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Microsoft, unlike Apple, is not secretive. Microsoft usually offers previews of their products several months before its official release (Lloyd, 2011). They do this as it is its corporate culture. This enables customers to evaluate the product before deciding to buy. On the other hand, the company is able to get feedback regarding to the product from the customers (Lloyd, 2011). This helps the company to improve on the product before its official release. Microsoft has a set of brilliant and hardworking employees. Most of these employees are computer software developers (Lloyd, 2011). While Apple corporate culture focuses mainly in designing new and unique products, Microsoft corporate culture focuses on making money through sales of their products.
There are several ways that the unique corporate cultures of these two companies have benefited from other's competition. First these companies have partnered together to develop certain software. Second Microsoft has started producing…
Company vitae apple. (2012). Management Today,, 16-16. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/927127983?accountid=35812
Erickson, J.A. (2008). Corporate culture. Professional Safety, 53(11), 35-38. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/200397615?accountid=35812
Goltz, J. (2009). Corporate Culture. FSB: Fortune Small Business, 19(8), 61.
Judith, a.E. (2008). Corporate culture. Professional Safety, 53(11), 35-38. Retrieved from
CORPORATE CULTURE SURVIVAL GUIDE (CHAPTER 1 & CHAPTER 2)
The work of Edward H. Schein (1999) entitled "Corporate Culture Survival Guide" begins by examining the question of why it is important to understand culture. It is important according to Schein (1999) to understand that the organization exists "within broader cultural units that matter in today's global world because mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures and special projects are often multicultural entitles who must have the ability to work across cultures." (p.3) Culture is residual in the individual and is reported by Schein to be the "hidden force hat drives mot of our behavior both inside and outside organizations." (Schein, 1999, p. 3)
Schein (1999) makes it clear that the organizational culture is no small thing but instead is vital and a living aspect of the organization that determines the organization's projection whether that be toward failure or success. People belong to their…
Schein, EH (1999) The Corporate Culture Survival Guide. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from: http://books.google.cz/books?id=LkYRFu05W-AC&printsec=frontcover&hl=cs#v=onepage&q&f=false
Mercedes-Benz determined that an annual increase in the score of a corporation of a single statistical point on the customer satisfaction barometer five years consecutively corresponded to more than an 11% increase in profitability (oss, 2002).
Mercedes-Benz also determined that generating positive attitudes among its employees was essential to achieving high employee retention rates and to maintaining a positive work environment (ussell-Walling, 2005). The company determined that this is particularly important with respect to the quality of customer service interactions and to the willingness of employees to conduct customer relations in the manner most conducive to retaining customers for the long-term. Essentially, Mercedes-Benz determined that employee satisfaction, in large part, determined the company's success at retaining both quality employees and also its success retaining customers thereby (ussell-Walling, 2005).
Mercedes-Benz began soliciting the opinions of employees by inquiring anonymously into such things as whether or not they enjoy their work, whether…
Kinicki A. And Williams B. (2005). Management: A Practical Approach. New York:
Liker JK. (2003). The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World's Greatest
Manufacturer. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Corporate Culture can be effectively defined as the basic behaviors and the attitudes and all the related approaches that individuals within an organization use when they interact with one another for any reason at all. It also refers to formal and written policy within the company that is concerned with things like the dress code of the employees, the employee relationship with each other within the organization, and also the various informal behaviors that are generally accepted by the entire group of employees. (Stress Management: Corporate Culture) Corporate Culture also refers to a company's basic values, business principles, its traditions and views, its various methods of operations, and its basic internal work environment. (Define corporate culture) When an individual wishes to learn about the corporate culture of a particular state, like for example, if he wanted to gather information about the basic work ethic and corporate culture in the United…
"Corporate Culture: Auxillium West" Retrieved From
http://www.auxillium.com/culture.shtml Accessed 20 August, 2005
"Corporate Culture: Introduction" Retrieved From
Without middle-class and upper-middle-class people out there to buy Harleys, there will not be any market for them, since the younger generation cannot afford them.
As can be seen from the SWOT analysis and other information regarding this company, it is struggling somewhat, but yet it is still very strong overall. Internal and external threats and opportunities seem to be about the same for Harley Davidson, and the internal threat of corporate culture problems can be worked on. However, the company also has good opportunities that it can take advantage of in its specific industry if it chooses to focus on these opportunities while still keeping a close eye on any problems that could appear and make it difficult for the company in the future -- particularly where culture and internal problems are concerned. All companies face competition issues, but if the company has too many internal problems and…
Caldwell, B. (1998). Harley shifts into high gear -- Harley Davidson turns to it to rev up production and tighten supply-chain links. InformationWeek, 55.
Helyar, J. (2002). Will Harley-Davidson hit the wall? Fortune 146, 120.
McIntyre, M.G. (2005). Secrets to winning at office politics.
Sui, C. (2006). Harleys face tough China road. Motoring.
Corporate Culture in Healthcare It
What actions support a strong corporate culture in healthcare IT?
According to a comprehensive review of the available literature on the topic of healthcare information technology (IT) in relation to corporate culture, the following areas are the most important to the ability of healthcare organizations to implement and maintain effective policies and procedures: management support, security awareness, security culture, and computer self-efficacy (Brady, 2010). More specifically, attention to each of these areas individually as well as within an integrated organizational culture-based approach correlates with beneficial security behaviors and the optimal effectiveness of IT security necessary to ensure HIPAA security compliance within contemporary healthcare organizations (Brady, 2010).
Meanwhile, another study from China (Chien-Ding, Ho, and Wei-Bin, 2011) suggests that even the most stringent policies and protocols within healthcare organizations may not be capable of ensuring full protection against unauthorized dissemination of protected health information in and…
Brady, James W. "An investigation of factors that affect HIPAA security compliance in academic medical centers." Dissertation in Healthcare IT Management. Nova Southeastern University, (2010); Document No. 3411810.
Chien-Ding Lee, Ho, K.I.-J., Wei-Bin, Lee. "A novel key management solution for reinforcing compliance with HIPAA privacy/security regulations." Information
Technology in Biomedicine, Vol. 15, No. 4; (2011).
The suggested list of references should contain the three books and two journal articles presented in the Literary eview section, but the writer is free to choose other materials, as long as they present the matter at hand in a clear and objective manner. The sources of information must be peer reviewed and cited using the Harvard citation style. In text quotations will be parenthetically quoted by stating the surname of the author, the year the work was written and the number of the page from where the quote or idea was retrieved. The sources will also be listed at the end of the paper, on a separate page and will be alphabetically listed. This requirement is valid for all sources of information, including books, articles, websites or other sources the writer might find necessary to use.
Once the literary review is complete, the writer will move on to analyzing…
Fairfield-Sonn, J.W., 2001, Corporate Culture and the Quality Organization, Quorum Books
Gainey, T.W., Kelley, D.E., Hill, J.A., 1999, Telecommuting's Impact on Corporate Culture and Individual Workers: Examining the Effect of Employee Isolation, SAM Advanced Management Journal, Volume 64
Oden, H.W., 1997, Managing Corporate Culture, Innovation and Intrapreneurship, Quorum Books
Singh, S., 2004, Market Orientation, Corporate Culture and Business Performance, Ashgate Publishing Limited
I decided to look at the corporate culture at BP, Chevron and ExxonMobil. The corporate culture at BP has come under fire for emphasizing cost-cutting over things like safety and the environment (Hays, 2013), so the company has had to take a look at how it defines its corporate culture. The company's culture splash page immediately talks about its donations to the arts, and history thereof in the UK. It is interesting that it echoes the same information about donating to a handful of high-visibility UK cultural institutions (because donating to the Tate offsets Deepwater Horizon, right). BP actually notes as a community achievement the fact that it pays tax -- over ?6bn in the UK in the past five years. Let that number marinate a bit, thinking about BP's revenues in that time.
Chevron's website talks a lot more about its corporate culture, "The Chevron Way." On this…
Hays, K. (2013). BP fostered a culture that put cost-cutting over safety. Financial Post. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from http://business.financialpost.com/2013/02/26/bp-fostered-a-culture-that-put-cost-cutting-over-safety/
BP.com. (2014). Website, various pages. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/bp-worldwide/bp-united-kingdom/bp-in-the-community.html
Chevron (2014). Website, various pages. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from http://www.chevron.com/about/chevronway/
ExxonMobil. (2014) Corporate culture. ExxonMobil. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from http://www.exxonmobil.com/USA-English/HR/careers_us_andyou_culture.aspx
How do you design corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts that are integrated with the business strategy? How do you measure social impact? How do you promote a corporate culture that embraces and supports your CSR strategy?
The CSR programs need to be run at a senior level, not passed off to a director or manager level. The social responsibility of an organization should be rightly placed in the head office. There, by example, and by direction, the CSR programs are almost automatically into the corporate culture of the company. (Gettler, 2007)
Companies, whether individually or together with other bodies and social groups, may promote an attitude favorable to the common good by using their distinctive competencies to find new solutions to social problems, by proposing business solutions as models applicable in other spheres of society, and by fostering individual and group initiative. (IESE usiness School, n.d.)
Corporate culture, as the…
BPIR.com. (n.d.). Corporate Culture. Retrieved February 22, 2009, from Business performance improvement resource:
Forest L. Reinhardt, R.N. (2008, April). Corporate social responsibility. Retrieved February 22, 2009, from Resources for the future: http://www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-08-12.pdf
Gettler, L. (2007, June 8). Ten rules for corporate social responsibility. Retrieved February 22, 2009, from soxfirst.com: http://www.soxfirst.com/contributors.php
I will trust in my God and in the United States of America.
In April 2001, two busses carrying eighty passengers arrived at the Officers Candidates School (Covington pp). They were students from one of the nation's premier business schools, the University of Pennsylvania's harton Business School, who had come to participate in a special leadership course where the future business leaders would gain first-hand knowledge of Marine Corps leadership principles (Covington pp). Troy Turner, a former Marine artillery officer and first year master's of business administration student, said, "e spend a lot of time in the classroom talking about leadership in school, this was a unique opportunity to show students what Marine Corps leadership is all about...This gives them a different perspective on the Marine culture and military leadership" (Covington pp). According to Sgt. Gary Smith, the students have come to learn how to handle leadership challenges…
Corps Values. (1998 April). Inc.com
Covington, James Sgt. (2001 April 27). Suits to BOOTS: Marines teach Corps' values to business students. MCB Quantico. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/lookup/200153161853
Sturkey, Marion F. (2001). Warrior Culture of the U.S. Marines. Heritage Press.
Retrieved October 21, 2005 at http://www.usmcpress.com/heritage/corp_values.htm
The stock's growth is likely to level off and stagnate, remaining at or near its year-to-date average of $33, with industry developments and responses from chief rivals like Delta and Southwest causing a readjustment which removes any post-merger gains. The fact remains that operating a national airline carrier is a game defined by the slimmest of margins, and any unforeseen circumstances involving the cost of fuel, national security or a litany of similar concerns can conspire to sink AAL's stock in a manner similar to the demise of U.S. Airways.
Daily Finance Staff. "After Market: Stocks Get a Little Lift as the New American Airlines Takes
Off." Daily Finance. 09 Dec 2013: n. page. eb. 25 Feb. 2014.
Gallo, Carmine. "Southwest Airlines Motivates Its Employees ith A Purpose Bigger Than A
Paycheck." Forbes 21 Jan. 2014: eb.
Isidore, Chris, and Gregory allace. "American Air back on all…
Daily Finance Staff. "After Market: Stocks Get a Little Lift as the New American Airlines Takes
Off." Daily Finance. 09 Dec 2013: n. page. Web. 25 Feb. 2014.
Gallo, Carmine. "Southwest Airlines Motivates Its Employees With A Purpose Bigger Than A
Honeywell's organizational culture emphasizes attention to detail as part of the firm's commitment to excellence, growth, and consumer satisfaction. There are four pillars to Honeywell's organizational culture and the first and foremost is the one that focuses squarely on the employee's need to pay close attention to everything that he or she is expected to do. This includes having leaders who are able to adapt across cultures and be responsive to the complex needs of others who live and work outside the immediate circumference in which the director, leader, manager or lower-level employee is used to operating in (Kelley, 2016, p. 213). This paper will describe how Honeywell's culture and commitment to attention to detail has paid off for the company over recent years, as the firm has succeeded in boosting net income to more than $6.5 billion in the most recent fiscal year (Honeywell Annual Report, 2016).
Schien (1999) the Corporate Culture Survival Guide
Culture content and surviving in the external environment
Mission, Strategy and Goals
Development of assumptions
Sense of mission and identity
Cultural moral of story: Acquisition strategy has to fit existing culture
Over organizational history learning by organization of effective
Complexity of Cultural Analysis due to shared mission and strategic intent
F. Variations in unit organization to achieve mission and strategy
G. Error-detection systems in the organization
F. Actions when discovering important goals are not being met
G. Variation among organizational parts in measure and actions to take on results
New Leaders in the Organization
Destroy existing culture by ridding organization of key culture carriers;
B. Fight existing culture by forcing their own beliefs, values and assumption on the members of the organization.
C. Cave in to the existing culture abandoning their own beliefs, values and assumptions.
D. Evoke the culture by…
Organizational culture is defined as the personality of an organization since it comprises the norms, values, and assumptions that govern work practices in an organization (McNamara (2000). Therefore, organizational structure determines how work is divided, coordinated, and categorized in an organization. Organizational structure is one of the most influential factors on the success and profitability of an organization since it affects members and influences how organizational strategy is executed. This paper examines the organizational culture of Zappos and how it compares to the various types of organizational cultures described by Carter McNamara. The assessment is conducted on the premise that organizational culture is a concept that subjected to several classifications and interpretations. The discussion will in turn enhance understanding of the concept of organizational culture and how organizations develop their culture differently.
Zappos' Organizational Culture
Zappos is a company that sells shoes and other retail products and has experienced tremendous…
As mentioned above, communication issues are frequent in this company in the case of top-down communication. This is probably because managers do not appreciate the importance of communication, or they prefer not to include their subordinates in the decision making process. The availability of top managers for their subordinates is another issue that must be modified in order to develop a fair organizational culture.
The Glaser test has also revealed some interesting facts about my company that I did not manage to observe previously, probably because of the involvement in the company's processes. For example, the rather high score in the teamwork and conflict scale reveals that the company is characterized by frequent conflict. Although the atmosphere at work is a rather friendly, collegial, and supportive one, small conflicts tend to develop quickly. This can be attributed to the reduced level of control exerted by the managers as a result…
1. Moss, N. (2001). Quiz: What Is your Corporate Culture? Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/08/23312.html# .
Creating Strong Corporate Culture in Health I
he tasks and activities that workers, managers, and executives in the health I sector must contend with are unique to their own business area, however the large-scale needs of an organization operating in this sector are largely the same as the needs of any organization with a similar corporate structure. Communication within and between all levels of the organization is key to efficient functioning, clear systems of expectations, corrections, and rewards should be in place to motivate action towards organizational goals, and so on. What most of these general constraints come down to is corporate culture; through the establishment of a strong and positive corporate culture, all members of the corporation should not be simply constrained to acting in the organization's best interests but will truly be motivated to adopt the values and objectives of the organization as their own.
The tasks and activities that workers, managers, and executives in the health IT sector must contend with are unique to their own business area, however the large-scale needs of an organization operating in this sector are largely the same as the needs of any organization with a similar corporate structure. Communication within and between all levels of the organization is key to efficient functioning, clear systems of expectations, corrections, and rewards should be in place to motivate action towards organizational goals, and so on. What most of these general constraints come down to is corporate culture; through the establishment of a strong and positive corporate culture, all members of the corporation should not be simply constrained to acting in the organization's best interests but will truly be motivated to adopt the values and objectives of the organization as their own.
John D. Halamka, the Chief Information Officer at two major healthcare facilities as well as a practicing ER doctor and full professor at Harvard, wrote a recent article concerning corporate culture and the means by which it can be established (and how it is manifested in the organization, as well). Some of the necessary actions can be stated quite simply, though they might be far more difficult and complex to actually carry out: ensure that communication lines are open and transparent so that no one feels that an observed problem will reflect negatively on them personally, ensure that expectations and requirements are very clearly laid out and adhered to both by employees and supervisors/executives, etc. (Halamka, 2011). Other actions are more complex to describe and more subtle in their operation.
In order to establish a strong corporate culture that truly motivates professionals in the health IT field and in other organizations towards the adoption and carrying out of organizational goals with a positive attitude, action must be taken to ensure that setbacks are dealt with by adapting structures and policies rather than by blaming single individuals, and that people in the organization are motivated more by the excitement of success rather than the fear of failure (Halamka, 2011). A variety of specific actions can be taken to meet this goal, from various aspects of the communication and rewards structure in place at an organization to the guidelines for performance reviews and project debriefings. One of the most important actions that is necessary for any organization trying to create, instill, and perpetuate a strong and positively-oriented corporate culture, though, is the action that the leader(s) of a corporation must take in order to ensure that they embody and reflect the very culture that they are trying to create (Hamalka, 2011). This means engaging in no small amount of personal reflection, developing an open mind that can accept criticism (including constructive self-criticism), and working towards being seen as the leader one imagines oneself to be, rather than simply leading from a position or sensibility of commanding.
Flamhotlz, Eric, and Yvonne, Randle, "Corporate Culture: he Ultimate Strategic Asset," (Stanford University Press, 08.04.2011)
his book provides a complex definition of the idea of organizational culture and emphasizes why it is essential for most companies in the present to use this concept as a means to become more appealing to their targeted public. his book is focused on the idea of culture and on its relationship with society: it attempts to demonstrate that people are obsessed with the idea of culture and that it would thus be essential for someone to concentrate on it in order to avoid coming across significant problems.
Msoroka, Mohamed, "Organizational Culture: Its Implications to Educational Institutions," (GRIN Verlag, 2012)
Msoroka goes more in-depth when considering organizational culture and tries to explain how it can play an important role in environments that are traditionally unlikely to consider it. he essay creates a series of parallels…
This study is important because it provides examples concerning organizational culture and how it proved to play an essential role in a series of business deals. Many corporate mergers and acquisitions fail to achieve the success the goals they are expected to meet and by taking into account how organizational culture can affect such enterprises one is more likely to understand how he or she can effectively use the concept.
Hierling, Marco, Yeh, Yu-Chen, and Tai, Chloe S.Y., "Organizational Culture and the Case of Google," (GRIN Verlag, 2008)
This paper points out that sociology can be used to explain a series of ideas in the business environment. By emphasizing that individuals have the tendency to look at matters from different perspectives, the essay goes at showing the importance of organizational culture. By discussing with regard to Google and to the changes that the company experienced during recent years, one is more likely to observe how organizational culture works and that there is actually a strong connection between culture and proficiency.
Indeed, authority tended to be given to people who did not have the necessary work hours behind them, and this is where the company's lack of centralized management created a problem.
The loose management structure of the company then played a central role in its lack of accountability and sound decision making, and the company lost $3.51 billion, with a record low in stock prices and looming bankruptcy as a reward for this.
Although the initial organizational structure allowed the company's rapid growth, it was therefore time for change, especially in the areas of discipline and accountability, as well as in the management structure. For this reason, a larger number of managers were employed at the upper level of the company, and a sense of responsibility were included with fun as one of the company's core values.
3) the financial situation of AE made it obvious that restructuring was necessary.…
AES Corporation. 2007. http://www.aes-corp.com/
New York Times. AES Corporation News. 2007. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/business/companies/aes_corporation/index.html
PENALTIES - CIVIL & CIMINAL
There are statutes that impose penalties both civil and criminal for government contractors who commit fraud, waste or abuse. Some of those statutes are as follows:
False Claims Act;
False Statements Act;
Bribery and Gratuities statutes;
Mail and Wire Fraud statutes; and the Public Integrity Act and recent legislative initiatives to strengthen criminal penalties for violations of conflict of interest laws. (Peckar & Abramson, 2007)
The government has the right to audit the records of the contractor for up to three years following a contract for the government being completed. Companies with contracts exceeding $5 million are required to: (1) post a fraud hotline poster; (2) establish a written code of ethics; (3) establish an employee ethics and compliance training program; and (4) establish an internal control system. (New ule for Government Contractors, nd)
SUMMAY & CONCLUSION
The Corporate Compliance Plan…
As some queries about corporate governance were there ever since 1932 - the period of erle and Means, the expression of the concept of Corporate Governance was not found in English vocabulary until 25 years ago. However, in the previous two decades, matters relating to corporate governance have gained importance in academic literature as well as in public policy deliberations. Corporate governance came to be acknowledged as being synonymous with takeovers, financial restructuring, and activities of institutional investor's during this part of the era. Corporate Governance is now at a turning point. Several budding and up-coming economies that are on the path of development have identified by now that excellent corporate governance is vital for sustainable economic development. Furthermore, a lot are on the lookout for a novel or appropriate standard for making it relevant for their particular internal situation. (erle and Means, 1932)
The last ten years…
Berle, A; G. Means (1932) "The modern corporation and private property" Macmillan, NewYork. pp.54-58
Hart, O. (1995). "Firms, contracts and financial structure" Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp.32-36
Jensen, M and Meckling, W. (1976). "Theory of the firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure" Journal of Financial Economics, Volume. 3.pp. 305-360
Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (1997) "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance Volume. 52. pp. 737-83.
Like many of the great charismatic military leaders of the past such as Alexander the Great (Bristol 204) or General George S. Patton (Rosenback & Taylor 223; Rost 72), Gibson and Blackwell report that Kelleher is not afraid to get down in the trenches with his "troops" and endure the same types of challenges that his employees typically encounter on their jobs. Kelleher is also well-known for his insistence on allowing his employees to identify appropriate solutions to the problems with which they are most familiar, just as George Patton was fond of saying, "Never tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity" (Valle 1999:245). In addition, both Alexander the Great and General Patton were famous for leading their troops into battle and for being willing to suffer the same types of deprivations and make the same personal sacrifices…
Blackwell, Charles W. And Jane Whitney Gibson. (1999). "Flying High with Herb Kelleher: A Profile in Charismatic Leadership." Journal of Leadership Studies 120.
Blackwell, Charles W., Jane Whitney Gibson and John C. Hannon. (1998). "Charismatic Leadership: The Hidden Controversy." Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(4):11.
Bristol, Michael D. (2001). "Charismatic Authority in Early Modern English Tragedy." Shakespeare Studies, 203.
Chaganti, Rajeswararao and Hugh Sherman. Corporate Governance and the Timeliness of Change: Reorientation in 100 American Firms. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1998.
This may be a complex task requiring detailed input from all levels. He also says that the company's mission and corporate values should be clearly articulated (Drummond, 2003). He also recommends that the final plan be written down clearly so that everyone has a roadmap to help in times of change.
As Seijts (2004) says, "The true test of leadership is being able to take people in a direction where they would not go on their own." That journey will be most successful when everyone knows where they are going and why, and when they have clear guidelines, exactly what they have to do to help bring the needed cultural changes about.
Drummond, Carl N. 2003. "Strategic planning for research administration (Case Study)." Journal of Research Administration, July.
McClenahen, John S. 2005. "Restoring Credibility." Industry Week, February 1.
Seijts, Gerard H. 2004. "Walking on water or sinking without a…
Drummond, Carl N. 2003. "Strategic planning for research administration (Case Study)." Journal of Research Administration, July.
McClenahen, John S. 2005. "Restoring Credibility." Industry Week, February 1.
Seijts, Gerard H. 2004. "Walking on water or sinking without a trace? Six behaviours that describe strong crisis leaders." Ivey Business Journal Online, November.
Corporate Social and Environmental eporting
Companies have presented investigations about their motivation towards voluntarily social and environmental as insolvent. This paper argues in agreement with Adam's view that the goal of CS reporting is to promote credibility and corporate image of stakeholders operating in a particular industry. Whereas companies must focus their efforts on enhancing their profitability, they should also ensure that the welfare of other stakeholders is protected.
Previous literature offers a revelation on various competing theories based on why companies make voluntarily report and engagements in corporate social responsibility. The major perspectives considered are within the scope of application include accountability and image promotion. Many studies hold consequential evidence towards accountability to shareholders making it difficult for organizations to distinguish relevance from accountability based on continued practice. The absence of actual legitimacy crises makes it hard to identify voluntarily reporting as a proactive measure in preventing future crises…
Adams, C. (2002). "Internal organizational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting beyond theorizing." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 223-250
Bebbington, J., Larringa-Gonzalez, C., and Moneva, J. (2008). "Corporate social responsibility reporting and reputation risk management." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 337-361.
Brennan, N.M. And Merkl-Davies, D.M. (2013). "Accounting Narratives and Impression management," In Jackson, L., Davison, J., and Craig, R. (Eds.). Routledge Companion to Communication in Accounting. Routledge, pp. 109-132. (on blackboard)
Daft, R.L. (2011). The leadership experience (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson, Southwestern
The stock was trading on pink sheets at $0.165 per share at the end of April 2003" (8).
As noted above, one of the key factors involved in what happened at HealthSouth was the enormous pressure to perform in the increasingly competitive for-profit healthcare industry, pressure that directly affected the decisions that were made concerning the types of accounting practices that were needed to "deliver the goods," at least on paper. Although absent from the foregoing list, Scrushy's name appears time and again in the investigation that followed. According to Jennings, "Like Enron, orldCom, and Tyco, HealthSouth placed tremendous pressure on employees to 'meet the numbers.' In April 1998, CEO Richard Scrushy told analysts that HealthSouth had matched or beat earnings estimates for 47 quarters in a row" (8). The role played by Scrushy in engineering the corporate culture that would allow these estimates to be reported with a straight…
Brickey, Kathleen F. 2006. "In Enron's Wake: Corporate Executives on Trial." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 96(2): 397-399.
Geyman, John P. The Corporate Transformation of Health Care: Can the Public Interest Still Be
Served? New York: Springer, 2004.
Jennings, Marianne M. 2004. "Incorporating Ethics and Professionalism into Accounting
In this briefing new employee human resources, we will be considering cultural management issues in the tourist industry and how they impact upon our business. Our company, Beach Bum Ltd. is a travel consultancy Agency which was recently hired to provide a critical analysis on whether or not sustainable tours can attract American ecological tourists to travel to countries such as Tanzania and Namibia. We are a culturally eclectic group of advisors specialising in all aspects of tourism. Cultural sensitivity is not only our watchword, but our bottomline. Please do not feel overwhelmed by all of this information. Some of you may feel as though you are back in college. est assured, the difference between profit and bankruptcy in our business is the ability to sell in that person's culture. People like to feel important and an acknowledgement of their importance is not just being nice. It is also…
Reference: Managing an International Workforce . San Francisco: Pfeiffer. p65-67.
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Thomas, D (2003). Readings and cases in international management: a cross-cultural perspective . Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p17-18.
Wang, X and Wall, G. (2002). Cultural Tourism: an Assessment of Marketing Strategies in Dalian, Nanjing and Hainan, China. Available: lin.ca/Uploads/cclr11/CCLR11-163.pdf. Last accessed 24 Nov 2011.
They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.
Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.
The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…
Hult, G. Tomas M.; Cavusgil, S. Tamer; Deligonul, Seyda; Kiyak, Tunga; & Lagerstrom,
Katarina. (2007) What Drives Performance in Globally Focused Marketing Organizations? A Three-Country Study. Journal of International Marketing, 15(2), 58-85.
Keeley, Timothy Dean. 2001, International Human Resource Management in Japanese Firms: Their Greatest Challenge, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kim, Youngok, Gray, Sidney J. 2005, 'Strategic factors influencing international human resource management practices: an empirical study of Australian multinational corporations', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 809-830.
In this instance, the stronger culture can easily consumer the lesser culture. Employees tend to be more receptive due primarily to the lack of culture and also by the prestige and power of the acquiring firm. Assimilation often occurs will smaller, less established companies being acquired by much larger competitors. As the company is just beginning to emerge, many culture qualities have not become entrenched. Assimilation however, is very rare in the context of mergers.
What is a more common strategy is that of deculturation. This is due primarily to the fact that employees usually resist organizational change, particularly when they are asked to throw away personal and cultural values. Under these conditions, some acquiring companies apply a deculturation strategy by imposing their culture and business practices on the acquired organization. The acquiring firm strips away artifacts and reward systems that support the old culture. People who cannot adopt the…
WorldCom (CEO Bernard Ebbers) supported by years of profitability arising from the deregulation of phone companies was a fast moving stock that was highly toted by stock specialists as a must buy, even while it was seriously hemorrhaging from bad and fraudulent business deals and its own shoddy accounting, cover ups and bad investment deals.
WorldCom quickly supplanted at&T as the favorite of many investors, based heavily on Grubman's recommendations. The investment world quickly sang WorldCom's praises as a result. A technology magazine, Network World, named it one of the ten most powerful companies, behind only Cisco and Microsoft. After listing its virtues, the magazine went on to conclude that, "MCI WorldCom will probably be a keeper on this list." 18 as for its investment virtues, Grubman claimed that it was a traditional "widows and orphans" stock, to be held for the long-term. Based partially upon his recommendations, Fortune listed…
Beauchamp, Tom. L. Bowie, Norman. E. Ethical Theory and Business 7th Ed. New York: Prentice Hall, 2003.
Dalla Costa, John. The Ethical Imperative Why Moral Leadership Is Good Business. Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing,1998.
Fox, Loren. Enron: The Rise and Fall. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003.
Geisst, Charles R. Wall Street: A History: from Its Beginnings to the Fall of Enron. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
But the shareholders themselves need to be more aware and more involved in their company's business in order for any meaningful change to sustain itself:
Shareholders, the intended beneficiaries of the corporate vehicle, are the ultimate capitalists: avaricious accumulators with little fiscal risk and no legal responsibility for the way in which they pursue their imperative to accumulate. Shareholders, not corporations, show indifference to the needs and values of society. It is their behaviour that is most appropriately characterized as amoral indifference to the plight of others and their environment. Shareholders, not corporations, behave in a pathological manner. And shareholders should be the targets for the cure that we need for our ills. (Glasbeek 2005: 24)
There is also the problem of victimisation of other cultures in a global market. As Strike, Gao and Bansal (2006) point out in their article, 'Being Good While Being Bad: Social esponsibility and the…
Berkhout, Tom. 2005. 'Corporate Gains: Corporate Social Responsibility Can Be the Strategic Engine for Long-Term Corporate Profits and Responsible Social Development.' Alternatives Journal, January/February, pp. 15-22.
Carroll, B.A. 2004 'Managing ethically with global stakeholders: Annual Editions' Business Ethics 06-07: Contemporary Learning Series 30, pp. 114-120.
Dean, Dwane Hal. 2004. 'Consumer Reaction to Negative Publicity: Effects of Corporate Reputation, Response, and Responsibility for a Crisis Event.' The Journal of Business Communication 41:192-201.
Dickens, Charles. 1912. A Christmas Carol. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…
Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review, http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/4509815-1.html .
Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.
Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.
Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has recently reached an unprecedented level of salience with the emergence of global protests that seem to be driven in a large part by concerns over social issues such as equality as wells as environmental issues such as the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the protestors are occupying various parts of the world for a plethora of mixed motivations, it is reasonable to speculate that much of these individual motivations are embodied in the concept of CSR. The concept of CSR covers a lot of ground but there are two core principles that account for most of the commentary.
The first concept embodied within the notion of CSR is in respect to the manner that people are treated. Under classical models this would only include investors, customers, and internal employees. However the CSR approach includes all stakeholders locally, regionally, or even…
Drucker, P. "What is Business Ethics?" The Public Interest (1981): 18-36.
Friedman, M. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." The New York Times Magazine 13 September 1970.
Hui, L. "Combining faith and CSR: a paradigm of corporate sustainability." International Journal of Social Economics (2008): 449-465. Web.
Peloza, J. And L. Papania. "The Missing Link between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Stakeholder Salience and Identification." Corporate Reputation Review (2008): 169-181. Web.
According to prior research studies, plagiarism is not just appearing in the academic environment. Now, plagiarism is being seen in corporate America as a way to "adjust" information that might otherwise seem unfavorable to stakeholders, higher-ups, or others who will be provided information regarding something to do with the company. Financial issues are often a part of the plagiarism issue, but there are other concerns that are not related to the company's finances. No matter what concerns a corporation has, it should be honest about those concerns and not attempt to cover them up with dishonesty of any kind. There are other dishonest practices other than plagiarism that are used in corporations today, but plagiarism is one of the more common problems that is discovered. It appears to be acceptable until it is discovered, and it is important that the researcher examines just how much plagiarism is permeating…
Aguilera, R., & Vadera, A. (2008). The dark side of authority: Antecedents, mechanisms, and outcomes of organizational corruption. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 431-449.
Bailey, J. (2008, January). Whistleblowing: An international perspective. Internal Auditing, 23, 20-25.
Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Haggerty, J., & McKinnon, J. (2004, September 24). Fannie Mae ousters might come. Wall Street Journal, p. A12.
Corporate Social esponsibility
The purpose of this case study is close synopsis of the Enron case and its impact on consumers and corporate business practices alike. Prior to its collapse Enron had been named one of America's top 10 admired corporations, and its boards "was acclaimed one of the U.S.' best five" (eed, 2004). Throughout the 1990s the company experienced tremendous growth and profits exceeding $180 billion, employing more than 30,000 people worldwide (eed, 2004).
Enron collapsed however and went bankrupt, a process that "outraged and impacted stakeholders tremendously and resulted in numerous congressional investigations" (eed, 2004). The "implosion" of the company "wreaked havoc on accounting like no other case in American history; the collapse of the system called into question the adequacy of U.S. disclosure practices and the integrity of independent audit processes" (Thomas, 2002).
Overview of the Case
In October of 2001 Enron executives announced they were taking…
Berlau, John; Spun, Brandon. (2002). "Is Big business ethically bankrupt? Boom in business ethics courses is likely in the wake of the Enron scandal, but critics say these classes need to focus on moral rather than political corrected ness." Insight on the News, Vol. 18, Issue 10, p. 16
Farrell, G. (2002). "Impact to reverberate from Wall Street to D.C." USA Today. October 10, 2004, http://www.usatoday.com/money/energy/enron/2002-06-17-andersen.htm
Hoops, J. (2004). "Enron revisited: where are we today?" The Trusted Professional,
October 11, 2004,
This is too simple a solution. An analysis of the corporate strategies shows that the flaw in the lack of any ethics in the formulation of these strategies is greater the culprit and the corporate executives that were responsible for the development of these flawed strategies, lacking in ethics were more to blame than a few leaders in the organization. (Leadership: Facing Moral and Ethical Dilemmas)
In conclusion a corporate executive may choose to employ ethical and moral values at the time of formulating corporate strategies, but should he choose to ignore the immense good that morals and ethics bring to a corporate strategy he does at not just his peril but puts at risk the whole organization with the chances of it collapsing like Enron very high.
Ethics Must Come From the Top. Jacksonville Business Journal. August 27, 2004. etrieved from http://www.foley.com/publications/pub_detail.aspx?pubid=2226Accessed on March 3,
Implementing Ethics Strategies…
Ethics Must Come From the Top. Jacksonville Business Journal. August 27, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.foley.com/publications/pub_detail.aspx?pubid=2226Accessed on March 3,
Implementing Ethics Strategies within Organizations. Retrieved at http://www.aicpa.org/cefm/management_control_02.asp . Accessed on March 3, 2005
Leadership: Facing Moral and Ethical Dilemmas. Retrieved at http://www.leadershipadvantage.com/moralAndEthicalDilemmas.shtml. Accessed on Orlitzky, Marc. A case for ethics. August 30, 2001. Retrieved at http://www2.agsm.edu.au/agsm/web.nsf/Content/AGSMMagazine-AcaseforethicsAccessed on March 3, 2005
Tishler, Carla. Where Morals and Profits Meet: The Corporate Value Shift. November 18, 2002. Retrieved at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item.jhtml?id=3530&t=strategyAccessed on March
Moffett, M.H., Stonehill A.I., & Eitemen, D.K. (2012).
Fundamentals of multinational finance (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
In completing these assignments the university requires that you follow APA guidelines and include (in-text citations) in preparing all works, citations, and references.
Each essay question response should be numbered, answered separately, and be at least 200 words (each question) in length but should be submitted as one file.
Some information has been added to responses. Please ONLY add to these responses and format correctly.
In your own words, contrast international financial management with domestic finance.
International financial management and domestic finance share many commonalities. Each deals with interest rates and making the best financial use of assets. However, in international financial management the primary difference is that there is also interest rate risk and risks associated with exchanges. When currencies float, the rate can be subject to volatile movements. For example,…
Moffett, M.H., Stonehill A.I., & Eitemen, D.K. (2012). Fundamentals of multinational finance (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
4. If Enron shareholders had been fully aware of the LJM partnership agreement, do you believe they would have been willing to continue investing in Enron?
LJM was created by Fastow allegedly to buy poorly performing Enron assets, but in reality to hide debt and inflate profits of Enron in order to leverage its stock price. It is almost certain that Enron shareholders would have ceased to continue investing in Enron had they been aware of the full significance of LJM.
LJM, in its essence, entailed that Enron was far below that which it's displayed to the public and that likely its debts were more massive and its profits far less than those claimed. Investors, obviously, would not want to invest in a poorly performing company.
Even if Enron's profits were higher and debts lower than those that the company tried to conceal, the very fact that Enron was not…
Arping, H., & Sautner, B. (2010). "The Effect of Corporate Governance Regulation on Transparency: Evidence from the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002." Papers.ssrn.com. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1561619 . Retrieved 5/11/2012
Environment and Society. (2007)"Environment and Society -- Shell General Business Principles." Shell International B.V.
Fombrun, C. & Foss, C. 2004, 'Business ethics corporate response'. Corporate Reputation Review, 7, pp.284 -- 288
Healy, Paul M. & Krishna G. Palepu (Spring 2003). "The Fall of Enron" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives 17 (2): 15.
Post: Global Conflict: Mass Population Migration and the EU
The Brexit crisis reflects ongoing tensions in the European Union related to a complex of problems including the decreased relevance of national sovereignty within the European Community and also the increased relevance of immigration policy in light of mass population migrations into Europe. Individual European nations have also contended with domestic crises linked to the same cluster of issues, which at the risk of oversimplification can be boiled down to economics. The Greek economic crisis shows that while national and cultural identity do matter, economics matters far more in the fomentation of international crises. Crises generally emerge over perceived or real resource scarcity: those resources can be tangible such as land, water, oil, money, or minerals. However, often those resources are intangible or symbolic as with power, clout, and status. The United Kingdom has for centuries wielded considerable power, retaining global…
Chua, A. (2014). A world on the edge. Wilson Quarterly, 38(1), 101-122. http://library.esc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx ? direct=true&db=a9h&AN=94318652&site=ehost-live
Fox, J. (2001). Two civilizations and ethnic conflict: Islam and the West. Journal of Peace Research, 38(4), 459- 472. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org.library.esc.edu/stable/424897?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72(3). 22-49. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.library.esc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=d984c31e-a98a-4d90-a8bc - 408bb26072f4%40sessionmgr4007&vid=1&hid=4105
In a contemporary business environment, organizational culture is one of the strategic methods that an organization employs to achieve competitive advantages. Culture is a technique that organizations employ to differentiate among one another. Each organization has its own unique culture that guides the conduct of the employee. Organizational culture consists of the organizational personality and it is the value, norm and behavior of the member of an organization.
The objective of this paper is to explore the concept of organizational culture and how the concept is translated into the organizational acts.
High Performance Culture
In the present competitive environment, each organization is searching for the method to achieve market competitive advantages and differentiate its products and services from the markets. In the contemporary business environment, culture of innovation is a method a high performing organization employs to differentiate itself from other organizations. The success of an organization depends…
Apple (2010). Culture of Innovation and Creativity. Apple Inc.
Apple (2011).Apple Reports Fourth Quarter Results. Apple Inc.
Apple (2011).Annual report . Apple Inc.
Rogers, R.W. & Ferketish. B.J. (2010). Creating a Value Driven Change Process through High-Involvement Culture. Development Dimensions International, Inc.
American Red Cross
hat are some formal statements that are prevalent in the organization? These could include that organization's philosophy, mission, vision, values, and any promotional materials with which you may be familiar. hat do these statements suggest to you about the organization?
The first formal statement that greets a visitor to the Official American Red Cross ebsite is that the American Red Cross is forever "preparing communities for emergencies and keeping people safe." Other formal statements about the philosophy of the organization included on the ebsite as part of the American Red Cross mission statement are, "together, we can save a life." The organization's primary mission is to help others in times of dire medical need. Thus, in terms of the Red Cross vision, not only safety and medical is stressed, but communality and a community-focused, volunteer-oriented spirit in its members, and all volunteers who chose to…
Disaster FAQ." (2005) Official Website of the American Red Cross. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://www.redcross.org/faq/0,1096,0_378_,00.html
Health and Safety FAQ." (2005) Official Website of the American Red Cross. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://www.redcross.org/faq/0,1096,0_381_,00.html#686
International FAQ." (2005) Official Website of the American Red Cross. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://www.redcross.org/faq/0,1096,0_382_,00.html
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
"hen Congress returned in 1934 to complete the federal disclosure tapestry, it created express private causes of action for misleading reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as part of the newly enacted continuous disclosure requirements, (3) provided private recoveries for market manipulation, (4) and authorized suits on behalf of reporting companies for short-swing profits garnered by certain insiders (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003)."
The creation of the SEC as a government body for oversight arose out a recognition by the courts that private action was not enough to protect investors and consumers from the materially misleading representations of corporate America (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003). Since its creation, however, the numerous laws and regulations that have come to frame the world of corporate governance have exceeded the limits of manageable governance. By the time the SEC has identified a problem, pursued investigation of the corporate representations of…
Anderson, Jonas V. 2008. Regulating Corporations the American Way: Why Exhaustive Rules and Just Deserts Are the Mainstay of U.S. Corporate Governance. Duke Law Journal 57, no. 4: 1081+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5027008674 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
Angelidis, John P., and Nabil A. Ibrahim. 1993. Social Demand and Corporate Supply: A Corporate Social Responsibility Model. Review of Business 15, no. 1: 7+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001675246 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
Bavly, Dan A. 1999. Corporate Governance and Accountability: What Role for the Regulator, Director, and Auditor?. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114694551 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
Besser, Terry L. 2002. The Conscience of Capitalism: Business Social Responsibility to Communities. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106996136 . Internet. Accessed 16 June 2009.
It should not be treated as a separate exercise undertaken to meet regulatory requirements." (ICA, 29) Here is expressed a philosophical impetus that drives the focus of this research, that such compliance which will generally concern matters such as corporate accounting, the practice of internal oversight and the practice of financial transaction must be considered inextricable from other aspects of practical, procedural and legal operation in terms of its relevance and necessity.
The practice of corporate governance may perhaps best be understand from the perspective that deregulation has largely defined the processes and direction of the global economy across the two decades following the Cold ar and its inevitable opening of economic channels. This is because in practice, corporate governance is a concept which has suffered much neglect. To the point, the statistics availed by organizations such as the orld Bank and the International Monetary Fund illustrate that…
Aguilera, R.V. & Yip, G.S. (2004). Corporate Governance and Globalization:
Toward an Actor Centred Institutional Analysis. University of Illinois: College
of Business. Online at .
ASB. (1999). Reporting Financial Performance. Financial Reporting Council. Online at
For IBM, it took Louis Gerstner getting angry about unfulfilled opportunities for new businesses to create the EBO structure. For Nokia, the similarities with IBM are at a very high structural level, yet Nokia relies on a completely different set of processes for fostering innovation and corporate entrepreneurship. The rapidly changing world of laptop computers needed a corporate nonconformist to accomplish what carefully defined processes in Toshiba could not. In the case of Trilogy the need for creating a steady stream of significant new innovation forced the creation of a proving ground where PhDs in software and mathematics could quickly define entirely new product and business concepts.
Abetti, P (2004) - Informal corporate entrepreneurship: implications from the failure of the Concorde alloy foundry and the success of the Toshiba laptop;. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2004, pp. 529-545
Arthur D. Little (2002) - Developments in…
Abetti, P (2004) - Informal corporate entrepreneurship: implications from the failure of the Concorde alloy foundry and the success of the Toshiba laptop;. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2004, pp. 529-545
Arthur D. Little (2002) - Developments in the area of Corporate Venturing based on a global Arthur D. Little Study. December, 2002. Page 11 quoted with the Nokia graphic. Accessed from the Internet on March 30, 2007: http://www.adlittle.com/insights/studies/pdf/corporate_venturing_study_report.pdf
Garvin, D.A., & Levesque, L.C. (2006). Meeting the Challenge of Corporate Entrepreneurship Harvard Business Review, Business School Publishing. Pages 102-112.
Nunes, S. (2004). IBM research: Ultimate source for new business. Research Technology Management, 47(2), pages 20-23.
Corporate Social esponsibility
I attaching assignment paper write essay CS.
Given the heightened level of international operations and globalization, pressure is mounting for corporations to behave ethically. Corporations are forced to developing standards, policies and behaviors as a demonstration of their sensitivity to concerns of stakeholder. The policies behaviors and standards are what a European commission called corporate social responsibilities. The Commission defined corporate social responsibility (CS) as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" Commission, 2001.
Complementing this definition, McWilliams and Siegel. (2001)
, said CS include all actions that are intended to forge, beyond the firm's interest, a social good, and is a requirement in law.
Composition Corporate Social esponsibility
Corporate social responsibility entails coming up with solutions specific to a society. The corporation is however, not forcefully charged with an…
Balmer, John M.T., & Dinnie, K. (1999). "Corporate identity and corporate communications: the antidote to merger madness," Corporate Communications: . An International Journal,, 4, 68-86.
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Buckley, P.J., & Ghauri, P.N. (2004). Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 81-98.
Commission, E. (2001). Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility.' Green Paper, 264.
Both proposals were consequently amended and eventually accepted by the SEC.
The audit committee makes sure that the books aren't being cooked and that shareholders are properly informed of the financial status of the firm. Characteristically, the audit committee advocates the CPA firm that will audit the company's books, appraises the activities of the company's independent accountants and internal auditors, and reviews the company's internal control systems and its accounting and financial reporting requirements and practices. The compensation committee usually does the following: (1) recommends the selection of the CEO, (2) reviews and approves the appointment of officers who report directly to the CEO, (3) reviews and approves the compensation of the CEO and the managers reporting to the CEO, and (4) administers the stock compensation and other incentive plans. The suggested committee establishes experience for potential directors (Lunnie, 2007; pg. 90). It also puts collectively a list of candidates…
With this position, she gained a wide variety of skills in many different areas of P such as corporate reputation, product marketing and placement, crisis communications, employee communications and social marketing. She says that some people get frustrated at the beginning of a communication position because of all the administrative and coordination work.
With the changes that are rapidly occurring across the world, crisis communication is an area that is growing in importance. All organizations are vulnerable to crises, from an oil spill or 9-11, to Enron and Worldcom, the Asian Tsunami Disaster, Hurricane Katrina and Virginia Tech killings. Organizations have to be prepared for the very worst and have an emergency plan in action for handling all areas of communication.
In a "crisis document audit," they look for a failure to address the many communications issues related to crisis/disaster response. Organizations do not understand that, without adequate communications: Operational…
Berkeley Career Center (May 13, 2005). What's a Communication Manager? Retrieved http://career.berkeley.edu/article/050513a-rh.stm
Bernstein, J. Ten steps of crisis communication. March 8, 2008 http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/docs/the_10_steps_of_crisis_communications.html
Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidelines. (2005) New York: Ferguson.
Fogg, N., Harrington, P.E., and Harrington, T.F. (2004) College Majors Handbook.
When a merger the size of the AOL ime Warner merger takes place and then disintegrates, it is time to look for what went wrong. Both companies were regarded as important in their fields; both had been successful, one for many years (ime Warner), the other for only a short while (AOL), but that success was extreme.
What did go wrong? he simple answer is that is was probably a classic clash of old paradigm vs. new paradigm.
In fact, the simple answer is the whole answer, and it appears in graphic detail on the 91st page of Alec Klein's book, Stealing ime: Steve Case, Jerry Levin, and the Collapse of AOL ime Warner. On that page, Klein describes the scrambling of the lawyers for both firms -- AOL and ime Warner -- when operation Alpha ango is revealed to them. (Both Case and Levin chose to keep…
The shareholders need to be stinking mad. Time Warner executives, even after the truth was coming out, didn't want to challenge the belatedly charismatic Steve Case. Case had also belatedly reassumed his former pretty persona, perhaps to meld, at last, with the 'suits' at Time Warner. Too little too late. On Sunday, January 12, 2003, Case finally stepped down as chairman of AOL Time Warner. Too late for Jerry Levin. And Ted Turner, who had turned his initial 'nay' reaction to a yea, eased on out the door to become a philanthropist. He didn't lose enough loot to matter. Levin is sitting pretty, despite not cashing in on his AOL Time Warner stock. Case cashed out for millions. The AOL Time Warner Center, costing $1.8 billion, killed at least one worker in the building, and sits as a tony home to those who can afford $2 to $40mliion for a condo.
Very likely, few stockholders can afford that. And some stockholders actually invest with two aims: to make a good return for themselves, and to be part of the growth of American business.
In the case of AOL Time Warner, investors lost on both those fronts, and suffered the embarrassment of hatching the world's biggest merger turkey, whether they had actually cast a proxy ballot or had merely sat back and watched, as well.
Today many institutions of higher learning are trying to implement it in some form (Bass, Dellana, & Herbert, 1996, p. 339).
In developing the institution of higher learning for the future, the administration will have to consider the new technologies that can be adopted, the consequences of doing so, ways in which those technologies can be used both on and off campus, and the way education should be organized to accomplish the tasks needed for the future. This will require rethinking the way the institution is currently structured:
eengineering in education is about developing a delivery process which is coherent and progressive in scope in order to maximize the learning experiences of students. Since reengineering focuses on coherent processes, not structures, it negates the perpetuation of typical educational structures, such as departments in high schools, and focuses more on sequential, progressive learning through the rearrangement of the curriculum and instruction…
Bass, K.E. & S.A. Dellana (1996, August 1). Assessing the use of total quality management in the business school classroom. Journal of Education for Business 21, 339.
Dobni, D. & B. Dobni (1996, October 1). Canadian business schools: Going out of business? Journal of Education for Business 72, 28.
Gadbow, N. (2001). Teaching Strategies That Help Learners with Different Needs. Adult Learning, Volume 12, Issue 2, 19.
Golhar, D.Y. & Deshpande, S.P. (1997, July 1). HRM practices of large and small Canadian manufacturing firms. Journal of Small Business Management 35, 30-39.
In summary, we recommend that the IESBA reconsiders the proposals in the Exposure Draft and provides more guidance on safeguards applicable to sole practitioners and small accounting firms to ensure that the benefits of the changes outweigh the costs to SMEs. Under a principle-based approach, there should be safeguards and practical relief for all practitioners rather than rules-based outright prohibitions. The rewrite of this Independence component of the Code is substantially rules-based rather than principles-based. In this regard, we also encourage the IESBA to prioritize the redrafting of the entire Code using a similar drafting convention to that used by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in its Clarity project" (IESBA Exposure Draft of Sections 290 and 291 of the Code of Ethics on Independence - Proposed Additional equirements in relation to Internal Audit Services, elative Size of Fees and Contingent Fees 2007).
There will also be an all-time…
Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, a. (2004). "Organizational behavior," 6e; [Chap. 17]; [Chap. 18]. Accessed December 19, 2007, from MBA520, eResource, week 5, eBook Collection database.
McShane, and Von Glinow. (2005). "Organizational behavior" (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
); Muret, Don. (1999). "Former Disney VP stresses teamwork at cafe." Amusement Business, 111(49), 22. Accessed August 17, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
Frazee, Bonnie. (2004). "Organizational Behavior and the Learning Process" Accessed December 19, 2007, at http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_feature.asp?articleid=698&zoneid=29
The statement "What is worse is that it legitimizes the self-serving managerial behaviors" in the context of CEO pay. This statement I agree with as CEOs have used governance to rationalize giving themselves exceptionally large raises without accountability and governance in place. Conversely the statement "Furthermore, markets or organisational hierarchies are assumed to provide genuine alternative optimal or appropriate governance structures" in the context of the discussion at this point in the paper is inaccurate. Organisations in fact produce governance structures that are highly inefficient and lack the necessary framework and foundation to accomplish these goals. Instead there is the need for continually turning trust into an accelerator and engraining governance into companies, not legislating it from the outside. This is the fatal error of the statement shown.
This is a well-researched peer review article that has the potential to deliver entirely new governance frameworks with additional effort…
Bernoff, J., and C. Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36.
Stephen Letza, James Kirkbride, Xiuping Sun, and Clive Smallman. "Corporate governance theorising: limits, critics and alternatives" International Journal of Law and Management 50.1 (2008): 17-31.
Corporate Strategies: Why are they so Important?
What is your biggest Professional Accomplishment?
Organizational Design and Culture
The 80s and Deregulation
The Election of Barack Obama
US rise as a world super power
Dominoes use the strategy by depending on the population and household. They believe that the population and household income are what needs to help when it comes to figuring out if people are willing to pay the pizza price and how much is the request for pizza. They think that this method is important because the population is what helps figuring out the demand for pizza as a consequence of the law of the demand, the bigger population the greater the demand. The household income will help likewise for the reason that the more disposable income the more individuals will purchase a common good. However, Pizza is…
Albarracin, D. (2012). The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals. J Pers Soc Psychol., 1129 -- 1141.
Broken Racial Barriers Pave the Way for Obama Presidency. (2013, May 2). Retrieved from Voice of America: http://www.voanews.com/
Dukes, E. (2013, May 21). 4 Ways Technology Has changed the Modern Workplace. Retrieved from Office: http://www.iofficecorp.com/blog/4-ways-technology-has-changed-the-modern-workplace
Goldsmith, J. (2014, April 3). Three Approaches to Innovation. Retrieved from CBSMoney Watch: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/three-approaches-to-innovation/
Corporate Business Marketing Structure
Analysis of the Sony Corporation's Market Structure
Sony Corporation is a leader in consumer and professional electronics around the world. It is a company founded in Japan in 1946 with headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. Sony produces a variety of products such as cameras, headphones, speakers, and more. Sony Corporation also generates a great deal of income in the entertainment industry, distributing media such and film and television. It is a brand recognized for quality worldwide. This is a company that makes business partnerships that are prudent and profitable. Japanese cultural and economic histories influence and contribute to Sony's market structure and general success.
Sony is heavily involved with audio recording and engineering technologies. It is possible to construct and supply and high caliber, professional recording studio using only Sony products. This corporation has an outstanding reputation for its cameras. Sony produces numerous consumer cameras, lenses, and…
Barrett, Jimmy, Mike Bridges, Steve Day, Matt Klingman, & Chris Mattie. Sony Inc. [Webpage] http://www.boydassociates.net , 2011, [cited 2011]. Available from
Henry W. Chesbrough uses this exact notion of "permeable boundary," when he gives his definition of open innovation: "In the open innovation model a company commercialises both its own ideas as well as innovations from other firms and seeks ways to bring its in house ideas to market by deploying pathways outside its current business. Note that the boundary between the company and its surrounding environment is porous, enabling innovations to move more easily between the two." (MIT Sloan Management Review: The era of open innovation, Henry W. Chesbrough) Having this in mind Procter and Gamble created their "Connect and Develop" innovation model.
In order for "Connect and Develop" to become what Procter and Gamble envisioned the company realized it was of the outmost important not to use time and valuable resources on ideas that may be interesting at first but later on prove to have no concrete, specific application.…
MIT Sloan Management Review: The era of open innovation, Author: Henry W. Chesbrough (undated) Available. Online. HTTP://sloanreview.mit.edu/wsj/insight/pdfs/4435.pdf (accessed 6th May 2007)
Harvard Business Review: Connect and Develop, Authors: Larry Huston and Nabil Sakkab (undated) Available Online HTTP: http://custom.hbsp.com/custom/INNOCR0603C2006032833.pdf;jsessionid=YVENOB4MC1EKCAKRGWDSELQBKE0YIISW (accessed 6th May 2007)
P&G Connect+Develop Homepage Available Online HTTP:
http://pg.t2h.yet2.com/t2h/page/homepage (accessed 6th of May 2007)
Corporate alliances are mostly a 50/50 bet since only about half of these ventures give returns to partners above the cost of capital. This is very worrying since alliances and partnerships are what many business models are based on. The article points out the reason as to why these alliances fail is the fact that they are traditionally managed and organized. Most alliances are normally defined by service level agreements which mainly identify what is committed to be delivered by each side rather than what they hope to attain from this partnerships. The SLAs put emphasis on the operational performance metrics and not the strategic objectives .the managers of the alliances are not sure whether they stick to the agreement made initially or renegotiate afresh.
The article focusses on Solvay which is ranked among top 40 pharmaceutical companies that develops neuroscience, influenza vaccine, cardio-metabolic and pancreatic enzyme products. Since the…
Kaplan, R.S, Norton, P.D & Rugelsojen, B., (2013). Managing Alliances with the balanced scorecard.
Zaman, M. & Mavondo, F.(2010). Measuring strategic alliance success: A Conceptual Framework. Retrieved August 4,2013 from http://www.anzmac.org/conference/2001/anzmac/AUTHORS/pdfs/Zaman.pdf
Segil, L., (20O2).5 Key to creating successful strategic alliances. Retrieved August 4, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/2002/07/18/0719alliance.html
There are circumstances as Crane a. And Matten D. (2004)
discussed showing that the compromise on standards is likely to occur owing to the idea of gifts.
Contrary to this notion, in china gifts are not given to influence one decisions but as a norm of appreciating. While no specific standard to the gift is required, the gift works only to share one appreciation of the business undertaken. Looking at the situation at Almond and it potential business relations there is a specific value assigned to the gift expected. This clearly comes out as a measure to influence potential business relation an aspect that Singh J. et al. (2005)
describe as bribery. Singh J. et al. (2005)
argue that, assigning of value to a gift demonstrates bribery that is against international business code. The case for Almond having to give a specified volume of commission is indication of bribery.
Crane a., & Matten D. (2004). Business Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Singh J., Carasco E., Svensson G., Wood G., & M., C. (2005). A Comparative Study of the Contents of Corporate Codes of Ethics in Australia, Canada and Sweden. Journal of World Business, 40, 91-109.
This has lead to a greater corporate awareness of their impact in the multitude of regions they work and sell in. It has lead the concept of Corporate Social esponsibility to become a highlighted feature in the nature of global business today.
There are numerous examples of successful implementations of Corporate Social esponsibility in today's marketplace. Take one for example, the Caremark Corporation which is typically known to Americans as the owners of the CVS chain pharmacy and drug stores. This corporation has expanded rapidly over the past few years and has now become a global powerhouse. Yet, within its store locations, even in nations many corporations might exploit, they sill over excellent employee health packages that are equitable with the ones they offer their American employees in the United States. This seemingly small token shows corporate responsibility for their employees. However, not all seemingly wholesome American companies end up…
Assadourin, Erik. (2006). "State of Corporate Responsibility and the Environment." Georgetown International Environmental Law Review. Bnet.com. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3970/is_200607/ai_n16692849/ .
Eom, Sean B. (1994). "Transitional Management Systems: An Emerging Tool for Global Strategic Management." SAM Advance Management. 59(2):22-27.
Ruggie, John Gerard. (2007). "Business and Human rights: The Evolving International Agenda." Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative. Working Paper No. 31. Harvard University. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/workingpaper_38_ruggie.pdf .
Vogel, David. (2008). "CSR Doesn't Pay." Forbes Magazine. Retrieved August 8, 2008 at http://www.forbes.com/2008/10/16/csr-doesnt-pay-lead-corprespons08-cx_dv_1016vogel.html .
Actions that warrant for boundary should be on a written document and be available to employees at all time. This system should also take care of verbal and nonverbal agreement of contract expenditure, and no cost approval beyond the budget unless being approved by senior management and financing unit
These boundaries must be revised on an annual basis and edited if necessary. When employees understand the core beliefs and boundary system, then they do not just worry about delivering the bottom line results. Instead, they will strive to deliver corporate objectives without crossing boundaries.
Diagnostic control system should also be employed into the company whereby, new processes and performance measurements must be developed for the following:
Unit occupancy rate: this strives to achieve economy of scale.
Internal auditing: There should be a team of internal auditor reporting to the accounting VP. This team must constantly review the transactions and ensuring…
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
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There are many examples of this throughout the company's history, all pointing to the fact that employees who have a strong sense of ownership and wiliness to sacrifice for the greater good. Southwest's ability to translate cultural values into financial performance while embracing, even attacking change, in their industry is what fuels their profitability. Through the worst recession in 40 years, Southwest has been able to generate positive eturn on Investment (OI), eturn on Assets (OA), and eturn on Equity (OE).
Sustaining and Strengthening the Culture Given Strategic Decisions Made
The case study shows that while Southwest excels with their culture from a purely customer service standpoint, their leadership and management of maintenance, repair, overhaul and support has been a weakness that in 2007 became a liability. Southwest had failed to create a culture of transparency and accountability to the point of whistle-blowing in its maintenance organizations. As a result…
Freiberg, K. And Freiberg, J. (1996), Nuts: Southwest Airlines' Crazy Recipe for Business and Personal Success, Broadway Books, New York, NY.
Ginger Hardage (2006). PROFILE: COMMUNICATING the SOUTHWEST WAY. Strategic Communication Management, 10(3), 4.
Thomas a. Kochan (2006). Taking the High Road. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(4), 16-19.
Dawna L. Rhoades (2006). Growth, customer service and profitability Southwest style. Managing Service Quality, 16(5), 538-547.
Organizational Cultures: Annotated Bibliography and Summary
Aronson, Z. And Patanakul, P. 2012. "Managing a group of multiple projects: do culture and leader's competencies matter?" Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 3(2): pp.
Web. etrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 21 May
This article focuses significantly on how team culture within an organization is a pivotal factor that contributes to a team being able to successfully complete a project. A focus is made on the role of the project manager to not only introduce a team to a project, but hone the group's culture in terms of knowledge, communication, and teamwork in order to maximize the team's effectiveness, which is a method that can be utilized in any working environment.
Heeroma, D., Melissen, F., Stierand, M. 2012. "The problem of addressing culture in workplace strategies. Facilities, 30(7-8): pp. 269-277. Web. etrieved from:
LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 21 May
Tatum, M. 2012. "What is corporate culture." Wise Geek. Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-corporate-culture.htm . [Accessed on 21 May