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As an attorney working in the Office of the Inspector General in the State Bureau of Prisons, I have been asked to evaluate two major issues involving various correctional officers at the state prison and the behavior of the lawyer assigned to represent them. These correctional officers have reported several incidences of assault by inmates, which has caused them physical harm. If these assault claims are proven to be true, the law automatically mandates an extra two years to the prison terms of these inmates. In order to determine the truth behind these allegations, I have conducted interviews and hearings on the claims. According to one of the prisoners, they were falsely charged and were subjected to previous hearings and interviews by the prison warden and the chief correctional officer. Despite of being aware of the practice and having no evidence, I suspect misconduct and abuse of suspects…… [Read More]
Program for training correctional officers
The rehabilitative nature of incarceration depends to a great extent on the environment that an inmate experiences. If an incoming prisoner enters a world filled with corruption, drugs, and crime the potential for rehabilitation is nonexistent. Given the prevalence of corruption among correctional officers (COs), including ties to organized crime and street/prison gangs, reinstating the goal of rehabilitation in prisons and jails will require a dramatic sea change in how oversight activities are conducted. Official recognition of this problem was codified in the Prison ape Elimination Act of 2003, which mandated additional training for correctional staff to eliminate sexual abuse and misconduct between inmates and staff. One of the standards proposed is the creation or expansion of internal investigations by specially trained personnel. This essay outlines how an undercover internal investigations unit would be recruited and trained, whose primary purpose is to investigate…… [Read More]
Life for a correctional Officer
The assigned section describes the responsibilities, duties and challenges of a correctional officer. A correctional officer is one of the most important and responsible employees at a correctional facility such as a prison or a jail where there is a need for keeping the inmates in order. The unique environment and people at a correctional facility makes it necessary for a correctional officer to possess a distinct set of personal and professional skills. These include courtesy and respect for people, value for fairness and impartiality, an ability to engage in effective communication, and the stamina to remain motivated at a job that may seem monotonous and unexciting at first. The reading is useful for those looking to make a career as a correctional officer and even for those interested in other areas of law enforcement.
As of 2005, prisons in the United States…… [Read More]
Correction Officer Turnover
This work intends to review two articles, which both have as their subject the increase in Correctional officer turnovers and to compare why correctional officer turnover is a trend in today's agencies and how the articles relate.
Udechukwu, et al. (2007)
The work of Udechukwu, et al. (2007) entitled "The Georgia Department of Corrections: An Exploratory eflection on Correctional Officer Turnover and its Correlates" reports an exploratory study that was conducted for the purpose of determining the reasons for correctional officer turnover at the Georgia Department of Corrections (GDC). It is stated that strategic workforce planning "has played an increasing role in human resource related activities of "many state public agencies in Georgia. The GDC is no exception. The GDC's strategic workforce objectives are aimed at anticipating potential gaps in employee competencies, diversity and staffing, which if unchecked, could potentially create work challenges for the GDC. The…… [Read More]
The forensic psychologist has a responsibility of ensuring that individuals are fully informed of their legal rights in regards to the anticipated forensic service and the reasons for evaluation and the nature of the procedures to be used as well as the intentions concerning the use of any product of these services. The forensic psychologist is required to obtain the informed consent of the party or their legal representative prior to proceeding with any evaluations or procedures.
Sometimes the party does not have the capacity to give informed consent and this means that the forensic psychologist must obtain the consent of the individual's legal representative before proceeding with evaluations or procedures. Confidentiality issues are of critical importance for the forensic psychologist to address with their client and where confidentiality is limited; the forensic psychologist is required to maintain confidentiality on any issue that is not directly related to the legal…… [Read More]
Constitutionality of a Postcard-Only Mail Policy
Postcard-Only Prison Mail Policy
Constitutionality of a Prison Postcard-Only Mail Policy
The Constitutionality of a Prison Postcard-Only Mail Policy
The state Department of Corrections (DOC) has requested a legal opinion of its postcard-only mail policy covering all incoming and outgoing letters and packages. The DOC is facing several lawsuits alleging the restrictive mail policy is violating the Constitutional rights of inmates, as well as external parties wishing to communicate with inmates through the mail. The following opinion represents a review of the applicable case law and whether the mail policy could withstand Constitutional challenges.
The lawsuits that have been filed against the DOC for implementing a postcard-only mail policy allege violations of free speech protected by the First Amendment, privacy violations under the Fourth Amendment, and procedural due process rights under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Based on considerable…… [Read More]
institutional correctional staff experience, particularly as it mirrors the experience of inmates confined to these institutions. Search the Internet for at least one personal narrative of a corrections staff member other than the three videos you watched. Share the web link and comment on what you learned. Describe any differences in the experiences of male and female correctional staff.
In a review of the experiences of correctional staff members before the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons, the Commission asked Joe Baumann, a state correctional officer from Southern California with 19 years of experience working in prisons to testify before the committee. Baumann's experience was unique because although he was a male "his work has included two years spent in a mental health unit for women where there was a single staff psychologist caring for 700 inmates" (Baumann 1). Baumann testified as to the lack of adequately-trained mental…… [Read More]
For example, offenders without job skills can receive job training, while offenders with emotional problems can be ordered to attend the appropriate counseling. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005). Because such a huge proportion of crimes are drug-related or committed by addicts, completion of in-patient or out-patient substance abuse programs is often an integral part of an offender's alternative sentencing program. Furthermore, alternative sentencing strives to make an offender personally responsible for their crime. Therefore, mediation and restitution play an important part in alternative sentencing, because mediation gives the victim a voice, while restitution can require an offender to repay his victim. (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Program, 2005).
After one has an understanding of the different sentencing alternatives available, the logical step is to question whether alternative sentencing is effective. In order to answer that question, many criminal justice professionals look to recidivism rates. "However, limited…… [Read More]
This is largely because rehabilitation of offenders is for the purpose of transforming the criminal to an important member of the society from being a cost to the society. Some of the most common rehabilitation techniques in the correctional system include counseling and drug rehabilitation treatment as well as vocational training.
The two most extensively used modes of rehabilitation in the correctional system are education and work programs since they are integral to offenders securing employment and becoming productive members of the society. Education and work programs are widely used as modes of rehabilitation because they have a modest impact in lessening post-release recidivism, particularly when they are geared towards specific inmates ("ehabilitation," n.d.). The education programs are conducted in various forms i.e. life-skills training that are considered as counseling interventions and vocational education. The vocational education provided in the correctional system is geared towards preparing inmates for employment upon…… [Read More]
They also point out the relatively low pay compared scale with other law enforcement professionals, and the fact that officers have no law enforcement responsibilities outside of the institution where they work, unlike police officers who have a responsibility to protect the community, even when they are technically off-duty. The median annual salary of correctional officers was $35,760 in May 2006. The median annual earnings in the public sector was $47,750 for federal government officers compared with officers employed in state government institutions whose median income was $36,140 and $34,820 for local government institutions ("Corrections officers," BLS, 2009). This may reflect the higher educational requirements of the federal system and the more extensive duties of corrections officers on a federal level.
However, the types of critical thinking required in a prison environment go beyond mere technical capabilities provided by on-the-job raining. Some form of college degree can be helpful and…… [Read More]
ole of Correction Officers
Corrections officers, also known as detention officers have their work environment within the detention facilities as well as local, state or federal jails, penitentiaries and reformatories. Corrections officers have the duty of controlling individuals who are waiting to be tried or those who have already been convicted. The paper will look at the duties and responsibilities of corrections officers. Focus will be on the role of the correction officers within the social role of inmates and within the jail administration.
Security is one of the key responsibilities of correction officers and they have the duty of maintaining security within the institution and observe safety and health for both the staff and prisoners. They carry out physical patrols as well as visually inspect yards, units, buildings, prisoners, their property to ensure the safety, welfare and security of prisoners is maintained. They perform inspections of cells and…… [Read More]
Dangers of Overcrowding in American Correctional System
There are several central governments, state and local authority's correctional facilities in the United States. Over the past few decades, the rate of crime occurrence has significantly increased. Also, the correctional facilities have experienced growth in population. There are a huge number of inmates in the various correctional facilities as compared to those in 1990's. For instance, the ureau of Justice Statistics found the number of prisoners at 665,000 across the country; this is a 159% increase from the jail population of 1985. The correctional facilities have, suffered several setbacks due to the increase in the population.
The capacities of the correctional facilities in the United States are not sufficient to hold the large population of inmates; research from the report released in 2002 indicate that the facilities operate at 108% capacity from the 85% capacity held in 1983. This has made the…… [Read More]
Japanese Correctional System as Compared to the American Corrections System
The Japanese correctional system places a strong emphasis on rehabilitation and preparing the prisoner for being released once again into society. The Japanese correctional system "is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders" rather than enforce a system of retributive justice along the lines of the American model (Coutsoukis, 2004). This is why most sociologists state that the restorative philosophy of corrections is the predominant approach practiced in Japan, that is, the main aim of the system is to restore the pre-existing social order rather than enact retribution against a particular individual, or even to protect victim's rights, or to punish an offender in a fair manner (Hosoi & Nishimura 1999: 4).
Much like the American system, Japanese prisoners after conviction are classified "according to gender, nationality, kind of penalty, length of sentence, degree of criminality, and state of physical…… [Read More]
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…… [Read More]
In general it has been found that, "It allocates responsibility with the success of unit operations among staff and inmate commensurate with rank" (Schriro).
Other positive aspects of the direct supervision system are that it has also been found to reduce costs in the prison system in general. (Schriro) However, more importantly, the direct supervision method generally increases communication and observation and therefore allows for a reduction of hostility and conflict that results from communication and surveillance problems between staff and inmates.
A study by Beck, Deciding on a New Jail Design, clearly outlines the positive effect on prison management of this method. As the author points out, a central aspect of effective jail security lies in the classification of inmates according to their supervision needs. (Beck). The direct supervision system allows for a more comprehensive and effective process of matching inmates and removing hostile inmates from others..As Beck states,"…… [Read More]
"A maximally effective approach to crime avoidance calls for programs that can supplement the deterrent and incapacitative effects of confinement. A diversified crime-reduction strategy should include effective 'helping' programs," (Ruth & Reitz, 110). One of the programs that needs to be better considered is the partnership of prisons with other community resources such as churches, mosques, synagogues, substance abuse centers, centers for mental health, community corrections, counseling agencies, and other organizations that could provide assistance for such individuals. In these partnerships, the helping environment would be created through inmates and community leaders forming partnerships. This would help the incarcerated become connected to their community. Jacobson (2005, p. 131) states that, "Almost everyone who goes to prison comes out of prison. In fact, except for the 5% who are sentenced to life without parole, executed, or die of natural causes, 95% of all prison admission are released and 80% are released…… [Read More]
The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is an agency under the prison health care systems. The Institution was established to provide a more humane and modern care for state prisoners, make the prison service more professional, and to oversee reliable and central management of the government prisons. The key role of this agency is to restrict perpetrator to a humane, safe, secure and cost-efficient location for them to spend time for the criminal offenses they have committed and receive the care that is needed. BOP also has a responsibility of reducing the possibility of future criminal offenses and law offenses wit programs where violators are prevented from breaking the law again. Statistically, these programs have proven to be very effective. BOP workers help criminals by offering a variety of services and programs to inmates, to help prepare them to regain a lifestyle with morals and live a life…… [Read More]
U.S. correctional system
Correctional systems are much essential in curbing out acts of crimes. The main purposes of correctional systems are to punish, rehabilitate the offenders and protecting the population. The big question is that do the modern U.S. correctional systems achieve their aims? The question came about because it was realized that individuals who came out of prison after completing their sentence changed to be worse in performing crime as compared to before. However, the law has tried to reduce or stop the rate of crime considerably through correctional systems. Correctional systems fulfill their duty of punishing the offenders by engaging in the following measures:
Basic probation: This is the commonly used community-based punishment within the United States. It is whereby an offender lives at home but at the same time he or she is being monitored. This may be through keeping of daily log of the activities of…… [Read More]
Within the correctional system there are three different organization models which apply and are used in administrative and management purposes. These models include the authoritarian model, bureaucratic model and participative model. The paper will give a description of each of these three models as they apply to the correctional environments. It will also discuss the intended goals of the correctional administrations that utilize these models and the specific time period the models were developed as well as finding out if these models were effective during the period which they were developed. The information the paper will give the foundation of the correctional systems as well as the models that are found within in and if these models are still in effect now. The operations of a correctional facility are under these models in order to provide the in mates with a particular type of security and care. With…… [Read More]
Of course, I completely understand the volatile nature of the prison vs. rehab debate. However, I believe that if you take a look at the information available. Specifically check out the publications from Deputy Director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn -- especially, "Drugs in Prison, Another Quick Fix (2005)." Also, consider the 2002 Corrections Today article by Jeff Goodale. I trust that both of these writers will present my point quite will.
In short, I urge you to consider my opinion regarding an alternative sentencing option for offenders like Mr. Smith. In my opinion one of the states in-patient, minimum security rehabilitation centers may be more appropriate. Please let me know what you think.
Thank you very much for your time.
Officer Betty Rumble
Goodale, Jeff. (2002). The prison that drugs built: Illinois designs a new women's prison for the new reality. Corrections Today. August.…… [Read More]
Correctional Institutions Management
Correctional institution hierarchy
This normally includes the Unit manager, case worker, secretary, correctional counsellor, correctional officer, educator and psychologist or any other approved mental health worker. However, it is important to note that some correction institutions may adopt varying names yet same duties, for instance there are institutions that have the director's office, chief deputy director's office, correctional facility administration, field operations administration and budget and operations administration (tate of Michigan, 2015). The hierarchies defined above are in the descending order, with the highest offices coming first.
Traits in prison volunteer
One most important trait in prison volunteers is that they must be able to honor the confidentiality of the offenders. He is also a servant of the Lord and also committed to the course that they are following. They also have the right motive towards engaging in the activities of the volunteering. He is also an…… [Read More]
The result is that employees at all levels for their own protection as well as to create a system of mutial support among leaders and subordinates have begun to demand collaborative rights of communication and input on job design, and leadership practices. Empowerment of employees has long been shown to be a positive aspect of individual employee motivation as well as the desire to be a part of a team that works together to provide holistic knowledge of community problems and concerns and therefore contributes to solutions. (Sims, 2002, p. 18) being a member of the team that proposed a solution or the individual who had a good idea that will potentially solve a problem is empowering and motivational and will likely increase retention and decrease problematic communication, such as collusion, a phenomena that occurs when individuals do not feel that the top down system is effective in resolving problems…… [Read More]
An inmate-to-staff ratio in direct-supervision pods of up to 50-to-1 (84).
Different communities and states have elected different facilities to provide direct supervision of prisoners as well. For example, direct-supervision dormitories have been shown to be more economical to construct than their direct-supervision pod counterparts that feature individual or multiple-occupancy cells; however, it remains a point of contention among many jail administrators whether such facilities are easier to manage than their cell-equipped counterparts and whether they can accommodate the same general population inmates (Parrish 84). In this regard, Parrish suggests that, "Somehow the term 'dormitory' is equated with minimum or reduced custody in the minds of many practitioners. In reality, such is not the case. Physical security is determined by the exterior wall of the pod, which prevents escape" (emphasis added) (84). The freedom of movement allowed inmates within that area is not affected by individual cells with wooden doors…… [Read More]
The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…… [Read More]
The issues, problems and recommendations
The subject matter of the case study itself highlights a number of issues, factors and problems that existed at the Mermon Correctional Institution, which is located outside the Washington D.C. One of the most significant problems that the Mermon Correctional Facility faces in the case study is of the existing staff levels employed by the prison administration. According to many prison staff members, which also included the victim Correctional Officer Marsha Willis, the number of staff enrolled by the prison administration was less than the numbers that should have been present in an average correctional facility in the country. According to the classification of prisons made by the Federal ureau of Prisons, a correctional institution requires to have a high staff member to inmate ratio. Such a policy was in place to ensure that the prison security measures were up to the mark required for…… [Read More]
They preside over hardened criminals on a daily basis, just like police officers, only the criminals they oversee are often present in greater numbers. To act against a correctional official is surely just as flagrant example of striking back at law enforcement as it is to kill a police officer.
The idea of deterrence is perhaps even more important in the case of a corrections officer. After all, a person acting against a police officer has more to lose than a person acting against a corrections officer. If a person shoots at a police officer, he or she stands a chance of loosing his or her liberty or his or her life. But an individual incarcerated in prison, perhaps for life, or for a duration in jail that 'feels' like life to a hardened, desperate criminal, has nothing to lose. Striking back in a violent fashion against a corrections official…… [Read More]
After graduating from high school, I held a number of different odd jobs. I worked as a dishwasher, a janitor, and in a factory. After coming to the realization that I needed to find a career, I applied for a job with the Department of Corrections and was fortunate enough to be hired. That was over 25 years ago and I am nearing my time for retirement.
What has been your position with the Department?
In the beginning I was a beginning level corrections officer with very simple responsibilities. I would work on the processing of new prisoners. My duties were to meet the new inmates as they arrived at the prison and have them turn in their personal belongings and issue them their prison wardrobe. It was easy work and most of the prisoners were so nervous and scared that they were very manageable. After a couple…… [Read More]
Corrections officers serve a distinct role in the criminal justice system. They are involved in the day-to-day lives of inmates, and are responsible for maintaining prison safety, security, and integrity. In some ways, corrections officers may fulfill a role similar to that of a guard, whereby they enforce the rules and regulations of the institution, prevent problems such as inmate fighting or rioting, monitor inmate behavior, prevent escapes, and may administer punishments to inmates. Occasionally, correctional officers may need to use force when mitigating behavioral problems among inmates. Essentially, corrections officers represent the authority of the criminal justice system within the prison framework. Correctional officers may sometimes be involved in rehabilitation efforts, too, helping steer inmates toward specific self-improvement methods such as educational programs or job training programs. Likewise, correctional officers might be involved in parole hearings to offer testimony based on the behavior and status of an inmate. The…… [Read More]
Managing a correctional organization is not an easy task. It takes a great deal of thought and strategy to properly run a home for criminals, especially when many of those criminals can be unruly and poorly behaved, and perhaps even dangerous. It is important to establish a system in which inmates are distinguished from one another. For instance, those inmates who present a threat to other inmates, staff, or even themselves will need more security and supervision than those who pose no threat.
Traditional facilities organize their inmates according to those who need maximum, medium, and minimum security. However, there has been a new trend in correctional organizations that is called "direct supervision." This concept allows correctional officers to interact directly with inmates, thus allowing officers to manage inmates' behavior at a much more detailed level (National Institute of Corrections).
Direct supervision can be distinguished from other management…… [Read More]
Prisoners or inmates go through a very cataclysmic stage of their life in any juvenile facility. Going through this phase, they may exhibit various anti-social behaviors like mollification, dependence on institutional structure and contingencies, adoption of the exploitation norms of prison culture, lying, manipulating, drug abuse, and violating rules and laws. ehind every such instance, there is always a very strong belief system depicted. That very belief system is a criminal concoction in the sense that it lacks the normal thought process exhibited by a socially healthy person. "Those who have worked with offenders know it is a relatively common experience to find oneself precariously close to agreeing with offenders' rationale for their illegal behavior" (Verdeyen, 1999). Overwhelmingly, they work under the spell of an anti-social belief system.
More recently, Wolff, litz, Shi, Siegel, and achman (2007), based on a sample of more than 7,000 inmates, reported 6-month inmate-on-inmate physical…… [Read More]
Internal Affairs Procedures for Handling Investigations
All professional organizations have an ethical standard that they are required to comply with, but some occupations have a much greater code due to the reliance of the public trust. Certain medical professionals (doctors and nurses) can be held to what seems a stricter standard because lives are at stake, but they do not have stricter standards than law enforcement professionals. Whether the individual enforces the laws at a federal, state or local level, it is important that there be an exacting code of conduct, and a means of evaluating and disciplining improper actions. This paper examines the Florida state procedures with regard to internal affairs in the areas of investigation, determining findings, discipline and decertification.
The first step in the internal affairs process requires that a citizen or another officer makes a complaint against a police officer (Caldero…… [Read More]
What do you Think
Paradigm of Laws
Paradigm of Laws
• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons
Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.
The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…… [Read More]
.....psychologists working in prisons in the United States, Boothby & Clements (2000) found some disturbing trends in corrections. Although the number of prison psychologists has doubled in the past twenty years, the vast majority of prison psychologists remain Caucasian males who may be unable to address the diverse needs of the incarcerated community. Biases and assumptions about inmates may also hinder the ability of inmates to seek and receive psychological treatment. Moreover, a full third of prison psychologist work time is spent on administrative duties -- more than the time spent on direct treatment. Only 26% of their work time is devoted to directly treating the inmates, meaning that structural and institutional variables are impeding the delivery of quality mental health care to the prison community.
Interestingly, the profession of clinical psychology was practically born in the prison context. As Magaletta, et al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with…… [Read More]
Our findings show that social and psychological aspects of work situations are indeed significant risk factors for coronary heart disease, but not in the manner that might initially be supposed. While the psychological demands of work, along with time pressures and conflicts, are found to be significant sources of risk in many of our studies, work that is demanding (within limits) is not the major source of risk. The primary work-related risk factor appears to be lack of control over how one meets the job's demands and how one uses one's skills. In many cases, elevation of risk with a demanding job appears only when these demands occur in interaction with low control on the job. Other research has shown that regular physical exertion has positive effects on cardiovascular health in many situations (although physical hazards can of course pose major health threats beyond our stress perspective). Thus, in our…… [Read More]
While the debate over nature versus nurture continues, the fact remains that some people appear to be "natural born" leaders while others must struggle to acquire the skills needed to lead others in an organizational setting. For individuals who are fortunate enough to possess the innate leadership skills needed, first-line supervisory training may be less important than for others who have been thrust into positions of authority. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the case study, "The Correctional Sergeant's Dilemma," to explain the importance of first-line supervisory training and an assessment concerning the manner in which Sergeant ick handled the situation with his subordinate, Officer Johnson, and his superior, Lieutenant Murray. A discussion concerning how this situation could have been handled differently is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the foregoing issues in the conclusion.
1. How important is…… [Read More]
Halfway House Programs: Community esistance and Possible Solutions
Halfway houses are Community-Based esidential Facilities or Community esidential Centers. Additionally, volunteers or correctional officer's head this halfway house programs in a community-based setting. Halfway house programs provide an important role between institutional care and the community (Sechrest, 1991). This is because they offer rehabilitative and residential services to the designated community. In addition, they provide a chance for exceptional and creative programming aimed at solving the needs of the community and its residents at large.
In addition, the use of these programs is not a new idea because most of the offenders under observation, they are supervised in the community. Some of the offenders who receive community supervision include offenders under probation, those who receive a conditional sentence, and people who are gradually in the process of release into the community through a parole or a statutory release (Lindsay, 1991). It…… [Read More]
M. Lin's release from MCF has had the effect of rendering his lawsuit moot. In this case, M. Lin was incarcerated at the time the lawsuit was filed, but not at the time it is being decided. Thus, M. Lin's cause of action fails on the issue of mootness. Additionally, of the six members whom were denied visitation privileges, five of them have had sons which whom were formerly incarcerated at MCF, but now have been released. The son of the sixth MOM member asserting denial of visitation privileges died after his release from MCF. Thus, all of the six members of MOM claims will fail as a result of mootness.
The controversy must be ripe for decision; ripeness bars consideration of claims before they have fully developed. A case may be dismissed as unripe where a statute has never been enforced and there is no real…… [Read More]
correctional stereotypes in the movie " the Shawshank edemption." This essay will explain the correctional policies that are demonstrated in the movie and suggest ways in which these portrayals are accurate or inaccurate.
The movie "The Shawshank edemption" revolves around the life and times of a prisoner named Andy. Andy was a banker in his former life before he was framed for the murder of his wife and her lover. The story documents the unfair treatment Andy has received in society and concludes with him escaping prison and finding his redemption that he felt that he had earned by maintaining an attitude of hope and faith.
The Shawshank Prison, where Andy was detained, resonated with many prison system stereotypes within the movie. The warden of the prison is depicted as a cruel and inhumane person, bent on sadistically treating his prisoners and guards. This stereotype of the "evil warden" provides…… [Read More]
The research adopted pre-test, quasi-experimental, within subject's model that demanded testing before and after introduction of photomurals. The research is based in Sonoma County Male Adult Detention Facility (MADF) in California.
12 officers participated in the pre and post-tests. 8 males and 4 females constituted this population. The subjects' ages ranged between 25 and 50 years with mean age falling at 33.4 years. The experienced years of the subjects varied from 10 to 152 months (mean experience 51.25 months).
Staff members were invited to help in the collection of data through training on the use of polar monitors, their application, and data recording techniques. In the process of data collection, subjects were required to rest quietly during briefing with monitors for about ten minutes. They attended their booking areas with monitors on. They recorded time and nature of unusual activities, scenes or situations during their shifts. Six weeks…… [Read More]
Morals of Criminal Justice
Examine the moral requirements of criminal justice. In your analysis examine the issues of authority, power, and discretion. In addition, examine the role of individual behavior and how it reflects on institutional morality and how the code of conduct impacts individual behavior. Defend your answer with research.
In criminal justice, ethics and morals determine the standard of fairness by enabling professionals to; i) develop the reasoning abilities and analytical skills needed for the execution of their duties, ii) recognize the moral principles and ethical consequences of an action, iii) adequately make decisions involving due process, force, and discretion, iv) make adequate decisions regarding deterrence and rehabilitation, and v) effectively engage in criminal justice research (Williams & Arrigo, 2011). Criminal justice professionals face numerous moral dilemmas in the execution of discretion, power and authority.
Legislators have the discretionary power to criminalize behavior and have to use moral/ethical…… [Read More]
The importance of ethics in the criminal justice field cannot be overemphasised. All participants must portray acceptable moral conduct for positive criminal justice outcomes to be achieved (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2008). This is particularly true for correctional institutions, a major component of the criminal justice system. Correctional authorities play a crucial role in rehabilitating offenders and facilitating their transition back to the society. The role places huge ethical demands on correctional personnel. This paper outlines ethical requirements for correctional officers. First, a comprehensive job description of correctional officers is offered, along with the key stakeholders they work together with in the fulfilment of their day to day duties and responsibilities. Next, a number of practical work scenarios where ethical decision making is required are highlighted, with an evaluation of the relevance of theoretical perspectives to the scenarios. Finally, a code of ethics and best-practices checklist relevant for correctional officers…… [Read More]
ace, Class and Gender and Correctional Settings
Today, the United States incarcerates more than 25% of low-income young black males, so it is reasonable to suggest that there is an inextricable relationship between race, socioeconomic class and gender and the institutional correctional community. It is also reasonable to suggest that this relationship has a corresponding impact on clients, staff and the administration of correctional institutions. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify the role of race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community and the impact of these variables on clients, staff, and administration. Finally, an analysis concerning the impact of race, class, and gender on current correctional institutions is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the relationship between race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
The role…… [Read More]
The debate regarding which form of protocol is more appropriate, custodial vs. treatment, is indeed one of the more controversial subjects in criminal justice today. Custodial treatment refers to the act of putting the convicted criminal in an institution of some sort, such as a jail or prison (hence the term, "custody"). Those who are in favor of this option stress the pros of this type of method, stressing that it is one of society's oldest forms of punishment: "When someone is sentenced to jail or prison, that individual is physically separated from society (the modern version of banishment- society's first form of punishment. In doing so, the person is quite literally deterred from committing any further crimes against the general public because (due to their incarceration) they simply no longer have physical access to the community" (Bayley, 2009). Bayley stresses one of the obvious advantages of custodial…… [Read More]
17). Therefore, the proper training of corrections personnel is left unfinished and unrealized which can result in leaving "members of the corrections community handicapped in their ability to address their functions" as corrections officers "in an efficient and effective manner" (1991, p. 18).
Not surprisingly, Carter reinforces the importance of training by pointing out that it is essential for the correctional population to receive adequate preparation in the form of on-the-job experience, correctional classes and through specially-designed criminal corrections academies. Basically, Carter insists that in order for the staff to perform their job functions, they "must receive "appropriate training and orientation to their job assignments," in tandem with "on-going in-service training" which hopefully will enable staff members to "assume increasing responsibility" (1991, p. 22).
In addition, all training must go beyond the possible scenarios of a particular job assignment by providing "an opportunity for the organization to impart its mission,…… [Read More]
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…… [Read More]
New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.
The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was…… [Read More]
This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)
Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…… [Read More]
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.
The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)
Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…… [Read More]
personal stance on the privatization of prisons versus traditional government run-facilities is against. I believe privatized prisons seek maximum profit at the expense of prisoners. That means lower quality food, cramped and full facilities, and limited rights to prisoners. Furthermore, because more prisoners, equals higher profits, private prisons may and have sought to lobby for policy that makes arresting people easier and keeping them behind bars easier. "The two largest for-profit prison companies in the United States -- GEO and Corrections Corporation of America -- and their associates have funneled more than $10 million to candidates since 1989 and have spent nearly $25 million on lobbying efforts" (Cohen, 2015).
This kind of behavior seems unethical, thus leading to the notion that it is unethical for prisons to focus on profit. Lobbying for bills and legislature that would favor deregulation of private prison processes and increasing the number of prisoners sent…… [Read More]
Morey Unit Hostage Crisis
The hostage crisis that occurred at the Morey Unit of the Arizona State Prison Lewis Complex lasted for fifteen days and represented a hostage standoff that was the longest in U.S. history. The crisis began in the early morning hours of January 18, 2004 in the kitchen area of the unit, when two inmates, Ricky Wassenaar and Steven Coy, subdued a correctional officer and a kitchen staff employee. They subsequently took two hostages and inflicted serious emotional and physical damage to multiple correctional officers and civilian employees prior to engaging in the fifteen-day standoff. The lengthy episode challenged the resources of the Arizona Department of Corrections and magnified substantial security lapses and errors in judgment used by Department of Corrections officials. An ultimate analysis of the episode finds major flaws in the supervision of inmates at the Morey Unit, which the two inmates were able to…… [Read More]
Assembly ill 1914 Introduced by Assembly Member Montanez
This bill is trying to address the problem of reintegration into society of former inmates, by establishing ways and methods to properly educate them and increase their chances of successfully fulfilling the requirements of life outside prison. The author of the bill (Cindy Montanez) declares that the current structure of California's prison education system undervalues education and is hostile to rehabilitation. Focusing on custodial functions will ensure prison growth, while, by implementing short- and long-term educational and vocational services and strategies, recidivism will reduce significantly, as shown by the reduction of the crime phenomenon in more 20 states that have adopted such measures. The California prison system is based solely on punishment, while rehabilitation and education play an insignificant role. The purpose of a judicial system should be the active correction and reintegration into society of the inmates, and not the simple,…… [Read More]
Medical Death Investigative Systems
Past and Present Systems
Death investigation of some sort has existed in all countries for centuries, but not always performed by medical professionals (Committee, 2003 as qtd in Moldovan, 2008). The link between law and medicine traces back to the ancient Egyptian culture in 3000 .C. This was followed by the English coroner system in around the 12th century. The 194 Articles of Eyre first used the term "coroner" by the English until brought by the first colonists to the New World, America as basis for a legal investigative function. A medical examiner replaced the coroner system in 1890 then functioning in altimore. A medical examiner is a trained medical specialist in pathology. The field of death investigation became more and more sophisticated in cities and States, like New York. The Office of the Medical Examiner was established in 1918. Its main…… [Read More]
Through internships, students get an insider's view of the many facets of the criminal justice field, which is under the supervision of a full-time faculty member. The major in this particular field also offers a summer study abroad program that offers credit for the opportunity to study other countries' criminal justice systems.
In addition, most of the colleges and universities offer bachelor's degrees in criminal justice. hile, many colleges also offer graduate degree programs. A bachelor's degree in criminal justice is received generally in four years. hile, two-year programs in criminal justice is offered by majority community colleges, which can be transferred to a four-year college or university. Furthermore, graduate programs take from two to five years after bachelor's degree (Hobsons College View). Most people with graduate degrees become high-level administrators or professors.
Also, criminal justice programs provide extra training for students who are already occupied in correctional administration, security…… [Read More]
Women in Prison
Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates
Problems in corrections:
Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system
The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…… [Read More]
Management, irrespective of the particular industry, has a profound effect on organizational effectiveness. For one, management has the ability to drive results through proper motivation and incentives. A manager must also effective lead through his or her ability to inspire action on the part of subordinates. These broad requirements of management demands various skill sets. Many of these skill sets including leadership, time managements, the ability to inspire, financial acumen, and so forth are acquired over time. Through a broad array of experiences, management is better equipped to handle varying and often conflicting circumstances. The law enforcement arena is no different in this regard. Management, particular those in law enforcement must be cognizant of a litany of behaviors and activities. Policing management, has undergone extensive change due primarily to the changing societal demographics prevailing in the world today. Cultures are now becoming more profound in America. The Hispanic…… [Read More]
For example, they should be required to complete at least 20 hours of training on brain disorders. It is ideal if consumers and family members become part of the activity and process. It must also be emphasized that, in most cases, dangerous or violent acts committed by persons with these brain disorders are the consequence of neglect, inappropriate or inadequate treatment of their illness (NAMI).
The Alliance also contends that the unpopular insanity defense should be retained and should be tested according to both volitional and cognitive criteria or standards (National Alliance of Mental Illness 2006). At the same time, the Alliance opposes the adoption of laws or position on "guilty but mentally ill. Instead, it advocates systems, which will provide comprehensive, long-term care and supervision in hospitals and the community where such individuals are found who are "not guilty by reason of insanity," "guilty except for insanity," or similar…… [Read More]
Justice at Bat
The Story of Three Strikes Legislation
It has been said that only two things are certain - death and taxes. Yet to these two inevitabilities, many Americans would add a third -- crime. The fear of becoming the victim of a crime - especially of a violent crime - haunts many otherwise rational individuals. Violence, it seems, is everywhere. One need only turn on the television to be assailed by images of murder, rape, and physical assault. And, it is not only Hollywood that is the villain. Both local and national newscasts revel in the depiction and discussion of violent acts: a child is kidnapped; a pregnant housewife disappears and is later found murdered; a ruthless killer stalks the streets of a large city. The media like to quote facts. Just yesterday, on April 27th, it was reported that the murder rate in California's most…… [Read More]
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…… [Read More]
In the American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, David Musto notes that throughout the twentieth century, America's drug wars have regularly scape-goated minority groups, like the Chinese with opium, marijuana among the Mexicans, and cocaine among the African-Americans (McCormick 2000).
The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported in 1973 that "the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record a failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it," yet during the next two decades both state and federal legislatures implemented increasingly stiffer penalties and mandatory minimums claiming that prisons were an effective tool for crime control, and longer prison terms would reduce crime by deterring or incapacitating criminals (McCormick 2000). However, at the end of this period, after the average prison sentence had tripled and the prison population at more than quadrupled, a National Academy of…… [Read More]
Social equity is a key issue of public administration and forms the basic theme of the 2013 "Social Equity Leadership Conference," in June. This white paper discusses the key goals of the conference based on the conference issue for social equity as global engagement and local responsibility. These are the issue facing social equity among domestic and global public leaders in public and private agencies in the education, immigration, transportation, environmental, policing and corrections sectors. A review of theories on public administration identifies that public leadership networking, collaboration, and cooperation with leaders and agencies is necessary. This is associated with public leadership practices like public policy development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, social equity, and public advocacy.
Globally Engaged, Locally esponsible: New Challenges for Social Equity
Emerging Issues in Social Equity and Leadership Covered in the Conference:
2. Policing and corrections
3. At risk communities, which…… [Read More]