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The Fair Credit Reporting Act
Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54185566
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Consumer Report and the FCRA
I have applied for credit on numerous occasions and was surprised to see that what I thought would be a good report was actually negative because I had failed to pay a bill to a cell phone provider when a switched service to a different provider. The bill was not even expensive yet it hurt my credit rating severely and to this day is still on it, impacting my credit score. This caused me to get a poorer interest rate when I went to borrow to buy a car, which meant I ended up paying more in the long run—much more—all because I failed to take care of one small, insignificant bill way back in the past when I could have easily paid it had I given it more attention.
I have also had a negative experience with my consumer report when I went to…

Experian. (2017). How long do collections stay on your credit report? Retrieved from

Credit Cyber Crime Is a
Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 15148696
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Therefore, its important that every individual takes step to maintain a good credit history.

How to build a good credit history

Once the importance of credit is understood, the next step is to take measures to build or maintain a good credit score and history. It is not rocket science to have a good credit history. Some amount of restraint and basic financial discipline is all that is required to get a clean credit history.

For starters, one should learn to live within his or her means. Impulse shopping should be avoided at any cost. A better way to buy products is to plan and save for them. This can get the buyer out of credit troubles because the real pinch of money will be realized only when the dues have to be paid. It is also equally important to have good financial planning and disciplined living. All bills have…

Consumer Credit in the American
Words: 1363 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6734528
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Closing the loan is also known as firm commitment, and involves the completion of all key paperwork within a designated time. A closing date is set, and the closing costs are established. hen the client pays the costs and completes the paperwork, the loan is closed.

The next step is to service the loan. Servicing refers to the management of the payments. The loan creates an obligation on the part of the borrower to make payments as specified in the agreement. The role of the bank is to ensure that those payments are received. Servicing may be contracted out to a secondary party. In the U.S. that might be Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, who provide a secondary market for mortgages. In a servicing arrangement, the bank would collect the payments and remit most of this money to the secondary market investor. The bank would keep a portion of the…

Works Cited:

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation website. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from 

Rajan, Raghuram G. (no date). Why Bank Credit Policies Fluctuate: A Theory and Some Evidence. University of Chicago. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from 

Penwell, Tracy L. (2009). The Credit Process: A Guide for Small Business Owners. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from 

No author. (2009). Closing. Mortgage X. Retrieved April 30, 2009 from

Influence of Trade Credit on Commercial Ratings
Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59174661
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Accounts eceivable

Why is the practice of managing Accounts eceivables significant?

Much of the commercial world revolves around credit -- trade credit or accounts receivable and accounts payable. The management of accounts receivables encompasses a variety of substantive activities essential to the fiscal solvency of a company. Firms that offer sales on credit must establish policies, procedures, and practices that guide their transactions and comply with official regulations. Managing accounts receivables includes the establishment of terms and conditions for sales and the granting of credit, including processes for evaluating credit worthiness of potential customers and the associated risk assessment and any resulting receivables collections.

The importance of accounts receivable to the fiscal status of a company is reflected in the inclusion of accounts receivable on a firm's balance sheet as a short-term asset (Cotell, 2010). The value of accounts receivable is the potential for converting the credit accounts into cash…


Cottell, P.G. (2010). Shreffler stores accounting issues related to consumer receivables, asset impairment, and discontinued operations: A problem-based learning unfolding problem. Issues in Accounting Education, 25(4), 775-787. DOI: 

Song, Y. (2013). Research on accounts receivable control problem in stages. Advanced Materials Research, 629, 968-971. DOI. 10. 4028/

Work Opportunity Tax Credit Wotc
Words: 4903 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 69565580
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ather than being idle and receiving public benefit, individuals of working age typically prefer completing useful work. Mark P. Altieri, an associate professor of accounting at Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, and Jason A. othman, (2006), an associate at Wickens, Herzer, Panza, Cook and Batista, note a number of enhancements to WOTC in the article, "Surviving Katrina: Tax breaks for victims of the costliest catastrophe in American history."

According to Altieri and othman (2006), in regard to the WOTC - general law, under IC section 51, the WOTC provides motivation for employers to hire economically disadvantaged individuals. These disadvantaged individuals include qualified ex-felons, food-stamp recipients, veterans, summer youth employees, as well as individuals who receive certain welfare benefits (Altieri & othman, ¶ 23). Altieri and othman explain that in the past, the WOTC -- Katrina was expanded to embrace individuals whose principal residence on August 28, 2005, was located in…


Altieri, M.P., & Rothman, J.A. (2006). Surviving Katrina: Tax breaks for victims of the costliest catastrophe in american history. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2), 58+. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from Questia database: 

Anonymous. (2008). Special tax credit aids Paulding Co. development. Toledo Business Journal.

Telex Communications, Inc. Retrieved June 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:  Battersby, M.E. (2009). The Memorial Day tax surprise. Metal Center News. Sackett Business

Business Worldwide Profit --Profit Score Performance Progress
Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9161270
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business, worldwide, profit --profit, score performance progress. While ways a business entity evaluated, common measures financial scope. All businesses understand poorly operations performing times, end pre-determined fiscal time period.

AMD Financials

AMD, short for Advanced Micro Devices, is notable as it is the single company to be able to withstand some competition to Intel's central processing units. Aside from this product however, AMD produces and sells a wide array of other technological items, such as motherboard chipsets or graphics processors.

The company was established in 1969 and it is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. At the financial level, the results of the firm have been impacted throughout the past recent years, yet this decrease is pegged to the internationalized economic crisis, rather than internal problems within the firm. Specifically, the company's revenues have increased from $5,627 million in 2006 to $6,494 million in 2010, according to a variable evolution, with increases…


Giaretta, D., 2011, Advanced digital preservation, Springer

Helfert, E..A, 2001, Financial analysis: tools and techniques: a guide for managers, McGraw-Hill

AMD 2010 Annual report on Form 10K,  last accessed on May 24, 2012

Website of AMD, http://www.amd.comlast accessed on May 24, 2012

Accts Receivable Accounts Receivable Reflects Credit That
Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28031201
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Accts Receivable

Accounts receivable reflects credit that has been extended to customers. The positive aspect is that it represents a sale that has been made; the negative is that it represents a sale that has not been paid for. There are a number of benefits to extending credit, but there also drawbacks. Thus, companies need to pay special attention to how they manage their accounts receivable.

Effectively management of accounts receivable can increase shareholder value; naturally the opposite is also true. By extending credit to customers, the company can gain more business. Trade credit induces more purchases from more people, by allowing the customers to better align their cash flows. The terms of the credit can also be used as a source of competitive advantage -- giving longer penalty-free terms than a competitor can help win business, for example. However, there are risks associated with accounts receivable that can lower…

Works Cited:

Peavler, R. (2013). Managing credit and accounts receivable. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from 

Khanna, R. (2010). Tips of managing your accounts receivable. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from

dual credit programs
Words: 4127 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63384763
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Dual credit programs have been around for decades, allowing a large body of evidence to emerge. The evidence from the past twenty years have also permitted longitudinal studies that reveal the efficacy of dual credit programs in promoting models for peace in higher education. Dual credit programs are executed differently in different states. Program feature diversity and results from empirical literature also permits the body of literature to inform best practices for administration, management, and program assessment in Hawaii. Themes in the literature include a historical overview showcasing the practically incontrovertible evidence in support of dual credit programs, with recent literature trending towards specific elements of program design, implementation, and assessment. Other trends include the ability of dual credit programs to promote equity through the promotion of minority students in higher education and to increase the representation of minority students and faculty in institutes of higher learning. The literature, particularly…

education research into dual credit equity
Words: 2224 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87658257
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Problem Statement
Dual credit (dual enrolment) programs have met with tremendous success in the state of Hawaii and elsewhere. These programs, which include GEAR UP, Running Start, and Early College, allow students at high school level to attain college credit, thereby easing the financial burden they will face in university. Moreover, the dual credit programs have also increased college enrollment rates among Hawaii students (Inefuku, 2017). Not only do Dual Credit programs improve college readiness and admission rates, they also help prepare students for a more successful college career with higher rates of graduation and thus, improved overall educational and career outcomes. While Dual Credit programs are designed for all students, they can be of particular help to disadvantaged and underserved populations. The problem is that not all underrepresented students have access to Dual Credit programs, and not all Dual Credit programs are adaptable to suit English language learners.

How Easy Credit Led to Iceland's Bankruptcy in the 21st Century
Words: 2684 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42288262
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Iceland's Economic Crisis


Iceland's bankruptcy

The purpose of banking in Iceland: speculation and hedging

The central issue: too much too soon

Iceland's Transition

eplicating Wall Street

Taking on foreign "assets" at a ratio to GDP of 10:1

Is debt an asset?

Easy credit and the role of the Housing Financing Fund

Low interest rates

f. Inflation

g. The end of short-term financing in the wake of Lehman's collapse

h. The bubble bursts

The plight of the average citizen

j. Aliber's speech

k. Left holding the bag

The effects of financial deregulation

A prime opportunity for shorting

Iceland and Nationalization

Not Bailing out the Banks

Introduction: Statement of Purpose

The bankruptcy of Iceland in 2008 can be explained in one line from Michael Lewis's Boomerang: Travels in the New Third World. The line is stated by a representative of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) who is tasked with assessing whether…


Aliber, R. (2011). Preludes to the Icelandic Financial Crisis. UK: Palgrave

Christiansen, L. (2011). Iceland: Geyser Crisis. Preludes to the Icelandic Financial

Crisis. UK: Palgrave: 89-106.

Danielsson, J. (2008). The first casualty of the crisis: Iceland. The First Global

Low Income Housing Tax Credit
Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55812589
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Income Tax

What are the pro's and con's of the Bush Administration's proposal to convert the ection 8 voucher program into an aggregated block grant to the state?"

This is a paper that outlines the arguments of why Bush Administration's proposal to convert ection 8 voucher program to block grant is not feasible.

The ection 8 voucher program, which was started in 1976, helps approximately 2 million low-income families and people with special needs, such as the elderly and disabled, pay for rented housing. The program can also be used by these people to save up for down payments when purchasing housing. The program is administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, which currently distributes the funds to low-income families through public housing agencies.

Typically, citizens contribute a maximum of 30% of their monthly income in rent, and the Government pays the rest. Families who make less than…


1) "About the federal Section 8 housing voucher program," The Associated Press State & Local Wire, May 20, 2003.

2) Koff, Stephen, "Section 8 program gets money but won't expand," Plain Dealer, July 26, 2003.

3) "Two demanding jobs to fill," Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), May 15, 2003

4) "Fiscal Year 2004 HUD Budget Executive Summary," U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Oct 15, 2003,

Hardship Letter Mortgage Modification Program
Words: 865 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26523133
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I have had to take a 15% cut in pay in order to continue working and, while I have continued to make the mortgage payments with my reduced income, other areas of my life have suffered from the scaling down of available monies. I have incurred expenses which have increased my debts, such as rising interest rates and penalties, emergency medical expenses and still have student loans to pay for, as I seek to improve my lot. As a result, my credit score has decreased from 740 to 501. Exacerbating the financial problems I am facing, I have just discovered that the property which is mortgaged is worth 5-10% less than the amount paid for it, which would make it difficult to refinance. However, I wish to point out that I have continued to make my payments in spite of my troubles, and therefore deserve the benefit of your trust.…

Works Cited

Mortgage Bankers Association. Fannie Mae Posts Conventional Mortgage Servicing Modifications (06-18). Related Documents, 2008 Mortgage Bankers Association. Website with.pdf file: IndustryNews/45725.htm

Option one Mortgage

Fargo Diversity Within and Outside the Firm
Words: 3358 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27869601
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Fargo Diversity ithin and Outside the Firm

ells Fargo's latest press release announces the appointment of Jimmie alton Paschall to the post of Executive Vice President for Enterprise Diversity & Inclusion ("ells Fargo names" 2011). This job oversees all aspects of the firm's and the firm's subsidiaries' employment and product diversity under ells' "Social Responsibility Group" as well as other Management Committee duties ("ells Fargo names" 2011). Chairman and CEO John Stumpf claims diversity is a "core value" for ells Fargo, which Ms. Paschall will promote and expand with her award-winning experience ("ells Fargo names" 2011). The March 2011 ruling that ells Fargo discriminated against minority homebuyers in Los Angeles, and pending suits in other jurisdictions, indicate Ms. Paschall will need all the experience she can draw on defending the bank against perceptions to the contrary.

hy is this important? Firms generally exist for the purpose of creating equity value…

Works Cited

Golobay, Diana. "Illinois AG Sues Wells on Alleged Reverse Redlining.",

31 July 2009. 10 Dec. 2011.

Haughwout, Andrew, Mayer, Christopher and Tracy, Joseph. Subprime Mortgage Pricing: The

Impact of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on the Cost of Borrowing. Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Report no. 368. 2009. 10 Dec. 2011.

Irrational Exuberance The Economic Crisis
Words: 2418 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3005431
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As banks faltered and default rates rose, rates of consumption and demand plummeted. Unemployment began to increase, and in a predictable Keynesian fashion, as individuals grew more insecure about their job prospects they began to spend less money. The United States has a particularly consumer-driven economy -- Americans are known for having historically low rates of savings and to engage in high rates of spending -- so this was particularly disruptive to the usual rhythms of the economy.

Young people graduating from college suffered some of the worst effects of the recession. "Unemployment rates for individuals younger than 25 are currently 21% in the euro area and 19% in the U.S." (Branchflower 2010). They were competing with older, more experienced workers who had recently lost their jobs. The fear is that today's low starting salaries create a class of permanently low-earning graduates, many of whom have high levels of college…

Works Cited

Branchflower, David G. "Credit crisis creates Lost Generation." Bloomberg Business.

January 21, 2010. August 28, 2001. 

Ferguson, Niall. "Where did all the money go?" From the Great Hangover. Edited by Graydon

Predatory Lending and the Subprime
Words: 6468 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 14582464
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nd we must take into consideration what would happen if, somewhere down the line, we encountered the very real possibility of changed financial circumstances.

The financial knots we're tying ourselves into now, as we scramble to purchase homes and wind up owning less of them, can have serious long-term ramifications. Because today's overall tighter finances often necessitate putting off major purchases, many adults don't buy their first home until they're well into their thirties or even forties.

s a result, those thirty-year mortgage payments follow us right into retirement, hanging around even as rising health care and tuition expenses for college-aged children begin to spike. s a result, we discover too late that the asset we gambled everything to acquire because it was going to see us through retirement is instead pushing that retirement further and further away. lready, an increasing number of seniors are borrowing against their homes, accumulating…

Adam Tanner, San Francisco Suburb Vallejo Files for Bankruptcy, REUTERS, May 23, 2008;

Fishbein & Woodall.

Michael M. Phillips, to Help Broke Homeowners, He's Taking the Law into His Own Hands, WALL ST. J., June 6, 2008, at A1.

Boss I Think Someone Stole Our Customers
Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 88159048
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Boss I think someone stole our customers

Flayton Electronics Case Study

Brett Flayton, CEO of Flayton Electronics, is facing the most critical crisis of his career when it is discovered that 1,500 of 10,000 transactions have been compromised through an unprotected wireless link in the real-time inventory management system. Brett has to evaluate his obligation to let customers know of the massive leak of private data, define a communication strategy that would notify customers across all states of the potential security breach, and also evaluate the extent to which the Flayton Electronics' brand has been damaged in the security breach. In addition, steps that the company can take in the future to avert such a massive loss of customer data also needs to be defined and implemented.

Assessing the Obligations to Customers vs. Keeping It Quiet

Ethically, Brett Flayton has a responsibility to tell the customers immediately of the security…


Aldhizer, George R., I.,II, & Bowles, John R.,,Jr. (2011). Mitigating the growing threat to sensitive data: 21st century mobile devices. The CPA Journal, 81(5), 58-63.

Gatzlaff, K.M., & McCullough, K.A. (2010). The effect of data breaches on shareholder wealth. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 13(1), 61-83.

Gregory, A. (2008). Conserving customer value: Improving data security measures in business. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 15(4), 233-238.

Kelly, C. (2005). Data security: A new concern for PR practitioners. Public Relations Quarterly, 50(2), 25-26.

Renting vs Purchasing a Home the Decision
Words: 1732 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33712227
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Renting vs. Purchasing a Home

The decision to rent a home, rather than buy one, is complex but comes down in favor of renting. In addition to a credit shortage, buyers are skittish about investing their money in what seems to be a losing proposition. After all these factors are considered, the thriving rental market is no surprise.

The decision to rent a home, rather than buy one, is complex but comes down in favor of renting. After the housing bust, homes are much less expensive than they used to be, but credit for purchasing a home is harder to find. In addition to a credit shortage, buyers are skittish about investing their money in what seems to be a losing proposition. Baby Boomers, who do have more assets than their grandchildren in Gen Y, are no longer interested in the upkeep associated with large homes. Gen Y, entering the…

Sugrue, T.J. (2009, August 14). The New American Dream: Renting. Retrieved October 27, 2011, from The Wall Street Journal: 

Wallison, P.J. (2008, November). Cause and Effect: Government Policies and the Financial Crisis. Financial Services Outlook, p. 2.

Whitehouse, M. (2009, December 16). American Dream 2: Default, Then Rent. Retrieved October 27, 2011, from Wall Street Journal:

Strategic Vision A Section Describing Company's Strategic
Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23278632
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Strategic Vision: A section describing company's strategic vision. Performance target forecasting: A section shows performance targets EPS, OE, credit rating, image rating year-end stock price -managers set years (assuming simulation continue).

Strategic vision and performance target forecasting

Our organization focuses on the distribution of our products and services within the utmost highest quality of standards. We not only employ the required standards, but we take one step ahead and fully satisfy the needs and wants of our customers. We envision ourselves as the leaders of the industry and the first choice of the customer base. In other words, the strategic vision can be enunciated as follows:

The company seeks to become the leader of the industry and the first choice of the customers. We aim to attain this organizational objective through the full satisfaction of the needs and wants of our stakeholders.

The strategic vision of the firm has a…


Bose, D.C., 2006, Fundamentals of financial management, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Cowley, M., Domb, E., 1997, Beyond strategic vision: effective corporate action with Hoshin planning, Butterworth-Heinemann

Mintzberg, H., 2000, The rise and fall of strategic planning, Pearson Education

Moyer, McGuigan, J.R., Kretlow, W.J., 2008, Contemporary financial management, 11th edition, Cengage Learning

Sba the Small Business Association
Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22989979
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Of course, the FEMA application process itself was also problematic. The SBA created secure Internet-based application templates for aid to expedite the loan request process. Stress testing and plans for maximum user capacity levels was instituted within the system (SBA, 2006, GMO).

User applications were thus better 'triaged' based upon likelihood of approval, and where the loan should be directed. isk modeling was introduced, to help cope with future emergencies. The prediction of damage from a variety of types of disasters, in target locations would allow for anticipation of increased levels of demand (SBA, 2006, GMO). Unfortunately, improvement of the system was undertaken only after the backlog had been created. Unmet demand can create more demand, as businesses without critical resources can fall into more debt and see more damage being done to their businesses, as a result of the aftereffects of the disaster.

While the SBA blamed its faulty…


SBA: Actions needed to provide more timely data assistance. (2006). GMO. Retrieved August

8, 2010 at 

US Small Business Association awards contract to SRA. (2006, April 3). SRA. Retrieved August

8, 2010 at

Consumer Reporting Agency
Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 13483777
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A. The entity receives payment in exchange for providing a consumer report 
B. The entity regularly assembles or evaluates information about consumers 
C.The entity furnishes consumer reports 
D.The entity uses means of interstate commerce for the purpose of preparing or furnishing consumer reports
Suppose a consumer reporting agency (falsely) reports that a consumer has defaulted on a credit card debt, which of the following is true?
A. The consumer can sue the CRA for defamation 
B. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau can take enforcement action against the CRA for violating the reasonable procedures requirement 
C.The consumer must dispute the inaccurate information in order to have any right to sue.
D. Only the consumer can take action against the CRA.
Suppose that a bank (falsely and negligently) tells a CRA that a consumer has defaulted on a credit card debt, which of the following is true?
A. The consumer can sue…

Motivation Performance & Achivement the
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33880673
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Additionally, those who were in the test group also scored, on average 20% higher on the test when it was graded by the researcher. Though the case study was based on an abnormal psychology case the questions are associated with content (i.e. reading comprehension) and are not expected to be interpretive. The group was also debriefed at the close of the exam and informed of the nature of the exam and the resulting scoring, which was based on participation as apposed to test scores.


This brief research work demonstrates that extrinsic motivation (in an anomalous form) motivates students to achieve success on tests. The balance between intrinsic (results of moderate scores on MSLQ) and extrinsic, the motivation to score high on the exam as an impetus to a higher extra credit score, as apposed to a participation only score motivated those students in the test group to pay closer…

Laise Eleanor 22 Apr 2008
Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79330345
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Potential employers, landlords and insurers routinely examine credit reports" (Laise 2008). However, lenders are getting 'wise' to consumer manipulation and new scoring systems may complicate consumers' efforts to monitor and improve their scores. New models place "more emphasis on having a variety of credit types, such as installment loans and revolving accounts like credit cards, while increasingly penalizing people who use a big chunk of their available credit" (Laise 2008).

There seems to be something strange about a system that rewards consumers for having lots of unused credit cards. This is supposed to show the potential borrower is not using all available lines of credit. While paying off debt is certainly a sign someone is a good risk from a lender's point-of-view, other aspects of the system seem to encourage borrowing rather than sound financial management. Putting a greater emphasis on consumers who pay their bills on time, for example,…

Given the current credit crisis, more and more consumers of credit want to be members of the '700 Club.' This means that their credit scores are above 700, making them a 'good credit risk' in the eyes of a lender. Once upon a time, people with good credit who had never defaulted on a loan gave little thought to their credit scores. Now, these consumers are charging on little-used credit cards, keeping open old credit cards they barely use, applying for credit cards they will not use to show that they have a great deal of available and unused credit, are paying off loans, and only allowing a few lenders to pull credit reports when shopping for loans, because more inquiries can lower a score

Lenders are demanding higher credit scores because of the skyrocketing delinquency rates, and consumers are learning to 'work the system' by which their scores are calculated. And "these days, a clean credit record isn't just important if you're shopping for a loan: It could even affect your career. Potential employers, landlords and insurers routinely examine credit reports" (Laise 2008). However, lenders are getting 'wise' to consumer manipulation and new scoring systems may complicate consumers' efforts to monitor and improve their scores. New models place "more emphasis on having a variety of credit types, such as installment loans and revolving accounts like credit cards, while increasingly penalizing people who use a big chunk of their available credit" (Laise 2008).

There seems to be something strange about a system that rewards consumers for having lots of unused credit cards. This is supposed to show the potential borrower is not using all available lines of credit. While paying off debt is certainly a sign someone is a good risk from a lender's point-of-view, other aspects of the system seem to encourage borrowing rather than sound financial management. Putting a greater emphasis on consumers who pay their bills on time, for example, might be better for both lenders and society at large, when calculating credit scores, than rewarding consumers who have revolving, unused access to credit and who have taken out a variety of loans, even if they pay those loans on time.

Turning the Tide on Insurance Rates Issues
Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85285853
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Turning the Tide on Insurance Rates: Issues to Consider

Whereas it may seem that utilizing credit reports is a fair and effective method of determining rate structures for potential consumers, it may have some drawbacks that prove to be very costly. According to the Conning & Company study, auto insurers now employ credit scores as an accurate predictor of a person's risk profile and subsequent driving acumen. Although a person's budgetary history may shed some light on his/her spending habits, there is no direct correlation to that person's driving record and his/her chance of making a claim. In lieu of a distinct and direct causative link between credit history and auto insurance risk, auto insurers must take the following factors into consideration: age at the onset of credit history and a built-in institutional bias based on race and culture.

In contemporary America, more than half of all college-aged students possess…

Personal Financial Management During a
Words: 1712 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85727051
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Finally, anybody hoping to conserve money in a recession must avoid spontaneous expenses, whether at the grocery store or the mall. Purchases should always reflect what one actually needs and never spontaneous impulses to buy anything for which the consumer did not already have a conscious need in advance. Purchasing milk at the grocery store after forgetting to list it is one thing; purchasing a new pair of shoes at the mall "because they were on sale" when one already has a closet full of shoes at home is quite another matter.

ources Consulted

Clark, K., Gibbs, L., and Poppick, . "Three reasons to LOVE the slowdown." (28 ep

2011). Retrieved from CNN Money Magazine at: mag/index.htm

Kadlec, D. "Five Ways to Prepare for a Double Dip." (20 ep 2011). Retrieved from Time Moneyland at:


Nance-Ash, . "New Freshman 15: Financial Tips for College tudents." (1 Aug 2011).…

Sources Consulted

Clark, K., Gibbs, L., and Poppick, S. "Three reasons to LOVE the slowdown." (28 Sep

2011). Retrieved from CNN Money Magazine at:  mag/index.htm

Kadlec, D. "Five Ways to Prepare for a Double Dip." (20 Sep 2011). Retrieved from Time Moneyland at: -

College Financial the Value of
Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85206834
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Education on managing or eliminating debt early in one's professional life should also be combined with realistic education on the state of the economy and the impact which this has levied on personal opportunities for financial comfort. To this point, individuals are not finding the jobs for which their education has qualified them, are not achieving a pay commensurate to what they anticipate are their living requirements and are unable to afford many of the fundamental instruments to healthy and intelligent living. Indeed, one source denotes that "in 2007, the Census Bureau estimated that there were nearly 8 million uninsured young adults (ages 18-24), making them the largest segment of the uninsured population. That problem is likely to be compounded with the rise in unemployment and lack of new jobs resulting from the current economic recession." (E-Health Insurance, 1)

Because such matters should be considered a significant priority, the budgetary…

Works Cited:

Doyle, J. (2008). Credit Nightmares. NPC. Online at 

E-Health Insurance. (2009). Seven Tips for College Graduates Seeking Health Insurance. Young Money.

Hilpern, K. (2006). Student debt: are you on top of what you owe? The Independent. Online at 

Lazarony, L. (2008). 12 money-management tips for college students.

General Motors Case Study GM's
Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 89332658
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hen GM gave up control to Cerberus, they got in a pickle...It [Cerberus through GMAC] has taken away flexibility from dealers" (elch 2008). "GMAC also said it will suspend bonuses to dealers who earned the lender's Platinum designation for bringing the firm strong buyer volume" (elch 2008). This essentially discourages dealers who engage in hard-sell tactics, and encourages consumers to take on 'more car' than they can afford. But the belt-tightening comes at a time when GM desperately needs to raise its sales: "GM is burning through at least $1 billion a month. It had access to about $21 billion cash and $5 billion in available credit at the end of June but an analyst Friday said the automaker will probably need $10.3 billion in fresh cash through next year to maintain a minimum liquidity of $14 billion (Snell & Tierney 2008)

Cerberus is likely to play an increasingly critical…

Works Cited

Snell, Robert and Christine Tierney (2008, Oct 11). Cerberus eyes full ownership of GMAC; analysts skeptical. The Detroit News. Retrieved 5 Nov 2008 at 

Vlasic, Bill. (2008, Oct 14). Cerberus's role crucial as GM-Chrysler merger talks continue

International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 5 Nov 2008 at 

Welch, David. (2008, Oct). GMAC tightens the auto-finance screws. Business Week. Retrieved 5 Nov 2008 at

Financial Terms Using Consumer Mathematics
Words: 1199 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69588424
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The amount of interest that we would pay each month is the rate (say 6%) divided by twelve (multiplied by the principal). Therefore, the yearly compounded rate is higher, actually, than the disclosed rate. In Canada, mortgages use semi-annual compounded rates, while payments are still monthly. Mortgages in the U.S., however, are mostly payable and compounding monthly, which means that U.S. homeowners are paying more in interest on their homes than Canadians, as the yearly compounded rate is higher than the disclosed rate.

Buying a home, we found, is a lot like buying smaller things, as we have been doing, on credit, with credit cards, which is called "installment buying." Installment buying stipulates that, although one may "purchase" something with a credit card and use it, it legally still belongs to the seller until the last payment is made. If the buyer defaults, the goods revert to the seller and…

Works Cited

Orman, Suze, "The True Cost of Home Ownership." January, 2007. .

Infoplease. "Installment Buying and Selling." Website: .

Defaults Who Goes Into Foreclosure
Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 52949187
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Predictably, adjustable rate mortgages had a higher rate of default than non-adjustable rate mortgages, given the increase in interest rates in the years before the crisis, after many borrowers took out loans during an era of unusually low, near-zero rates. But another puzzling finding was that loans below $100, 000 and loan amounts in the $250,000 to half-million range had higher interest rates than loans of a half-million and above, once again suggesting that while middle-income individuals who might otherwise appear to be 'good' risks had been targeted for loans that were not advantageous to them.

"The finding that blacks and Latinos tended to borrow more helps explain why they received a disproportionately high share of high-cost loans, but the larger amounts borrowed by Asians contradicts the hypothesis that loan amount explains the rate spread differentials the best predictor that a borrower would default is the amount borrowed" as Asians…


Doviak, Eric & Kevin MacDonald. (2011). "Who defaults? Who goes into foreclosure?" 1-34.

Rent V Own Qualifying the Buyer --
Words: 1939 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26966100
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Rent V Own

Qualifying the Buyer -- How to determine whether one should Own or Rent

There's an old saying in real estate sales, that an agent must "qualify the buyer." hat this means is that before an agent decides to work with a prospective home buyer, the agent must ask certain questions about the buyer's financial status, employment history, wants and needs, before the agent sends the buyer listings or takes the buyer out looking at homes for sale. Essentially the agent is vetting the buyer to see if the buyer is a real, legitimate candidate for home ownership. This vetting process is crucial because it allows the agent to gather and collect critical information about the buyer so the agent can answer the fundamental question, "is this buyer suited for home ownership?"

Likewise, when one attempts to answer the question, "is it better for one to own a…

Works Cited

Cunningham, B. (2004). Tricks of the Trade: a Real Estate Broker's Inside Advice into Buying and Selling a Home. Avon, MA: Adams Media Corporation.

Leonhardt, D. (April 2007) A Word of Advice During a Housing Slump: Rent. The New York Times. Retrieved from 

Quealy, K., Tse, A. (April 2007) Is it Better to Buy Or Rent? New York Times. Retrieved from

Securing Personal Information to Prevent Theft
Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49186928
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Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. According to statistics, each year hundreds of thousands of people have their identities stolen. The thieves will use the person's personal information like bank account numbers, credit card numbers, social security numbers, and insurance information to purchase goods fraudulently. The Federal Trade Commission has reported that over 7 million people were victims of identity theft in the past year. This is quite a huge number, and it indicates identity theft is a growing in the United States. When someone manages to use another person's personal information to obtain credit,…


Holt, T. J., & Turner, M. G. (2012). Examining risks and protective factors of online identity theft. Deviant Behavior, 33(4), 308-323.

Lai, F., Li, D., & Hsieh, C.-T. (2012). Fighting identity theft: The coping perspective. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 353-363.

Saleh, Z. (2013). The Impact of Identity Theft on Perceived Security and Trusting E-Commerce. Journal of Internet Banking and E-Commerce, 18(2), 1-11.

Risk Tolerance and the Prisoner's
Words: 3024 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 42745036
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. Research Design Rationale

1. Question format: In order to allow the research study to become embedded in the field of economics, the research question will use an applied question format. The purpose of the study is to develop a predictive method regarding player choices in the Prisoner's dilemma. It will explore the association of risk and cooperation or defection in the Prisoner's


2. Research design: The research will use a deductive approach where the theory will be presented and tested through the methodology. The research will use quantitative research methods, which are suited for research where the information can be reduced to a numerical format. This is the case in the proposed study as both risk tolerance and the decisions made in the Prisoner's Dilemma can be reduced to numerical data and standard statistical methods applied.

III. Data/Information from Previous research

A. Literature Review

The literature review for…

Bibliography (Preliminary)

Agarwal, J. & Feils, D. (2007). Political Risk and the Internationalization of Firms: an Empirical

Study of Canadian-based Export and Fdi Firms. Canadian Journal of Administrative

Sciences. 24 (3): 165+. Questia Database.

Ansell, C. & Gash, a. (2008). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 18 (4): 543+. Questia Database.

Housing Price Dynamics Within a
Words: 7112 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4880131
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Houston's large supply of land means that demand growth primarily results in more construction, not higher prices" (McCullagh & Gilmer, 2008).

However, it is important to realize that land supply is only one part of the reason that new home construction formed such a large part of the Houston housing market. Yes, Houston has more available surrounding land than almost any other major metropolitan area in the United States, but it also applies different rules to its surrounding areas, making development more of a possibility than in other areas:

In Houston, developers can create a munici-pal utility district, or MUD, to provide these [water, sewage, and drainage] services on their properties and can finance these with tax-free bonds. Houston requires developers to build MUDs in such a way that they eventually could be connected to the city's corresponding infra-structure, but they begin as self-sufficient enterprises.

In other cities, develop-ments must…


Amromin, G., Huang, J., Sialm, C., & Zhong, E. (2010, Oct. 31). Mortgage complexity and house price dynamics. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from University of Maryland Robert H. Smith School of Business Website: 

Aydin, R. & Smith, B.A. (2008), Evidence of the dual nature of property value recovery following environmental remediation. Real Estate Economics, 36: 777 -- 812. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6229.2008.00230.x

Bajari, P., Chu, C.S., & Park, M. (2010). An empirical model of subprime mortgage default from 2000 to 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2011 from the National Bureau of Economic

Research Website:

Another Blank Order
Words: 2370 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58821987
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Home Mortgage Summary

The general subject of home mortgages can be daunting and complex to many people. However, there is no mystery or ambiguity to how they work. ather, they are pretty simple to render and perceive once the basics are known. This report shall cover basic mortgages, Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgages, adjustable rate mortgages (AM's) as well some general advice and items to consider. Mortgages should not be (and cannot be) entered casually in light of the financial implications and the recent history surrounding the industry. However, mortgages are the single largest way to create wealth for most Americans.

Home Mortgages

Even with the recent upheaval and problems relating to the mortgage industry, the basic structure and formulations that lead to mortgages being created has not changed. There has simply been a reform of who gets mortgages and what hoops they have to jump through to get said…


Bank Rate. (2015, February 22). Conventional, VA, FHA mortgages. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from 

Bank Rate. (2015, February 22). Adjustable-rate mortgage calculator. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from  / adjustable-rate-mortgage-arm-calculator.aspx

Consumer Finance. (2015, February 22). What is a debt-to-income ratio? Why is the

43% debt-to-income ratio important? Retrieved February 22, 2015, from

Lawrence Sports Is a Company
Words: 3550 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 25556728
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This would considerably simplify matters for Lawrence Sports. Such financing methods are best suited for alimenting short-term objectives.

The reason behind implementing an electronic payments system relies on the fact that the company would count on receiving and making timely payments. This alternative is also designed for simplifying the cash flow.

Preparing and effective cash budget is another alternative solution that must be taken into consideration by the company's managers. The reason that sustains this alternative consists in the fact that companies prefer not to keep big amounts of cash available, but, at the same time, companies are also afraid of keeping amounts of money that are too small for whatever unexpected issues might emerge. Handling large inventories of cash is a strategy that his its advantages and its disadvantages (Brealy, Myers & Allen, 2005).

Another alternative solution mentioned above consists in implementing a factoring system. This financial tool is…


Brealy, Myers & Allen (2005). Principles of Corporate Finance: Working Capital Management. New York, McGraw - Hill. Retrieved March 11, 2009.

Bernstein & Maksy (1985). Again Now: How Do We Measure Cash Flow from Operations? Retrieved March 12, 2009.

Ross, Westerfield & Jaffee (2005). Corporate Finance. New York, McGraw - Hill. Retrieved March 12, 2009.

Issue and Opportunity Identification

Social Innovation and Change
Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11523024
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The Social Media Age
A social change that I have experienced is the arrival of the Digital and Information Age, which has led to a revolution in the way people communication, obtain knowledge, and engage with ideas. Mainly the big change is the arrival of social media which has made everything private suddenly public. There is no more line between a private life and a public life. Everything is blurred together. People are less genuine and more interested in building their “brand” than in actually being human—because, after all, being human does not necessarily get one a million subscribers on YouTube. As Olsen (2013) notes, everything is “leading to a world that feels less personal, less polite and less human.” So while there have definitely been some good points about the Digital Era and the Information Age—such as the ability to now share information more easily than ever before, to…

Financial Literacy Education
Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90157279
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Money Management

Basic financial literacy is sorely lacking in today's America, and the results affect us all. For some, basic financial literacy is a personal issue, and it is that, but it is also a social issue because high debt levels affect everybody when they contribute to economic volatility. Malcolm (2013) notes that the standards of education in money management tend to be low, which leads people with incoherent savings plans. This is turn has them avoid saving altogether, instead spending on immediately desires. The result is that American is a nation of debtors. We all joke about owing money to the Chinese, but the sad reality is that most people owe money, and of those most have no real plan to deal with that debt. It's a ticking economic time bomb, and we need to resolve this issue. The time has come to bring financial literacy to the fore.…


Investopedia. (2014). Definition of financial literacy. Investopedia. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from 

Lusardi, A. (2013). Financial literacy around the world. FINRA. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from 

Malcolm, H. (2012). The cost of financial illiteracy. USA Today. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from 

Malcolm, H. (2013). Financial literacy education has real life impact. USA Today. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from

Tate & Lyle A Tate
Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 47135274
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Of subsidiaries



Dis. Of Subsidiaries



Dis. Of JVs



Dis. Of Businesses



Purchase of PPE



Purchase of Intangibles



Net cash Investing



Cash from Financing

Proceeds from issuance of shares



Repurchase of shares



Inflow from borrowings



Repayment of borrowings



Repayment of capital



Shareholder Dividends



Minority Interest Dividends



Net Cash Financing



Net Increase/Decrease of Cash

Balance at Beginning

Effect of changes in FX rates



Net Increase/Decrease

Balance at End

Notes: Several assumptions were made in the production of these statements. Many costs were assumed to stay the same. The company was assumed to have reduced its cost of goods sold through improvement of receivables and inventory turnover. As a result of T&L's financial strength, it was assumed that they were going…

Application of Predictive Analytics
Words: 3019 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5565788
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Predictive analytics is a statistical technique used to analyze current and historical data in order to make a reasonable prediction about future. In a business environment, organizations employ predictive analytics model to identify market trends, opportunities and risks. Using the predictive analytics, organizations are able to assess potential risks and opportunities to achieve competitive market advantages. In other word, predictive analytics is part of data mining focusing on extracting information from historical data and used the data to predict behavioral patterns and trends. Typically, predictive analytics can be applied to any type of unknown events in order to predict the presents and future events. Banks are the early adopters of predictive analytics model. For example, banks use the data collected from credit scores to determine the likelihood of an individual to qualify for a bank loan. The technique has assisted banks to minimize the risks by detecting applicants likely to…


Budale, D. & Mane, D. (2013). Predictive Analytics in Retail Banking. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), 2 (5): 508-509.

Kent, B. (2006). Predictive Analytics: Algorithm Nirvana. DM Review,16(30):40.

Maciejewski, R. Hafen, R. Rudolph, S. et al. (2011).Forecasting Hotspots -- A Predictive Analytics Approach. IEEE Computer Society.Issue 10.

NYPD CompStat Unit (2014). CompStat. Police Department City of New York. 21(22).

Subprime Crisis Work Plan and Report
Words: 3105 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 64288901
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real or hypothetical situation?

The context of the report is based on the real world implications of the financial crisis on the banking industry and society as a whole. The report details the need for reform within the sector overall. Particular emphasis is placed on Bank of America, as it was a large component of the subprime-lending crisis.

Why did you choose this topic, and does it relate to you in any way?

I chose this topic because it has impacted both society and the world at large. Nearly $1 trillion in asset values were erased in 1 year due to the financial crisis. People were foreclosed on and subsequently lost their homes. Taxpayers were forced to pay large sums of money to bailout a corrupt and greedy system. This topic not only resonates with me personally, but with the entire developed world. We nearly were on the brink of…


1. Edward Gramlich (2004). "Subprime Mortgage Lending: Benefits, Costs, and Challenges." Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

2. Eichengreen and Hausmann (2005), Other People's Money: Debt Denomination and Financial Instability in Emerging Market Economies. Pg 6-15

3. Peter Coy (2007). "Why Subprime Lenders Are In Trouble." Business Week

4. Pitt, Harvey L. (2005). "Conflict of Interest Lessons From Financial Services." Compliance 2-5

High Tech Crime Review of
Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55859858
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Most of the time, intellectual property theft involves stealing copyrighted material in the form of a book, a magazine or journal article or material on the Internet and claiming that the material is one's own property, also known as plagiarism. This type of high-tech crime is very widespread in today's America and often shows up as major news stories in the media, especially when the copyrighted material belongs to a high-profile author.

Another high-tech crime which is closely linked to identity theft is credit card fraud which occurs when "purchases are made using another individual's credit card or credit card number with the intent to defraud" ("Credit Card Fraud," Internet). These purchases might include buying products and goods at a well-known business establishment or purchasing products from Internet sites. Some of the more common forms of credit card fraud found in the U.S. include counterfeiting or creating fraudulent credit cards,…


About Identity Theft." (2008). FTC. Internet. Retrieved January 8, 2009 at .

Credit Card Fraud." (2009). Criminal Law. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at .

Financial and High-Tech Crimes." January 7, 2009. Interpol. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at .

Thompson, William T. (2004). High-tech crime in the United States. Boston: G.K. Hall.

A Recent Headline in a
Words: 7816 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50936522
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"Forecasts by Moody's now use a 20 percent drop in median
existing-home prices from their 2005 peak as a baseline, with prices
weakening through at least mid-2009" (Shinkle, 2008, p. 44). Moody's
director of housing economics Celia Chen, states in the same report that
the 20% decline is the good news and that the bad news is that it could
easily be more than that. The worst-case scenario is a lot more than that.
"You want the darkest? Forty percent, she says. There's your apocalypse"
(Shinkle, p. 45).
Websites that track foreclosures indicate that "the US-wide total of
loans foreclosing was running at 2.5 million in 2007, up by 70% from about
1.5 million in 2006" (Dumas, 2008, p. 23). The problem is that the teaser
rates that were initially set in 2006 will reach their peak in 2008,
ultimately affecting another approximate 1.5 million mortgages, with
another round…


Aldrich, P.; (2008) UK banks preparing to access BoE's emergency liquidity
scheme, Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group Limited 2008, accessed May
18, 2008 at 
Altfest, L.J.; (2008) What the subprime mess means to you, Medical
Economics, Vol 85, No. 2, p. 24

Visa Website Visa Recommendations in the Wake
Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70207561
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Visa Website

Visa: ecommendations in the wake of recent anti-trust legislation

Visa, MasterCard, and American Express currently dominate the U.S. credit card market. This is partially due to the fact that customers know most establishments accept these major credit cards. However, due to a 2010 settlement with the Justice Department, Visa's monopoly on the market may soon end. Credit cards with lower fee scales may begin to make encroachment upon the market given that Visa and MasterCard now must allow store owners to "reveal processing fees to customers and offer discounts to those [customers] using cards that carry lower fees. Until now, shops and restaurants had been forbidden to tell customers about the fees -- or to offer discounts or rebates to people paying with cards carrying lower merchant fees" (ubin 2010).

In the antitrust suit, merchants successfully argued that Visa and the other major credit card companies put a…


Rubin, Courtney. (2010, October 5). Visa, MasterCard let businesses reveal processing fees.

Inc. Retrieved March 25, 2011 at

What Is the Future of Big Data
Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32539179
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ig data: What does it mean for your business?

Once data about consumers was relatively difficult to amass. Now, in the digital age businesses are assaulted with a plethora of sources of consumer data. "Data now stream from daily life: from phones and credit cards and televisions and computers; from the infrastructure of cities; from sensor-equipped buildings, trains, buses, planes, bridges, and factories. The data flow so fast that the total accumulation of the past two years -- a zettabyte -- dwarfs the prior record of human civilization" (Shaw 2014). The big data revolution has the power to be as revolutionary as the Internet in the ways that businesses conduct commerce and consumers view themselves. "ig data is distinct from the Internet, although the Web makes it much easier to collect and share data. ig data is about more than just communication: the idea is that we can learn from…


Corbin, K. 2014. CIOs must balance cloud security and customer service. CIO Magazine.

Available at:  [2 Nov 2014]

Cukier, K.N. & Schoenberger, V. 2013. The rise of Big Data. Foreign Affairs. Available at:  [2 Nov 2014]

Companies secretly collecting and selling information about your online behavior
The large-scale information collection, information sale, and free access to sensitive, private information, accompanied by inadequate regulatory controls, leaves much room for misuse. Those who desire to limit access to their personal details find themselves with scant options as, in a majority of instances, parties that collect data are able to categorize, store, and sell free or captured information without the consent of the concerned individual. Even in instances where information is voluntarily given to social networking or e-shopping websites, web users cannot control who the information will be sold to (Tsesis, 2014). The data industry is currently a three-hundred-billion-dollar-per-annum industry, with around three million employees in the US alone. Information brokers attempt to understand customer identity and interests. For organizational delivery of more relevant advertisements to customers, data-brokering companies have to provide information on services and products of potential…

Comparing Nations Civil Order Control
Words: 1401 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27258499
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Civil Order Control
Civil order control has become a necessary aspect of modern day law enforcement. Inherent in civil order control, however, are a number of problems that have to be addressed in order for it to be effectively implemented, such as societal attitudes, law enforcement norms, and so on. As Roberson and Das (2015) point, in civil order control “there is often a strong political component to the activities being controlled” (p. 72). The reason for this is that whenever a situation occurs that is a threat to civil order, it is basically a threat to the government of the society as well. That is why throughout history, any type of civil order control has been met with controversy—whether it was a workers’ strike or protest being put down by military force or a holdout of a religious sect like the Branch Davidians in Waco being smoked out by…

Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act UCITA
Words: 2060 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63201805
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Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act

The prevailing decade has been significantly marked as a decade of high technology and advancements. The most technological nations across the world have drifted from conventional and traditional brick and mortars business to the online rather the dot com era of advancements.

Either of the two generations of the dot com business advancement, accessibility and understandability remained the core issues. The very ideology that forms the mainstream of the e-commerce business is the exchange of goods and services for an equivalent amount of cash payment. The e-commerce business completes its phase of existence by means of the common modes that include

Business to business transaction

Business to consumer transactions

Consumer to consumer transaction

Business to government transaction

Government to business transaction

Consumer to government transaction

Government to consumer transaction

Because the basic condition to satisfy the online transaction involves the exchange of goods and services…


Alboukrek, K. (2003). Adapting to a New World of E-commerce: the Need for Uniform Consumer Protection in the International Electronic Marketplace. The George Washington International Law Review, 35(2), 425+. from Questia database: 

Bouchoux, D.E. (2001). Protecting Your Company's Intellectual Property: A Practical Guide to rademarks, Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets. New York: AMACOM. from Questia database: 

Koslow, S.H. & Huerta, M.E. (Eds.). (2000). Electronic Collaboration in Science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, from Questia database: 

Mahdi, S.A. (2001). Gateway to Arbitration: Issues of Contract Formation under the U.c.c. And the Enforceability of Arbitration Clauses Included in Standard Form Contracts Shipped with Goods. Northwestern University Law Review, 96(1), 403+. from Questia database:

Hardship Letter Any Business Relationship
Words: 1790 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 77963534
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4. I did not obtain my current mortgage under any materially false pretenses.

As part of the Hope for Homeowners program, I would be able to attain a new affordable mortgage based on a current appraisal value. I would retain 10% equity in the property, and would be sharing the equity and future appreciation with the Federal government, which would prohibit me from taking out any additional loans against the property except for direct repairs and/or maintenance. There are also up front insurance premiums for this type of loan, which I am aware of.

If you would please consider one of these two options, I believe we can come up with a mutually satisfying solution to help avoid foreclosure on my home. I am writing this hardship letter to plead with your company to review my loan information, take into account my current financial situation, my excellent payment history prior…


Mortgage Bankers Association. Fannie Mae Posts Conventional Mortgage Servicing Modifications (06-18). Related Documents, 2008 Mortgage Bankers Association. Website with .pdf file:,7601299&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

Economics - Book Summary Book
Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 39410608
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Toward the end of the decade, Wall Street investment firms began hiring PhDs in mathematics and physics to create incredibly complex algorithms capable of modeling elements of the stock and futures markets. In most cases, the creators of these algorithms knew next to nothing about the financial industry, and the executives who employed them knew (literally) nothing about the mechanisms their firms had begun to rely on for their trading strategy. Destabilization of the Home Mortgage Industry:

In the early 1970s, stock analysts at Salomon Brothers, another Wall Street investment firm, developed a new kind of security based on home mortgages, called mortgage-backed securities. In principle, this allowed the conversion of illiquid (i.e. non- tradable) assets like the debt represented by home mortgages to be converted into a tradable commodity for profit. This new form of commercial transaction evolved into incredible levels of complexity after the widespread incorporation of mathematical…


Phillips, Kevin. "Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism" New York: Viking (2008).

Prime Mortgages Subprime Lending Is
Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34635653
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pproximately 2 million Subprime borrowers and 80% of them will have their mortgages reset to higher interest rates before the end of 2008.

pproximately 3 million Subprime borrowers and 90% of them will have their mortgages reset to higher interest rates before the end of 2008.

pproximately 4 million Subprime borrowers and 75% of them will have their mortgages reset to higher interest rates before the end of 2008.

pproximately 4.5 million Subprime borrowers and 85% of them will…

Approximately 4 million Subprime borrowers and 75% of them will have their mortgages reset to higher interest rates before the end of 2008.

Approximately 4.5 million Subprime borrowers and 85% of them will have their mortgages reset to higher interest rates before the end of 2008.

The answer is C

Deceptive Marketing Practices Discover Bank
Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56109835
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Moral philosophy also can take on a nonconsequentialist perspective, which is more "binding with moral rules or duties and consequences" (Smith, Kimmel, & Allan 19). As such, the moral action would have been to tell the truth; yet, Discover deliberately misled customers, avoided discussing fees, and sped through sales pitches in order to confuse potential buyers. Discover should have clearly notified all buyers of fees at the very beginning of the conversation. Finally, there is a third philosophy which would critique Discover's actions. From a Didactic tradition, it is important for a moral person to teach and express their morality in order to help inspire similar moral actions in others. Socrates was one of the most infamous teachers who aimed to help expand and model the examined life. His criticism here would be clearly based on the fact that Discover held a high respect within the banking industry. If it…

Works Cited

Canada Competition Bureau. "Misleading Representations and Deceptive Marketing Practices." Publications. 2011. Web. 

Kim, Susanna. "Discover (DSF) Announces $200 Million Refund to Customers." ABC News. Web. 

Smith, N. Craig, Kimmel, Allan J., & Klein, Jill. Social Contract Theory and the Ethics of Deception in Consumer Research. Faculty & Research Working Paper. 2011. Web. 

Stephenson, Emily. "U.S. Regulatory Fines Discover for Deceptive Marketing." Rueters. 2012. Web.

Declining Organization Is Divided in to Five
Words: 3976 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45645019
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declining organization is divided in to five stages by Jim Collins. By referring to each stage an organization gets an insight about the degree and relative stages of decline it has encountered. Planning to rectify the problems by referring to the decline stage can catalyze the process of rehabilitation and reestablishment of the organization. The following paper discusses the case of Enron Company that failed on account of its myopic business judgments and decision making.

How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In

How the mighty fall is an episodic research by Jim Collins that jots together the consideration of the huge organization through there making. Contemporary organizations as a matter of fact operate on an ongoing assumption. They cede into a market precisely to operate forever and operate profitably. But yet many a times mature organizations tend to take decisions that ultimately devastate them and push…


Broder, J.F., 2006, Risk analysis and the security survey, 3rd Edition, London: Elsevier Publications

Galbraith, Jay, R., 2009, Designing Matrix Organizations That Actually Work. Jossey-Bass

Hiles, A., 2011, The definitive handbook of business continuity management, 3rd Edition, West Sussex, U.K: John Wiley & Sons

Hamilton, Richard A. "The New Paradigm of Direct Marketing Research: Not the Old or the New, but a Merging of the Two." Academy of Marketing Studies Journal 5.1 (2001): 35+. Questia. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.

Predatory Mechanisms of Business
Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38979831
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predatory business practices seen in today's business environment. It will also analyze whether the borrower or debtor ought to bear any responsibility, in such instances.

Specific Examples of Predatory Practices by Businesses

In 1993, Wal-Mart was accused of predatory pricing practices, in items like mouthwashes, toothpastes and nonprescription medicines, and tried by an Arkansas court; three independent drugstores filed a lawsuit that the largest retailer in the nation sold items below their cost for stealing rival stores' market share. The retail pharmacies situated in Conway asserted that the retail giant's Conway superstore caused their businesses to suffer (Multimedia, 2015). They claim that the retailer violated the Unfair Practices Act of the Arkansas Code, which prohibits selling of goods below cost to injure and destroy competitors. The complainants asked for 1.1 million dollars in damages. Wal-Mart did, at court, admit to selling certain goods at below- cost prices, but argued that…


Danner, P. (2014, April 29). SFGate: San Francisco Bay Area - News, Bay Area news, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Classifieds - SFGate. Wells Fargo blasted for 'predatory lending' - SFGate. Retrieved September 2, 2015, from 

(n.d.). HUD/U.S.. Predatory Lending: Wisconsin - HUD . Retrieved September 2, 2015, from 

Lipson, J. (2010). Controlling Creditor Opportunism . Legal Studies Research paper Series, . Retrieved, from 

Matthews, D. (2009). Ruined in a Conventional Way: Responses to Credit Ratings ' Role in Credit Crises. The Northwstern Journal of International, 29(1), 245-274. Retrieved, from

Legalshield Pre-paid Legal Services Essay
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A Five Forces Analysis of LegalShield (formerly Pre-Paid Legal Services) and Recommendations for the Future


Today, more than 100 million Americans have enrolled in some type of pre-paid legal insurance plan that provides a range of benefits, including the entire array of issues that typically confront individuals, families and small businesses (Jackson, 2007). One company that was in the vanguard of offering pre-paid legal insurance is LegalShield, formerly named Pre-Paid Legal Services of Ada, Oklahoma (About us, 2015). Founded in 1969 by Harland Stonecipher, this company has grown to become an industry leader in the pre-paid legal insurance industry today. To determine how this company achieved this level of success and the competitive environment in which it competes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide an overview of LegalShield using Porter’s five forces framework, followed by a recommendation based on this analysis.

Overview of Pre-Paid Legal Services, Inc.…

Foreclosure to Whom it May Concern I
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To Whom it May Concern:

I purchased the properties located at properties 9 Bromley, Ferguson, MO 63137 and 4810 Lockwig, St. Louis, MO 63033 in 2004, believing that they represented wise investments for my family and I. For approximately one year, both properties were occupied by rent-paying tenants and were maintained with my own labor, enabling me to save on costs and thus increasing the value of these homes as investment properties. Late in 2005, however, a confluence of circumstances led me to the conclusion that selling these properties would actually be in the best financial interests of my family and I. It was at this time that I learned I would be heading to Iraq at some point in the near future, making it impossible for me to continue personally overseeing the maintenance of my properties; it was also at this time that the tenants in both homes…

Should Organizations Be Held Responsible
Words: 1456 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81854873
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Managers at businesses and organizations all over the United States collect and store information. It can be with tangible documents via filing cabinets, or digitally via networked servers. They may even rent "cloud" space to safeguard and keep vast volumes of personal information. Despite the growing occurrence of data breaches affecting private, public, and nonprofit organizations, the majority of organizations and businesses admit knowing too little concerning the consequences and risks of failing to sufficiently safeguard personal information collected from volunteers, employees, donors, and clients. The news has shown companies like Sony, Kmart, and Dairy Queen that have let leak sensitive information like credit card numbers and home addresses (, 2014). The question is should organizations and businesses like these be held liable for damages from the compromise of leaked sensitive data? The answer is yes.

People are convinced by businesses and organizations to hand over sensitive information. They put…


Axelrod, C., Bayuk, J., & Schutzer, D. (2009). Enterprise information security and privacy. Boston: Artech House.

Lindsay, D. (2014). The 'Right to be Forgotten' by Search Engines under Data Privacy Law: A Legal Analysis of the Costeja Ruling. Journal Of Media Law, 159. Retrieved from 

MacKinnon, L. (2012). Data security and security data. Berlin: Springer.,. (2014). Data Breach Tracker: All the Major Companies That Have Been Hacked. Retrieved 27 November 2015, from

Transaction Cost as Part of
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They also may lack traditional forms of "collateral, financial statements, or records in the database of a credit reporting bureau…Lending to, and collecting from, such clients, requires time-consuming personal interaction" (Microcredit, 2009, Microcapital). Lending small sums to many borrowers leads to multiplied administrative costs, and as these borrowers often repay their loans at more frequent intervals, which increases the administrative costs to the lending institution as well.

The potential benefits of microloans to the borrower must be weighted against the inevitability of such high interest rates "It is a simple fact of business that costs must be covered in order to continue operation. Further premiums must still be added to the interest rate to account for the many and varied risks assumed by a micro-lender" (Microcredit, 2009, Microcapital).


Microfinance interest rates as a function of transaction costs. (2006, January 9). Microcapital

Monitor. etrieved November 22, 2009…


Microfinance interest rates as a function of transaction costs. (2006, January 9). Microcapital

Monitor. Retrieved November 22, 2009 at

Security in IT Infrastructure What
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A system possesses authenticity when the information retrieved is what is expected by the user -- and that the user is correctly identified and cannot conceal his or her identity. Methods to ensure authenticity include having user names and secure passwords, and even digital certificates and keys that must be used to access the system and to prove that users 'are who they say they are.' Some highly secure workplaces may even use biological 'markings' like fingerprint readers (Introduction, 2011, IBM).

Accountability means that the source of the information is not anonymous and can be traced. A user should not be able to falsify his or her UL address or email address, given the requirements of the system. "Non-repudiation is a property achieved through cryptographic methods which prevents an individual or entity from denying having performed a particular action related to data... Through the use of security-related mechanisms, producers and…


Introduction to z/OS Security. (2011). IBM. PowerPoint. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at 

Why is information security important? (2011). Security Extra. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at

Entry Level Officer Minimum Requirements
Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34249747
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The San Diego Police Department (SDPD) is the municipal police department in charge of the city of San Diego. It is one of several law enforcement agencies with jurisdiction over San Diego. SDPD has a seven-step hiring process for entry-level police officers. Each step in that process introduces baseline requirements for applicants seeking a position with the SDPD. The seven-step process includes: (1) a written test; (2) a physical abilities test and pre-investigative questionnaire; (3) a background investigation; (4) a polygraph examination; (5) an interview with the appointing authority; (6) a psychological evaluation; and (7) a medical evaluation (SDPD, How to join, 2014). An applicant who meets the minimum requirements at each step will be eligible to proceed to the next step in the hiring process, and those who meet all of the minimums will be eligible for, but not guaranteed to receive, a job offer with the SDPD.…


San Diego Police Department. (2014). Background investigation. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: 

San Diego Police Department. (2014). How to join SDPD. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: 

San Diego Police Department. (2014). Polygraph examination. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: 

San Diego Police Department. (2014). Physical abilities test and pre-investigative questionnaire. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: