Crime And Punishment Essays (Examples)

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Crimes and Punishments

Words: 416 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92269474

Beccaria and Enlightenment

Beccaria's text upon the subject on the most appropriate way to punish criminals and to adjudicate crimes epitomizes the Enlightenment project in two basic areas. Firstly, from the very beginning of his text, Beccaria upholds that all human beings, regardless of their state of birth, have a right to live in a just and fair society and to be judged upon the same principles as other member of that society. He writes, thus, against the tyranny of a mindless obedience to royalty and against to principles obeyed simply out of custom. "In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of power and happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws [is] to oppose this effort and to diffuse their influence universally and equally." (Chapter 1) Humanity's basest instincts,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

An Essay on Crimes and Punishments by Cesare Beccaria, 4th ed. F. Newberry: London, 1775. Republished by International Pocket Library. With an Introduction by Adolph Caso." Branden Press, 1983.
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Punishment Western Society Has Developed

Words: 1952 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83297623

I maintain that all living things share an understanding that actions have consequence. I believe that even complex underlying psychological and sociological issues can be circumvented by directly addressing such most fundamental knowledge.

As for deterrence, I believe that the retributive system can in itself serve as a future deterrent, even if it does not do so intentionally. As mentioned, Kant held that any criminal activity is not only a crime against society, but a crime against the criminal him- or herself, since the criminal will suffer for these crimes, even as the victims of the crimes have suffered. Hence, there are no beneficiaries in the system and he deterrent is the threat of punishment itself.

As for rehabilitation programs, these have been notoriously ineffective, regardless of millions upon billions of dollars spent on the research and implementation involved. Even research into the underlying issues surrounding criminal activity has not…… [Read More]

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Crime Punishment Philosophy Since the Beginning of

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54149184

Crime Punishment Philosophy

Since the beginning of the 70s, the number of people inducted in jails and state facilities has increased to an astonishing level. In the present, more than two million individuals are serving jail time in either jails or state prisons. The growth of crime rate and imprisonment can be greatly attributed to the African-American and Hispanic communities residing in the U.S., who still categorize as the poor communities in the urban areas of the country. Even though, the increasing number of arrests and incarceration should in theory have reduced the crime rate, considering that the incarcerated offenders are no longer free to rob, mug or assault (Ezorsky, 1972).

Historical Context of Crime elated Policies and Punishment

However, no large scale crime reduction was recorded till the 1990's, that's when an actual decrease in crime was observed throughout the country. The most important point to be noted here…… [Read More]

References

Ezorsky, G. (1972). Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage.

Garland, D. (1993). Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Hart, H.L.A. (1968). Punishment and Responsibility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Punishment in the U S Correctional System in

Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28800007

Punishment in the U.S. Correctional System

IN ITS RIGHTFUL PLACE AND FORM

Punishment in the U.S. Corrections System

Objectives of Punishment

These are to punish the offender, to protect the population from him or her, and to rehabilitate him or her (eNotes, 2013; Law Link, 2003). The first goal of punishment is theoretically intended to discourage or deter a repeat of the offense and a demonstration of why it should be avoided. The most common example of punishment is incarceration. Others are the death penalty and lesser penalties, such as probation. The second goal of the correctional system next to punishing the offender is to insure the protection of society from criminals. This is carried out by policing the streets and separating criminals through imprisonment to prevent them from repeating or performing more crimes. And the third objective is the rehabilitation of the offender so that he or she can…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ENotes (2013). Sentencing and sentencing guidelines. Encyclopedia of Everyday Law.

eNotes.com. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from http://www.enotes.com/criminal-law-reference/sentencing-and-sentencing-guidelines

Law Link (2003). Sentencing. Law Reform Commission Report 102. Retrieved on January 25, 2013 from http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lcr.nsf/pages/r102chp03

Rank, J. (2012). Determinate sentence. Net Industries and Its Licensors: JRank.org
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Punishment it Has Always Been

Words: 1979 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2345102

I do, however, contend that appropriate rehabilitation programs will make this at least unlikely.

On the other hand, one must acknowledge that such rehabilitation programs are not always available and often not appropriate to the specific person having committed the crime. Hence, what I am suggesting is that more research be commissioned to create better ways of responding to various criminal offenses. Offenders of certain petty crimes, for example, can be required to commit a number of hours to appropriate community services along with being admitted to rehabilitation groups or programs.

While I therefore do not doubt that danger to society can be limited by removing certain offenders from the streets, I highly doubt that it is an appropriate response to all criminal activity.

Furthermore, what length of incarceration would be deemed appropriate for the removal of any given criminal to ensure that he or she does not offend again?…… [Read More]

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Crime and Violence

Words: 1708 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70633697

Crime and Violence: Cultural eliefs and iases

Religion and Stereotyping

Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).

Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, A. C. (2015). Race, Prison Discipline, and the Law. UC IRVINE LAW REVIEW, 759.

Barak, G. (2009). Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Ways of Seeing Difference. Second Annual Conference on RACE, GENDER and CLASS.

Blow, C. M. (2014). Crime, Bias and Statistics. Retrieved from The New York Times:  https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/08/opinion/charles-blow-crime-bias-and-statistics.html 

Becker, Gary S. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (1968): 169 -- 217.
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Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal

Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452

Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:  http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
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Punishment Compared With the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation

Words: 1115 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25225226

Punishment Compared With the Effectiveness of ehabilitation

For most people within the criminal justice system, as well as society at large, rehabilitation and punishment are two choices which must be taken, rather than taking their synonymous meanings. They give the impression to be like possible synonyms or ways to refer to same processes. Is punishment rehabilitation? Or alternatively, is rehabilitation punishment (McNeill, forthcoming)?

The supporters of rehabilitation view offending etched in people's experience of injustice and social expulsion, to bank on an individual's (criminal) responsibility (the punishment is based on that) as ill-conceived and to emphasize the role of the state to rectify the mess of the total crime produced. Punishment for certain rehabilitationists seems like a fancy term use. Meanwhile, the critics argue that there could be vengeful, appropriate and fair terms to pile up (McNeill, forthcoming).

For many rehabilitation professionals, those who happen to be compassionate about the…… [Read More]

References

Crow. I. (2001) The Treatment and Rehabilitation of Offenders. London: Sage.

Logan, C.H. And Gaes, G.G. (1993). Meta-Analysis And The Rehabilitation Of Punishment. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 10 No. 2.

McNeill, F. (forthcoming). When Punishment is Rehabilitation.Submitted to: G. Bruinsma and Weisburd, D. (eds.) (forthcoming) The Springer Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.Springer.

Raynor, P. And Robinson, G. (2009) Rehabilitation, Crime and Justice.Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
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Punishment Entails Some Standard of

Words: 1110 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45554725

On the other hand, cardinal proportionality supports maintenance of a realistic proportion amid all levels of punitiveness and criminal conduct gravity. While ordinal extent is scaled with respect to principles of desert, putting crime in comparison with punishment with a variety of punishments already set through cardinal limits determination, cardinal extent cannot be fixed in the similar manner. Given that there are no natural proportions amid punishment and crime, the real anchoring points of the system must be fixed with respect to some decisive factor and not desert. Once the limits are provided, proportionality becomes feasible. The proportionality of cardinal limits are set with respect to deterrence needs. According to Hirsch (1992), crime-prevention effects and accessible prison facilities are pertinent in affixing punishing scale.

Given that the interpretation of prison sentences in ostensibly objective units of years or months, people acknowledge Hirsch views on the principle of proportionality. However, the…… [Read More]

References

Hirsch, A. (1992). Proportionality in the philosophy of punishment. Crime and Justice, 16, 55-

98.

Tonry, M. (2011). Why Punish? How much?: A reader on punishment. Oxford: Oxford
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Crime Data Comparison

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59425987

crime rate data of burglaries in two U.S. metropolitan localities.

The UC (Uniform Crime eporting) Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation describes the act of burglary as illegal entry into a structure for committing theft or a felony. For labeling a crime as burglary, it is not necessary for the element of 'forced entry'. UC provides three sub-categories of burglary: forced entry; non-forced, illegal entry; and attempted forced entry. It defines the term "structure" as any apartment, houseboat or house trailer (utilized as permanent lodgings), office, barn, stable, vessel or ship, and railroad car (however, automobiles are not included). In the year 2012, approximately 2,103,787 burglaries were reported -- a 3.7% decline from the previous year (FBI -- Burglary). Compared to the figures for 2003 and 2008, burglaries declined in 2012 by 2.4% and 5.6%, respectively. The approximate burglary rate constituted 23.4% of the approximate property crime rate. Subcategory-wise,…… [Read More]

References

(2014). Atlanta Criminal Law Attorney - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Conviction of a Georgia Burglary Carries Severe Penalties - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://atlantacrimelawyer.com/conviction-georgia-burglary-carries-severe-penalties/

Diggs. (n.d.). EHow - How to - Discover the expert in you! - eHow. Factors Influencing the Crime Rate - eHow. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from http://www.ehow.com/list_5969328_factors-influencing-crime-rate.html

(n.d.). FBI -- Uniform Crime Reporting. FBI -- Burglary. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-u.s.-2012/property-crime/burglary

Miller. (2016). KTXS Homepage - KTXS. Abilene crime stats for 2014: Drastic increases in serious crimes - KTXS. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.ktxs.com/news/abilene/abilene-crime-stats-for-2014-drastic-increases-in-serious-crimes/12504383
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Punishment Too Much or Not Enough

Words: 1761 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65009203

Punishment: Too Much or Not Enough

The purpose of the punitive measures effected by the criminal justice system has changed over time, especially as that system operates in America. There are several ideological stances to consider in regards to such punishment, which largely incorporate criminal, sociological, and moral viewpoints. The ebbing and swaying of various tenets espoused at different times and with varying popularity have largely resulted in today's criminal justice system in which punishment is largely viewed as a means of retribution. As such, punishment levied upon those convicted of criminal offenses is decidedly lengthy, resulting in a climate in which there appears to be a surfeit of punishment resulting in a system in which authors argue that "we are indeed ill" (ose, no date, p. 978). Certain other factors intrinsically related to the criminal justice system, such as the imminence of plea bargaining and the lucrative business of…… [Read More]

References

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. New York: Sage Publications.

Dzur, A.W. (2012). Punishment, Participatory Democracy, and the Jury. New York: Oxford Press.

Miller, D.W. (2010). The drain of public prison systems and the role of privatization: a case study of state correctional systems. www.csa.com. Retrieved from http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/prisons/review.php

Rose, M. (No date). Book reviews. Law & Society Review.
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Punishment Anything Goes Is an Interesting Way

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73113009

Punishment

"Anything goes" is an interesting way to describe the current state of the nation's approach to punishment. Do you feel it is accurate? If yes, why? If not, why not? What other aspects of our nation's current approach to sanctions -- besides those listed and discussed by Blomberg and Lucken -- do you feel bolsters your position?

I do not feel that the "Anything goes" penal strategy is accurate for the nation's approach punishment. It is not a perfect way of ensuring that there is justification especially after punishment. The main aim of punishment in the society is to promote justification, which will then lead to harmony within the people. However, the "anything goes" penal strategy involves the prisoners undergoing any type of punishment as regarded by the states (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010). The option of the punishment does not always involve the input of the citizens and other…… [Read More]

Reference

Blomberg, T.G., & Lucken, K. (2010). American penology: A history of control. New Brunswick [N.J.: AldineTransaction.
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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565

Crime

On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]

References

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Crime Punishment and Criminal Justice

Words: 2589 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77445927

Crime, Punishment & Justice in Great Expectations

Crime, Punishment and Justice in Great Expectations

In his novel Great Expectations Charles Dickens' characters often seem to be operating outside or just outside the law in gray areas where what is legally correct clash with what is morally the right thing to do. The theme of crime in Dickens' novels is used as a focal point to explore his deep concern for the pervasive array of social problems that permeated England in the nineteenth century (Ford 82-83).

Dickens frames this novel as an individual's struggle to rise above the social and political conditions of that time. Criminality, punishment, and a perverse sense of justice are some of the themes Dickens surfaces to explore this world. At several points throughout the novel convicts come into the story, Pip encounters Magwitch on the marshes in the first chapter (Dickens 2), Magwitch and Compeysen are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Davie, Neil. "History Artfully Dodged? Crime, Prisons and the Legacy of 'Dickens's England'." Dickens Quarterly, Vol. 28, Issue 28, December 2011: 261-272. EBSOC Web. 6 December 2012.

Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Janice Carlisle (Ed.) New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996. Print.

Ford, George H. Dickens & His Readers. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1965. Print.

Lucas, John. The Melancholy Man: A Study of Dickens's Novels. London, UK: Methuen & Co. LTD., 1970. Print.
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Crime as Schmalleger Explains the American Juvenile-Justice

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34971095

Crime

As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.

Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
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Crime and Deviance Crime Is

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81308266



The changing nature of crime should make criminology, in terms of criminal laws, flexible and up-to-date. The law must have a regular review to ensure that the society is governed by proper and accurate directives to guarantee peace and equality among the people. Moreover, flexibility is important to ensure that right punishment is rendered to every crime. Another impact that criminology holds because of the changing nature of crime is the goal and objective of assessing their tools and technology that fight against crime.

Unlike some decades ago, guns and written laws are not the only tools these days that can prevent crimes and put the criminals in bars. Because of the diverse high technology that emerges, it is important that criminology has the right and advance instruments that can enhance their purpose of serving and ensuring peace to society.… [Read More]

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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]

References

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Crime & the Treatment of

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10798349



Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.

Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.

Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,

Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,

Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
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Crime of Conspiracy

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70836317

Crime of Conspiracy

The recent case whereby criminal charges were imposed in Aaron Swartz caused frenzy throughout the country. In my perspective, a criminal penalty was essential for this case. Swartz had announced he would be committed to opposing the law as a moral impervious to invalidate the federal laws in existence for information access effectively. In this case, one decided to disobey the law intentionally, just because he wanted to achieve a goal in an anti-democratic policy way and there is a display by both deeds and words that he will precede. It is very deliberate for the criminal law with its power to enforce a penalty under the law that the individual violated intentionally. In actual sense, the law is the fact about civil disobedience: the main function of the punishment is to focus on the same law deemed unjust. As was in this case, I think the…… [Read More]

References

Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Law (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Gillies, P. (2009). The law of criminal conspiracy. Sydney: Federation Press

Rowlett, C. (2005). Labyrinth 13: True tales of the occult, crime, & conspiracy. United States:

Lulu.com.
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Punishments for First Degree Murder

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84452162

Punishments for First Degree Murder

The harshest sentences in law are reserved for first-degree murder convictions. It is important to note that although the statutory sentencing options vary from state to state, first-degree murders (unlike second-degree murders) still attract sentences which although not unusual, are particularly harsh. In this text, I explore punishments for first-degree murders. In so doing, I will largely concern myself with the death penalty.

Punishments for First-degree Murder

Essentially, "murder of the first-degree is murder which is perpetrated by means of any kind of willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing" (Samaha, 2011). Before a conviction is secured against the accused, the three elements identified above must be proven beyond any reasonable doubt (Samaha, 2011). As I have already pointed out in the introductory paragraph, being the highest form of murder, fist-degree murder attracts the most severe punishments. Defendants in this case are in most cases eligible for…… [Read More]

References

Kurtz, L. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (2nd ed.). Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.

Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Law (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Siegel, L.J. (2009). Introduction to Criminal Justice (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Siegel, L.J. & Bartollas, C. (2010). Corrections Today. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
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Crime Versus Sin

Words: 2183 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31020683

Crime vs. Sin

A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…… [Read More]

References

Bronsteen, J., Buccafusco, C., & Masur, J.. (2010). Retribution and the Experience of Punishment. California Law Review, 98(5), 1463. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Criminal Justice Periodicals.

Conlon, B., Harris, S., Nagel, J., Hillman, M., & Hanson, R. (2008). Education: Don't Leave Prison Without It. Corrections Today, 70 (1); 48-49, 51-52.

Davis, M.S. (2006). Crimes Mala in Se: An Equity-Based Definition: Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17 (3) 270-289. Sage Publications, 2006.

Finnis, J. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Natural Law Theories. Retrieved February 4, 2010, form web site:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-law-theories/
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Crime Is a Social Phenomenon

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38278426

Crime a Socially Constructed

One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…… [Read More]

References

1)

Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml. Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.

2)

Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf. Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
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Crime Sentencing First Time Offender

Words: 1715 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76486657

In other words, there is a preoccupation with repeat offenders and the first time offenders seem to get less severe penalties. As crime levels continue to rise although the media tends to report the opposite, citizens seem more dedicated to getting even first time offenders off of the streets.

eferences

Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & obinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.

Curry, Theodore ., Lee, Gang, & odriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.

Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.

Sanders, Trevor, & oberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: esults of a National Survey.…… [Read More]

References

Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & Robinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.

Curry, Theodore R., Lee, Gang, & Rodriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.

Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.

Sanders, Trevor, & Roberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: Results of a National Survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 32 No. 4, 199-207.
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Punishment vs Appropriateness -- an

Words: 1171 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49925515

Until we can raise the dead, this will remain the fact and justice demands that in the rare times the death penalty is carried out, the evidence commanding its use must incontrovertible and absolutely certain or the punishment can not be carried out. Certainly, the dialogue over the death penalty raises the question of exactly how effective punishment is as opposed to the crimes that are being committed.

Are the costs of punishment outweighed by the benefits and what are the benefits if any? e will use the drug enforcement issue as an example in this essay. This author would argue that we would we be better off if less drug crime resulted in punishment. The costs far outweigh its benefits.

There is no other area where this is more of a question than in the area of the punishment of drug offenses. In an era of increased incarcerations of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diament, Nathan J. "Judaism and the Death Penalty; of Two Minds but One Heart."

Institute for Public Affairs. Orthodox Union, 01 April 2004. Web. 20 Mar 2011. .

Kreit, Alex. "The Decriminalization Option: Should States Consider Moving From a Criminal to a Civil Drug Court Model? TJSL Research Paper No. 1594527." Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Kreit, a.: San Diego, CA, University of California San Diego. 2010. 1-67. Print.
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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
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Philosophy Crime Punishment Shifted Social Context and

Words: 782 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52493029

Philosophy Crime Punishment Shifted

Social Context and the Justification of Punishment

Punishment is an authoritative exercise aimed to impose a negative or unwanted response to a behavior considered wrong or unjust by an individual or group. Philosophies surrounding crime and their punishment have changed between centuries, and even decades, to reflect the societies in which they occur. The legal mandate of punishment enforces a source of pain or deprivation to place suffering on the convicted individual, and is an action not morally matched by all citizens. The justification of punishment shares a unique relationship with social context, particularly in the legal sense. Over the course of history, society's beliefs about crime have translated into specific policies. This is exemplified by the present "get tough on crime" belief that has weaved its way into punishment policies in modern correctional systems. Although not all citizens within a specific society may not share…… [Read More]

References

Currie, E. (1998). Crime and punishment in America. New York, NY: Henry Hold and Company, LLC.

Garland, D. (1993). Punishment and modern society: a study in social theory. Chicago:

Lynch, J, & Sabol, W. (1997). Did getting tough on crime pay?. Crime Policy Report, 1.

Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/publications/307337.html
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Role of Religion Beowulf Crime

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24062922

Interestingly, although Raskolnikov's punishment comes before the end of the novel, only after he is banished to Siberia is he able to truly let God into his heart. This shows how earthly punishment and salvation are not always linked. The novel ends with him throwing himself upon Sofia's mercy, as she finally understands that he has accepted God into his heart and been redeemed.

Although no figure is Christ-like in the novel, Sofia acts like a figure of wisdom and a facilitator of Raskolnikov's faith. She inspires him to reject secular philosophy for God, as philosophy and his intellect cannot save him, only religion. Although Sofia has no education, she is depicted as wiser than most of the learned men in the novel. Sofia hears Raskolnikov's first confession of his crime, before the authorities. Unlike the anonymous authors of Beowulf, for Dostoevsky true heroism is sacrifice and repentance, not manifesting…… [Read More]

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Retribution for Criminal Punishment Every

Words: 2005 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11890880

1446) and it also reinforces that the offender's actions are not taken seriously by the government. A retributive system for criminal punishment accomplishes the ideal of equal liberty under law (Markel, 2004). When an individual commits a crime, they not only assert superiority over their victim, but also claim superiority, however implied, over the government body and practice of legal liberty.

Acts of wrongdoing are paired with consequences -- it is this principle in which crime and punishment have been paired as means for justice. etributive punishment for criminal behavior is rooted in the history of early civilizations as the sole deterrent of wrongdoing. In current American government, the use of "an eye for an eye" is limited to capital punishment and is believed by some to be a significant deterrent for homicide. The deterrence theory and incapacitation theory of punishment both fail at matching the punishment with the severity…… [Read More]

References

Cahill, M. (2007). Retributive justice in the real world. Washington University Law Review, 85, 815-870.

Carlsmith, K. (2006). The roles of retribution and utility in determining punishment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 437-451.

Golash, D. (2005). The case against punishment: retribution, crime prevention, and the law. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Markel, D. (2004). Against mercy. Minnesota Law Review, 88, 1421-1480.
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Sociology -- Punishment Crime Is

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87697220

Punishment as such is viewed as a form of personal engineering, designed to produce better people through a process of re-education. (Curan and enzeth, 1998)

Davey in relation to the theory of rehabilitation argued that during the past twenty years, we have seen an unprecedented move in the direction of massive incarceration of those convicted of crime. Davey reasoned that the approach prevalent at a particular time depends largely on the social and political climate. For example, in the early 1970s, the declared goal of incarceration was rehabilitation but as crime rose, support for this liberal position diminished. (Davey, 2002) as criminologist Kevin Wright has pointed out, "Federal, state and local governments have reacted to public sentiment by passing legislation that provides for longer sentences for violent crimes and legislative, executive and judicial bodies are streamlining due process rights to protect the innocent rather than the guilty" (Wright, 1985: 95)…… [Read More]

References

Heywood, a. (2000). Political Theories: An Introduction. London: Macmillan Press.

Wright, K. (1985). The Great American Crime Myth. Westpoint Connecticut: Greenwood Press p. 95

Curan, D. And Renzeth, C. (1998). Society in Crisis. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Davey, J. (2002) "Explosion of the Criminal Justice System" in Social Problems Readings with Questions by Joel Charon. United States: Wadsworth Thomson Learning
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Moral Dimensions of Punishment Is

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99783115



Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…… [Read More]

References

Primorac, I. (nd). Is Retributivism Analytic? The Royal Institute of Philosophy. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.royalinstitutephilosophy.org/articles/article.php?id=20

Stern, S. (2003). Discussing the morality of capital punishment. Christian Science Monitor. 12 Nov 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at  http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1112/p16s01-usju.html 

Townsend, C. (2005). The morality of punishment. Cambridge Papers. 31 May 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at  http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/moralityofpunishment.html
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Traditional Crime Policy Over the Last Several

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48749685

Traditional Crime Policy

Over the last several decades, the policy approach that is used in enforcing the law has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a sharp rise in the crime rates around the world since the end of World War II. At first, these increases were believed to be a part of the adverse changes from the war and its impact on society. (Gilling)

However, by the 1950s it was obvious that society was facing tremendous challenges with these rates. In response, a series of studies were conducted to effectively deal with the root causes of criminal activity (by focusing on the pathology of the individual). This created heated debates between traditional and evidence based advocates, who believed that the current approach can address these issues (by serving as a deterrent for everyone). (Gilling)

As a result, tough sentences were handed down to…… [Read More]

References

"Key Facts at a Glance." BLS, 2011. Web. 5 Sept. 2012

Gilling, Daniel. Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.

Walker, Samuel. Sense and Nonsense about Drugs. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
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Economy on Crime Rates it

Words: 3250 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91834440

The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.

This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.

In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.

Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Becker, Gary 1999, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, Journal of Political Economy

Becker, Gary and Murphy, Kevin 1999, A Theory of Rational Addiction, Journal of Political Economy

Richardson, Isaac, (2009) Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, Journal of Political Economy

Ehrlich, Isaac 1975, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
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Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]

References

Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

 http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/18/local/la-me-ln-feuer-guns-20130418
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History of Punishment Critically Assess

Words: 4559 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95135347

Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).

Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]

References

Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,

pp. 125-146.

Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel

Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
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Three Ethical Frameworks for Punishment

Words: 882 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70734709

humans have been concerned with the most expedient and effective means of punishment for a crime committed. ecently, the United States has turned more to a correctional than a rehabilitative approach to punishing offenders. Studies conflict as to the success of this approach, although numbers of crimes have declined moderately. In addition, such incarceration leads to other problems such as considerably higher costs and increasing numbers of offenders having chronic diseases such as AIDS.

According to Gould and Sitren in "Crime and Punishment: Punishment Philosophies and Ethical Dilemmas," there are three major frameworks that address the purpose of punishment -- utilitarianism, deontology and peacemaking.

Utilitarianism recognizes the purpose of punishment in terms of the end result. For utilitarians, punishment is justifiable because it creates a greater balance of happiness vs. unhappiness. For Bentham, punishment should be utilized to maximize the total pleasure or minimize the total pain of all parties…… [Read More]

References Cited

YOU NEED TO ADD THE OTHER ONES HERE, SINCE YOUR FAX DID NOT INCLUDE THE BIBLIO. THANKS

Bedeau, H.A. (2002) Thinking and Writing about Philosophy. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Braswell, M., Fuller, J, & Lozoff, B. (2001). Corrections, Peacemaking and Restorative Justice: Transforming Individuals and Institutions. Ottowa, Canada: Anderson Publishing.
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Dostoevsky Crime Punishment Dostoevsky's Crime

Words: 816 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44482762

In the end she succumbs to consumption; his youngest daughter from his first marriage, named Sonia is a kind woman that ends up prostituting her body for money. The life of these women is much like the lives of many ussian women during Dostoevsky's period. Because so many were poor, they ended up prostituting or engaging in crime to help support their family or to put bread on the table (Westwood, 1993). This does not mean the women of ussia were considered unworthy of love and affection, something Dostoevsky notes in his novel. Although many would consider the actions of Sonia deplorable, the main character looks up to her, and considers her an innocent and kind-hearted woman. For this reason askolnikov tells her about the murder he commits, and it is this daughter that causes askolnikov to confess to the authorities what he did and face the penalties associated with…… [Read More]

References

Dostoevsky, F. & Onegin, E. (1993). Crime and Punishment, New York: Alfred a.

Knopf.

Westwood, J.N. (1993). Endurance and Endeavor: Russian History, 1812-1992. Oxford:
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The Morality of Punishment for Actions

Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53230970

According to Hoskins (2010), the legal foundation of punishment is morally challenging as it usually involves harsh treatment, sometimes morally unacceptable, to the offender. What makes it acceptable to subject an offender to such kind of punishment is a big moral question.

Customarily, the rationale behind punishment is either retributivist or consequentialist. Consquensialists argue that punishment is necessary towards achieving a noteworthy purpose, an example of which is crime reduction. Retributivists, on the other hand, argue that punishment is a basic or natural response for doing something wrong. However, abolitionists argue that punishment is morally unacceptable and thus both defenses are not valid. The question now is: how should the society respond to wrongdoings?
The Philosophical Theories That Justify Punishment

According to Hobbes (2010), the justification for punishment is based on the following theories of philosophy: incapacitation, rehabilitation, retribution, restoration and/or deterrence.

Oleson and Mackinnon (2015) believe that retribution punishes…… [Read More]

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Durkheim Modern Society and Punishment

Words: 1784 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84366367

Whereas, in the original thesis, the main contrast was between repressive and restitutive sanctions, in the later article the contrast involves a classification of crimes into those that are fundamentally religious in character -- offences against shared moral tenets that constitute the collective conscience -- and those that are "individual," in the sense of involving the essentially private interests of increasingly autonomous individuals. Penal sanctions also change in quantity and quality, with a movement away from corporal punishment and toward depriving the individual of possessions or freedom, i.e. fines and imprisonment. This development corresponds to the increasing differentiation within society, and the increasing focus on the individual, in this case as criminal or victim. Durkheim makes an interesting point about prisons only coming into existence when a society reached a sufficiently advanced stage of material development to permit the existence of secure and fortified establishments, such as castles or other…… [Read More]

Id. At 85.

Emile Durkhiem, the Division of Labour in Society, trs. George Simpson, New York, Free Press paperback edn, 1964.

John Horton, "The Dehumanisation of Anomie and Alienation: A Problem in the Ideology of Sociology," British Journal of Sociology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 283-300
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Capital Punishment Nowadays the Crimes

Words: 2589 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17388602

Through which he concluded that each execution prevents around seven or eight people from committing murder (Worsnop 402). In 1985, an economist from the University of North Carolina by the name of Stephen K. Layson published a report that showed that every execution of a murderer deterred eighteen would be murderers (Guernsey 68). While the numbers from these studies seem quite low as compared to the large number of murders committed every day in the United States, the numbers become quite large when discussed in the terms of every year executions. (Guernsey 65)

The opponents of capital punishment here give different points which are also quite true. According to the critics of capital punishment many of the people who commit acts of murder are either retarded or are immature. Capital punishment doesn't have an effect on the youth and immature people. As Richard L. Worsnop writes in his article entitled…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Worsnop, Richard L. Death Penalty Debate Centers on Retribution. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1990.

Guernsey, JoAnn Bren. Should We Have Capital Punishment? Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co, 1993.

Van den Haag, Ernest, and John Phillips Conrad. The Death Penalty a Debate. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.

Maestro, Marcello T. A Pioneer for the Abolition of Capital Punishment Cesare Beccaria. [New York]: Journal of the History of Ideas, 1973.
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Crime Delinquency Teenagers Adolescent Terror Virtually No

Words: 3128 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14952653

Crime Delinquency Teenagers

Adolescent Terror

Virtually no one can deny that there is a definite, tangible link between adolescence and crime. Anyone not familiar with this subject would be hard pressed to dispute the eminent statistical data that alludes to that dangerous link. In 1990, teenagers were more than 3.5 times likely to commit an indexed crime than were adults in the United States. Index crimes are both violent criminal activity such as "murder & non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault" as well as serious property crime such as "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson" (No author 1990). This point is underscored by the fact that in 2005, approximately 10,000 prisoners in the United States were serving life sentences for actions that were committed before they turned 18 (Liptak 2005). This proclivity of teenage criminal offenders is evinced overseas in other countries as well, such as in…… [Read More]

References

Krueger, J.G. (2006). "Brain science offers insight to teen crime." ABQTrib. Retrieved from http://www.abqtrib.com/news/2006/dec/08/brain-science-offers-insight-teen-crime/

Liptak, A. (2005). "Jailed for Life After Crimes as Teenagers." New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/03/national/03lifers.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

No author. (1990). "Teenagers have the highest crime rates." Race Matters. Retrieved from  http://www.racematters.org/hicrimer.htm 

Reynolds, J. (2007). "Crime and the teenage brain." The Monterey County Herald. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/ci_7109878
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Punishment Program

Words: 1860 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22230280

Punishment Program

This punishment program is a middle ground between incarceration and traditional probation and parole. The individuals participating in this program are released into the community, however, they are subject to very strict guidelines and conditions; failure to meet the requirements leads to a jail term in one of the state's jails to serve their sentence. The punishment program is divided into three types; house arrest, day reporting and intensive reporting. Individuals on house arrest are required to wear ankle bracelets along with a tracking device at all times, which electronically monitors their whereabouts. Any eligible individual can be placed on house arrest, however, those individuals serving mandatory D.U.I. sentences are by law, required to be on house arrest with electronic monitoring. In addition, individuals on day reporting are required to report in person to the respective I.P.P. office on a daily basis. Once at the office, all individuals…… [Read More]

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Crime When a Person Commits

Words: 1799 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52521823

ut as the morality associated with a society changes as that society changes, it may be that someday people will no longer maintain a difference between attempted murder and actual murder, without it leading to some dystopian future where everyone is hounded by the legal system.

ibliography

outellier, Hans, Crime and Morality: The Significance of Criminal Justice in Post-Modern Culture, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2000, p. 4.

Gardner, John, "Law and Morality," retrieved 5 April 2012, http://users.ox.ac.uk/~lawf0081/pdfs/lawmoralityedited.pdf

"Rowe v. Wade," Legal Information Institute, retrieved 5 April 2012, http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html

Singer, Richard. John Q. La Fond, Criminal Law: Examples and Explanations, Aspen, New York, 2010, p. 56.

Spelman, Jonathon, "The Morality of Killing in Self-Defense: A Christian Perspective," Ashbrook Statesman Thesis, 2008, retrieved 6 April 2012, http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/thesis/spelman/spelman.pdf

The Free Dictionary, retrieved 5 April 2012, http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/attempt

The Free Dictionary, retrieved 5 April 2012, ?

http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/attempt

The Free Dictionary, retrieved 5 April 2012, ?

http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/crime…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boutellier, Hans, Crime and Morality: The Significance of Criminal Justice in Post-Modern Culture, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2000, p. 4.

Gardner, John, "Law and Morality," retrieved 5 April 2012, http://users.ox.ac.uk/~lawf0081/pdfs/lawmoralityedited.pdf

"Rowe v. Wade," Legal Information Institute, retrieved 5 April 2012, http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html

Singer, Richard. John Q. La Fond, Criminal Law: Examples and Explanations, Aspen, New York, 2010, p. 56.
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Crime Workplace Is Not Safe From Numerous

Words: 3278 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2555299

Crime

Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…… [Read More]

Reference List

McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.

Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.

Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA

Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
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Crime Discuss Reasons Crime Increased Todays Society

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83252970

crime discuss reasons crime increased todays society. (Submit a 500

Crime is a transgression of the law on the part of a person or an organization. In order for a crime to be committed, there has to be some formal law enacted which prohibits an action or an occurrence. Furthermore, that law has to then be transgressed for a crime to take place. One of the main areas of crime is violent crime. Violent crime occurs when individuals act aggressively or hostilely towards one another, and choose to inflict corporal pain and punishment. This sort of crime can take place virtually anywhere. In the United States, for example, violent crime occurs fairly regularly in urban environments. Common types of violent crime include shootings, stabbings, and physical violence in the form of fighting.

Violent crime is actually stratified into blue collar crime, which is crime committed by working class people. Working…… [Read More]

References

Valdmanis, T. (2008). "Senate report blasts SEC's Enron oversight." USA Today. Retrieved from  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/banking/2002-10-06-sec_x.htm