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While state legislatures have acted quickly to change policy, the reality has become apparent that most crimes committed by juveniles are nonviolent, making the need to incarcerate them for extended periods of time in adult prison unnecessary, and the vast majority of individuals who offend during adolescence do not continue to do so in adulthood (Border Disputes between Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice Systems: Exclusion and Transfer Laws, 2008).
There are many ways that a minor can enter the adult criminal system:
Judicial waiver: the juvenile court judge makes a decision about whether a particular youth should be transferred to adult court, allowing for the consideration of the individual's characteristics such as the juvenile's maturity level, personal circumstances, and prior history.
Statutory exclusions: are laws that rule out youth from the juvenile court, usually if they meet certain age or crime criteria or both.
Concurrent jurisdiction and direct file which…
Border Disputes between Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice Systems: Exclusion and Transfer
Laws. (2008). Retrieved March 29, 2010, from Web site:
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…
Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,
Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt
Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing
Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)
The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…
Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
Management, irrespective of the particular industry, has a profound effect on organizational effectiveness. For one, management has the ability to drive results through proper motivation and incentives. A manager must also effective lead through his or her ability to inspire action on the part of subordinates. These broad requirements of management demands various skill sets. Many of these skill sets including leadership, time managements, the ability to inspire, financial acumen, and so forth are acquired over time. Through a broad array of experiences, management is better equipped to handle varying and often conflicting circumstances. The law enforcement arena is no different in this regard. Management, particular those in law enforcement must be cognizant of a litany of behaviors and activities. Policing management, has undergone extensive change due primarily to the changing societal demographics prevailing in the world today. Cultures are now becoming more profound in America. The Hispanic…
1) Seabrooks, T.J. "Why Are so Many Felons Repeat Offenders?" Geek Politics. Web. 02 Apr. 2012. .
2) Blake, R.; Mouton, J. (1964). The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co...
3) Carlyle, Thomas (1841). On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 1-4069-4419-X.
4) Fiedler, Fred E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. McGraw-Hill: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.
First of all, the number of people being arrested "is far lower than the number of crimes being committed," an indication that placing repeat and habitual offenders in prison for longer periods of time has decreased the arrest rate. Second, some crime analysts have estimated that keeping repeat and habitual offender in prison has lowered crimes by individuals by as much as fifteen crimes per year which when multiplied with the 1.4 million increase in the prison population since 1984 rounds out to about 21 million less crimes per year in the U.S. ("Lock 'Em Up," 2005, Internet).
Obviously, this "prison experiment" of locking up repeat and habitual offenders for longer periods of time seems to have been a success. Kathleen Auerhahn, writing in Selective Incapacitation and Public Policy, points out that both forms of incapacitation have greatly reduced the number of criminals on the streets of America and have…
Auerhahn, Kathleen. (2003). Selective Incapacitation and Public Policy. New York:
Philosophy of Criminal History." (2008). U.S. Sentencing Commission. Internet.
Retrieved October 24, 2008 at http://www.ussc.gov/SIMPLE/crimhist.htm .
Seligman, Dan. (2005). "Lock 'Em Up." Forbes.com. Internet. Retrieved October 24, 2008 from www.forbes.com/2005/0523/216.html.
According to search warrants, two days before Clark was arrested, investigators found blood in plain view on the kitchen floor near the entrance to his apartment. The warrants do not specify the source of the blood. Authorities removed plastic door panels and carpeting with blood-like stains from the car in which Clark was riding in the hours after Le disappeared. Police say a green-ink pen found under Le's body had her blood and Clark's DNA on it. Police say that Clark signed into the secure building with a green pen on Sept. 8, the day Le disappeared. DNA from Le and Clark was also found on a bloody sock that was hidden in the ceiling (Yale Lab Tech Hit with 2nd Murder Charge, 2010).
The jurisdiction for this crime would be the State of Connecticut. The specific actus rea in this crime would be the act of strangling. The mens…
Arnsdorf, Isaac, Miller, Zeke, Korn, Harrison and Paul Needham. (2009). Clark Charged in Le
GRD '13 Murder. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from Yale Daily News Web site:
Dershowitz, Alan. (2009). Raymond Clark III Arrested, But Many Questions Remain. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from The Huffington Post Web site:
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…
Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te
Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04
Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm
NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
Successful achievement of program requirements will often lead to a dropping or reduction of the charges while failure may bring back or enhance the penalties that are involved. Charges dismissed because of a diversion program will still lead to additional criminal history points under the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines if there was a finding of guilt by a court or the defendant pleaded guilty or otherwise admitted guilt in open court, provided that the deferred disposition was not a juvenile matter (Diversion Programs: An Overview, 1999).
Alternative to Incarceration Programs (ATIs) are part of the mix of factors that have allowed the City to reduce crime, reduce jail and prison populations, and help individuals and neighborhoods across the City. As an alternative to sentencing someone to jail or prison, ATIs permit a judge to sentence someone to a program where they obtain treatment, education and employment training in the community,…
Alternative to Incarceration Programs: Cut Crime, Cut Costs, Help People and Communities. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Web site:
Electronic Monitoring of Offenders in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Michigan Department of Corrections Web site:
http://www.michigan.gov/corrections/0,1607,7-119-1435-5032 -- ,00.html
They also point out the relatively low pay compared scale with other law enforcement professionals, and the fact that officers have no law enforcement responsibilities outside of the institution where they work, unlike police officers who have a responsibility to protect the community, even when they are technically off-duty. The median annual salary of correctional officers was $35,760 in May 2006. The median annual earnings in the public sector was $47,750 for federal government officers compared with officers employed in state government institutions whose median income was $36,140 and $34,820 for local government institutions ("Corrections officers," BLS, 2009). This may reflect the higher educational requirements of the federal system and the more extensive duties of corrections officers on a federal level.
However, the types of critical thinking required in a prison environment go beyond mere technical capabilities provided by on-the-job raining. Some form of college degree can be helpful and…
Corrections / Police / Criminal Justice
ould I lie to a suspect to get a confession even it was legal to do so?
Legal or not, lying to get a confession creates a moral black hole for an officer. To wit, how would an officer who was otherwise a good Christian later feel about getting a conviction albeit he obtained that conviction through deception? That is the question here. Chances are he would feel guilty; and it's possible that his wife, if she knew he used lies to tease a confession out of a suspect, would confront him. He would have had no place to hide from his sin in his earthly world and certainly spiritually he would live with a sense of guilt. Looked at a different way, when a good officer who was not a Christian but has always practiced ethical values is told by his superiors in…
Jones, J.R. (2006). Reputable Conduct: Ethical Issues in Policing and Corrections. Don Mills,
Ontario: Pearson Canada.
Perez-Pena. R. (2012). Studies Find More Students Cheating, With High Achievers No
Exception. The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Children between 4 and 6 and children who are distant will also be provided a pen pal packet.
Discount transit passes will be provided for children and their chaperone from the Boys and Girls Club through a benefit held by the inmates, as well as inmate donations. Supplies for pen pal packets have been donated by the United Way. All teachers are volunteering time to increase the efficacy of the program and show the inmates that they have commitment to it.
The yearly budget for the program will be $15,000, mainly consisting of costs incurred for transportation and supplies, which will covered by donations, the United Way and contributions from inmates. Students will be returned to the transit center to meet the B&G club volunteer by 5:30 PM so they are able to return to the B & G. club in time for the nightly meal, before they return…
The Bright Side of Prison. (2003, Summer). The Wilson Quarterly, 27, 97.
Conley, a.C. (2006). Renny Golden, War on the Family: Mothers in Prison and the Families They Leave Behind. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 33(3), 192.
Golden, R. (2004) War on the Family: Mothers in Prison and the Families they Leave Behind. New York: Routledge.
Hale, T. (2001, February). Creating Visions and Achieving Goals: The Women in Community Service's Lifeskills[TM] Program. Corrections Today, 63, 33.
In fact, he did time in jail while he was the leader for arms possession and hijacking. Violence was common with this particular group, and in an effort to frighten and "intimidate" police, prison guards were killed by Hells Angel members in 1997. Eventually, Boucher was tried and convicted for orchestrating the killings (Editors).
In addition, many other criminal investigations have turned up large amounts of money, weapons, drugs, and evidence of other illegal activities, such as extortion and coercion by club members and in clubhouses across America and the world. The club Web site maintains that "1% of their members are bad, and ruin the reputation of the remaining 99%" ("Stew" & "Craig"), but the evidence continues to point to the fact that many HAMC activities are gang and crime related, and that many of its members join the organization for reasons other than a passion for motorcycles. The…
Editors. "The Road to Hell." Canadian Broadcasting Company. 2004. 19 Nov. 2007. http://www.cbc.ca/fifth/featurestories/bikers/timeline.html
Stew" & "Craig." "History." Hells-Angels.com. 2007. 19 Nov. 2007. http://www.hells-angels.com/
Wagner, Dennis. "Hells Angels: The Federal Infiltration." The Arizona Republic 23 Jan., 2005.
19 Nov. 2007. http://www.azcentral.com/specials/special42/articles/0123hellsangels23.html
Louise oodward, 2008).
oodward's legal team filed motions after her conviction to the trial court for which a hearing began on November 4th. In the days following the verdict it came out that the jury had been split about the murder charge, but those who had favored an acquittal were persuaded to accept a conviction. This fact was of no legal consequence, however. On November 10th, at a post-conviction relief hearing, Judge Hiller B. Zobel reduced the conviction to involuntary manslaughter, saying that the circumstances in which the defendant acted were characterized by confusion, inexperience, frustration, immaturity and some anger, but not malice in the legal sense supporting a conviction for second-degree murder. He also said that he thought that allowing this defendant on this evidence to remain convicted of second-degree murder would be a miscarriage of justice (Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Louise oodward, 2008).
oodward's sentence was reduced to…
"Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Louise Woodward." (2008). 22 February 2010,
Commonwealth v. Woodward. 427 Mass. 659 (Mass. 1998). LexisNexis Academic. Web. 22
Recent fatal attacks by police against unarmed citizens -- in particular African-American males -- have been portrayed as insensitive, illegal, and unnecessary violence by cable news programs over the past few years. And those televised reports (shown over and over) have caused angry citizens to participate in large demonstrations in American city streets. Fairly or unfairly, these incidents have caused citizens to turn against police departments -- albeit most police departments do not train their officers to shoot unarmed suspects. Because everyone with a smart phone can take video of police actions, and share videos with news organizations, this has become a negative for law enforcement. In response to these incidents, some police departments are offering rewards to officers that show restraint in the line of duty. This paper presents examples of those strategies by police departments.
The Philadelphia & Los Angeles Police Departments
In Philadelphia, the police department rewards…
Video One: Can Volunteers Protect Communities?
Is this a "Police-Public Relations" or "Police-Community Relations" program? Explain why.
In a sense, it is. While the people in question are volunteers and are thus not members of the police force. Even so, the volunteer force is a manifestation of a group that has at least somewhat good intentions when it comes to the crime rates involved.
Is this the answer in these tough fiscal times?
It can be given that having more and more police on hand costs money and this is not the easiest thing to do when budgets are stretched thin due to recession, over-use of resources and so forth.
Is this a good idea? Yes? or No? Explain why.
Only if it is properly limited and controlled. It can be good in that the volunteers can be extra sets of eyes and ears and this can in many…
After graduating from high school, I held a number of different odd jobs. I worked as a dishwasher, a janitor, and in a factory. After coming to the realization that I needed to find a career, I applied for a job with the Department of Corrections and was fortunate enough to be hired. That was over 25 years ago and I am nearing my time for retirement.
What has been your position with the Department?
In the beginning I was a beginning level corrections officer with very simple responsibilities. I would work on the processing of new prisoners. My duties were to meet the new inmates as they arrived at the prison and have them turn in their personal belongings and issue them their prison wardrobe. It was easy work and most of the prisoners were so nervous and scared that they were very manageable. After a couple…
Franklin, T.W. (2006). Examining the empirical relationship between prison crowding and inmate misconduct: A meta-analysis of conflicting research results. Journal of Criminal Justice, 401-412.
Ogloff, J.R. (2002). Offender Rehabilitation: From "Nothing Works" to What Next? Australian Psychologist, 245-252.
Correction System in the United States
The objective of this brief study is to examine the correctional system in the United States. This system was historically a state-owned and government-operated institution however, in recent years the prison system in the United States has become privatized and this has created a new paradigm in terms of housing prisoners under the present judicial system's orders.
If It Is roken
The prison system received a wake-up call in the Spring of 2011 due to a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the California prison system was required to reduce the inmates in its overcrowded prison system by 30,000 individuals. The court ruled that the California state's system was "incompatible with the concept of human dignity." (Thomas and eckel, 2011) The United States is reported to have roughly 2 million individuals incarcerated in local, state, and federal jails or prisons, which equals "the…
Mikkelsen, Randall (2007) U.S. Prison System: Costly and Harmful Failure. Reuters News. 19 Nov 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/19/us-usa-prisons-idUSN1841666120071119
Private Prisons are Back (2012 ) Corrections. Retrieved from: http://www.correctionsproject.com/corrections/pris_priv.htm
Thomas, Cal and Beckel, Bob (2011) Jailbroken: 5 Ways to Fix the U.S.A.'s Prisons. 13 Jul 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2011-07-13-prison-jail-system-america_n.htm
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…
Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.correctionsone.com .
United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.
Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
As anyone who is arrested by law enforcement must be made aware of their basic civil rights. At which point, you have the option of determining if: you would like to talk to law enforcement alone or with your lawyer present during all questioning. You would then be booked and transferred to the jail, awaiting your preliminary hearing before the courts. ("Rights of the Accused," 2008)
Once this begins, is the point that a suspect can challenge their detention and question the fact that they may be innocent. Where, the judge will listen to arguments from both sides, to determine if there were any possible abuses that are: occurring and the preponderance of evidence against them. If there is sufficient evidence, they will set a trial date and listen to bail requests from the defense. Depending upon the severity of the crime and the possibility that the defendant could be…
Mexico Police and Law Enforcement. (2004). Photius. Retrieved from: http://www.photius.com/countries/mexico/national_security/mexico_national_security_police_and_law_enfor~516.html
Rights of the Accused. (2008). America. Retrieved from: http://www.america.gov/st/democracyhr-english/2008/June/20080630231256eaifas0.3084683.html
Guiterez, M. (2001). Central America. Global Corruption Report.
Criminal Justice System
Corrections, Civil Court proceedings
The role of the victim in the criminal justice system
To the victim, the processes of the criminal justice system can seem frightening and confusing. It is important for the victim to understand that the justice system unfolds in an orderly, sequential process, and while it may be frustrating at times, the multi-step nature of the justice system is also necessary. With most crimes, the first stage is the initial report. "Law enforcement officers receive the crime report from victims, witnesses, or other parties (or witness the crime themselves and make a report)" (The criminal justice system, 2013, National Center for Victims of Crime). After the initial report, then law enforcement conducts an investigation to see if a crime has been committed; who the perpetrator may be; and then they try to arrest the suspect after gathering evidence. "If they find a suspect…
The criminal justice system. (2013). National Center for Victims of Crime. Retrieved:
What are the differences between the civil and criminal justice system? (2013). National
Crime Victim Law Institute. Retrieved:
Corrections and etribution
etribution is considered as the penalty that is imposed on an individual or a group of people for the crimes they committed with an aim of making them experience the same amount of pain or loss as the victim of their crimes.
etribution programs are set up to correct people who go against the law of justice. It is normally set for individuals who do something that is illegal. For this case, the offenders suffer for the wrong-doing; the aim of retribution is to take action on people who infringed the rights of other individuals. This paper analyzes the purpose of retribution programs conversely to the appropriate ways of how those purposes can be accomplished; it also illustrates some methods of retributive justice models which are applied to the offenders.
Various philosophers have come up with contested arguments on the value for or arguments against retributive…
Redekop, P. (2008). Changing paradigms: Punishment and Restorative Discipline. London:
Shoham, S.G. (2007). International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice. New Yolk:
Taylor & Francis Ltd.
sold to law enforcement as a way to implement stringent policing structure while at the same time ensuring that community safety is maintained at minimal cost to the department and without job loss or reductions in force due to economical policing practices. In addition the plan should be sold as a way for the police department to re-build it's reputation among community members, and strengthen its reputation for working in a productive and collaborative manner. The cost savings benefits of building a stronger community with less crime in an efficient manner should also be emphasized as a primary benefit of the program.
There are many opportunities existing that lend support for the plan. For example, the report notes that a number of juvenile gangs are evolving within the community, a problem that is new for a community that had been relatively stable in the past. The police department can gain…
"Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D. & Klofas, J. (2003). "Radical Approach Plan." Criminal
Justice Organizations, Wadsworth: Thomson.
Police use of force
There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice Department concurs with this. This leaves the approximately 18,000 police agencies in America with the leeway to formulate their own policies regarding the use of force. Some agencies may address the issue while some may not. The Justice Department has however provided a use-of-force continuum. This refers to a step-by-step manner in which the police officers can act in order to calm a situation. As such, a police officer can first present himself at the scene, resort to verbal warning if his mere presence is not enough, then use unarmed control, say grabbing the offender, proceed to use less harmful weapons such as tear gas and batons, and finally use excessive force (Vera, 2018).
This order of attack is quite…
Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).
During the 19th century,…
Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.
Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.
Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
Goals of Corrections
The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this…
Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.
Nagin, D.S. (1998). "Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First
Century." Crime and Justice, Vol. 23.
The federal government along with several states introduced mandatory sentencing and life terms for habitual criminals often called three strikes laws, meaning that after three convictions you're out. They also restricted the use of probation, parole, and time off for good behavior (Prevention History of Corrections -- Punishment or ehabilitation - Justice Model, 2010).
The rapid increase in the 1990s in the number of people confined in prisons and jails was thought to correspond with falling crime rates. Experts though could not agree as to why this decrease in crime occurred. Some thought that imprisoning more criminals naturally led to less crime in society, while others believed that new policing strategies and tactics such as community policing and zero-tolerance reduced crime. The growing number of offenders on parole and in prisons and jails has put a real burden on the system. Facilities have become overcrowded and states have had problems…
Alighieri, Dante. (2009). Institutional Corrections. Retrieved January 31, 2010, from Web site:
Corrections. (2010). Retrieved January 31, 2010, from Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site:
.....justice' transcends the scope of a majority of arguments. A discourse on its many connotations offers dynamic players on opposite sides of law enforcement lines a peaceful way to promote fairness via exchanges and interface. The requisite interface transcends the "no justice, no peace" principle. However, defining the term 'justice' would be a fine way to begin (Walton 10).
State and federal level regulation safeguards citizens of the nation against abuse as well as other similar violations on the part of law enforcers and other governmental authorities. Police abuse victims may individually sue both policemen and the local governmental bodies employing those officials (Advice Company Staff 3).
Usually, law enforcement officers are sued by society under the 1871 Civil Rights Act, §1983. The Act expressly forbids individuals who act on legal authority against infringing others' civil rights. Further, law enforcers are provided legal safeguards (e.g., "qualified immunity" that often shields…
local police agencies at the local, agencies, local, state, and federal level organized to identify principal roles and functions of the police organization in the application of law.
Various Types of Police Agencies
Various levels and types of policing agencies exist including local, state, and federal policing agencies. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in its Occupational Outlook Handbook: Police and Detectives (2010-11 Ed.) individuals who are qualified are those most likely to have favorable job option. Competition for State and Federal agency jobs in State and Federal agencies is great. (U.S. Department of Labor, 2010-11)
Uniformed police officers are reported to be those with responsibility for enforcement of general law through maintaining regular patrols and providing response to calls and spending a great deal of time completing paperwork and responding to calls for assistance. Urban police are active in what 'community policing' stated to be a practice "in…
LaFrance, T.C. And Lee, SZ (2010) Sheriffs' and Police Chiefs' Differential Perceptions of the Residents They Serve: An Exploration and Preliminary Rationale. Retrieved from: http://wiu.academia.edu/CaseyLaFrance/Papers/333762/Sheriffs_and_Police_Chiefs_Differential_Perceptions_of_the_Residents_They_Serve_An_Exploration_and_Preliminary_Rationale
Johnson, R.A. (1994) Police Organizational Design and Structure. 1994 June, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_n6_v63/ai_15704701/
Zimmer (nd) Police Agencies are Organizations. CSU Fresno. Retrieved from: http://zimmer.csufresno.edu/~haralds/LECTURENOTES/crim102/polorgoperchp3.htm
O'Connor, T. (2010) Police Structure and Organization. Megalinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.drtomoconnor.com/megapolice.htm
POLICE OFFICE EQUIE ASSOCIATES DEEGEE CIMINAL JUSTICE CLOSELY ELATED FIELD?
POLICE OFFICES, DEGEE IN CIMINAL JUSTICE, AND OTHE QUALIFICATIONS
Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications
Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications
Police officers are individuals empowered by the government to limit civil disorder, protect property, and enforce the law. They are normally charged with the detection and prevention of crime, apprehension of criminals and maintenance of law and order. The minimum training and education required in order to become a police officer mainly varies among individual agencies, departments, and states. The education requirements largely depend on the position or rank that the individual is seeking. This report endeavors to explain whether the police officer is required to have at least an Associates' degree in Criminal Justice or any other close related field. It also explains whether police officers' education level plays a…
Bottoms, A.E., & McClean, J.D. (2013). "Defendants in the criminal process." Hoboken: Taylor and Francis
Carter, D.L., & Jamieson, J.D. (1978). "Issues and trends in criminal justice education." Huntsville, Tex.: Institute of Contemporary Corrections and the Behavioral Sciences, Sam Houston State University
Cryderman, B.K. (1986). "Police, race and ethnicity: a guide for law enforcement officers." Toronto: Butterworths
Nemeth, C.P. (1989). "A status report on contemporary criminal justice education: a definition of the discipline and an assessment of its curricula, faculty, and program characteristics." Lewiston, NY, USA: E. Mellen Press.
Describe how police-community relations originated as a separate operational concept.
Surely because of the idea that the police nor the community acts in a vacuum. What the police do (or are perceived as doing) or are not doing (or perceived as not doing) affects the community. Similarly, what the community is or is not doing will affect how the police responds. As such, any community/police paradigm has to keep all of this in mind. For example, if a police officer shoots and kills someone that and that person is black, justified by the circumstances or not, there will almost certainly be an uproar. Similarly, if there are a lot of crimes in a given area of a community, the police will surely respond by beefing up police presence in that area.
Describe the difference between police-community relations and police-public relations.
They are part of the same paradigm but they are…
These breath-testers use a range of technologies including electrochemical fuel cells, infrared absorption, metallic oxide semiconductors and disposable color-change testers.
The disposable breath-testers are cheap to purchase and very useful in detecting alcohol in a person's system. When the test is positive, to check for other drugs in his system, the person is required to give a blood sample for confirmation by a laboratory. In addition his urine sample is also taken to test for the presence of other drugs in his system.
Breath testers have been in use in the United States since the 1940s. Then the machines used to detect alcohol were not as accurate as the ones used today. Nowadays mostly infrared absorption devices are used. They have a sample chamber from where the breath passes. This comes in contact with the infrared light, which counts the ions of alcohol thus measuring the alcohol level.
1. Jerry W. Kilgore - "DNA Samples Prove to Be Effective in Solving Crimes." Magazine Title: Corrections Today. Volume: 65. Issue: 4. July 2003. 28.
2. "DNA Money." Newspaper Title: The Washington Times. March 12, 2003. A06.
3. Richard S. Julie - "High-Tech Surveillance Tools and the Fourth Amendment: Reasonable Expectations of Privacy in the Technological Age." Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 37. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 2000. Page Number: 127
4. News Story: Camera detects concealed weapons in real-time. [ http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/463051 ] Accessed Aug 21, 2005
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…
Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-
2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm
Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.
("Home Confinement / Electronic Monitoring," n. d.)
House arrest or home confinement started as a program to handle particularly as a sentencing substitute meant for drunk drivers, but rapidly spread over to a number of other offender populations in a lot of jurisdictions. Depending on the nature of crime committed by the offenders, home confinement has been designed with various degrees of stages of restrictions. These can vary from ordinary curfews to complete confinement. For instance, the home confinement program of the Federal courts extends three separate levels of restrictions under the U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services, 2000. Under the first level ie., curfew, it requires the program participants to stay at home daily during certain time periods. Under the second level house arrest it requires on the part of the participants to stay at home round the clock save for attending to work, school, treatment etc. which must be…
Black, Matt; Smith, Russell G. (n. d.) "Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System"
No. 254. Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi254.pdf
Caputo, Gail. (2004) "Intermediate Sanctions in corrections"
Clear, Todd R; Cole, George F. (2005) "American Corrections"
ecruiting and etaining Police Officers:
• Discuss the difficulties in recruiting, selecting, and retaining police officers. What suggestions can you offer for improving the recruitment, selection, and retention of qualified police officers? Be specific about the traits you would seek in new recruits, and why.
According to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) report entitled Hiring and keeping police officers, financial cutbacks and negative publicity (particularly in regards to racial profiling) coupled with increased educational requirements has resulted in greater difficulty in recruiting new police officers nation-wide. Further causing shortages in the ability of police to fulfill essential functions is the corresponding increase in training time, often to specifically to expand education in community policing techniques to improve relationships between the police and historically discriminated-against communities. Attrition rates do not seem to be significantly impacted, however.
egardless, there is a delicate balance that must be maintained between improving the qualifications…
Hiring and keeping police officers. (2004). NIJ.
Tedford, D. (2009). Court topples Sotomayor ruling in firefighter case. NPR. Retrieved from:
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm
Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .
Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .
Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
Community corrections are an integral component of any law enforcement correctional program. Community corrections staff, develop, and administer contracts for community-based correctional programs and serve as the Bureau of Prisons (BOP)'s local liaison with the federal courts, the U.S. Marshals Service, state and local corrections, and a variety of community groups. Through the community corrections program, the BOP has developed agreements with state and local governments to house juveniles and prisoners of non-violent crimes (Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2011).
The BOP contracts with residential reentry centers to provide assistance to inmates who have been found to be non-violent offenders. The community centers also include those inmates nearing release at the end of their determined term of incarceration. esidential reentry centers are always under supervision; in addition, they provide employment counseling, job placement, financial management assistance, and other programs and services. C's help inmates gradually re-enter the community and facilitate supervising…
Akhila, K. (2010) Foreign Prison Conditions Improvement Act of 2010. http://akhilak.com/blog/2010/10/17/foreign-prison-conditions-improvement-act-of-2010 / Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Federal Bureau of Prisons (2011) Community Corrections. http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Public Safety Performance Project (2007) What Works in Community Corrections. www.pewpublicsafety.org Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Crime and Corrections
Historically crime has been a concern for the public, and by extension policy makers because of the ways in which it can change and shape society. Criminal activity has the potential to influence social and economic environments within a society thus it is critical to identify measures that reduce outcomes of crime and support the reintegration of offenders into society. Consequently, crime and corrections have become big business in the United States (Smith). The money from the public purse that is expended to deal with crime is increasing in all of the states. More money is being moved from other areas of the budget to address the challenge of crime and criminal behavior. This increase in expenditure occurs in multiple areas of the criminal justice system and in spite of cost control measures. Additionally, there are fewer prisoners in within the system. This reduction in prisoners has…
Calvo-Armengoi Antoni and Zenou Yves Social Networks and Crime Decisions: The Role of Social Structure in Facilitating Delinquent Behavior International Economic Review
Vol. 45, No. 3 (2004):939-958.
Minton Todd D. Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010 - Statistical Tables U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011) Web.
ole of Correction Officers
Corrections officers, also known as detention officers have their work environment within the detention facilities as well as local, state or federal jails, penitentiaries and reformatories. Corrections officers have the duty of controlling individuals who are waiting to be tried or those who have already been convicted. The paper will look at the duties and responsibilities of corrections officers. Focus will be on the role of the correction officers within the social role of inmates and within the jail administration.
Security is one of the key responsibilities of correction officers and they have the duty of maintaining security within the institution and observe safety and health for both the staff and prisoners. They carry out physical patrols as well as visually inspect yards, units, buildings, prisoners, their property to ensure the safety, welfare and security of prisoners is maintained. They perform inspections of cells and…
Education-Portal.com. (2013). Duties of a Corrections Officer: Responsibilities and Skills Needed. Retrieved September 9, 2013 from http://education-portal.com/duties_of_a_correction_officer.html
The State of Alaska. (2007). Correctional Officer Duties. Retrieved September 9, 2013 from http://www.correct.state.ak.us/co_recruitment/materials/duties.jsf
Women in Policing
women's initial police work followed work in prisons
Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison eform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging as police officers, but rather on women in prisons, and women who were employed by prisons to work with female inmates. On page 19, Freedman explains that in the late 19th Century, "sexual ideology began to suggest that purity came naturally to women, in contrast to men, who had to struggle to control their innate lust." It was argued by "influential Victorian authorities" that women did not have an appetite for sex, but rather they just went through the motions to have children. This attitude laid the groundwork for the vicious hatred society had for "impure women" who had the capacity "to unleash not just male sperm, but more importantly, the social disintegration that sexuality symbolized" (20).
And so, the "fallen…
Freedman, Estelle B. (1981). Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Schulz, Dorothy Moses. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
Segrave, Kerry. (1995). Policewomen: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…
Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf
Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Intelligence Unit Memo
Police Chief I.B. Friendly
Incorporating Intelligence Unit into Department
In modern law enforcement, the sophistication of modern criminal activity, particularly post-September 11th, causes a necessary paradigm shift for 21st century police departments. This shift requires that departments rethink the power of information -- the manner in which it is collected, analyzed, and then used to fulfill the goals of the department. In fact, in 2007, the National Strategy for Information Sharing released by the hite House describes the need for fusion information centers as a vital way to succeed in modern law enforcement and critical to the safety of the local community as well as the nation (Porter, 2008).
Historical Background - Prior to 1960, even large, urban Police Departments did not have intelligence units. Resources were combined so that Detectives were at the hierarchy of information analysis; and every member of the department was open to…
Corrections - Report of the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. (1973, March). Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=10865
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011, June). Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Retrieved from FRI.gov:
According to the Correctional Programs Division for the state of Nevada, another program sponsored by the NDOC is Casa Grande, a re-entry transition center opening in December 2005 and "will house up to 400 non-violent offenders in a dorm-like setting, during their last four to six months of incarceration. This will enable them to live in the community, obtain employment and receive family counseling."
There are programs called "street readiness" which teaches life-skills such as time and money management, parole requirements and job seeking skills. For the inmates who are ordered to pay restitution, the inmates should have a program to help with the opportunity to work in the community during their last few months of incarceration and earn money to pay back their victims.
The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php
ilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The…
The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php
Wilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The Agenda for the 21st Century, December, 1997.
And if that policy is already in effect, then further training in that area is necessary.
The kitchen is an obvious source of "weapons" (like the heavy soup ladle used). It should be guarded more heavily and made less easily accessible. Routine searches of that area should be as thorough as possible. There was no video surveillance of this area -- a significant oversight. That is part of the reason the escape attempt went undetected for so long after the two employees were overwhelmed by the convicts.
There is no question that, in this situation, the escape attempt could have been stopped before it became dangerous if only one or two of the above recommendations had been followed.
~There existed too much open access to the security tower, and procedures to enforce security became lax and ineffective. Again, there is no doubt that had proper procedures been in place or…
Associated Press. (2004, March 4). Arizona prison standoff probe blames past decisions in part. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from USAToday.com: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-03-04-prison-hostages_x.htm
Baker, J. (2004). Anatomy of a hostage negotiation: An interview with a primary negotiator. Retrieved May 31, 2009, from The Negotiator Magazine: http://www.negotiatormagazine.com/article211_1.html
Epler, P., & Rushton, B. (2004, February 19). Federal judge questions credibility of Arizona department of corrections director. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from Middlegroundprisonreform.org: http://www.middlegroundprisonreform.org/news/NewTimesDoraCredibility.2004.htm
NICIC. (2004). Preliminary finding and recommendations: The morey unit hostage incident. Retrieved May 29, 2009, from National Institute of Corrections Information Center (NICIC): http://www.nicic.org/Library/019617
149-150). When the inmate failed to deliver on the guards' demands, the guards then planted drugs in the inmate's bunk (p. 150). The inmate was subsequently prosecuted, and received an extended sentence (p. 150).
Often people will doubt these kinds of stories, because, after all, the inmates are already imprisoned for offenses like drugs, and often much worse kinds of crimes. This puts the inmates at risk of guards and other prison employees who might not embrace a high set of ethics or personal morals. Everyone wants to see crime punished, but when the crimes are being committed within the prison environment, people seem to be less concerned about them, even if they are crimes being committed by the guards or prison officials. People should, in fact, be very concerned about these kinds of crimes, because it is the prison officials and those employees, including guards, who are willing to…
Bowman, J.S. & Elliston, F.A. (Eds.). (1988). Ethics, Government, and Public Policy: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30400116
Cody, W.J., & Lynn, R.R. (1992). Honest Government: An Ethics Guide for Public Service. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6854498
Coyle, A., Campbell, A., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99960585
Dolovich, S. (2005). State Punishment and Private Prisons. Duke Law Journal, 55(3), 437+. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015707307
This could be on account of the normal human reaction to being placed in frustrating conditions, or drawbacks like very poor security, and lethargy of the authorities. Investing in controlling mechanisms like weapons, guards, and other means of surveillance and control, while suppressing the violent tendencies of most inmates do little to help remove the causes of aggression. A more comprehensive approach is required that takes a study of the whole gamut of psychological emotional, physical needs and suffering into one group and then provide better training to the personnel in handling these emotions and the prisoners. They must be adepts in identifying the threat potential is necessary. (Carter; Glaser, 1977)
Another important fact that was clearly visible in the negotiation process and the later handling of the issue was the tardy help received from the outside, or the reluctance to get outside help. The negotiators must have gone in…
Carter, Robert Melvin; Glaser, Daniel. (1977) "Correctional Institutions" Lippincott.
Corcoran, Michael H; Cawood, James S. (2003) "Violence Assessment and Intervention: The Practitioner's Handbook" CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
Garrett, Michael. (2004, Jun) "In Need of Correction: Arizona's prison system is overloaded and its staff is overwhelmed" Retrieved 4 April, 2008 at http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A57551
U.S. Corrections Systems
The current U.S. prison system has several purposes, including retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitation. (Legal Encyclopedia, 2011). Although the current model is attempting a greater emphasis upon rehabilitation, this objective has met varying successes and failures. One of the most legitimate criticisms against prison rehabilitation programs is the fact that the treatment involved is compulsory or coercive. This factor then led to the likelihood of returning to criminal activity once the prisoner is released.
According to the Legal Encyclopedia (2011), there have been advances in rehabilitation programs that have in fact proved to reduce recidivism. The success of these programs are based upon their focus on offenders' needs and on improving their cognitive and social skills. ecidivism resulting from these programs amounted to 30% or more.
Because of the high costs of maintaining and constructing prisons, the rehabilitation purpose has enjoyed increased attention over recent years. Simply…
Gest, T. (2010). Covering Sentencing. Covering Crime and Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.justicejournalism.org/crimeguide/chapter14/chapter14_pg05.html
Legal Encyclopedia (2011). Prisons and Jails: Development of Prisons and Jails in the United States. Retrieved from: http://law.jrank.org/pages/18929/Prisons-Jails.html
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail time (provided good behavior while incarcerated), and it may include having the offender pay a fine, do restitution, and perform community service activities as well (www.pwcgov.org)
Advantages: a) Instead of serving time in prison or a county jail the offender gets an opportunity to return to the community albeit under stringent requirements; b) it is basically like a second chance for the offender, and if he or she takes advantage of the opportunity and follows the rules, it can be a blessing for the offender and a savings of money for the correctional system
Disadvantages: a) This is not technically a "disadvantage" but if the terms of the probation are not met (for example, if the person on probation fails to…
Findlaw. (2010). Restitution. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com .
Prince William County, Virginia. (2010). What is Probation? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.pwcgov.org .
U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Community-Based Correctional Education. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/cclo/index.html .
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov .
If a Community Corrections participant is questioned by police for any crime whatsoever they can be violated simply for being questioned. If their officer decides not to violate them they still have to report the questioning within 12 hours of its occurrence or face violation.
Following several months on the program the participant is moved to phase two at which time he or she is allowed one pass a week. The pass must be pre-approved and under no circumstances can the participant be out after 9 p.m.
Following several months on that program without incident the participant can move to the curfew phases. This is a time period in which the participant has graduated curfews of 7 p.m. And 9 p.m. For the remainder of time in the program (Evans, 1996).
Throughout the program probation officers do surprise house checks to be sure the participant in indeed in the house…
Evans, Donald (1996) Defining community corrections.
Law enforcement and corrections can be influenced by several external threats. These consist of external communication gaps and many environmental influences. One of the key external threats that impacts both corrections and law enforcement is politics. In delineation, politics is the art of wielding one's authority and power over the government or public affairs. In particular, political action can give rise to the imposition of one's interests within the government, in positions of leadership within the government, with regard to the control over resources, as well as in terms of holding government office. Politics influence law enforcement and corrections by impacting the individuals that will hold different positions in criminal justice, for instance the police, judges, prosecutors as well as correctional executives. Law enforcement, administration, and corrections are linked with politics on various extents and levels. Prevailing political philosophy and ideology influence the structure, organization, as well as anticipation of…
The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 Restoring Rationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bunzel, S.M. (1995). The Probation Officer and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Strange Philosophical Bedfellows. Yale Law Journal, 104(4), 933-966.
Cochrane, J., Melville, G., & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge.
Diiulio, J.J. (1991). No Escape: The Future of American Corrections. New York: Basic Books.
17). Therefore, the proper training of corrections personnel is left unfinished and unrealized which can result in leaving "members of the corrections community handicapped in their ability to address their functions" as corrections officers "in an efficient and effective manner" (1991, p. 18).
Not surprisingly, Carter reinforces the importance of training by pointing out that it is essential for the correctional population to receive adequate preparation in the form of on-the-job experience, correctional classes and through specially-designed criminal corrections academies. Basically, Carter insists that in order for the staff to perform their job functions, they "must receive "appropriate training and orientation to their job assignments," in tandem with "on-going in-service training" which hopefully will enable staff members to "assume increasing responsibility" (1991, p. 22).
In addition, all training must go beyond the possible scenarios of a particular job assignment by providing "an opportunity for the organization to impart its mission,…
Carter, Dianne. (June 1991). The status of education and training in corrections. Federal Probation. PRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT="?55.2: 17-24.
Seiter, Richard P. (1983). Corrections: center of excellence. Corrections Today. 45.1: 72-74.
Stevenson, Benjamin and Daedra Carrio. (April 2009). Why corrections should clear the hurdles. Corrections Today. 71.2: 42-44.
industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.
The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…
Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.
Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.
Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.
Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
corrections models in the United States have changed significantly over the past several generations, from a rehabilitative toward a punitive paradigm. After World War Two, a strong sense of national security and prosperity prevailed in the United States, leading to a corrections system that was based more on rehabilitation than on punishment. During these idealistic times, criminals were believed to be "ill," and correctable via a treatment model ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Trust in governmental institutions also helped politicians and the public alike agree that corrections should be built upon the theory that criminal behavior can be unlearned, or "corrected." The rehabilitation approach persisted well into the 1960s, as humanistic psychology informed corrections models. A humanistic worldview encouraged "deinstitutionalization" of corrections through the use of community-based services like halfway houses and probation ("History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," n.d.). Sentencing policy during the middle of the 20th…
Christianson, S. (n.d.). Prisons: history. Retrieved online: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1786/Prisons-History.html
"History of American Corrections," (n.d.). In Corrections: A Text/Reader. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/26034_1.pdf
"History and Development of Corrections 1700-Present," (n.d). Retrieved online: http://www.preceden.com/timelines/23091-history-and-development-of-corrections-1700-present
Mackenzie, D.L. (2001). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
Future Directions of Juvenile Corrections
he Failing Juvenile Correction System in America
History, Statement of the Problem, and Proposed Solutions
One of society's most difficult problems to solve is that of crime, and juvenile crime is a particularly difficult situation. he current juvenile correction system has many failings, and it is not improving society or curbing crime. Juveniles are being abused emotionally, physically, and sexually in detention facilities. his report introduces readers to the situation, gives a historical overview of how juvenile corrections has evolved in America, and states the problems that currently plague the system. Proposed improvements for the system, as well as examples of current programs and initiatives being taken to improve juvenile corrections, are given as well.
ABLE OF CONENS
ii Abstract iii.able of Contents
v Historical Perspective
Statement of the Problem vii....Proposed Future Directions viii...Summary and Conclusion
Crime has existed since…
The first juvenile court was established in 1899, but previous to that time children and adolescents were always processed in the adult system. By 1945, every state in America had established a separate juvenile corrections system, most of them based on theories of rehabilitation. "The original goals of the juvenile court were to investigate, diagnose, and prescribe treatment for offenders, not to adjudicate guilt or fix blame." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Judges were given a lot of freedom to choose the best way to handle juvenile offenders, rather than having strict sentencing rules to follow as they do now. In an attempt to rehabilitate and protect youth offenders, they were usually placed in reform schools that were thought to be a more beneficial experience than prison. Unfortunately, these schools became dumping grounds for unwanted children; "Common problems included lack of medical care, rehabilitation programs, and even food. Some poor conditions persist even today." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Some judges turned instead to probation sentences. Between the 1940s and 1960s, some attempts were made at providing healthier alternatives, such as probation camps, but it is difficult to say if they were at all effective because they were not available to the worst juvenile offenders, who were still generally locked up. In the 1970s, more foster care situations were made available, and alternatives such as electronic monitoring of youths on probation became available, which is still available today as a much better alternative to prison time. As people began to question the nonformal structure of the juvenile court proceedings which allowed judges to make their own calls about punishment, the focus of the juvenile corrections system has turned away from rehabilitation and instead embraces scare tactics and punishment. Legislation in the 1980s and 1990s has been targeted at more serious punishment, allowing minors to be tried as adults, and minimum sentencing laws that eliminate discretion based on circumstances. "As a result of many changes, the building of more secure facilities and development of other options, such as juvenile boot camps, house arrest programs, day treatment centers, experimental wilderness camps, and enhanced probation sanctions occurred." (Smith & Meyers 1998)
VI. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The juvenile corrections system originally had a goal to rehabilitate troubled youth, but even from the establishment of the early juvenile programs in America, the system has failed to help deter youth crime. Today, children are being specifically neglected and abused by the system, which is training them to become career criminals; "The U.S. is criminally negligent when it comes to children caught up in the nation's juvenile justice systems." (Califano 2005) One study found that four out of every five children and adolescents that are arrested are under the influence of drugs or alcohol, admit to having an addiction problem, or are arrested for a drug-related crime. However, only 3.6% of juvenile offenders that abuse or are addicted to drugs receive any treatment, and youth that go through the juvenile ...
The contemporary policing is very different from the policing system in the last two decades, this is due to the changes that have taken place across the globe on the types of crimes that are witnessed. Consequently the type of criminals who are confined in our penitentiaries are radically different from those of the yester years, hence the need to have a totally different system of correction administration as well. This then comes with the challenges that the correctional administration are bound to face every now and then.
Since there are quite a number of terrorists and the terror propagators that are of late held within the U.S.A. correctional facilities, it is true then that this comes as a new challenge to the correctional managers.
In this regard, the managers are looked upon to ensure that the correction facilities are be equipped with specialists in the field of…
Howard Sapers, (2009). Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2008-
2009 Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/rpt/annrpt/annrpt20082009-eng.aspx#_ftn14
Human Rights Watch, (2009). Mental Illness, Human Rights, and U.S. Prisons. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/09/22/mental-illness-human-rights-and-us-prisons
Kenneth L. Appelbaum et.al, (2011). A National Survey of Self-Injurious Behavior in American Prisons. Psychiatric Services Vol. 62, No. 3. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?Volume=62&page=285&journalID=18
This is less 50% of the margin of inmates. Thus, there is a slight discrepancy between the number of Black parolees vs. The number of Black inmates currently serving. There are actually a greater percentage of Black parolees than the percent of inmates serving within facilities across Illinois. This discrepancy can probably be explained through a number of different factors. Yet, there is a trend which shows that there are more Black inmates serving for drug related offenses. These often come with less sentencing time, and can be a factor in the Illinois Department of Corrections trying to get nonviolent offenders paroled to save space and funding within their facilities. In fact, drug related substances are one the highest offense in most Illinois prisons. In 2011, 8,636 inmates were in prison for violating some element of the Controlled Substance Act. This is the second largest offense category, with murder being…
Illinois Department of Corrections. (2011). Annual Report FY 2011. Illinois.gov. Web. http://www2.illinois.gov/idoc/reportsandstatistics/Documents/FY2011%20Annual%20Report.pdf
Illinois Department of Corrections. (2012). Home page. Illinoise.gov. Web. http://www2.illinois.gov/idoc/Pages/default.aspx
Whereas judicial decisions are more likely to concern substantive matters of law and definitions of legal concepts, legislative adjustments generally reflect social consensus, particularly over large spans of time. Admittedly, political access and the relative ability of specific individuals, communities, and entities to generate legislative changes beneficial to them are not, in any sense, equal when viewed from the microcosmic perspective. Nevertheless, over time, changes in the American criminal justice are largely functions of widely-shared societal concerns and social values in the United States.
In recent years, the American criminal justice system has changed in several significant respects: it has become increasingly federalized; it seen a dramatic increase in the privatization of criminal justice facilities; and it has become ever-more effective by virtue of its technological evolution. Likewise, concepts and principles of criminal reform have continually undergone cyclical changes, due in part to unanticipated flaws in prior approaches or simply…
Faith-Based eentry Programs
Legal and logistical challenges in corrections
The separation of church and state is codified in the First Amendment. State support of faith-based organizations designed to reduce recidivism rates was permitted when President George W. Bush signed the Second Chance Act in 2007. The Second Change Act allowed federal funds to be used for reentry programs, including faith-based reentry programs. As expected, the legislation could theoretically pose some First Amendment issues given that it involves federal support for programs run by religious institutions, but given that members of the clergy are already a presence in most prisons, there has been muted debate on the topic. When evaluating the utility of such programs two central questions may be asked: do such reentry programs 'work' and if so, is the faith-based component sufficiently necessary to justify the potential blurring of the line between church and state, as…
Gramlich, J. (2008). States want Second Chance Act funded. Stateline. Retrieved from:
PEW Charitable Trust.
Muhlhausen, D. (2010). The Second Chance Act: more evaluations of effectiveness needed.
(1990) Municipal Government Involvement in Crime Prevention in Canada. This work provides insight into the way that municipal government interacts with the police in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. (Hastings, 1990, p. 108)
The idea of municipal government interaction in crime prevention is shown to have been spurred on in Canada by "....the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone." (Hastings, 1990, p. 108) This again attests to the prevailing theme in the literature that there is a general consensus that the police force faces problems that are complex and which require the interaction and the assistance of other local community and municipal structures.
Hastings emphasizes this sense of interaction in the field of community policing and particularly…
About Community Policing. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://www.communitypolicing.org/about2.html
BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Comprehensive Communities Program: A Unique Way To Reduce Crime and Enhance Public Safety. (2000) Retrieved 18 August, 2006, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/bja/fs000267.txt
COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://safestate.org/index.cfm?navID=7
Community-Oriented Policing: Blessing Or Curse? Retrieved15 August, 2006, from, http://www.wsurcpi.org/resources/citizen_invol/Community-Oriented%20Policing%20Blessing%20or%20Curse.htm