession of natural disasters of this magnitude, it becomes impossible to refer to hurricane Sandy as a once-in-a-lifetime event. Moreover, health care management received considerable attention in the media coverage of Hurricane Sandy. Hospitals had to evacuate patients to safer zones and -- mid-crisis -- hospitals lost power and had to move critically ill and high risk patients to different facilities. Indeed, media coverage permitted the ongoing development of a case study in the importance of effective disaster relief policies and…
Athan, E., Allworth, A.M., Engler, C. Bastian, I, and Cheng, A.C. (2005). Melioidosis in tsunami survivors. [Letter to Editor]. Posted 14 September 2005.
Baldwin, K.M. (2005). Welcome to Texas. Clinical Nurse Specialist. National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists.
Cordero, J.F. (1998). The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: Lessons learned. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, 101(2), 131-136.
Krisberg, K. (2006). Health workers struggling to meet needs a year after Katrina: Gulf Coast communities work to recover. [Website]. Posted 3 October 2005.
The objective of this work in writing is to conduct a critical assessment of the negative and positive impacts of cultural events or festivals upon the host community and destination. This work will be specific to the United Kingdom.
There is an increase in the growth of popularity of culturally-based events and festivals and because of this, these types of festivals and events are becoming more commonplace. Included in these events are "a diverse range of themes from the specific, food and wine, through to multi-faceted celebrations, such as multicultural festivals. Characteristically, they originate within the community in response to a need or desire to celebrate their unique identity." (Small, Edwards and Sheridan, 2005, p.86) The work of The 2nd DeHaan Tourism Management Conference: Nottingham: December 16th, 2003 entitled "The Impact of Festivals on Cultural Tourism" defines cultural tourism as "Travel directed toward experiencing the arts, heritage, and special…
Chalip, L. And Leyns, A., 2002. Local business leveraging of a sport event: Event Management, 6, 155-165. Managing an event for economic benefit. Journal of Sport Management, 16, 132-158.
Fredline, E. & Faulkner, B. (2002a). Residents' reactions to the staging of a major motorsports event within their communities: a cluster analysis. Event Management, 7(2), 103-114.
Fredline, E. & Faulkner, B. (2002b). Variations in residents' reactions to major motorsports events: why residents perceive the impacts of events differently. Event Management, 7(2), 115-126.
Fredline, E., & Faulkner, B. (2000). Host community reactions: a cluster analysis. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 763-784.
Long-Term Effects of Adverse Nature
Long-term Implications of 2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Long-term effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean Disaster
2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Indian Ocean is the third vastest water body in the world wide, casing an average of 68.556 million km2. It is the mass of water body around Africa, Asia, the Southern Ocean and Australia. It has four main accessible waterways, the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab el Mandeb (along Djibouti and Yemen), the Strait of Hormuz (along Iran and Oman), and the Strait of Malacca (Indonesia and Malaysia) among other minor ones. The ocean has been attributed to many economical advantages ranging from providing a means of transportation, food, recreation and for the extraction of valuable mineral resources. However, the ocean has major confluences with terrific and adverse water disasters such as disasters, tsunamis, aftershocks, earthquakes among others.
In 2004, the Indian registered the worst…
Ramalanjaona, G. 2011. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned. Emergency Medicine International. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-3.
Daly, P., Feener, M. R and Reid, A.J.S. From the Ground up: Perspectives on Post-Tsunami and Post -- Conflict Aceh. Chicago: Institute of Southeast Asian.
particularly using multicriteria analysis model of land use planning and land use management and how it affects the future of land management. It has 10 sources in APA format.
Issues pertaining to land use management, and land use planning are as varied in nature as their challenging existence. Taking diversity as one challenge, it is noticed that ascertaining the various goals, values and techniques of the land user have remained a crucial task. The intention of this paper is to detail some methodologies on selected issues of land use management and land use planning, and present relevant literature review that give credence to these methodologies.
The determination of how our land is or will be used is coined as land use planning and land management. Seeking to create a vision for use and management of lands and the natural resources, the land and resource management plans requires the involvement of…
Toit, D.C. du.[July 2001]. Wise Land Use, White Paper On Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Ministry Of Agriculture And Land Affairs, available at: http://www.polity.org.za/html/govdocs/white_papers/landdev.html?rebookmark=1
Author not available, . United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, Chaper 10, Agenda 21, available at: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/land.htm
Author not available, . United Nations Economic and Social Council, Commission on Sustainable Development http://ods-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/312/96/PDF/N0131296.pdf-OpenElement
O'Callaghan, M. . Global Vision, Sustainable City, available at: www.global-vision.org/city/intro.html
Managing Fisheries and How Perceptions Affect the Management of Ecosystem Services Provided by Fisheries in the Pacific Ocean
Carl Safina is the host of the Public roadcasting Service 'Saving the Ocean" and as well has written several books and at focus in this work is the book of Safina entitled "Song for the lue Ocean." Safina emphasizes how the oceans are the last and dying unconquered territories on earth. Safina brings to the attention of the reader that threats that are caused to the oceans in the name of progress and growth for the human race.
Safina's book reports a truth seeking mission as he traveled the world's oceans. Safina relates in his book that "the scientists grossly underestimate the numbers" of bluefin tuna in the northern Atlantic and relates that the "legendary great shoals of cod…along the Grand anks of Canada…have been decimated, causing the government of…
Safina, C. (nd) Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas, Henry Holt and Company.
Norse, EA (nd) Review of the book "Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's
Coasts and Beneath the Seas,' by Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://mcbi.marine-conservation.org/publications/pub_pdfs/Norse_NaturalHistory_1998.pdf
"Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas" (nd) Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://carlsafina.org/publications/books/song-for-the-blue-ocean/