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By 2 cm on the lumbar.
Discuss what effect changing the dropping height had on the resulting stains
In two cases out of one (on the cloth and on the lumbar) it resulted in a smaller less porous, more flexible blob with a greater production of splatterings. On the cardboard, the result was the reverse: the blob was more rigid than the previous one had been. The 'blood', however, had congealed on tip of pipette and this might have affected results.
Document your observations of the effect of alka selzer on the cleaned up blood; was it what you expected? Why or why not? Did you have difficulty applying the solution?
I was expecting a chemical reaction to occur as has been my experience in the past with the pill, but I found only slight chemical reaction on the cloth and some clotting as well as elongation, some more bubbles…
Organic sugar is also brown in color, as some of the molasses properties remain. Thus, organic sugar is healthier for a person, yet just as inorganic sugars, the risks may outweigh the benefits if one eats too much sugar.
Information taken from: "What Is Organic Sugar Cane?" WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. .
5. Corn Syrup Solids and High Fructose Corn Syrup:
The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) puts both corn syrup solids and high fructose corn syrup on its cut back list, which means that this agency believes that these elements are not very healthy for the public, if consumed in large quantities. Though extracted from corn, the risks associated with these two food additives outweigh the benefits, and the greatest risk is weight gain and the problems that come with it or its extremes, such as obesity. Thus, though corn…
incurred in the Candy making process.
Candy Making Process
Process of making candy is a long process. The process involves blending and mixing of pounds of chocolate, milk & cream, sugar, candy coating and other ingredients to make candy that would be acceptable to customers. From the brief explanation of the candy making, it is revealed that the production process of candy involves combining the three factors of production such as land, labor, and capital to produce the final products.
In the Candy making, there is a need to set aside the financial resources that would be used to:
purchase the raw materials or the ingredients;
purchase the equipment to make candy;
rent or purchase the land to build the factory or lease the existing factory;
pay direct and indirect labor;
purchase office equipment;
settle other miscellaneous payments such as the telephone bills, water bills and others
After the owner…
Fryatt, E.H. (1999).Candy Making Basics. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.UK.
Jones, D. (2011). Candy Making For Dummies. John Wiley and Sons. USA.
Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard business Review, January.
Walther, L.M. (2011). Managerial Accounting. Create Space. USA.
Fructose and Diabetes
Does Fructose Consumption Cause Diabetes?
The availability of unlimited amounts of simple sugars is a modern phenomenon, having emerged with the onset of world trade in cane sugar during the 18th century (Tappy and Le, 2010). During the last half of the 20th century the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFC), consisting of an equal mixture of glucose and fructose, has captured approximately 50% of the sweetener market because of lower cost, sweeter taste, improved shelf-life, and better moisture retention. Concern over its use as a sweetener in a variety of popular foods and drinks is growing though, because it coincides with a worldwide epidemic increases in obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (Yki-Jarvinen, 2010). This essay examines the evidence supporting or not supporting a causative role for fructose in type 2 diabetes.
Evidence for Fructose Causing Type 2 Diabetes
The prevalence of obesity and type 2…
Studies using laboratory rodents have consistently shown that dietary fructose supplementation causes diabetes (reviewed in Rizkalla, 2010). For example, rats with free access to 10% fructose water developed glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, and ?-cell apoptosis (Maiztegui, Borelli, Raschia, Zotto, and Gagliardino, 2009). In agreement with these results, feeding six healthy, non-obese, young males a high-fructose diet for one week caused a significant reduction in plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and increased triacylglyceride levels (Abdel-Sayed, Binnert, Le, Bortolotti, Schneiter, and Tappy, 2008). This finding suggests a fructose-rich diet suppresses lipid oxidation and thereby contributes to ectopic fat deposition in organs such as the liver. When 20 healthy subjects were fed a diet supplemented with either glucose or fructose, only the glucose diet resulted in weight gain (Silbernagel, Machann, Unmuth, Schick, Norbert, Haring, et al., 2011). However, the high fructose diet significantly increased fasting glucose levels, insulin insensitivity (also glucose), and serum triglyceride levels, which are all metabolic changes consistent with increased diabetes risk.
Evidence against Fructose Causing Type 2 Diabetes
A prospective cohort study of 15,792 men and women, with either Caucasian or African-American ethnicities and between the ages of 45 and 64, revealed no significant association between sweetened beverage consumption and diabetes onset during a nine-year follow-up period (Paynter, Yeh, Voutilainen, Schmidt, Heiss, Folsom, et al., 2006). Even the authors were surprised by this finding, in light of the results from studies. The authors suggested that age might be a factor, but the epidemiological studies presented here included
" (NCGA, 2008) The following chart shows the U.S. Corn Supply and Total Use between the years of 1988-1989 and 2008-2009.
Source: NCGA (2008)
U.S. corn growers are stated by the NCGA to have responded to the increase in demand by producing "the five largest corn crops in history over the past five years - with the 2007-08 crop setting an all-time record of 14.4 billion bushels." (NCGA, 2008) Annual production is stated to have averaged 11.3 billion bushels from 2003/04 to 2007/08 compared with an average of 9.5 billion bushels in the previous five crop years." (NCGA, 2008) Acres are planted by corn growers in response to the marketplace signals and when corn demand is high and "revenue per-acres is strong relative to other crops, farmers will plant more corn." (NCGA, 2008) This is precisely what occurred in 2007 as farmers planted "92.9 million acres to corn, a 19%…
Pulley, Mary (2008) Pilgrim's Pride Layoffs. WHSV.com 13 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.whsv.com/news/headlines/16665741.html
Andrejczak, Matt (2008) Chicken Producers Bank on Summer Rally. 16 May 2008. Market Watch. Online available at http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/chicken-producers-look-summer-rally/story.aspx?guid=%7B9D4F30EE-30A4-4032-9E84-798C830BE3A4%7D
Biofuels: Turning Trash into Treasure (2008) Chevron - Human Energy. Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.chevron.com/deliveringenergy/biofuels/
U.S. Corn Growers: Producing Food & Fuel (2008) National Corn Grower's Association. Online available at http://www.ethanol.org/pdf/contentmgmt/NCGA_Food_and_Fuel_08.pdf
High Fructose Corn Syrup
There has been some discussion in certain quarters about the idea of banning high fructose corn syrup from the food supply. Before such a determination can be made, one must understand what high fructose corn syrup is and what it is not. HFCS became popular by the mid-1970s as a replacement for sucrose. It has the same sweetness level of sucrose, but is more stable (White, 2008). Further, it derives from corn, a crop which is more plentiful in the United States that sugarcane. At this point, HFCS has nearly the same market share as sucrose in the United States (White, 2008).
One of the issues with high fructose corn syrup is that it is said to be less healthy than other sugars. Since the mid-1970s when it came into popularity, high fructose corn syrup use increased by 10,000%. It contributes 132 kcal per day, on…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
FDA (2014). High fructose corn syrup Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved October 13, 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm324856.htm
Stanhope, K. & Havel, P. (2008). Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 88 (6) 1733-1737.
Tordoff, M. & Alleva, A. (1990). Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 51 (1990) 963-969.
Sugary sodas contain corn syrup, but the American Agricultural Department subsidizes American farmers for growing corn, and this is one of the reasons that high-fructose corn syrup is so ubiquitous in the food supply. e are taxing corn syrup and subsidizing it at the same time, in other words. "The bigger issue, which the industry neither can nor particularly cares to rebut, is that the product [corn syrup] exists at all. e pump absurd quantities of cash into subsidizing corn (we also have a huge tariff on Brazilian sugar cane, incidentally). Over the past 10 years alone, Congress has appropriated more than $50 billion to encourage farmers to grow the stuff. But people don't want to eat $50 billion in subsidized corn. And if the cobs just sat around developing mold, Congress would cut off the spigot. Enter high fructose corn syrup, which sucks up the subsidies and created a…
Adamy, Jane. "Soda Tax Weighed to Pay for Health Care." The Wall Street Journal. May 12,
Klein, Ezra. "The Problem with Corn Syrup. The American Prospect. 2008.
Science is a neutral human pursuit. It is only the application of science that raises potential ethical questions. Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle perfectly exposes the ways science can be manipulated by the hands of its sponsors. Money determines the nature of research, its methodologies, its findings, and its applications. Michael Pollan's The Omnivore's Dilemma raises similar ethical questions and concerns, focused not on the military but on the food industry. Arguably, the food industry poses far more complicated ethical issues than the military-industrial complex. The military can be viewed as an ethically incorrect institution, as even when it presumably protects the lives of Americans it does so necessarily at the expense of the lives of others. National security is not built on a universal human rights vision, but on a xenophobic model that presumes national superiority and reinforces an "us vs. them" mentality that is at the root…
DuBridge, Lee. "The Social Control of Science."
Ferrie, Helke. "Evidence grows of harmful effects of GMOs on human health." CCPA Monitor. Oct 2011.
Martinelli, Lucia, Karbarz, Malgorzata and Siipi, Helena. "Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food." Croat Med J. 2013;54:91-6.
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma.
childhood obesity in the United States and many of the other estern nations have been growing at an alarming pace. This topic is interesting for many reasons. One such reason is that childhood obesity affects the first world at a much higher rate than developing nations. As society grows more technologically advanced and has mass produced foods then this seems to open many dietary challenges. Although food may be plentiful, the nutritional value is poor in cheaper foods in the United States that are processed and packaged. For example, there are a variety of cheap packaged pastries and soda drinks that are highly portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible which makes them popular among many demographics. This analysis will look at childhood obesity from many angles and try to develop a campaign that can help mitigate this growing trend.
Childhood Obesity Risks
There are many factors that have been identified that…
Baidal, J., & Taveras, E. (2014). Protecting Progress against Childhood Obesity -- The National School Lunch Program. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1862-1865.
Chen, M., Collins, E., Tao, L., & Lu, C. (2013). Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 9251-9264.
Chicago Defender. (2003). Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies. Chicago Defender, 1.
Chung, M., Ma, J., Patel, K., Berger, S., Lau, J., & Lichtenstein, A. (2014). Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 833-849.
This increases the risk of heart disease in adulthood. Those ingesting the highest added sugars had lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein levels are the good cholesterol, while the low-density lipoproteins are the bad cholesterol. There was a 9% difference between those who consumed sugar at the highest levels at 54 mg/dL of HDL levels and those with the lowest levels at 54 mg/dL. Research says that sugary beverages contribute the largest amount of added sugars. Examples are sodas, fruit drinks, coffee and tea (Welsh).
Combining its findings with the sugar content data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture My Pyramid equivalent databases, the survey team found a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adding sugar and replacing the energy requirement from less than 10% to more than 30% (Welsh et al. 2011). The study involved 646 adolescents as volunteers. It found that…
Bray, George a. Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Beverages May Play a Role in the Epidemic of Obesity. Vol 79 # 4 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:
American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2004. Retrieved on January 30, 2011 from http://www.ajcn.org/conent/79/4/537.full
Green, Aleisha. Sugar Effects in Your Health. Associated Content: Yahoo, Inc., 2011.
Retrieved on February 1, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1899250/sugar_effects_on_your_health.html
Business -- Change Management Project
DopplerShift, Inc. is a full-service professional business consulting firm. Our mission is to provide the necessary assistance for successful business organizations to identify their optimal future strategic vision with clarity of purpose and the functional approach to implement the changes through which major shifts can be accomplished. Our goal is always to enable organizations to make significant changes without disrupting the current success of those organizations.
The client, Dr. Pepper Snapple Group is a licensed subsidiary of the Coca Cola Group that has built a two-century-long reputation for success in conjunction with a historic brand recognized worldwide. According to the organization's most recent Annual eport, Dr. Pepper Snapple Group recorded $202 million in revenue in the first fiscal quarter of 2011, representing a $15 million increase in earnings compared with the same quarter in 2010 (DPSGroup, 2011).
Nevertheless, DopplerShift analyses of the market and wider…
Akin, G., Dunford, R., and Palmer, I. (2006). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Daft, R. (2005) Management. Mason, GA: Thomson South Western.
DPSGroup (2011). "Dr. Pepper Snapple Group Reports First Quarter 2011 Results." Retrieved June 26, 2011 from: www.Drpeppersnapple.com
Fisk, P. (2008). Business Genius: A More Inspired Approach to Business Growth. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Capstone.
Strategic Choices - SOT
"Competitive advantage" is approached with the seriousness of a science involving carefully chosen strategies for cost advantage and/or differentiation advantage. Achieving one or both of those advantages through the use of one or more of four strategic business methods ideally gives a company a significant competitive edge over its competitors. The Coca-Cola Company apparently uses three of these strategies to achieve a premiere position in the global beverage industry.
Strengths -- Social Factors
Coca-Cola can use the social factor of health consciousness to become the low cost producer of bottled water and vitamin water, targeting Coca-Cola's broad, worldwide market and gain the lion's share of the market with its exemplary distribution system
Coca-Cola can use the social factor of health consciousness to produce and deliver bottled water and vitamin water that is superior to other competitor's bottled water and vitamin water.
Coca Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on March 5, 2012 from Thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html
Porter, M.E. (1985). Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. New York, NY: The Free Press.
QuickMBA.com. (2007). Competitive Advantage. Retrieved on March 5, 2012 from QuickMBA.com Web site: http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/competitive-advantage/
QuickMBA.com. (2007). Porter's generic strategies. Retrieved on March 5, 2012 from QuickMBA.com Web site: http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml
Pollan stresses the need to cook our own food and reassert the historical and cultural importance of food in our lives. Again this strengthens Pollan's rhetoric and continues the line of reasoning he began in Omnivore's Dilemma.
So it's good to be encouraged by Pollan, who eulogises the pleasures of cooking, and to be reminded of some basic truths."hen you cook at home, you seldom find yourself reaching for the ethoxylated dyglycerides or high-fructose corn syrup," he says. "The cook in the kitchen preparing a meal from plants and animals has a great many worries, but 'health' is simply not one of them because it is a given."The final advice given by Pollan encapsulates it all: "Don't eat anything your greatgrandmother wouldn't recognise as food." ("Food Really Does Grow" 12)
The rhetoric of his work is demonstratively evident as his lines of reasoning attempt to make consumers more responsible for…
Crumbpacker, Bunny, "You Are What You Eat." The Washington Post April 9, 2006; BW09.
Dinovella, Elizabeth. "Think Globally, Eat Locally." The Progressive Nov. 2006: 41.
Flannery, Maura C. "Plants in Production." The American Biology Teacher 70.1 (2008): 51.
"Food for Thought; What We Eat, from Source to Table." The Washington Times 30 July 2006: B08.
High Fructose orn Syrup - Diffusion in the Agricultural Framework - High-fructose corn syrup news and information. (2011). Natural News.com. ited in: http://www.naturalnews.com/high-fructose_corn_syrup.html
Tags: farming, corn, agricultural supplements, high fructose corn syrup
The idea of diffusion has a number of parts; it may become part of culture through innovation; but may also be the modus operendi of a partnership between big business and government (authoritarian figures in culture). One such example is High-Fructose orn Syrup. Excess corn production and increased pressures from farming lobbies created a governmental program that actually subsidizes farmers to sell to oOps that specialize not in feeding livestock but in producing the "new sugar." The process of diffusion in this article shows the real power of change within a small market through to appropriate channels may serve as either agricultural or biochemical change and diffusion. Of course, this also bleeds over to the numerous fast or…
Tags: GPS, Satellite mapping, modern mapping, garmin, mapping software
A GPS system is a devise that receives and utilizes Global Positioning Satellite data for the person of determining that device's location on earth, mapping the terrain, or providing current locations for installed equipment. There are a number of industries in which this technology
The typical American diet is one high in sugars and processed foods. Accordingly, The United States has earned the unfortunate nickname of "Fast-food Nation." The initiation of the rapid growth in fast-food consumption rates in America is likely a result of this country's lack of a widely embraced and highly diverse national cuisine. The United States as a country is truly a melting pot for cultures, religions, ethnicities and beliefs. This vast assortment has certainly carried over into the world of food. That is, most Americans have easy access to a large array of different cuisines on a daily basis and this chronic presence of other cultural food choices has virtually destroyed any possibility of creating a truly American cuisine. Therefore, American citizens along with the rest of the world have transfixed fast-food into this national category. Without question, on the global stage, McDonald's and urger King are…
Allison, C. (2010, May). Barbecue Master. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://barbequemaster.blogspot.com/2010/05/chopped-pork-bbq-sandwich-with-sam-dog.html
Baker, E.A., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., & Kelly, C. (2006, July). The Role of Race and Poverty in Access to Foods That Enable Individuals to Adhere to Dietary Guidelines. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research Practice and Policy, 3 (3).
Bedell, J. (2008). Food, Fitness, Obesity and Diabetes in the Bronx. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from New York City Department of Health: www.phanyc.org/files/food-fitness-obesity-in-bronx-bedell.ppt
Block, J.P., Scribner, R.A., & DeSalvo, K.B. (2004). Fast Food Race/Ethnicity, and Income: A Geographic Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27 (3).
, 2006). The evidence reflects only a low level weight loss but is still worthwhile to consider in controlling weight at roughly 0.007 kg per week. It is useful for individual weight loss programs. Losing 0.2 kg per week requires a decrease of 220 kilocalories per day. Achieving a 32% reduction requires a sacrifice of 330 kilocalories a day from sucrose by substituting aspartame. Using aspartame replaces 70 g of sucrose or roughly two cans of soft drinks every day (Hunty et al.). This means less expense.
200 Times Sweeter and Cheaper
On the average, aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (Hu et al., 2008). Not only does it mean less calories but also less cost. The taste difference between them is that the sweetness of aspartame is detected by the taste buds longer than sucrose. This can, however, be resolved by adding acesulfame potassium. Aspartame also has limited…
FDA (2007). FDA statement on European aspartame study. Office of Food Additive
Safety: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.fda.gove/Food/FoodingredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/ucm200858.htm
Hendrickson, K. (2011). Differences in aspartame and fructose. Live Strong:
Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/278757-differences-in-aspartame-fructose
Although Pollan condemns conventional agriculture, he also notes that even organically-labeled food is often grown in a manner that is not much better for the environment in terms of its carbon footprint -- the regulations upon what constitutes organic food can be quite lax, and some foods that use some pesticides that are grown locally and sold in farmer's markets might not be technically organic, but leave less of a carbon footprint. As part of the research for his book, Pollan visits a commercial organic farm, which is just as mechanized as a standard commercial farm, and just as large and labor-intensive. Commercial agriculture, Pollan implies, grew to satisfy a marketing demand, not out of ideology. Consumers are gradually growing uncomfortable with the evident environmental implications of their choices and wish to 'do something,' even though they are unsure as to what that 'something' should be, and many buy commercial…
The poor is stereotypically painted as haggard and lean and the wealthy CEO (and so forth) as fat and obese, for his very indolence and lack of sluggishness makes him so.
Personal counter argument
To arrive at conclusions on any major issue, credible research must be conducted based on scientific, authoritative, empirical evidence. Such, too, must be done in this case and so, inquiring into reasons for the dramatic increase in obesity in America over the last few decades, empirical studies point to factors that include the following: an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (World Health Organization, 2000); the uncontrolled or unreasonable portion-sizes in America's restaurants (ibid); an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004); and an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices all of which may be more accessible to the…
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO Technical Report Series, 894.
Wing, R.R., & Polley, B.A. (2001). Obesity. In A. Baum (Ed). Handbook of health psychology (pp. 263-279). NJ: Erlbaum.
Technological advances have impacted every area of human existence on almost every area of the planet, with few exceptions. Nearly every aspect of daily mundane life is affected by technology, including communication and transportation. However, one area of daily life is even more impacted and transformed than others. That area is food and eating. Food production has changed dramatically since the Industrial Age. Indeed, since the invention of the cotton gin, all agricultural practices have depended on technologies that have gone far beyond ox carts and donkeys. Mechanical food production increased food outputs, and greater yields have subsequently improved health and livelihoods for large groups of people. However, the fusion of technology and food production has not been completely positive. There are many negative repercussions of using technology at every stage of food production, and the integration of technology and food proves political and highly controversial. Problems such as…
Ball, M. (2014). Want to know if your food is genetically modified? The Atlantic. 14 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/05/want-to-know-if-your-food-is-genetically-modified/370812/
Flandrin, J. & Montanari, M. (2013). Today and tomorrow: Conclusion to Food: A Cultural History. Columbia University Press.
Pedrocco, G. (2013). The food industry and new preservation techniques. Chapter 36 in Food: A Cultural History. Columbia University Press.
Pollan, M. (2007). The Omnivore's Dilemma. New York: Penguin.
Preventing Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is on the rise in America and across the world. Obesity presents physical, social, and emotional complications for all sufferers. However, childhood obesity is especially concerning because the chronic conditions associated with obesity such as type II diabetes and heart disease are increasingly difficult to manage over time and today's generation of obese children is more likely to become a generation of overweight adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 17% children and adolescents aged 2 -- 19 are obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014). Obesity in children is significantly correlated with poverty and certain specific minority statuses. "In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was higher among Hispanics (22.4%) and non-Hispanic black youth (20.2%) than non-Hispanic white youth (14.1%). The prevalence of obesity was lower in non-Hispanic Asian youth (8.6%) than in youth who were non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black or Hispanic" obese ("Childhood obesity facts," 2014).…
Bray, G. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(4): 537-543
Retrieved from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/4/537.full
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Message for Target Population: Health Education and Diet
The message for my target population—adults at a behavioral health clinic—is the following statement: It is important to maintain a healthy diet, low in sugar—especially high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), as the latter has been linked with the onset of heart disease, liver disease, obesity and diabetes (Bocarsely, Powell, Avena & Hoebel, 2010; Malik et al., 2010; Stanhope et al., 2015). This means, primarily, adults should take efforts to eliminate soft drinks and soda pop from their diets—as these are among the primary beverages high in HFCS.
The four domains of health literacy are: (1) Fundamental literacy, (2) Scientific literacy, (3) Civic literacy, (4) Cultural literacy (Zarcadoolas, Pleasant & Greer, 2005). In order for the health education message described above to have an effect on the target population, the target population has to possess knowledge in the four domains of health…
Coca-Cola has a number of products, but their core product is the eponymous flagship beverage. But what is Coca-Cola? In essence, it is a syrup that is mixed with carbonated water in order to produce a soft drink. The production method is to gather the base ingredients, and then to create the syrup, which is a mixture of these flavoring ingredients, sugars and some water. This syrup is then blended with the carbonated water in order to produce the final product. When you get a Coke at a soda fountain, the blending occurs at the fountain. When you get a Coke in a bottle or can, it is blended at the manufacturing facility right before it is packaged, so that the packaging maintains the carbonation.
The process looks like this:
source: Process Flow Sheets (no date)
The Coca-Cola supply chain is complicated mainly by the volumes that the…
Process Flow Sheets (no date). Soft drinks production process flow chart. Process Flow Sheets. Retrieved September 15, 2016 from http://processflowsheets.blogspot.ca/2011/08/soft-drinks-production-process-flow.html
Zmuda, N. (2014). Coca-Cola maintains marketing spend amid sluggish demand. Advertising Age Retrieved September 15, 2016 from http://adage.com/article/cmo-strategy/coca-cola-maintains-marketing-spend-amid-sluggish-demand/294251/
CDN Honey Industry
The Canadian honey industry is widely fragmented and largely undifferentiated. There are approximately 7000 beekeepers and 600,000 colonies in Canada, according to the Canadian Honey Council (2010). Canadian honey is widely exported, to over 30 countries. Annual production is around 28,000 tonnes of honey, of which 16,000 is exported, the export value being $37 million. In recent years, honey production has slipped, but the reputation of Canadian honey abroad remains high (Agriculture Canada, 2008).
This paper will examine the Canadian honey industry, providing not only an overview of the industry and its trends, but also an examination of the industry's key success factors. A complete competitive analysis will be provided, including a Five Forces Analysis and a Value Chain Analysis. There will also be a key success factor (KSF) analysis included in this essay. The paper is intended as an overview of the industry and therefore will…
Agriculture Canada (2008). Canada's honey industry. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/supply/3308_e.htm
Canadian Honey Council. (2009). Production and value of honey and maple products. Canadian Honey Council. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.honeycouncil.ca/documents/Honey%20and%20maple%20production%202009.pdf
Canadian Honey Council website, various pages. (2010). Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.honeycouncil.ca/index.php/honey_industry
QuickMBA. (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
reporters from the Economist discuss the possible effects of climate change on corn crops. A researcher from Stanford University, David Lobell, entered into an accidental collaboration with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre in Mexico. The latter organization had been researching the potential for expanding corn production into parts of southern and eastern Africa. In particular, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre "had been running an ambitious set of field trials designed to look at what sorts of maize (corn, to Americans) grow best in various parts of southern and eastern Africa, paying special attention to drought resistance," (The Economist). Lobell and the Stanford University team provided the financial and human resources to help the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre compile data by amassing and aggregating results culled from over one hundred different research stations in the field. The project morphed into one larger than either party…
"One Degree Over." The Economist. 17 May 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.economist.com/node/18386161
Moreover, vegetarianism is theoretically possible at McDonalds by eating the token salads on the menu. The token salads might still be in keeping with the tenets of agro-business but they do not contain meat products. Still, Pollan hints at how those salads support the same industries that sustain large-scale animal slaughtering.
In Chapter Seven, Pollan focuses on the ethics and the feasibility of the fast food business model as well as its effects on dietary health and well being. Without droning didactically, Pollan points out the problems with fast food: such as high levels of fat and sodium. The nutritional content of fast food is directly and causally related to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Pollan needs not delve into great detail about that which most Americans should already be aware. What Pollan does point out are the hidden ingredients in McDonald's menu items, especially in the chicken McNuggets. By…
Pollan, Michael. Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin, 2006.
Corn as a sweetener -- yes indeed, ketchup and to cook French fries -- all without providing the basic nutritional needs and taking more from the environment that is given back (pp. 109-19).
Today, my epiphany began with a Sunday morning ritual -- a trip to Starbucks for a Caramel Breve and pastry, while working on the Sunday crossword puzzle. It occurred to me that this would be an interesting test of the Pollan theory; trace the ingredients for a simple breakfast. First, the coffee plant certainly benefits from human consumption because of the vast amounts now used for the megagiant roasters. Second, Starbucks is one of those companies that puts the richest countries in contract with the poorest countries to mass produce the goods and services necessary. This $3.00 drink probably produced less than a percentage of a penny to the local farmer; then even less to the roaster.…
Buck, C. (November/December 2010). The Omnivore's Agenda: An Interview
With Anthony Bourdain. Cited in:
Levine, Ketzel. (6/4/2001). Interview with Michael Pollan on a Plant's Eye View
Beyond that, there is little evidence of clusterization either domestically or in the global market
The sugar industry is in decline. However, there remain a few opportunities. The first major opportunity is the growth in China. One of the true growth markets in the sugar world, China is increasing in affluence and increasing its consumption of sugar-laden estern foods. The Chinese market increased by two-thirds in just six years, from 2000 to 2006, and still lags estern sugar consumption levels. Another opportunity, albeit farther out in terms of time frame, is the U.S. market. To enter this market will involve the Australian government breaking down the trade barriers that U.S. sugar producers have erected. There are more threats. The first major threat is the growth of India and other producers. India is poised to become the world's largest sugar producer, and will have a significant impact on prices worldwide. Another…
CSR Profile and Information from Australian Stock Exchange, available online at http://www.asx.com.au/asx/research/CompanyInfoSearchResults.jsp?searchBy=asxCode&allinfo=on&asxCode=CSR#details
CSR Profile and Information also sourced from CSR, available online at http://www.csr.com.au
CSR Information and Ratios from FinAnalysis, available online at http://www.aspecthuntley.com.au.ezproxy-f.deakin.edu.au/af/company/mainview?ASXCode=CSR
Industry profile from IBISWorld, January 2008. [Online] Available at: Deakin Library.
"In toy stores, children can become accustomed to food brands early by buying a Hostess bake set, Barbie's Pizza Hut play set or Fisher-Price's Oreo Matchin' Middles game. and, for budding math whizzes, there is a series of books from Hershey's Kisses on addition, subtraction and fractions" (Barboza, 2002).
Of course, the most notorious innovation in fast food, even more so than the Happy Meal, targeted at children, is the Supersized Meal. For people without children, for people for whom taste is not much of an issue, the issue of value often trumps everything. Supersizing means increasing the size of the cheapest parts of the traditional combo meal, the potatoes (starch) and the soda (high fructose corn syrup, cheaper even than real sugar). For only pennies more, people can get much larger portions, but because people tend to eat more food when more food is placed before them, this causes…
Barboza, David. (5 Aug 2003). "Fast Food Industry Zeroes in on Children
International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at http://www.rense.com/general39/fast.htm
Schlosser, Eric. (3 Sept 1998). "Fast-Food Nation: The True Cost of America's Diet."
Rolling Stone. Issue 794. Retrieved 3 Apr 2007 at http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/press/rollingstone1.html
During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity
Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm
Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site: http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e=
IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html
Starbucks, a Market Analysis
Starbucks is a major, world wide coffee retailer specializing in a variety of brands of blend coffee and iced beverages, among other related products. Within the market sector Starbucks exists stands several competing companies such as The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf and Caribou Coffee. Each company shares similar strategies, appealing to a similar demographic, and hails themselves as the high-end of coffee-based shops/cafes. They also share a similar promise of quality ingredients and service. The difference is, while a company like Starbucks focuses on the behavior of consumers to market their product, a company like Caribou coffee relies on the taste and quality of their product, and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf rely on location and ease of access.
Starbucks was selected as the primary company to analyze due to its immense popularity and success over the last decade. It has become one of…
Mayo, E.J. (1977). The impact of the consumer's psychographic and demographic characteristics on buyer behavior: A comparative analysis of psychographics and demographics as segmentation variables in a rail passenger market. Ann Arbor, Mich: Xerox University Microfilms.
Morrison, M. (2013, September 20). Starbucks Launches Campaign Focused on Bean Quality | News - Advertising Age. Retrieved from http://adage.com/article/news/starbucks-launches-campaign-focused-bean-quality/244263/
Starbucks Coffee Company (2011). Starbucks Company Profile. Retrieved from http://globalassets.starbucks.com/assets/F62C45CD8A8B4699BEFC60A2618F0431.pdf
Weinstein, A., & Weinstein, A. (2004). Handbook of market segmentation: Strategic targeting for business and technology firms. New York: Haworth Press.
Economics of Healthcare
The Economics of Health Care
The healthcare in the United States is a system of economics that has been referred to as a Ponzi scheme and most assuredly, the economics of the U.S. healthcare system are unsound at best. The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world that fails to provide universal access to basic health care and according to the work of Kilchevsky (2004), 'the absence of universal health coverage has been called 'one of the great unsolved problems facing the United States at the onset of the 21st century." (p.1) This work intends to examine the economics of health care in the United States.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that national health expenditures for 2009 totaled $2.5 trillion, which is stated to be $58,086 per person. (erdine, 2011, p.1) The estimated total for health expenditures in 2008…
Berdine, Gilbert G. (2011) The Economics of U.S. Healthcare. Luwig von Mises Institute. 8 Aug 2011. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/daily/5496/
Boyapeti, Vijay (2010) What's Really Wrong with the Healthcare Industry? Ludwig von Mises Institute. 26 May 2010. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/daily/4434/
Kilchevsky, Amichai D. (2004) Universal Coverage: A Bridge Too Far? Economics. About.com. Retrieved from: http://economics.about.com/cs/moffattentries/a/universal.htm
The way humans eat affects the globe in many ways. The balanced ecosystem requires a homeostatic process that achieves cooperation and will allow the environment to thrive. It is possible that humanity may very well eat its way into extinction if certain practices are not curtailed. Smil (2013) wrote " this increased demand was met by a combination of expanded traditional meat production in mixed farming operations (above all in the EU and China), extensive conversion of tropical forests to new pastures (Brazil being the leader) and the rise of concentrated animal feeding facilities (for beef mostly in North America, for pork and chicken in all densely populated countries)."
The purpose of this essay is to address the finer aspects of pastorilism as a reasonable means to address the eating problems that appear dire. This paper will suggest that new approaches are necessary that address the elitist attitudes that…
Niedner, F. (2012). Solution needed for wasted food. Chicago Sun Times, 31 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://posttrib.suntimes.com/opinions/14828255-474/solution-needed-for- wasted-food-problems.html
Niman, N. (2009). The Carnivore's Dilemma. The New York Times, 30 Oct, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/31/opinion/31niman.html?_r=2&hp& ;
Pollan, M. (2006). The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. Penguin Press,
As part of the 1977 National Academy of Sciences Energy and Climate Panel, he discovered "forty percent of the anthropogenic [human-generated] carbon dioxide has remained in the atmosphere, two-thirds of that from fossil fuel, and one-third from the clearing of forests." (oger evelle, 2010, p.2). evelle's presence on the panel would demonstrate the long-standing nature of global warming. evelle could also discuss why taking action on global warming has been so difficult politically, despite mounting scientific evidence that the phenomenon exists for so many years. evelle began his work in oceanography but gradually expanded his focus to population studies, enabling him to bring his expertise in both fields to the panel (oger evelle, 2010, p.3).
Michael Pollan, the author of the Omnivore's Dilemma and Food ules, has devoted his career to exposing the harms of commercial agriculture on the environment and upon human health. Pollan details simple ways…
Peter, Tom. (2008, May 19). Interview: Jane Goodall. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Wildlife/2008/0521/interview-jane-goodall-embraces-a-broader-mission
Pollan, Michael. (2007, December 16). Our decrepit food factories. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/our-decrepit-food-factories/
Roger Revelle. (2010). Earth Observatory. NASA.
This historian continues, "A sugar-loaf could weigh anything between one pound and 20 pounds, but whatever it weighed it was worth that weight in silver" (Toussaint-Samat 555). By the sixteenth century, it was discovered that sugar cane grew amazingly well in the New World Christopher Columbus had discovered, especially in the Caribbean areas. Toussaint-Samat notes, "in 1506 one Pedro d'Arrance took sugar cane to Hispaniola, now the Dominican epublic. It grew there so profusely that by 1518 the island had eight sugar plantations" (Toussaint-Samat 556). Sugar grew in popularity as it became more readily available, and it also began to drop in price, so the middle class could afford it. As early as 1600, one early historian notes, "That which was once a remedy now serves us as food'" (Toussaint-Samat 557). Sugar cane became another form of currency, and entire economies were built on it before it dropped in price…
Kurlansky, Mark. Salt: A World History. New York: Walker and Company, 2002.
Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. History of Food Anthea Bell, trans. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1992.
Wilson, Bee. "Perhaps if We Hated Sugar Less Vehemently, We Wouldn't Eat So Much of it." New Statesman 9 Dec. 2002: 56.
Socker Mad: Bee Wilson on the Swedish Obsession with Mixing Salt and Sugar." New Statesman 28 Jan. 2002: 48.
Hypoglycemia is a condition of low blood sugar, caused by the body's inappropriate metabolism of glucose and insulin. Diabetics who experience temporary hypoglycemia can remedy the problem by ingesting some simple sugars to immediately reintroduce glucose into the bloodstream.
A proper diet for diabetics is one that reduces intake of refined sugars, reduces sodium, and in many cases, helps the person lose weight. Most adults who acquire Type 2 Diabetes have poor lifestyle habits. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by obesity and poor nutrition even if some individuals are at a greater risk for developing the disease. Any person who might be at risk for diabetes should learn proper eating habits as early as possible in their life. Becoming overweight or obese is a difficult process to reverse and may lead to other health problems like heart disease. Persons who are overweight but who are willing to change their eating…
American Dental Association. "Diabetes and Your Oral Health." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.ada.org/public/topics/diabetes_faq.asp
American Diabetes Association. "Hypoglycemia." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.diabetes.org/type-1-diabetes/hypoglycemia.jsp
American Diabetics Association. "What Can I Eat?" Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.diabetes.org/food-nutrition-lifestyle/nutrition/what-can-i-eat.jsp
Oral Health and Nutrition." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.ringsurf.com/online/1173-oral_health_and_nutrition.html
Obesity in children has become a common health problem. Obesity in children is a result of indulging in fast foods and spending time in front of the television or being stationary playing video
There is an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (Hill and Peters, 1998). The portion-sizes of food in America's restaurants are unreasonable and uncontrolled (Hill and Peters, 1998). There is an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004). There is also an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Most importantly, studies show that a diet of 35% fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). It is no wonder that children having this unnutritious food become obese.
Another factor is the increasingly sedentary lifestyle that is due, in part,…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Bell & Standish, (2009) Building healthy communities through equitable food access. Community Development Investment Review, 75-87
Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
Vending Machine Businsess Plan
Maketing business plan
Location, envionment and taget maket
Value poposition and competitive edge
Maketing and sales stategy
Online maketing technique
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending -- Healthy Seven Vending
Location, envionment and taget maket
Ameica's obesity epidemic has been spialing out of contol in the past two decades, and will continue to gow unless dastic measues ae taken to change Ameican eating habits. It is of paticula concen that the ate of childhood and adolescent obesity is gowing so apidly. H.U.M.A.N. Healthy Vending (Healthy Seven Vending) believes that it is essential that food copoations pai with local municipalities, educational institutions, and othe oganizations that play a vital ole in young people's lives. "Moe than half of U.S. middle and high schools still offe suga dinks and less healthy foods fo puchase. Students have access to suga dinks and less healthy foods at school thoughout the…
references even when they are not eating from vending machines.
A growing problem. (2013). Overweight and obesity. Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).
Not even public health experts entirely agree why the obesity rate has skyrocketed in recent decades. This website provides an overview of some of the leading proposed causes, including the popularity of marketing junk food to teens.
H.U.M.A.N. Healthy vending machines. (2013). http://www.healthyvending.com/machines
The question as to what is more influential in affecting children's predilections for unhealthy food -- taste or packaging -- would be more useful to explore, but was not fully brought to light within the construct of the study, given that children were offered an choice between two identical assortments of sweet treats and vegetables at the same time.
The focus on cartoons advertising children's food is a distraction, says McWilliams, from the more difficult-to-control pressures that do influence childhood obesity. Parents that can afford healthy foods and parents that have the time and the energy to ensure their children have safe places to exercise tend to have slimmer children. It is easier to ban cartoon advertising for cookies, politically, then to end subsidizes to industrialized farms that make cheap, sweet corn syrup used in processed snack foods and to make urban areas safe places to play. McWilliams uses his…
McWilliams, James. (2010, July 22). What we know, and don't know about children and junk food. The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/07/22/what-we-know-and-dont-about-children-and-junk-food/?scp=2&sq=childhood obesity&st=cse
Although this may seem like a humorous suggestion, more and more individuals are making this choice, because of health concerns. Athletes have a wide array of energy drinks and sports drinks from which to choose, and these drinks often claim to have high amounts of protein or replenish electrolytes. Even diet colas have been shown to have certain negative metabolic effects that may inhibit weight loss. Other substitutes for colas include the caloric but more nutrient-dense skim milk, which is often promoted as healthier for children, particularly in schools that have banned colas (Mohl 2006, p.1).
On a less healthy note, coffee is a substitute for the caffeine in soda: the availability of highly sweetened coffee and tea drinks also makes it easier for people who do not like the bitter taste of coffee to drink this beverage. Other high-caffeine substitutes include ed Bull. Finally, juices offer a 'sweetness' satisfaction…
Jones Soda. (2010). Official Website. Retrieved March 19, 2010 at http://www.jonessoda.com/files/pure-cane-sugar.php
Mohl, Bruce. (2006, May 4). After soda ban, nutritionists say more can be done. The Boston
Globe. Retrieved March 19, 2010 at http://www.boston.com/yourlife/health/fitness/articles/2006/05/04/after_soda_ban_nutritionists_say_more_can_be_done/
In the article, Taubes correlates the increase in sugar in the American diet with an increase in weight gain. In 1986, according to United States Department of Agriculture analysts, every American consumed on average 75 pounds of sugar. In the early 2000s, consumption had increased to more than 90 pounds per person per year (Taubes 3). However, Taubes neglects to note that consumption of total calories have also been increasing -- of all kinds of food, of fat as well as sugar. Physical activity has also been decreasing. Furthermore, while Taubes dismisses the additional negative effects of the addition of high-fructose corn syrup to foods and the burgeoning obesity epidemic, he also admits that the addition of HFCS to foods during the 1970s is correlated with an increase in the body mass index of Americans. In short, when statistics suit his argument -- increased sugar consumption in general as…
Taubes, Gary. "Is sugar toxic?" The New York Times. April 17, 2011. [May 3, 2011].
The slight decline in the cash ratio is not considered to be of significance in light of the generally solid current and quick ratios. The improvement in times interest earned comes in the face of a significant increase in long-term debt at PepsiCo. The company's debt ratio increased to 50.2% from 48.6%. This was largely a consequence of a nearly 65% increase in long-term debt.
Pepsi's operating margin is 18.1%, down slightly from 18.5% in 2006 and 18.37% in 2005. The company's ability to maintain margin stability illustrates strong managerial control over the company's cost structure. This is because Pepsi has little control over costs in the ultra-competitive segments in which they operate. They also have little control over factor costs such as high fructose corn syrup, the cost of which is based on commodity costs. The company's net margin declined slightly in 2007 to 14.3% from 16.05% in 2006,…
Coca-Cola Co. 2007 Form 10-K.
PepsiCo 2007 Annual Report
MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved March 24, 2009 at http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/charts/chartdl.aspx?Symbol=KO&CP=0&PT=8
The original farm was a seasonal operation with periods of no production in the winter months. The ability to dry and produce value-added products will allow the business to smooth its income and realize revenue all year round. The new production facility will change the nature of the business from seasonal to year-round. The business will be able to stockpile product during the busy season and sell it on a continual year round basis.
The owners of the business will be directly responsible for the daily operation of the business. They will make joint decision as a body of shareholders, but each will have their own division to manage and operate. Each of the owners will have a stake and a role in the ability to make this new enterprise a success. They will have knowledge of what is happening on the production floor and will have a view of…
5 aday.gov. Introducing the next generation of 5 a day. http://www.5aday.gov/. Accessed April 19, 2008.
BizCommunity.com. Ten trends to watch in packaged goods in 2008. November 28, 2007. http://www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/176/22078.html . Accessed April 19, 2008.
IBM. IBM survey reveals eroding consumer confidence in packaged goods brands. June 28, 2007. http://www-03.ibm.com/industries/consumerproducts/doc/content/news/pressrelease/3166295123.html . Accessed April 19, 2008.
Kellogg's. Kellogg's Lego Fruit Flavored Snacks. http://www2.kelloggs.com/Product/ProductDetail.aspx?product=8213 Accessed April 19, 2008
Another popular fat reduction program that focuses on the negative effects of carbs is the Atkins diet. Unlike the South Beach Diet, Atkins places a more stringent elimination on the consumption of all types of carbohydrates. According to Atkins, Western eating habits are prone to creating obesity because of the large focus on refined carbohydrates found in sugar, flour and high-fructose corn syrups. Further, Atkins argues that saturated fat is not an obesity factor but that trans fat is and thus need to be completely avoided. With such a foundation, the Atkins Diet essentially argues against the food pyramid, arguing that the base level of grains is actually what causes obesity instead of health.
A third fat loss program is Weight Watchers, a company that focuses on providing dieting products to assist individuals in obtaining weight loss. One method of weight loss advocated under this program is the Flex System.…
Typically, buyers have the ability to switch their tastes from one soft drink brand to the other.
Barrier to Entry: It is very difficult to enter the industry due to several factors:
First, a new firm will need to implement economic of scale to enjoy cost reduction and compete favourably within the industry. To establish economic of scale, a new firm will require huge capital investment ranging from several millions of dollar. Huge capital needed to enter the industry serves as a barrier for a new firm. More importantly, a new firm will need to overcome the tremendous marketing muscle to establish market presence within the industry, and entering into the industry requires substantial capital. Moreover, government regulation is another factor making entry into the industry very difficult. egulations such as Soft Drink Inter-brand Competition Act are making the new entry nearly impossible in the U.S. market.
Assessment of the…
Annual Report, (2010). Coca Cola Company. USA.
Frost and Sullivan Research (2011).Financial Assessment of Non-alcoholic Beverages Market. Frost and Sullivan Research Service.USA.
IMAP (2011). Food and Beverage Industry Global Report -2010. A IMAP Consumer Staple Report.
Lagos, T. & Smith, V. (2001). Analysis of the Coca-Cola Company. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Second, he must attempt to present good doctrine. Contrary to what some may suggest, these first two goals are not identical -- merely by translating from the page to the screen what the gospels describe happening would not explain the theological significance of the events, as Jesus is rather too busy being executed to have much time to explain his purpose of salvation in those chapters -- this purpose is clarified at other points before and after his death, and must somehow be worked into this narrative without making it overly ahistorical. Finally, in order to function as a film, the film must function on an artistic level and be coherent both to the viewer and within the tradition of Christological art. It would not reflect well on Christ to be presented within the context of a shoddily film -- many people would refrain from belief for no other reason…
However, local enterprises face problems related to diseconomies of scale and this has forced them to charge higher prices which the lower and middle income classes cannot afford. There are instances where the local governments have had to intervene by subsidizing their operations something that has worsened the citizen's tax burden. Proponents of buying local have posited that buying locally made goods enhances velocity of money arguing that the currency will circulate more quickly and pass through more hands. Consequently, more people will have the benefit of that money and what it has purchased for them (Schwartz, 2009). Buying local as opposed to chain stores means more money will be put into the community.
However, quality of products and prices charged cannot be substituted with velocity of money. It is good when money flows in the local economy but no body in his right senses can buy an extremely expensive…
Cranbrook, C. (1997). The Rural Economy and Supermarkets. Suffolk: Great Glemham.
DeWeerdt, S. (2013, Jun. 22). Is Local Better? World Watch Institute.
McGinnis, M .V. (ed). (1999). Bioregionalism. London and New York: Routledge.
New, C. (2012, Sept. 18). Made in America Is a Luxury Label That Will Cost You. Huffington
marketing strategies of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in Thailand and UK
Coca-Cola and Pepsi, rated among the top companies in the world share a common fact - for several years, both these companies have been successfully selling a simple product made of water and sugar to almost all countries. This would have been impossible unless the companies were able to create sustained excitement over their products and brands among the people and its employees. (Davis and Dunn, 2002)
This study is of interest because both are extra-ordinary companies in terms of brand penetration in even the toughest markets such as China and the middle-eastern countries. Coca-Cola is the world's number brand and Pepsi is also among the top brand names in the world. In 2000, Coca-Cola's sales surpassed one billion units per day and it had 239 products, selling across 200 countries. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are seen as arch rivals by…
Angel, M. "The Taste Challenge" Retrieved at http://www.enjoyment.independent.co.uk/food_and_drink/news/story.jsp?story+496974 www.enjoyment.independent.co.uk/food_and_drink/news/story.jsp?story=496974Accessed on 25 April 2004
Pepsi Targets Asian Markets" (March 24, 2002) Asian Market Research News Retrieved from www.asiamarketresearch.com/news/000114.htm. Accessed on 25 April 2004
Coke recalls controversial water" (2004) BBC News
Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3550063.stm19 March Accessed on 25 April 2004
The author or this report is to identify three best practices relative to a social media strategy that can and should be implemented by ed Bull GmbH. The overall strategic approach, the implementation of the strategy and the expected results of that strategy will be covered for all three examples provided. The strategies and implementation thereof will come from expert and scholarly sources from the academic and/or business world. While social media has made it much easier to reach customers in an efficiently and effective fashion, the harnessing of the tool that is social media is not foolproof or easy, by any means.
Analysis & Examples
One example of social media marketing that has (and is) being undertaken is the use of "suggestion" posts on Facebook. For example, if someone likes bands like Poison and Cinderella, then the Facebook page for Motley Crue would probably be a suggestion.…
Barker, M.S. (2013). Social media marketing: a strategic approach. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Brody, J. (2011, January 31). Scientists See Dangers in Energy Drinks. The New York
Times. Retrieved March 5, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/01/health/01brody.html
Elliott, S. (2013, October 6). Marketers Chase Evolving Consumer . The New York
Beverage & obacco
Beverage and obacco Industry Analysis
Although the beverage and tobacco industry face mounting obstacles to their success, there are also an infinite number of possible opportunities. One clear opportunity is provided by emerging markets. he numbers of individuals who have greater levels of disposable incomes are increasing exponentially in the developing world. his represents a tremendous opportunity for corporations in the beverage and tobacco industry to tap into these emerging markets. Another opportunity for this industry can be thought of in terms of a localization initiative. here are growing concerns in industrialized nations which are centered on health issues. hus the beverage and tobacco industry stands the potential to innovate based on the consumer demands. hey could create a diversified product portfolio that was catered to the needs of the specific market.
here are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and…
There are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and tobacco industry. The first is the trend that is emerging in many of the industry's primary markets which is that the consumers are becoming more health conscious. Thus consumer demand for tobacco products and unhealthy beverages that contain ingredients such as high fructose corn syrup are diminishing rapidly. Many consumers are dedicated to living more healthy lifestyles and as a consequence they are shunning products that are not consistent with this preference. Another threat that is driven by consumer preference but represent an entirely different level of threat is that many health considerations are actually the subject of increasing regulations. For example, many cities have chosen to ban smoking from public spaces as well as prohibit unhealthy beverages being sold at places such as schools.
There are a countless number of manufactures and suppliers in this industry. Phillip Morris is one of the world's largest tobacco companies which name was officially rebranded in 2003 under a new name known as Atria. Atria also holds a significant stake in Kraft foods and also subsidiaries that operate in the wine industry. PepsiCo is one of the largest food and beverage companies and the largest U.S. based firm in the industry. InBev is one of the largest alcoholic manufactures and distributors in the world and operates in over one hundred thirty different countries. It recently purchased Anheuser-Busch in 2009 which significantly increased the size of the operations. To complete the deal, the United States required that InBev quit importing certain brands of beers to the U.S. market so that InBev would meet anti-trust regulations.
Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Kingdom.
The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the UK
Science of the problem
Type II diabetes progresses through two stages. The initial stage is referred to as insulin resistance. During this stage, the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the body's cell are unable to respond to insulin. The pancreas increases the production of insulin in the body to compensate for the resistance. The body cells absorb more and more insulin resulting in the pancreas continuously increasing its insulin production. Eventually, the pancreas will shut down the production of insulin because it is unable to keep up with the demand, which results in type II diabetes. The lack of sugar for conversion to energy results in the starvation of cells and there is a buildup of glucose levels in the…
Carter, P, et al. "A Mediterranean Diet Improves Hba1c but Not Fasting Blood Glucose Compared to Alternative Dietary Strategies: A Network Meta-Analysis." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 27.3 (2014): 280-97. Print.
Ceriello, Antonio, et al. "The Protective Effect of the Mediterranean Diet on Endothelial Resistance to Glp-1 in Type 2 Diabetes: A Preliminary Report." Cardiovascular diabetology 13.1 (2014): 140. Print.
Huo, R, et al. "Effects of Mediterranean-Style Diet on Glycemic Control, Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Type 2 Diabetes Individuals: A Meta-Analysis." European journal of clinical nutrition (2014). Print.
InterAct Consortium. "Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Epic) Study the Interact Project." Diabetes Care 34.9 (2011): 1913-18. Print.
Coca-Cola Enterprises Strategic Alliances
The carbonated beverage industry is one of the oldest and more complicated industries in existence. This industry is heavily dependent on its customer loyalty that it has developed historically and its reliance on marketing and innovation to grow new revenue streams. There are a growing number of potential threats that are present in the carbonated beverage industry. One trend that is emerging in many of the markets in the developed countries is that the consumers are becoming more health conscious. As a result the demand for drinks containing high fructose corn syrup is diminishing relatively rapidly in some segments. Coca-Cola has had to innovate to diversify their product mix to offer products that appeal to these demographics.
Another threat is that younger generations are seeking new types of drinks and new product brands. For example, the energy drink industry has grown rapidly. "Globally, the…
Coca-Cola Company. (2014, August 14). The Coca-Cola Company and Monster Beverage Corporation Enter into Long-Term Strategic Partnership. Retrieved from Coca-Cola Company: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/press-center/press-releases/the-coca-cola-company-and-monster-beverage-corporation-enter-into-long-term-strategic-partnership
Foeger, L. (2014, March 26). The American energy drink craze in two highly caffeinated charts. Retrieved from Quartz: http://qz.com/192038/the-american-energy-drink-craze-in-two-highly-caffeinated-charts/
Jumenez-Lutter, M. (2014, January 14). The Coca-Cola Company. Retrieved from Supply Chain World: http://scw-mag.com/index.php/sections/distribution/143-the-coca-cola-company
Kretzmann, D. (2014, September 2). Why the Coca-Cola Partnership Bodes Well for Monster Beverage. Retrieved from The Motley Fool: http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/09/03/why-the-coca-cola-partnership-bodes-well-for-monst.aspx
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Healthier food access. (2014). Health People 2020. Retrieved from:
Parents of Obese Children and Charges of Child Abuse: What Is Our
esponse? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
This article provides a discussion on the problems related to childhood obesity and the potential redresses that could be ethically used to help mitigate the growing trend. Some healthcare professionals have also argued that obesity in children is sufficient grounds for some parents to be prosecuted for a form of child abuse in extreme cases. Yet, there are many social and cultural barriers that are present that can prevent parents from being able to understand proper diets or have access to nutritious foods. Some researchers have noted the irony of a country that allows removing obese children from their homes but that does not support healthier children through controlled advertising, legislating a living wage, or making healthy foods affordable (Lang, 2012).
The article notes that states have a mandate to protect…
Hopkins, K. D., & Elliot, L. (2010). How can primary care providers manage pediatric obesity in the real world? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 278-288.
Lang, K. (2012). Parents of Obese Children and Charges Of Child Abuse: What Is Our Response? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
Savinon, C., Taylor, J., Canty-Mitchell, J., & Blood-Siegfried, J. (2012). Childhood obesity: Can electronic medical records customized with clinical practice guidelines improve screening and diagnosis? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 463-471.
One of the most controversial issues in food politics today is the question of genetically modified organisms. Many consumers dispute whether such products are safe at all. But while the evidence regarding the safety of GMOs continues to be debated within the scientific community, another debate has arisen, specifically regarding the need to label products which contain GMOs within them. Because of the ubiquitous nature of GMOs in agriculture, GMO-containing products can span from everything from foods to pesticides. Producers oppose such labeling requirements, arguing that there is no evidence that GMOs cause consumers any harm. Proponents argue in favor of consumer choice.
In Favor Of Labeling GMOs
Perhaps the most obvious argument in favor of labeling GMO-containing products is that of consumer choice. Even if the products have not been found to cause harm, according to current scientific evidence, this does not mean that consumers do not have a…
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…
references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.
Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.
Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.
Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.
Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.
Food History of North America Cuisine
What is the geographical location of North America and why it would have an effect on the North America cuisine? (i.e., what is the weather condition in North America and does that play an affect as to why they eat the foods they eat and what foods do they eat mostly).
North America is a vast area that has many different geographical areas and so, they have an amazing affect on the food that North Americans eat. The long shorelines provide every kind of seafood from Alaskan king crab to Maine Lobster. The interior of North America is made up of prairie, both in the U.S. And Canada, and it is fertile, flat soil that is easily farmed. The area provides food to the entire world.
Because the area is so vast, the weather is different throughout North America, and influences the foods…
Jones, Oakah L. "5 / Hacia El Norte! The Spanish Entrada into North America, 1513-1549." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 241-291.
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "7 / A Continent Revealed: Assimilation of the Shape and Possibilities of North America's East Coast, 1524-1610." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 344-399.
Sutherland, Amy. Cookoff: Recipe Fever in America. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.
Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York, Crown Publishers, 1988.
Wegmans store brand food items vs. well-Known brands
Wegmans hickory-smoked turkey lunchmeat vs. Hillshire Farms hickory-smoked turkey lunchmeat
Review placement on shelf: Both products are positioned side-by-side on a hanging rack in the dairy section
Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $2.99; Hillshire Farms $3.39 for the same amount in ounces
Ingredients same or different?: Virtually identical
Is private label made by brand manufacturer: Yes
Wegmans shredded cheddar vs. Kraft shredded cheese
Review placement on shelf: Wegmans was positioned at eye level, Kraft was positioned somewhat lower
Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans was $3.89 for 16 ounces; Kraft was $3.19 for 8 ounces
Ingredients same or different?: Kraft offered a blend of different flavors and colors of cheddar cheese; Wegmans bags of shredded cheese only came in single flavors and colors
Is private label made by brand manufacturer?: Yes
On the one side are those who argue against advertisements aimed at children due to a belief that children are uniquely susceptible, and on the other side are those who sell advertisements and advertising, such as ad agencies and business school textbook authors, out of a belief that advertising is able to effect product preference in any meaningful way. In short, both of these groups are incorrect, because advertising, and animated characters in particular, actually have fairly little influence on product preference and purchasing decisions. They can generate recognition and positive emotional connections between the audience and the product, but these connections do not necessarily translate into actual purchases. However, in order to demonstrate why this is the case, one must examine some relevant scientific research on the subject and attempt to inject some reasonable skepticism into the hyperbolic claims of parents' groups and advertising cheerleaders.
Aside from market research…
Altstie, T, and J. Grow, Advertising strategy: creative tactics from the outside/in, SAGE,
Thousand Oaks, 2006.
Callcott, MF, and W. Lee, "A content analysis of animation and animated spokes-characters,"
Journal of Advertising, vol. 23, no. 4, 1994, pp. 1-12.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Pennsylvania's population was estimated as 12,071,842 in 1995, ranking it fifth nationally, with 68.9% urbanized and 31.1% rural, and making it the 25th most urbanized state (Pennsylvania pp). Since 1980, the population growth pattern has been one of increases in the eastern border counties other, rather than Philadelphia and Delaware, in the southern tier counties west to Somerset, along the Susquehanna Valley, and in the other southeastern counties bordering the traditional anthracite producing counties (Pennsylvania pp). Butler was the only western county to grow in population, and Monroe and Pike counties, formerly sparsely populated, grew at astonishing rates (Pennsylvania pp). Between 1980 and 1990, Adams, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, Perry, Union, and ayne grew by ten percent or more, and there has been a remarkably high population growth in the eastern, non-industrial boarder areas, which have been stimulated by improved interstate highways…
Annual Report Pennsylvania Rural Development Council Federal Fiscal Year
http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:d-MBrcPx0GgJ:www.ruralpa.state.pa.us/ruralpa/lib/ruralpa/mainpage/2002.pdf+why+is+middle+pennsylvania+rural& ; hl=en
Black, David E. "Rural Revitalization." Congressional Testimony. March 08, 2000.