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Creationism vs. Evolution in Public Schools
What should be Taught?
The purpose of this work is to research Creationism compared to evolution in relation to curriculum in public schools. The basis for the statement that both creationism and evolution should be taught in schools is the fact that it is very possible that creationism and evolution.
Human beings now find themselves in a tug of war in relation to the teaching as well as in answering to issues to answer as to the teaching, or alternately not teaching creationism in the classroom several factors must be given consideration. Dr. Ernst Mayr, Professor Emeritus of Zoology Harvard ahs written "This is Biology the Science of the Living World, published by Balknap press, Harvard 1997 states that: "Whether a scientist is a creationist or evolutionist, he or she has assumptions." Mayr held the personal view as well as stating the thought that…
Creationism: Is there any Credible Evidence to Support it?
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." (Genesis 1:1) This quotation from the Bible plus numerous others from the religious books of various religions lead us to believe that man, the earth, and the rest of the universe were originally created by a divine force rather than having been created as a result of a "Big Bang" and subsequent "evolution" over billions of years. The religious theory about the origins of the universe, earth and man called "creationism" comes into direct conflict with the present day scientific theory about our and our universe's origins. Does any solid or credible evidence exist to support creationism? I shall explore this question in this essay.
There are several categories of people who advocate "creation science" but can be broadly grouped into the "young earth creationists" and the "old earth creationists." The…
Science and Creationism: A view from the National Academy of Sciences. Second Edition, 1999. "The Origin of the Universe, Earth, and Life." March 31, 2004 http://books.nap.edu/html/creationism/origin.html
Second Edition, 1999. "Evidence Supporting Biological Evolution" March 31, 2004. http://books.nap.edu/html/creationism/evidence.html
For example, the Holy Book of Islam (The Koran) believed to be the word of God by the Muslims also supports the Biblical "creationist" story.
The Australopithecine himself is believed to have evolved from the apes about 4 million years ago Creationism
evolution and creationism. Evolution is usually held responsible for inducing immorality among its followers. This paper discusses the impact of believing in evolution on the behavior of student by describing both the evolutionary theory and its various effects.
EVOLUTION AND STUDENT BEHAVIO
It is the belief about an individual's origins that sparks a debate evolution and creation. This is because not only does the belief about origins (and the consequent debate) stir controversy but it also has serious implications. These implications are substantial in consequence because they relate to issues such as ethics, morals, truth, values, and a number of actions.
EVOLUTION O CEATION
Belief about origins has two conflicting branches. These are creation and evolution. The theory of evolution claims that "all the living forms in the world have arisen from a single source which itself came from an inorganic form" (Kerkut, 1960). Since it is a widely-accepted phenomenon…
Ayala, F.J. 1995. The Difference of Being Human: Ethical Behavior as an Evolutionary Byproduct. In Biology, Ethics and the Origin of Life, ed. Rolston, H. III, pp. 113-135. Boston and London: Jones and Bartlett.
Blackmore, Vernon and Page, Andrew. 1989. Evolution: The Great Debate. Oxford: Lion Publishing.
Carter, Brandon. 1974. Large Number Coincidences and the Anthropic Principles in Cosmology. Confrontation of Cosmological Theories with Data. Reidel: Dordrecht.
Darwin, Francis. 1889. Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. London: D. Appleton
Science is in no way immune from politics, ideology, or corruption. In a democratic society, though, science functions much as the media does. It exists separate from the state in order to preserve the objectivity that is so fundamental to its very existence. hen politics infiltrates science, the results can be disastrous in some cases. The state could silence scientific data, for example, throw funding at science dedicated to nefarious projects rather than maximizing the potential for science to create meaningful change, social progress, and breakthroughs in multiple areas of research. In the Soviet Union, the fusion of science and politics led to some serious and lasting consequences including "toxic waste dumps, overuse of pesticides, and fossil fuel pollution," not to mention rampant superstitions and a lingering "fascination with medieval charlatans," (Josephson 613). Americans may feel themselves immune to the same consequences of ideologically driven science. Unfortunately, history has proven…
Alexander, Will. "Eugenics and Animal Science." The Alexandrian, Vol. 3 Issue 1.
Corral-Verdugo, Victor, Frias-Amenta, Martha and Gonzalez-Lomeli, Daniel. "On the Relationship Between Antisocial and Anti-Environmental Behaviors." Population and Environment. Vol. 24, Issue 3 (Jan 2003).
Hecht, David K. "How to Make a Villain." Endeavor, Vol 36, No 4, (Dec 2012).
Intelligent Design on Trial. [Documentary Film]. NOVA/PBS. 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/intelligent-design-trial.html
Morris seemed to not mind the fact that science would disprove (or at least seem to disprove) much of what he had written. Readers of the book would probably feel that though the statements were very controversial the evidence was incontrovertible on both sides. Many of Morris' statements could be argued from both the scientific viewpoint and the creationist's viewpoint equally well. That did not seem to stop Morris, and well it should not. The book was his attempt at saying both worlds could be right, and in fact, both worlds were right, and the information contained therein should be studied and discussed in an open an amicable way. If that was indeed the goal of Morris' work, then he accomplished it in fine manner. For those who believe that science as the only truth possible, as well as those who are adamant creationists, this book offers enough evidence for…
Glynn concludes that fundamentalists exist not only in the Creationism Camp, but in the Evolutionism camp as well, regretting the unfortunate irony that Evolutionism Fundamentalists are attempting to suffocate constructive dialogue in much the same way Catholic Priests did in the past.
e. Thomas Demere and Steve Walsh -- Creationism Should Not Be Taught In Public Schools
Demere and Walsh argue that teaching a non-disprovable theory like Creationism would further weaken the already lagging Scientific literacy of American students. Demere and Walsh state that for something to be considered Science, it must depend on rational evidence and observation of natural events. Demere and Walsh conclude that the theory of Creationism does not meet this standard because it is supported only by religious texts and cannot be disproved on its own terms.
Most Personally Appealing Position
Regarding the broader relationship between Science and Religion, I agree most with Ruse, who…
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
The Argument- The theory of evolution was developed out of the work of 19th century botanist and explorer, Charles Darwin and his book On the Origin of Species. Essentially, it is a scientific theory that postulates that organisms change over time based on pressures from the environment that cause genetic mutations within the organism. Over time, these changes are more adapted to a specific environment, more of that organism live longer and reproduce more, thus causing those traits to become even more entrenched in the population. Life then, is part of a gigantic tree in which primitive organisms, over millions and millions of years, evolved into higher beings due to the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits (common or rare) and natural selection (which traits aid survival) (Understanding Evolution).
Creation Science is a branch of creationism that has resurfaced in American education after several Supreme Court decisions defined…
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
Smith notes that it may be impossible to unequivocally prove something with one hundred percent accuracy; rather, scientists seek probability.
The term theory is often misconstrued: Smith states that "theories always explain facts." Moreover, there is no clear demarcation between a theory and a hypothesis. Theories are basically broad hypotheses. Laws, on the other hand, are more restrictive and are often derived from theories. The practice of science entails experimentation as well as presentation to the scientific community. When the research is presented to other scientists, it is usually done so through peer-reviewed journals. Often other scientists will critique and critically evaluate the scientific experiment and attempt to replicate it. When the experiment has been replicated the hypothesis may become part of the canon of established science and from there, common knowledge.
Because science can only deal with what is observable and measurable, it can not apply to philosophy, aesthetics,…
Smith, David. "The Nature of Science."
The panelists, all of whom are conservative Republicans who have questioned evolution, will report to the school board which is expected to approve new science standards in June (Johnson pp). Defenders of evolution acknowledge that their boycott leaves opponents unchallenged but said that they hoped their absence would help to defuse the "media-saturated argument over science and the Bible" (Johnson pp).
Efforts to require schools to teach the purported errors of evolution are under way in nearly two dozen states, and are led by two groups of activists (Johnson pp). One group consists of religious conservatives who believe the traditional biblical account that God created the world in six days (Johnson pp).
The other group are the advocates of intelligent design and consists of "intellectual thinkers, some of them scientists, who argue that life on the planet is too complex to have come about without some sort of guiding intelligence"…
Johnson, Alex. "The evolution of a fight to the end." MSNBC News. May 7, 2005. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7736155/
In the states: evolution education related legislation surfaces across the country." Georgia Journal of Science; 12/22/2004; pp.
Dutch, Steven. "Aftermath of Evolution." Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay; pp. http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/WestTech/darwin1.htm
ut science is about stepping stones: the creation of theories and hypothesis, and the testing of these hypotheses with empiricism. If these theories fail, then additional hypotheses have to be proposed. During the process of the testing these hypothesis, experimentalists will find evidence based that will enable to fine tuning of the hypothesis, and the process carries on. Indeed, most of quantum theory is hinged on the Uncertainty principle put forward by Werner Heisenberg. What apt that it be named the Uncertainty principle.
Eventually, one hopes that some consensus will come between those that support graduated equilibrium vs. phyletic gradualism in terms of evolution of species. Or a new theory will develop and come to the fore, if new fossil evidence comes to light. ut that does not mean that we subscribe to the watchmaker theory. William Paley, an eighteenth century moral theorist, philosopher and religious conservative, was perhaps the…
Asimov, Isaac. The Roving Mind. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1983.
Behe, Michael J., and T.D. Singh. God, Intelligent Design & Fine-Tuning. Kolkata: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005.
Brennan, S. Edwards, Governor of Louisiana, Et Al. V. Aguillard Et Al. 1987. UMKC. Available:
http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/edwards.html. April19 2008.
10)?" Indicating that there is no intellectual discourse on the subject, and, because they have already indicated that they perceive creationists as backward, asocial, and people essentially not capable of intellectual discourse on the subject; this book is done. However, and to the mystery of anyone who reads as far as the first ten pages of the book, the book lingers for more than 200 pages.
Young and Edis begin by informing their audience that, from their perspective intelligent design fails, because that is what they tell people in their title, and, if the title did not sufficiently turn readers away, the first 10 pages wherein the authors come across hostile, demeaning, and finally advise the reader there is no intelligent discourse on intelligent design to be had; that should be the end of the book and the number of people willing to read the book. "So what went wrong…
Asimov moves through his book in an organized way, addressing arguments that flow logically within the context of his conversation on intelligent design and evolution. He lays out the various arguments, not just from one perspective, but various perspectives; and then addresses the arguments. What the reader discovers is that Asimov, an intelligent man, did not know the answers of the universe, but found them incredibly interesting, and the questions asked by creationists or evolutionists, and the answers in support of their theories to be equally illuminating and interesting. His the Roving Mind, rolls across the ideas and explains of both groups, and beyond, and out into the universe itself, and then back to the planet earth. He looks at all arguments from an unbiased perspective - something that Young and Edis did not do. Thus, the reader gets the author's thoughts and ideas on all angles of the questions; and the point remains - we do not know who is right or wrong. but, as Asimov points out, for either to be adamant that they are, at this point in time, right and the other irrevocably wrong; is dangerous from either side (Asimov, 1997, p. 13).
What of science and creation? Asimov says, "It can be concluded, then, that the increasing tendency to be interested science fact and science fiction is indeed part of the same phenomenon - the desire to accept and understand and, therefore, just possibly to guide change, both with the mind (science fact) and the heart (science fiction (p. 126)."
Asimov draws the reader in, and holds their attention, and he, a man of science, remains neutral, examining both sides of the argument. Thus, Asimov has increased his audience beyond his peer group, and his thoughts and ideas are absorbed by everyone interested in the subject of intelligent design and evolution.
S. government is based upon that belief, while other governments, such as communism and Marxism is based on accidental evolution (Benen 2001).
This belief system appears to be the extreme, however it is a popular one among creationists.
According to the National Academy of Sciences, "The theory of evolution explains how life on earth has changed...In scientific terms, 'theory' does not mean 'guess' or 'hunch'...Scientific theories are explanations of natural phenomena built up logically from testable observations and hypotheses" (Benen 2001). Biological evolution is the best scientific explanation for the vast range of observations about the living world, thus "the occurrence of evolution in this sense is a fact," because scientists no longer question whether descent with modification occurred since there is so much strong evidence to support the idea (Benen 2001).
Since no one knows how long a "day" actually was in the Book of Genesis, it could well…
Benen, Steve. (2001 January 01). Age-Old Controversy. Church & State. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Evolution. (2002-2006). All About Philosophy. Retrieved October 13, 2006 at http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/evolutionism.htm
Redditch, R.G. (2002 April 08). Creationism and evolutionism easily reconciled.
The Birmingham Post (England). Retrieved October 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.
Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming
Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…
Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).
Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
Although the Intelligent Design theory presents interesting objections, the idea that someone or some thing is absolutely necessary for every progressive development within a species fails to be prevalent through consistent testing of such debates. Intelligent Design provides much more theory than it does evidence; while evolutionism provides physical evidence to back its conceits. Yet, despite the stronger merit towards the evolutionist theory, schools should present both theories in order t allow each student the capability to reason for themselves about the nature of the earth and its inhabitants.
Lessons regarding the Intelligent Design theory should be presented to students with the idea that it is a relatively improvable theory rather than pure scientific fact.
Mayr, Ernst. hat Evolution is. Basic Books. 2002. And so, both evolution and Intelligent Design should be presented to students with their benefits and all facts which don't match up. Since the idea of Intelligent…
Mayr, Ernst. What Evolution Is. Basic Books. 2002.
Meyer, S.C. "DNA and the Origin of Life: Information, specification and explanation."
Darwinism, Design, & Public Education. Michigan State University Press. 2003. Pp. 223-285.
Sloan, Phillip. "Evolution." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008. Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/evolution/#2.2 .
Thus, just an article strictly on the newest thoughts regarding complex design by Zimmer would be seen as support of his beliefs.
Why, then, the added zing against ntelligent Design? s because the continued dispute between the scientists and Creationists has disturbed Zimmer so much that he had to add these comments? Or, was it a National Geographic editor who read Zimmer's piece and said, "Let's make this article juicier by setting the ntelligent Design people against the scientists."
No one will ever know for sure if either of these scenarios or another one is the truth. However, it does seem odd that the three paragraphs noted above after the introduction can easily be removed without any changes needed to the flow of the article. The first two paragraph introduction moves very smoothly into "Some have emerged..." There is nothing lost by removing these middle three paragraphs than some heat.…
It just would have been more effective if there were two separate articles: The overall article on the complexity and then a side bar on the evolution vs. Creationism controversy. In the latter article, additional comments could have come from scientists both pro and con Intelligent Design, for, in fact, there are a number of scientists (even biologists and zoologists) who do believe that these marvels of nature are the result of some overall plan or design.
In his book Why Darwin Matters, Author Michael Shermer, founding editor of the Skeptic and Scientific American columnist, writes why religion and science need not be in conflict. Science and religion are two different realms, he stresses: respectively the natural and supernatural. He cites Pope John Paul II in support of their possible coexistence. Zimmer and other scientists do not need to discount their opponents to demonstrate the fascination of evolution. All the examples in nature do it all by themselves.
Zimmer, Carl (2006). "A Fin, is a Limb is a Wing." National Geographic Magazine.
He was endowed with the capacity to think and reason out and choose the right action. In genesis 2:7 there is an account that god created man out of dust and hence clearly rules out any theory which suggests that man is an evolutionary product. "God formed the man from the dust of the ground & breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being." [Dr. Robert D. Luginbill]. Genesis 1:26-27 also states that man is created in the image of god and also the only created being to have the capacity to feel the love, enjoy the kinship and the communion with god.
Nature of Man
Some theologians share a monistic philosophy of man and do not consider the presence of a soul as a separated part of his being. However the dualistic aspect of man is adopted by many Christian followers. The…
Greg Herrick, "Anthropology & Hamartiology: Man and Sin," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=728
Jay P. Taylor, "the Doctrine of man: Anthropology," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.agts.edu/faculty/faculty_publications/class%20notes/taylor_jay/taylorj_4doctrine_man_2004.pdf
H.P. Blavatsky, "The Secret Doctrine: ARCHAIC, OR MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/sd/sd2-3-01.htm
CARM, "Theistic Evolution," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.carm.org/evolution/evtheistic.htm
The media present through radios talked extensively about the trial while print media also gave the event a lot of coverage. In fact media people and many others thronged Dayton to witness the famous trial first hand.
The trial was on for the education system that is whether it is to be ruled by the faith or reason. Darrel held the belief that education system should not be controlled by the bigots and so he grilled Bryan on the issue who in turn gave confusing answers contradicting his own views about the interpretation of Bible. On one hand Bryan failed to impress with his views while n the other hand critics like H.L. Mencken made a mockery of the trial. This whole brouhaha created a picture of a tussle between forward approach of science and backward approach of religion. After the Tennessee Supreme Court verdict federal jurisprudence braced the idea…
Gaffney Jr., Edward (July 12, 1998). Trial of the Century: How the Scopes Trial Framed the Modern Debate over Science and Religion. Los Angeles Times, Retrieved October 23, 2006, at http://www.arn.org/larson/latimes071298.htm
Man has always asked questions about how the world began. All cultures in the ancient world had origin myths. People looked to higher powers, or deities, or life forces, to explain what they could not understand. esearchers do not know where humankind's need for spirituality comes from, but it is clear, looking at history, that faith and the need to believe in something greater than ourselves are part of what makes us human.
The late Stephen Jay Gould, professor of zoology and geology at Harvard University, believed that science and religion were not in conflict. Because they are entirely different, he argued, they could not be synthesized into any common theme (Mitchell & Blackard 2009, p. 146). His is a view that is shared by many scientists who draw a distinction between science and scripture. Science and scripture offer us two different things. One does not have to…
Carter, K.L. And Welsh, J. 2010, 'The pedagogy of the debate over evolution and intelligent design', Liberal Education, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 46-53.
Hlodan, O. 2011, 'Molecular insights into classic examples of evolution', BioScience, vol. 61,
no. 4, pp. 264-267.
Miller, K. Darwin and Christian Faith. . [Distinguished Lecture Series, Pepperdine
Evolution as Fact and Theory" was written in the beginning of the 1980's, 1981, and serves as a great example of how scientists or in this case, evolutionary biologists perceived the role of creationism. As Gould said in his own words: "The rise of creationism is politics, pure and simple; it represents one issue (and by no means the major concern) of the resurgent evangelical right" (Gould, "Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994"). The essay itself was to argue the validity of modern creationists arguments. He states creationists have not presented a single new argument or fact. This is where the weakness in their arguments lie.
The two general counts of modern creationists as it pertains to their arguments is that they compose upon a colloquial speech misinterpretation of the word "theory" to transfer the untruthful imprint that evolutionists are concealing the terrible main principals of their…
Coyne, J.A. (2009). Why evolution is true. New York: Viking.
Gould, S. (n.d.). Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994. Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://www.stephenjaygould.org/library/gould_fact-and-theory.html
Gould, S.J. (2002). The structure of evolutionary theory. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
It has been shown that from a very simple spot that is an eye -- "barely a light receptor" -- all the way up the evolutionary chain to a human eye's present day sophistication.
As to the argument that the ID advocates make that the during the "Cambrian explosion" there suddenly appeared these species with "unprecedented complexity" -- in point of fact that so-called "explosion" during the Cambrian epoch took three billion years. There are fossil records to prove that the Cambrian epoch was in fact a "slow fuse" and not a sudden eruption of new life on the planet. There are fossils of microscopic, soft-bodied things that have been dated as pre-Cambrian; hence, with the fossils and carbon dating science showing exactly what happened during and before the Cambrian epoch, early life evolves from simpler things to far more complex things, according to Prothero.
Intelligent design advocates argue that…
Discovery Institute / Center for Science & Culture. (2008). Definition of Intelligent Design.
Retrieved May 3, 2012, from http://www.intelligentdesign.org .
National Geographic News. (2010). Evolution vs. Intelligent Design: 6 Bones of Contention.
Retrieved May 3, 2012, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com .
Jerry Coyne's hy Evolution is True
I understand it contradicts the account in the Bible and other holy texts, if one takes a literalist interpretive stance, but given that most texts have more significant internal conflicts, I did not see why this particular theory would cause people to have such visceral emotional responses. I understand, intellectually, that evolution is not the first scientific advance to be met with tremendous hostility; there was also significant opposition to the notion of a heliocentric universe and to the idea that the earth was not flat. However, because people understand that other scientific ideas that were intertwined with biblical teachings have been proven incorrect before without damaging religious belief, I imagine that I assumed that people would be more open-minded about "modern" scientific theories. On the contrary, because of the strong scientific support for the idea of evolution, the choice not to believe evolution…
Coyne, Jerry. Why Evolution is True. New York: Penguin Group, 2009.
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin
Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from https://vialogue.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/why-evolution-is-true-notes-review/
Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=4953
Although this theory totally impacted the world, Darwin's second book the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) began a major debate, especially between religion and science. As he stated in the conclusion of his book, "The main conclusion here arrived at, and now held by many naturalists who are well competent to form a sound judgment is that man is descended from some less highly organized form."
He even theorized that intelligence and emotion could develop through natural selection.
However, he also stressed the difference between humans and lower animals. Man has a conscience and moral sense. In Chapter 4 he states: "any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or nearly as well developed, as in man."
Darwin, C. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1859) Retrieved January 5, 2007 http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/origin.html
Darwin, C. Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871). Retrieved January 5, 2007. http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/
Desmond, a. And Moore, J. (1991) the Life of a Tormented Evolutionist: Darwin
New York: Warner.
Women in Aztec Creation
Compare and Contrast
Women in Aztec creation story and women in the Book of Genesis (The Holy Bible) creation story
Compare and Contrast the women in Aztec creation story and women in The Book of Genesis (The Holy Bible) creation story
Women have been the part of arts, philosophy, and theology since the history. Women and their creation has been a subject of interest and many myths and stories are affiliated with the creation of women. The paper compares and contrasts between the women in Aztec creation story and women in the Book of Genesis. There are a few universal roles of a woman. Like giving birth to children, raising kids and feeding them and taking care of the husband and his house. However, beyond this conventional role, there is a lot more than that a woman does and that she is expected to do. The…
Anne, J., (2013), "Judaism 101: Creation Stories," Retrieved from:
Aztec Creation Story, (2012), Retrieved from:
In the book The Greatest Shown on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution author Richard Dawkins (2009) attempts to explain how it is impossible for evolution to be logically denied if people look at the scientific evidence behind the theory. In the book, he in fact states that evolution should not still be considered as just a scientific theory. Rather, he believes that evolution should be considered an established fact regardless of people's religious teachings and subsequent beliefs. His attitude is one of an expert in the field who is talking down to those who do not agree with him, a perspective that makes his book believable but unlikely to convince people who do not agree with him on the subject.
In Dawkins' book, he uses many specific examples to further prove his assertion that evolution is far more than a theory, but proven fact. Among the many things that…
Dawkins, R. (2009). The Greatest Show on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution. Free Press: New
Ideas worth Spreading
Nina Jablonski breaks the illusion of skin color (TED2009, 2009)
Nina Joblonski opens by commenting on Darwin's pigmentation and his upbringing. She further speaks of his voyage on the Beagle and his interest in the pigmentation of humans. Darwin did not believe that there was any correlation to skin pigmentation and climate. However, Joblonski points out that if Darwin had access to NASA satellites that he may have come to a different conclusion. One of NASA's satellites has capabilities to monitor the Earth's radiation close to the surface. As a result, researchers today have been able to study skin pigmentation and the exposure to solar radiation and find that there is a perfect gradient and strong correlation between the two.
Therefore, skin color is a product of evolutionary forces as human adapted to their environments and their skin adapt to the levels of radiation that…
As a student taking an earth science class from a conservative, evangelical Christian institution of higher education, I am interested in the debate between creationist and evolutionists. Honestly, I enter into this course with some serious misgivings about some of the basic tenets of young earth creationism based on what I have been taught in a non-religious scientific context. I also, however, have some concerns about what I have been taught about old-earth evolutionary science as it seems to ignore the presence of God, which not only flies in the face of Christian theology, but also in the face of evidence of a historical belief in deities that seems to be part of human nature and would not make sense in a world without a higher power. As a result, I am left with several different specific questions in the young-earth / old earth debate. The first specific…
The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.
Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.
The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.
However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…
ADL. (2009). Religion in public schools: Evolution vs. creationism. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Anti-defamation league (ADL): http://www.adl.org/religion_ps_2004/evolution.asp
Boston, R. (2009, November). Prayers, preaching and public schools. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Americans united for separation of church and state: http://www.au.org/media/church-and-state/archives/2009/11/prayers-preaching-public.html
Calefati, J. (2009, January 22). Religion in schools debate heats up. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from U.S. News and World Report: http://www.usnews.com/blogs/on-education/2009/01/22/religion-in-schools-debate-heats-up.html
Facing history and ourselves: Religion. (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009, from facinghistory.org: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/facingtoday/43?tid=26&tid_1=2
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…
Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.
University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.
Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html
By coming into contact with nature cultures such as the Native American tribes, religions in the Western world were no longer the same. eligious fundamentalism became the basis for many of the often violent interactions between the different cultures, religions, and ways of life. This was the basis for later violence against all who did not agree with the religious norm, for example in events such as the Salem Witch Trials.
Today, this same fundamentalism insists that every word in the Bible or other religious documents should be taken literally. According to this view, the story of creation simply could not agree with Darwinism. The long American history of using religion as a basis for many actions, both good an bad, plays an important role in this.
However, it is also true that there is an increasing trend within Christianity to return to the earlier point-of-view, accepting both Darwinism and…
McGrath, a.E. (1999) Science & Religion: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
GENESIS & COSMOLOGY
In chapter one of the Book of Genesis as found the Holy Bible, it states that "In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth/and the earth was without form and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep/and God said, let there be light; and there was light" (verses 1-3). It then states "And God said, let there be lights in the firmament of heaven to divide the day from the night/and God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; he made the stars also/and God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth" (verses 14, 16, & 17). These six verses relate the Biblical origins of the universe according to God's design, yet scientifically, this description is invalid and erroneous, due to the most…
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
The Scopes "Monkey Trial" was less about a teacher's violation of an arcane Southern law regarding the teaching of evolution in the classroom and more about the place of Christian culture, doctrine and ethics in the modern world. The trial came down to William Jennings Bryan (who had run for president a quarter century earlier) on the side of Christian culture and the atheist Clarence Darrow as Bryan's political, social and cultural antagonist. While ostensibly there to prosecute and defend John Scopes respectively, the spectacle that the trial quickly became revealed the underlying purpose of the courtroom scene: like the trials at Nuremberg that would come a quarter century later, Scopes was a "show trial," the real meaning of which was a "showdown" between the Old World ideology and the New -- or, in other words, the extent to which the Christian religion had a place in modern America.…
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…
Blackwell, Richard J. 1999. Science, Religion and Authority: Lessons from the Galileo Affair. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29306390.Internet . Accessed 3 November 2008.
Dembski, William and Charles Colson. 2004. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Il.
Dembski, William and McDowell, Sean. 2008. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Langauge. Harvest House Publishers. Eugene, Oregon. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103534752
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…
In light of the three different appellate courts decisions, the U.S. Supreme Court elected to hear the case against President Obama's healthcare legislation. hile the most recent decision found in favor of the constitutionality of the law, "the Supreme Court agreed to hear appeals from just one decision, from the United States Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit, in Atlanta, the only one so far striking down the mandate" (Liptak 2011).
Although the U.S. Supreme Court is the final court of appeal, the fact that it has only recently stepped in to rule upon the healthcare legislation shows the breadth of authority that lies in the hands of federal appellate courts. The U.S. Supreme Court, depending on its composition, has specifically selected certain kinds and types of federal court decisions to review to shape the law of the land -- during the New Deal, its focus was upon economic…
"Courts of Appeals." U.S. Courts. [16 Nov 2011]
"Judicial review." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Oxford University Press, 1996,
2003. Answers.com 16 Nov. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/judicial-review
To wit, in Socrates' day, there were no official government prosecutors (commonly referred to in modern America as "District Attorneys"); in effect, any citizen could bring an indictment against any other citizen, and call for a trial. And that's basically what happened to Socrates.
Here in America, in 2006, notwithstanding what Vice President Cheney said, President George . Bush stated, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me." Bush was responding to a reporter's question on August 21; Bush was asked if he believed, according to http://mediamatters.org, that the "Democrats advocating for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq 'embolden Al Qaeda types' as...Cheney similarly stated. Bush's answer was, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me... [although] leaving [Iraq] before the job would be done would be to send a signal to our troops that the sacrifices they made were not worth it...this has…
Allen, R.E. (1980). Socrates and Legal Obligation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis
American Sociological Association. (2006). "Statement...on Creationism and Related Religious
Doctrines in U.S. Science Education." Retrieved 18 Oct. 2006 at http://www.asanet.org .
Many of the most famous scientists in world history also happened to believe in God: including Copernicus, Bacon, Kepler, Gallileo, and Newton ("Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," n.d.). These great scientists had no trouble reconciling their faith with their practice; their Christian beliefs with their research and investigations into the known universe. Yet science has morphed from an integrated realm of study to one that excludes religion from its ranks. It has become anathema to be a practicing Christian and a practicing scientist. It does not have to be; in fact, science and religion comfortably coexist and each can benefit the other.
One of the arguments against Christians being able to be good scientists is that they are too prone to personal bias. Sure, some Christians are prone to bias, but so is any scientist. Scientists are biased by their personal beliefs no matter where those beliefs…
Boyce, K.A. (2001). Do science and Christianity coexist? Bede's Library. Retrieved online: http://bede.org.uk/boyce.htm
"Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/sciencefaith.html
Lloyd, R. (2008). God and evolution can co-exist, scientist says. Live Science. Retrieved online: http://www.livescience.com/5195-god-evolution-exist-scientist.html
Samuel, S. (2011). Can science, creationism coexist? Christian Post. June 19, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.christianpost.com/news/can-science-and-creationism-coexist-one-christian-author-says-yes-51315/
Over the last several years, educators have been facing considerable challenges in meeting rising expectations for performance. This is because a host of solutions (such as the No Child Left Behind Act) have not addressed the lack of student achievement. Instead, academic performance has continued to linger and become worse in some areas (i.e. mathematics and science). (Hannah, 2012)
In New Jersey, the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum standards is designed to provide clarity on specific subjects and topics students must learn in order to graduate from high school. To fully understand how this occurring requires examining the way it is related to the concepts from Mary Zimmerman's Metamorphoses and a contemporary issue. This will be accomplished by focusing on the modes of communication, its shape and the way the literature can provoke cultural insights. Together, these elements will highlight how the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum…
Science Standards. (2013). NJ. Retrieved from: http://www.nj.gov/education/cccs/standards/5/
Hannah, D. (2012). 5 Ways No Child Left Behind Act. American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/news/2013/04/08/59542/5-ways-no-child-left-behind-waivers-help-state-education-reform/
Rich, M. (2012). U.S. Students Still Lag. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/11/education/us-students-still-lag-globally-in-math-and-science-tests-show.html?_r=0
Wandberg, R. (2000). Communication. Mankato, MN: Life Matters.
Young Earth Creationist
These are summaries of interviews on views and thoughts of origin
Three people were interviewed. They included a professor of biology, an aunt of oman Catholic religious persuasion and a family friend. In the interview with the professor, she states that she is not sure of the length of the days in Genesis 1 because they have been a controversial subject. She stated that life on this earth is approximately four and a half billion years old. Further she believes that humans and apes share common ancestry. She says she does so because she took part in a research that found many similarities. She does not believe in religion and so she does not believe in the existence of first humans; Adam and Eve (Writer Thoughts). The family friend on his part states that the days stated in Genesis 1 are normal days that are just as…
Booth, W. (2003). Days of Genesis 1: Literal or Nonliteral? Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 14(1). Retrieved, from http://www.atsjats.org/publication/view/40
Ghose, T. (2013). Live Science: Scientific News, Articles and Current Events. Genetic 'Adam' and 'Eve' Uncovered. Retrieved September 28, 2016, from http://www.livescience.com/38613-genetic-adam-and-eve-uncovered.html
Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Science (2 ed.). (1999). Retrieved from https://www.nap.edu/catalog/6024/science-and-creationism-a-view-from-the-national-academy-of
Wall. (2013). Great Ape Genomics. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal, 54(2). Retrieved, from http://ilarjournal.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/2/82.full#ref-19
In this interpretation Heitler accepts the modified Copenahgenist observer created reality, but adds that the act of observation dissolves the barrier between observer and the observed. The observer is a necessary part of the whole. Once observed, the object is now an inseparable part of the observer (leuler). Arntz addresses this bridge between the observer, the observer, and reality by asking "why aren't we magicians?"; indeed, if we create our reality and can change our reality simply through the act of how we perceive it, and how we choose to perceive it, we should be able shape our world and our place in our world. In Arntz' way, he is offering to the reader what so many self-help gurus have done -- put responsibility for one's reality in the hands of the person living that particular reality, and saying, 'here you go, you can change it.' Empowering, yes….but is it…
Albert, David and Barry Loewer. "Interpreting the Many Worlds Interpretation." Synthese (2004): 195-213.
Arntz, William, Betsy Chasse and Mark Vicente. What the Bleep Do We Know. Deerfield Beach: Health Communications, Inc., 2005.
Bey, Hakim. "Quantum Mechanics & Chaos Theory: Anarchist Meditations on N. Herbert's Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics." 2010. Hakim Bey and Ontological Anarchy. 27 March 2010 .
Bleuler, K., Heitler, W. "The Reversal of Time and the Quantization of the Longitudinal Field in Quantum Electrodynamics." Progress of Theoretical Physics (1950): 600-605.
Also he seems sincere in his presentation and his beliefs.
Article eaknesses: Mortenson's attempt to discredit the many years of authentic science is flawed; it is obvious he is attempting to build a case against evolution and insert his narrow Christian viewpoint, but it doesn't work very well. His assertion that evolution has "…come under considerable fire in the past four decades" and that there is "strong scientific evidence against evolution" is absurd. The only groups that attack the science from Darwin's discoveries -- and the plethora of empirical scientific fossil-based, geologic discoveries subsequent to Darwin's work -- are evangelical Christian groups, religious fundamentalists who want creationism published in high school textbooks next to evolution data, and others that accept creationism as fact.
Another assertion in this article that is patently ridiculous and bizarre is the notion that if Genesis is "rejected as literal accurate history" in a matter of…
Mortenson, Terry. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from http://www.answersingenesis.org .
Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change
David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…
Dewey, J. (1938, 1998). Education and Experience: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Indianapolis, IN: Kappa Delta Pi Society.
Tyack, D. And L. Cuban (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Harvard University Press.
Plato and Socrates -- Human Soul
There are a number of philosophical tenets that have been the subject of intense scrutiny since humans coalesced into formal societies. ho are we as a species? here do we fit in with the universe? hat is morality? Do the ends justify the means? Moreover, most of all, why are we here and are we free to act as individuals toward greater good? Free will, for instance, or the idea of that human's make choices unconstrained, has been contested even as a concept. The paradigm that humans may make rational choices and that life is not predetermined from "divine" beings allows one to look at a number of philosophical constructs that are on a continuum between the idea that determinism is false and that of hard determinism, or the idea that determinism is true and free will completely impossible forms the crux of a…
Baird, F. And W. Kaufman. From Plato to Derrida. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
Huard, R. Plato's Political Philosophy. New York: Penguin, 2006. Print.
MacIntyre, A. A Short History of Ethics, Routledge, New York and London, 2006. Print.
Plato. "The Republic." June 2009. classics.mit.edu. Ed. B. Jowett. Web. May 2013. .
eligion or Science?
Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…
Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science
And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins
Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
History Through eligion
How can we, as Christians who believe in the inerrancy of the Bible, interact with historians who believe in the theory of evolution? How can Christian teachers, teaching in secular public schools, present the truth without causing offense? Is it possible to do so?
Many people hold that prior to the Origin of Species by Chares Darwin in 1859; Christians believed that the world was created in six days. They believed that the earth was relatively new and that it was only a few thousand years old. Prior to the theory of Origin of Species, Christians had increasingly believed that the earth was several hundred years old. There is yet another fallacy to the effect that the arrival of Darwin's theory of evolution triggered science and theology to differ publicly regarding the origin of the earth. Contrary to popular belief, historical evidence shows that the earliest supporters…
Gills, Barry K., and William R. Thompson. Globalization and Global History. London:
Chronology & Periodization in History. Accessed May 16, 2016.
Science and religion: An introduction by Alister E. McGrath. Specifically it will discuss Newton's case of scientific discovery and the rise of Deism. Newton's case of geometry and physics illustrates the non-confrontational model of science and religion, and in fact, that model has its roots in the Deism that Newton's work helped create.
Deism believes that God did create the world, but that he is no longer in control of it, and it rose out of Newton's discoveries of gravity and other scientific methods that indicated the world was interconnected and dependent on details to continue to function. This relates to the non-confrontational model of science and religion, which believes that the two sides of the argument do not have to argue with one another, they can peacefully coexist, because all work, even the work of scientists who might not believe in religion, is God's work, and he oversees all,…
McGrath, A.E. (1999). Science and religion: An introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…
Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.
Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996
Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Chengjiang.htm
Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Emu.htm .
Indeed, considering the fact that Deloria's academic background was in theology and law, it makes sense that he should seek to unite these two seemingly disparate disciplines in his call for fair treatment of American Indians.
At the same time, Deloria was long critical of academics' treatment of Native American people - particularly the efforts of anthropologists. "The massive amount of useless knowledge produced by anthropologists attempting to capture real Indians in a network of theories has contributed substantially to the invisibility of Indian people today" (Deloria 1969). Deloria was also opposed to the scientific view that Native American Indians had migrated to this country over a Bering Straits bridge - a theory that is still held to be true today. Deloria instead argued in favor of "Indian creationism" - the idea that the Indian people were native to this land and have been here since the beginning of time.…
Deloria, V. (1969). Custer died for your sins: An Indian manifesto. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Johnson, K. (2005). Vine Deloria Jr., champion of Indian rights, dies at 72. New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/15/national/15deloria.html .
Neihardt, J. (1979). Black Elk speaks. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Reed, C. (2005). Vine Deloria. The Guardian. Retrieved 4 May 2008 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2005/nov/24/guardianobituaries.usa .
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Parenting is a challenging occupation. Indeed, how a parent raises his or her child is the cumulative result of the mental and emotional character of the parent, the background of the parent, the financial circumstances of the parent, how the parent was raised as a child, and also the emotional character of the child or the actions of the child. Consider a situation where the parent indulges in corporal punishment. As an action agent, the parent firmly believes that this punishment is of a corrective nature, meant to discipline the child. For the child receiving this punishment, certainly it is momentarily painful. The child might resent the punishment; alternatively, the child might recognize that the punishment is in response to instances of mischief.
The spectator might as the moral purveyor of this scenario might see this as a virtue or a vice. The spectator might believe that the corporal punishment…
The Cosmological Argument: This argument begins with the tenet that for the Universe to exist something outside the universe must have created it. Also refereed to as the First Cause or the Uncaused Cause theory, here God exists as the prime mover that brought the universe into existence. The universe is a series of events, which began with God who must exist apart from the universe, outside of time and space as well. (Martin) the detractors of this theory say that if everything has a creator than God must also have a creator and that perhaps an infinite series of creators and universes exist as well. Also if God is an uncaused cause than why could not the universe be one as well.
The Moral Argument: This is perhaps one of the most interesting arguments for the existence of God. Basically it states that since man perceives a moral law,…
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene UK; Oxford University Press, 1989
Lamprecht, Sterling P. Our Philosophical Traditions: A Brief History of Philosophy in Western Civilization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.
Martin, C.F.J. Thomas Aquinas: God and Explanations. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997.
McIntyre, John. St. Anselm and His Critics: A Re-Interpretation of the Cur Deus Homo. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1954.
Ellen White claimed that the date Miller predicted as the absolute Advent of Christ did not set the time for the physical appearance of Christ. ather, the prediction merely referred to the commencement of a period of divine judgement in which all souls would be pre-judged in heaven in preparation for the actual Advent of Christ. Seventh-Day Adventists believe that Investigative Judgement has been occurring since the 1840s and that by the time Christ appears all humans will have their fate sealed. The Seventh-Day Adventist Church points to Old Testament scripture to substantiate the belief in Investigative Judgement (obinson 2007). Seventh-Day Adventists also believe that during the period of Investigative Judgement, the Earth is being gradually purged of all sin. Satan reigns on earth now, and after the Advent of Christ only the righteous will be resurrected and reborn on the newly purified planet (obinson 2007). Only Christians who are…
Cho, H. (2002). Seventh-Day Adventists. Religious Movements. Retrieved Dec 3, 2007 at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/sevn.html
Robinson, B.A. (2007). Seventh-Day Adventist Denomination. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved Dec 3, 2007 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/sda.htm
Seventh-Day Adventist Church. (nd). History. Retrieved Dec 3, 2007 at http://www.adventist.org/world_church/facts_and_figures/history/index.html . en
These policies blurred the state and church boundary. In the end he could not satiate the religious right elements completely and got severe criticism from leftist and feminist groups. His religious stance got him the presidency and it was also the religion that got him out of the office.
Primary Source ibliography
Jimmy Carter: His Childhood, Upbringing & Presidency
Carter, Jimmy. (1996). A Government as Good as Its People. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.
This volume presents sixty-two of the best and most notable public statements made by Jimmy Carter on his way to becoming president of the United States. Excerpts from the debates with President Ford, Interviews, speeches and news conferences of Jimmy Carter, made on the road to the White House. He speaks on such topics as crime, poverty, nuclear energy, foreign policy and human rights annd thus this book can be a good insight on Carter's…
Jimmy Carter: His Childhood, Upbringing & Presidency
Ebel, H. & deMause, L. (1997). Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy: Psychohistorical Explorations. Two Continents / Psychohistory Press. New York.
Fantasy analysis is a technique for examining an historical record such as a newspaper article, Congressional committee transcript or Presidential speech and picking out the body language, metaphors, repetitive phrases, similes, strong feelings and symbolic terms and then determining their common themes. The result is an understanding of the shared, un-conscious meaning of the record. The psychohistorian is thus provided with a valuable tool for getting beneath the formality and defensiveness of the manifest content to underlying feelings and fantasies. Fantasy analysis was first described in Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy, ed. Lloyd deMause and Henry Ebel and so this book can be considered good in analyzing the impact of faith on Carter's life & presidency.
ears are blasted daily by the drumbeat of environmental forewarnings. The seas are rising. The glaciers are melting. Don't drive -- take the bus. Recycle. Turn off the lights. Adjust that thermostat. Save the polar bears! Reduce your carbon footprint!
Nothing against carbon, or ecologists, or polar bears, but while society focuses on reducing carbon footprints, why aren't more folks out there creating footprints for God? ho is marching through the pain and the rain and the snow to rekindle faith that God will intercede in broken lives, and will help repair the world's environmental problems if we just put one foot in front of the other in a march towards Christian truth?
hy have we been waiting for inspiration as to what we should do in this troubled world? Are not seeing that global warming and rising sea levels are sending us warning that we need to trust God's…
Faris, Stephan. (2008). Craig Sorley. Time. Retrieved October 25, 2011, from http://www.time.com .
Sorley, Craig. (2011). Christ, Creation Stewardship, and Missions: How Discipleship into a Biblical Worldview on Environmental Stewardship Can Transform People and Their Land.
International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 35(3), 137-143.
Srokosz, M.A. (2008). God's Story and the Earth's story: Grounding our concern for the Environment in the biblical meta-narrative. Science & Christian Belief, 20(2), 163-175.
Important in attempts to ban Bless Me, Ultima, are arguments that the book promotes witchcraft and worship of the devil. The book focuses on Ultima, a curandera, who works with herbs and can heal the sick and exorcise evil. However, it is clear throughout Bless Me, Ultima that the character of Ultima is a force of good, but that she is sometimes mislabeled as a witch. Thus, while witchcraft is discussed and alluded to, it is not necessarily promoted within Anaya's novel.
In addition, Anaya's book clearly shows the conflict between Christianity and other religions, and sometimes criticizes the Catholic religion. Throughout the book, the young Antonio is exposed to his father's love of the earth and freedom that supersedes his Catholicism, and his friend Florence's criticisms of Catholicism. Similarly, Ultima's earthy wisdom is often depicted as superior to the pat answers Antonio receives from his Catholic mother. In addition,…
Anaya, Rudolfo. Bless Me, Ultima. Warner Books, 1994.
Aurnague-DeSpain, JeanMarie, and Baas, Alan. Censorship of Curriculum Materials. ERIC Digest Series Number EA44. 28 September 2004. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed315864.html
Education World. Banning Books from the Classroom: How to Handle Cries for Censorship, 1997. 28 September 2004. http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr031.shtml
Taichert, Pari Noskin. We can't allow our freedom to read to fall. 28 September 2004. http://www.abqtrib.com/archives/diversions03/091903_diversions_pari.shtml
What right do these people have to take away these rights of a child? Children without a fatherly figure are more likely to end up breaking the law.
Same sex marriage denies them the right to have the normal environment for socio-emotional development or a normal family and it is their right to start their life with a father and a mother. The children are being raised by parents who are not their biological parents. There can never be a substitute for being raised by the mother and father who brought you into the world and are your biological parents. Most human societies have honored the norm that special responsibility for children lies with the biological parents. Same sex marriage is going against this norm, and the society's values attached with this norm. Whatever else it may accomplish, marriage acknowledges and secures the relationship between a child and his or…
(1) Stephen J. Pope -- Article Title: The Magisterium's Arguments against "Same-Sex Marriage": An Ethical Analysis and Critique. Journal Title: Theological Studies. Volume: 65. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2004. Page Number: 530+.
(2) Jonathan Rauch - How Will Same-Sex Marriage Affect America's Children? [Online website] Available from: http://www.ssw.umich.edu/events/fauri/2004 / [Accessed on: 17/9/2005]
(3) Susan Holt -- "Ending the cycle of domestic violence," Gay Lesbian Times, 9126196. Page Number: 39.
(4) Christopher Hewitt - Article Title: Homosexual Demography: Implications for the Spread of AIDS. Contributors: Christopher Hewitt - author. Journal Title: The Journal of Sex Research. Volume: 35. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 1998. Page Number: 390.
" (This statement appears to fly in the face of his detailed emphasis on trying to be terribly thorough at other times throughout the book; and his seeming editorial neurosis creates doubts in the minds of the reader as to precisely how consistent and valid his values are vis-a-vis what he believes to be true.)
Those biblical students probably read his book and had a sense that he was in a classroom, behind a podium, lecturing to them, when, on pages 18-20, he discusses pre-history (Stone Age) and Neolithic Jericho. His bias towards places and people who are in some way connected to Scripture comes across numerous times in obviously favored passages.
To wit: one can almost hear his voice as he describes the relative distance in time to make his point about the advent of the Israel we know today. "Difficult as it is for us to realize, it…
Bright, John. (1959). A History of Israel. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.
Noll, K.L. (1999). Looking on the Bright Side of Israel's History: Is There Pedagogical Value in Theological Presentation of History? Biblical Interpretation: A Journal of Contemporary
Approaches, 7, 1-27.