Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 103 essays for "Crime Causation"

View Full Essay

Crime Has Been Taking Place Although the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63695941

crime has been taking place. Although the forms of crime have evolved, so too has the strategies used to prevent crime. This essay will compare and contrast three of most common Crime Prevention strategies, which are, environmental design, social intervention and situational intervention. Crime prevention generally refers to preventing crime and anti-social behavior before it occurs. Crime Prevention Victoria, defines crime prevention as "any public or privately based initiative or policy aimed at reducing or eliminating criminal behavior, violence and fear of crime or violence in the community" (Armstrong, 2002). This essay aims to demonstrate not only the strengths and weaknesses of these three strategies but also to identify the individual crime causation theory that each strategy is based around. These being

ne of the main crime prevention strategies used around the world is environmental design. This strategy is based on the relationship that is created between people and the…… [Read More]

One of the extreme levels of environmental design strategies being used today is through gated communities. Gated communities are small groups of residents who are enclosed and separated from the rest of society. A good example of gated communities can be seen in South Africa, which is known for its extremely high crime rates, it also has the highest amount of gated communities (Landman,2008). Gated communities in South Africa incorporate all physical elements by either high walls, gates, electric gates, alarm systems, boom gates, check ins and even access cards (Landman,2008). Gated communities are created with the basic principles of the environmental design strategy (Landman,2008). These communities are defensible spaces, target hardened and have advanced access control. Throughout the U.S., two and a half million citizens live in gated communities (Blakely & Snyder 1998).

Environmental design theory also has a strong connection to routine activity theory. Routine activity theory states that for a crime to be committed, three things need to be present, an offender, a target and no one watching the target (Chainey,2005). Environmental theory aims at removing two of these mentioned items, by closing off areas to the public possible offenders are removed and by using such things as natural vision or CCTV there is always the possibility of someone watching. According to routine activity theory without any one of these items the crime can not take place (Chainey,2005).

However people argue that changes made to the built environment to reduce crime often simply cause offenders to move their criminal behaviors to other locations. For this reason design theory can be seen to do little against causes of crime (CSRI,2003). By increasing protection, people argue that they are just funneling criminals to more unprotected areas or forcing criminals to commit more dangerous crimes (CSIR,2003). Environmental design can therefore not always be totally preventive and needs to be constantly reviewed and adapted to fight against the ever learning criminal mind. It is also important for crime preventions strategies to be adapted to specific areas as what works in one situation might not be appropriate in another. Numerous factors influence crime and all of these will affect the way in which it needs to be
View Full Essay

Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8975565

Crime

On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]

References

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
View Full Essay

Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]

References

Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
View Full Essay

Economy on Crime Rates it

Words: 3250 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91834440

The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.

This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.

In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.

Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Becker, Gary 1999, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, Journal of Political Economy

Becker, Gary and Murphy, Kevin 1999, A Theory of Rational Addiction, Journal of Political Economy

Richardson, Isaac, (2009) Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, Journal of Political Economy

Ehrlich, Isaac 1975, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life
View Full Essay

Crime Actus Reus May Be the Most

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67934394

Crime

Actus Reus may be the most essential element involved in deciding what exactly makes up a crime. Most commonly defined as a voluntary act or an omission of an act, actus reus is one of the most objective elements in determining whether a crime has been committed since its result ( typically some form of injury to another or a group of people) is what largely comprises criminal activity. To fully understand the scope of actus reus, deliberate attention must be given to what exactly constitutes an act, or a criminal omission of an act.

In order for an actus reus to be linked to a crime it must be voluntary, meaning the accused must be aware of what is being done. An act can be any type of voluntary human behavior, and generally takes the form of some sort of physical movement which a person is conscious of.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Crime Rates and Trends

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63479620

Virginia Beach, VA: Crime ates and Trends

eviewing the rape, robbery and murder trends for Virginia Beach, VA is incredibly revelatory. According to the website city-data.com, Virginia Beach has a crime rate of 184.9 which is significantly lower than the entire U.S. average, which is at 301. In 2012, the number of murders which were committed in this city was at 21, which is the equivalent to 4.7 per 100,000 people. The total number of rapes was at 58, which was at 13 per 100,000 people. The total number of robberies was 326, which functioned at 72.8 per 100,000 people. The number of assaults was at 353, which functioned at 78.9 per 100,000 people. The number of burglaries was 1573, which functioned at 351.4 per 100,000 people. The number of thefts which occurred was 9,662 which totaled at 2,158 per thousand people. The number of auto thefts which occurred was…… [Read More]

References

City-data.com (2013). Virginia Beach Crime Rate:  http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-Virginia-Beach-Virginia.html 

Trelllo, J. (2013). How Income Inequality Affects Crime Rates. Retrieved from Financesonline.com,  http://financesonline.com/how-income-inequality-affects-crime-rates/
View Full Essay

Aggravating Factors That Lead to Crimes

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19771161

Causes of Crime

Natural Causes of Crime

The factors and precursors that are associated in whole or in part with the causes of crime are prolific and many. Many of those causes fall under one of three major categories, those being biological, sociological and psychological. Indeed, many crimes are caused in whole or in part by inherent biological attributes, external factors or a combination thereof. Crimes can be committed of a person knowing better and not caring enough to not do or stop the behavior or they can be committed from a person that is at least temporarily unable to process and realize what they are doing due to being on alcohol, an illicit street drug or prescription medication. This report will cover all of those and provide examples of each, either general or specific. While some people perhaps lean a little too heavily on crimes causing them to commit…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, A. (2008). Drug-associated psychoses and criminal responsibility. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 26(5), 633-653.

Collins, R. (2013). Micro and macro sociological causes of violent atrocities. Sociologia,

Problemas E. Praticas, (71), 9-22. doi:10.7458/SPP2013712327

Moskalenko, S., & McCauley, C. (2011). The psychology of lone-wolf terrorism. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(2), 115-126.
View Full Essay

Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]

References

Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

 http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/18/local/la-me-ln-feuer-guns-20130418
View Full Essay

Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25210065

Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
View Full Essay

Effect of Community Policing on Crime

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71762637

Broken Windows" discussed the causes of fear and crime among urban neighborhoods. Beginning with a case of police walking the beat in crime-ridden neighborhoods, the authors evolved their article to an understanding of how the presence of a patrolman on the street can make residents feel safer. By studying the effect of patrolmen, the authors began to understand the cause of crime and the effect it can have on neighborhood residents. The authors asserted that crime, and more importantly the community's perception of it, began with general disorder and evolved eventually into complete fear of the neighborhood.

While studying crime and disorder, researchers have made an interesting discovery, the "Broken Window" effect. As the authors described "if a window in a building is broken and is left unrepaired, all the rest of the windows will soon be broken." (Kelling, 1982) When applied to crime and disorder this theory states that…… [Read More]

References

Kelling, George, and James Wilson. (1982). "Broken Windows." The Atlantic. Retrieved from  http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/304465/
View Full Essay

biological theories of crime

Words: 1593 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13502099

.....biological well-being and the features of the environment and how these affect a person's behavior and criminal tendencies is made clear by biological theories. Research has proved that the common traits and actions seen in criminals like delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity are a function of several biological features such as physical problems, blood glucose levels and eating habits, external head damage, mental function and makeup, heredity, body systems and impaired mental function. The supporters of this theory believe that the biological insight into conventional actions of criminal minds give more effective tools, mechanisms, beliefs and examples which can work smoothly with the normal anticrime systems in keeping up their work quality.

The basic belief of the study targeted at biological makeup and criminality is that there is a connection between delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity and crime. Several studies apply their own developed methods and parameters, a trend which…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Human Event to Qualify as a Crime

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71549489

Human Event to Qualify as a Crime

According to criminal scholar Jerome Hall, there are seven basic requirements that transform a regular human event into a crime. These requirements are critical, because a person can do something that creates a significant harm to another person, but that event will not qualify as a crime unless it also has the other elements of a crime. These elements are: (1) act requirement; (2) legality requirement; (3) harm requirement; (4) causation requirement; (5) mens rea requirement; (6) concurrence requirement; and (7) the punishment requirement. Unless a prosecutor can prove all seven elements exist, they will be unable to convict someone of a crime.

The first element of a crime is the act requirement. People may not be convicted of status offenses. Instead, criminal offenses must be based on either an action or a failure to act. For example, while states may prosecute people…… [Read More]

References

Cole, G. And Smith, C. (2010). The American system of criminal justice. Belmont, CA:

Cengage Learning.

Hall, J. (2008). General principles of criminal law. Clark, NJ: The Lawbook Exchange, LTD.
View Full Essay

Distinguish Between Thinking About Crime as a

Words: 1209 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6283154

Distinguish between thinking about crime as a social problem and thinking of it as a sociological problem).

Taking crime as a sociological issue one would attempt to theories regarding the causes of criminal behavior, social construction of the concept of crime, and solutions to crime on a societal level. Sociological theories and psychological theories of criminal behavior are heavily entwined. There are numerous sociological theories concerning the cause and control of criminal behavior. In general sociological theories of criminality attempt to connect the individual's behavior with broader social structures and cultural variables, discuss how the contradicting factors of these variables interact to lead to criminal behavior, investigate how these structures have historically developed, and view criminal behavior from the standpoint of social constructionism and concentrate on the social causes of criminality.

For instance, Durkheim (1897) coined the term anomie to describe a feeling of a lack of being connected to…… [Read More]

References

Clinard, M.R., Quinney, R., & Wildeman, J. (2014). Criminal behavior systems: A typology.

New York: Routledge.

Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.

Hatfield, R.C. (2014). The everything to coping with panic disorder. Avon, MA: Adams.
View Full Essay

Real Biological Causes of Crime in the

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7351658

real, biological causes of crime in the criminal mind. It gave me insight into the many different genetic and biological problems that can lead to criminality. I also learned that there are many more causes than I had thought, such as vitamin deficiencies, excess hormones, hypoglycemia, fetal alcohol syndrome, and a host of others that make sense when I read them but were startling when I saw them in print. I also learned that these biological causes of crime have been slow to catch on in criminology circles, but they are becoming more accepted with time and research.

.Most of this information was new to me -- there was not a lot that I knew before reading this chapter. I knew about natural selection and Darwin's ideas on aggression, but did not put them together with this information. It was understandable that many of these theories have not been tested,…… [Read More]

References

Chapter Five: Biological Roots of Criminal Behavior.
View Full Essay

Restitution for victims of crime

Words: 1679 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26664205

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

The study of victimology has been extensively done and various facts have been drawn or reached on concerning the victim blaming, theories have been put forth and legal outlines and guidelines on the protection of victims from further blame have been stipulated. It is important however, to know and have in place a comprehensive and holistic victim restitution plan order to ensure that the victims of crime are adequately compensated and restored as much as possible to their previous nature and status.

The intimate partner crime victimization is common within the society hence the need to fully understand the meaning of intimate partner abuse and the possible restitution plan that can help in compensation of such victims within the required period of time.

The main paper will hence look at the following major areas in order to fully understand intimate partner crime and victimization of the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Juveniles and Crime the Interaction

Words: 5161 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11803867

As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…… [Read More]

References

Binder, A, Geis, G, & Bruce, D. (2000). Juvenile delinquency: historical, cultural, and legal perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.

Cicourel, A. (1995). The social organization of juvenile justice. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction

Publishers.

Farrington, D. (2002). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: an integrated
View Full Essay

Families Delinquency & Crime What

Words: 1939 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 81598206

If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.

Module 4

Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.

Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Criminology Biological Sociological and Psychological

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 52134365

This is the foundation of the psychiatric classification of antisocial personality disorder. obins also thought that antisocial personality is evident early in life and that it tends to persevere from childhood to adulthood, with dissimilar behavioral demonstrations (Farrington, 2002).

Normally, psychological theories often comprise motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes. The most ordinary motivational notion is that individuals, particularly kids are naturally self-indulgent and self-centered, looking for pleasure and staying away from pain, and thus that kids are naturally antisocial. Another characteristic notion is that individuals are provoked to uphold an optimal level of stimulation. If their level falls below the best, they will try to augment it, while if it is above the best they will try to reduce it (Farrington, 2002).

Sociological theories put forth that crime is caused by anomie or the dissociation of the person from the shared conscience. This can happen by social disorganization; by…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

And the Fraud Continues

Words: 1031 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 6094601

internal control weaknesses that existed at MCI that contributed to the commission of accounting fraud

The internal control weaknesses that existed at MCI that contributed to the commissioning of the accounting fraud was related to the very fact that Pavlov had the ability and access that allowed him to manipulate the account receivable system. Since he helped in the creation of the account receivable process, he was very ware of the system's strength and weaknesses as well as how to exploit them by manipulating the system (Lyon & Tocco,2007).He was therefore able to fraudulently receive payments, update as well as manipulate the account receivable records. This allowed him an opportunity of defrauding the firm and its clients by embezzling the funds to offshore accounts.

The exact fraudulent practices and tricks that Pavlo and his co-conspirators engaged in included the following:

The identification of the account receivables that were about to…… [Read More]

References

Carpenter, T., Durtschi.,C and Gaynor., LM (2002).The Role of Experience in Professional Skepticism, Knowledge Acquisition, and Fraud Detection

http://aaahq.org/audit/midyear/03midyear/papers/MidYear%20Paper%20(No%20Appendix).pdf

Fullerton, Rosemary and Durtschi, Cindy (2004).The Effect of Professional Skepticism on the Fraud Detection Skills of Internal Auditors (11 November 2004)., . Available at SSRN:  http://ssrn.com/abstract=617062  or doi:10.2139/ssrn.617062

Kranacher, M.,Riley, R., Wells, JT., (2011).Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination, 1st Edition.Association of Certified Fraud Examiners .
View Full Essay

Classical Causes of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88141669

43)

Foundation and Focus The foundation for the Classical Theory to crime focused less on the criminal and targeted more on securing a rational, fair system for controlling and putting punishments in order. Little concern was given to causes of criminal behaviors. Significant words/definitions related to this theory include:

Classicism - The Enlightenment view of crime that stresses free will and rationality and the corresponding rationality of the justice system....

Free will - According to the classical school, people possess reason. This means that they can calculate the course of action that is in their self-interest. This in turn gives them a degree of freedom....

Just deserts - A justification for punishment which insists that offenders should be punished only as severely as they deserve. It was a reaction against the unfair excesses of rehabilitation and the 'get tough' drive from conservatives during the 1970s." (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer &…… [Read More]

References

Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: Sociological Introduction. New York: Routledge.

Crime and punishment. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 14, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service:

 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-53431 .

Cybercrime - High Tech crime." (2006). JISC Legal Information Service. Retrieved 15 July 2006 at http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/cybercrime/cybercrime.htm.
View Full Essay

Punishment Compared With the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation

Words: 1115 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25225226

Punishment Compared With the Effectiveness of ehabilitation

For most people within the criminal justice system, as well as society at large, rehabilitation and punishment are two choices which must be taken, rather than taking their synonymous meanings. They give the impression to be like possible synonyms or ways to refer to same processes. Is punishment rehabilitation? Or alternatively, is rehabilitation punishment (McNeill, forthcoming)?

The supporters of rehabilitation view offending etched in people's experience of injustice and social expulsion, to bank on an individual's (criminal) responsibility (the punishment is based on that) as ill-conceived and to emphasize the role of the state to rectify the mess of the total crime produced. Punishment for certain rehabilitationists seems like a fancy term use. Meanwhile, the critics argue that there could be vengeful, appropriate and fair terms to pile up (McNeill, forthcoming).

For many rehabilitation professionals, those who happen to be compassionate about the…… [Read More]

References

Crow. I. (2001) The Treatment and Rehabilitation of Offenders. London: Sage.

Logan, C.H. And Gaes, G.G. (1993). Meta-Analysis And The Rehabilitation Of Punishment. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 10 No. 2.

McNeill, F. (forthcoming). When Punishment is Rehabilitation.Submitted to: G. Bruinsma and Weisburd, D. (eds.) (forthcoming) The Springer Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.Springer.

Raynor, P. And Robinson, G. (2009) Rehabilitation, Crime and Justice.Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
View Full Essay

Broken Window Policy

Words: 2447 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6024760

Broken Window Theory

The "broken windows" theory of crime prevention and control is perhaps one of the most widely discussed and least understood law enforcement paradigms, due to the relative simplicity of the theory and the ostensibly dramatic reductions in crime offered by the first studies of cities in which a "broken windows" policy was implemented. The policy was first proposed in the early 1980s, but it was not until the 1990s, when New York adopted a broken windows policy and saw a drop in crime rates, that the theory became widely popularized. However, subsequent analysis of these drops in crime as well as other detrimental effects of a broken windows policy helps to reveal that the gains initially promised by the results in New York and other cities is not indicative of a broken windows policy in general, and in fact, many of these reductions in crime may be…… [Read More]

References

Distler, M. (2011). Less debate, more analysis: a meta analysis of literature on broken windows policing. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

EDITORIAL: 'broken windows' and crime (2007). . United States, Washington: McClatchy

Tribune Information Services.

Edwards, S. (2009, May 20). Violent crime on rise in manhattan; fewer tickets issued. National Post, pp. A.24.
View Full Essay

Criminology the Beginnings of Criminology

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26108099



VI. DURKHEIM'S ANOMIE

Another theory in criminology is known as 'Durkheim's Anomie' which was conceived by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist who first introduced the anomie in the work entitled: "The Division of Labor in Society" in which the anomie was utilized in provides a description of a "condition of deregulation that was occurring in society." (Criminological Theory, 2001) This anomie was used to describe how that the mores' of behavior in society was unclear and due to this breakdown in a code of proper social behavior resulting was the 'anomie' or the failure to know what to expect between individuals. It was posited by Durkheim that: "...societies evolved form a simple, nonspecialized form, called 'mechanical' toward a highly complex, specialized form, called 'organic. In the former society people behave and think alike and more or less perform the same work tasks and have the same group-oriented goals. When societies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Demelo, Diane (2008) Criminological Theory. Online available at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/Diane_Demelo/diane.pdf 

Perkins, Douglas D.; Hughey, Joseph and Speer, Paul W. (2002) Community Psychology Perspectives on Social Capital Theory and Community Practice. Journal of the Community Development Society. Vol. 33 No. 1. Online available at http://www.people.vanderbilt.edu/~douglas.d.perkins/JCDS.02.pdf

Cowling Mark (2006) Postmodern Policies? The Erratic Interventions of Constitutive Criminology. Internet Journal of Criminology. 2006. Online available at  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Cowling%20-%20Postmodern%20Policies.pdf 

Aim of Criminology
View Full Essay

Analyzing Critical Criminology

Words: 2256 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14505045

Conflict Theory-The Relationship between Sociology and Criminology

Theorists, on, social conflict propose that crime, in general, is triggered by conflict in the class system, as well as, laws that have been shaped by individuals and groups in power to safeguard their interests and rights. All acts of crime have political nuances, and Quinney refers to this as crime's social reality. Research attempts to confirm the conflict method; on the contrary, have not generated significant results (Seigel, 2000). Moreover, sociologists ponder over the social patterns that exist among social classes and the complications that arise from conflict between such social classes. They try to establish the relationship between deviant behavior and social class. These are some of the considerations and ponderings of sociologists when examining the Social conflict theory. The theory explores issues to do with inequality on societal settings. The theory states that the laws and norms adopted by society…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Social Bonding Theory

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14253591

Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory

The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
 

Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory

Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.

The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Gang Prevention Program Gangs Contain

Words: 5590 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 76787344



George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.

Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs

Suppression techniques may be one of the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009

from  http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx  ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from  http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx 

ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.

Retrieved November 10, 2009 from  http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
View Full Essay

Cop in the Hood

Words: 1664 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16846736

Cop in the Hood

In CIH Moskos describes aspects of his career as a young rookie. Moskos is a big city police officer who has served in areas with high crime and drugs in altimore, Maryland. ecause of this Moskos describes a model of crime causation and specifically that lazy, ignorant poor people cause crime and perpetuate poverty because they refuse to work. The futility of using rapid response to 911 calls as a measure of the quality of service, crime prevention, officer performance and departmental performance and the highly pragmatic view from the streets that patrol officers manifest and show in their actions and their accounts for why they acted as they did, the contrast between what was taught at the academy and what is actually done on the streets, the arbitrary nature of arrests, especially drug arrests in high crime areas of altimore as well as the context-based…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Moskos, Cop in the Hood. (CIH) Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.

Patillo, Mary E. (1998) Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood. Social Forces Vol. 76 No. 3

Venkatesh, SA. (1997) The Social Organization of Street Gang Activity in an Urban Ghetto. The American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 103 No.1
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Theories Drift Theory Suggests That

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82978264

Criminal Justice Theories

Drift theory suggests that people drift from one extreme to another during the course of their lifetimes. When applied in the context of criminal justice, it reflects the idea that people drift between conventional and criminal behaviors. After a crime is committed, the individual may balance that criminality by drifting back towards conventional behavior. In this way, criminality is partly chosen, but also partly determined, because the willingness to commit a crime comes with preparation and desperation. Preparation does not imply that the person has actively prepared to engage in criminal behavior but that the person has placed himself in a position where it is possible to commit a crime. Fatalism contributes to drift, with people being more likely to commit crimes when they feel as if their options have been limited and that they lack control. Furthermore, with drift comes an underlying sense of injustice, so…… [Read More]

References

Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:

 http://www.uwec.edu/patchinj/crmj301/theorysummaries.pdf 

See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'

Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
View Full Essay

Sociological Psychological and Biological Theories of Criminals

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67400170

biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.

Biological explanations of criminal behavior

Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.

Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."

Another biological crime theory comes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crossman, A. (2011). Biological Explanations of Deviant Behavior. About.com.

Retrieved November 21, 2015, from  http://sociology.about.com .

Jrank. (2010). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories -- Labeling Theory / Social Learning.

Theory. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from  http://law.jrank.org .
View Full Essay

Analyzing Week One Journal

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20651499

deterrence perceptions had their biggest influence on the participants that were criminally prone. I think the research arrived at these results because the risk of being caught entail punishments (social and legal) that might come along are some of the aspects that deter criminal-prone individuals from taking part in criminal behaviors. Individuals will always take into consideration the benefits and accruals that they might incur along with the risks of being caught in the course of the criminal act (Wright et al., 2004). The terms associated with crime and criminology employed in this article are deterrence theory and criminal propensity. Basically, deterrence theory can be elucidated as a key element of classical and rational choice theories. In particular, this theory asserts that there is the capacity of controlling crime by employing punishments that mix suitable extents of conviction, harshness, and swiftness. On the other hand, I can define criminal propensity…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), 319-361.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Groff, E. R., Weisburd, D., & Yang, S. M. (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local "micro" level? a longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,26(1), 7-32.

Nagin, D. S. (2013). Deterrence in the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice, 42(1), 199-263.
View Full Essay

Analyzing Week One Journal

Words: 1383 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97360463

deterrence perceptions had their biggest influence on the participants that were criminally prone. I think the research arrived at these results because the risk of being caught entail punishments (social and legal) that might come along are some of the aspects that deter criminal-prone individuals from taking part in criminal behaviors. Individuals will always take into consideration the benefits and accruals that they might incur along with the risks of being caught in the course of the criminal act (Wright et al., 2004). The terms associated with crime and criminology employed in this article are deterrence theory and criminal propensity. Basically, deterrence theory can be elucidated as a key element of classical and rational choice theories. In particular, this theory asserts that there is the capacity of controlling crime by employing punishments that mix suitable extents of conviction, harshness, and swiftness. On the other hand, I can define criminal propensity…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), 319-361.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Groff, E. R., Weisburd, D., & Yang, S. M. (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local "micro" level? a longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,26(1), 7-32.

Nagin, D. S. (2013). Deterrence in the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice, 42(1), 199-263.
View Full Essay

Analyzing Criminology Classical Theory

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20824315

Criminology

Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.

eek 2 Discussion

Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boston University Metropolitan College. Reintegrative Shaming & Restorative Justice, 2016. Web. Retrieved:  https://learn.bu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1942479-dt-content-rid-6162758_1/courses/14sprgmetcj602_ol/week06/metcj602_W06L01T04_Reintegrative.html 

Criminal Justice. Similarities and Differences Between Social Control Theories and Other Major Theories of Crime. Social Control Theory, 2016. Web. Retrieved  http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/criminology/theories/social-control-theory/7/ 

Mongold, Jennifer L., and Bradley D. Edwards. "Reintegrative Shaming: Theory into Practice." Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology 6.3 (2014): 205.

Podgor, Ellen S. "The challenge of white collar sentencing." The Journal of criminal law and criminology (2007): 731-759.
View Full Essay

Juvenile Diversion in the Juvenile

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38269181

The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of 2000, approved by the California Board of Corrections. This was a multi-year evaluation research project and was divided into five distinct areas to evaluate programs approved by the Board of Corrections, these being the Community-Based Probation Diversion, Youth Accountability Teams, the Gang Prevention-Project BIDGE, and the Family Violence Prevention Program-P.A.C.T., Youth Accountability Boards, and Youth Courts. The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per 100,000; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply. Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program (iverside…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, J.E. (1979, April 6). "The Impact of Juvenile Diversion: An Assessment Using Multiple Archival Perspectives."

Retrieved May 24, 2007 at  http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED177411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED177411 .

Nadell-Hayes, S. & Macallair, D. (1995) Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the Legislature. Retrieved May 24, 2007 at  http://www.cjcj.org/pdf/restructuring.pdf .

Riverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (a.B. 1913) Projects (2007). Retrieved May 25, 2007 at  http://ccjr.csusb.edu/ProgEvalRiversideProjects.htm .
View Full Essay

Private Security in Project One

Words: 1714 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93055016

These devices can help to ensure customer violence is limited. Additionally, by investing in interpersonal training and dispute resolution courses for employees, companies can help to control coworker violence. Furthermore, the use of EAP (Employee Assistance Programs) for frustrated workers can help to provide some outlet for frustrations, further eliminating the possible problems (Hagan, 2004). Through polite, direct, proper communication, most acts of interpersonal workplace violence can be avoided.

eferences

ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. etrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website: http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm.

Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] etrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html

Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy eport. etrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html.

Collins, P.A., icks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Friedman.…… [Read More]

References

ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website:  http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm .

Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] Retrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html

Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy Report. Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at  http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html .

Collins, P.A., Ricks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
View Full Essay

UCR vs NIBRS

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60193597

UC vs NIBS

Data gathering in criminal justice research

Qualitative research strategies for gathering information are the most commonly used in a criminal justice setting. They include focus groups, groups of people, individual case studies, and interviews. Qualitative research concentrates on real human life experience in a social setting. This research strategy stresses on comprehending the significance connected to events in criminal justice. The perception of study subjects in a natural social environment is basic to qualitative examination. In criminal justice, qualitative examination strategies can give the criminal justice analyst with an improved comprehension of how and why crimes happen in a social setting (Nolan, Haas & Napier, 2011).

The UC and NIBS

NIBS is a crime-reporting framework based on an incident. It aims to collect information on individual crimes while making arrests within a single crime occurrence. A notable difference between UC and BIBS systems is the magnitude in…… [Read More]

References

Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519

Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
View Full Essay

Legal Definitions Miranda Rule -- Prohibits the

Words: 2396 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86148299

Legal Definitions

Miranda Rule -- Prohibits the introduction of any testimonial evidence elicited from criminal suspects while under arrest or in police custody unless police first advise them of their constitutional rights to remain silent, refuse to answer questions, and to be represented by an attorney before beginning any custodial interrogation. I have heard this term used frequently in television crime programs.

Prosecutor -- Is an attorney employed by the state whose responsibility it is to file criminal charges against individuals arrested by police and charge with crimes; typically, prosecutors represent the state at the criminal trial. The context in which I am most familiar with prosecutors is in their portrayal in television programs about criminal justice and news reports about criminal trials.

Pretrial Release Program -- Is a system of releasing criminal defendants from custody until their trials to reduce jail overcrowding; in principle, bond is one form of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Classics of Criminology Edited by Joseph Jacoby

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95234155

Classics of Criminology edited by Joseph Jacoby is a collection of documents and essays by expert criminologists. Rather than present the different theories and histories of crime and the formulation of law, Jacoby includes the original writings by the men and women who created them. For example, instead of a summarized account of Jeremy Bentham's "An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation," the entirety of that text is presented in the book. The thesis of the compilation is that "if students read only about and not in criminology, their experience is but secondhand, and their conclusions are determined by textbook authors" (Jacoby 2004). This is why Jacoby does not include his own positions on the essays in the book. He wishes for every reader to view the original documents and formulate their own opinions about what they have read and now understand. There were several interesting and education…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bentham, Jeremy (1781). "An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation" Classics

of Criminology. Ed. Joseph Jacoby. 3rd. Waveland.

Durkheim, Emile (1895). "The Normal and the Pathological." Classics of Criminology. Ed.

Joseph Jacoby. 3rd. Waveland.
View Full Essay

Anomie A Sense of Alienation

Words: 2332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7932852

The popular media's negative coverage of the insanity defense in contested cases when a defendant claims not to have the rational capacity to commit a crime or has a diminished capacity to conceptualize a criminal intent has caused the public to dismiss forensic psychiatry as providing rationalizations or excuses for bad behavior, rather than possessing a real scientific method. The use of the insanity defense is clearly subject to sociological and societal factors, such as the statistically greater willingness to believe a man who kills his child is competent vs. A woman. However, the authors contend that this ignores the many cases where the defense and the prosecution both agree that the criminal in question was not competent and was operating upon a different schema of 'reality' that affected his or her ability to judge circumstances in the same fashion as a sane person. (It might be argued, in the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Radical Criminology

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33058915

Criminology

adical Criminology

The supposed reasons for crime vary as much as crime itself. Even though an individual may have a very personal reason for committing a criminal act, there are underlying causes which get more to the point of crime. At least this is the assertion of most criminologists. adical criminology posits that disparities in society are the main reasons for crime (Livesy, 2005). Why radical criminologists tend to believe that this is the truth and what remedies they have are the focuses of this paper.

adical criminology has its roots in the Marxist tradition (Livesy, 2005) which basically says that there are two distinct parts to any society. The bourgeoisie is the ruling, capitalist class. The proletariat is the underclass which is controlled by the desires of the capitalists. Livesy (2005) states that;

"all social institutions (for example, work, family, education, legal systems and so forth) and specific…… [Read More]

References

Groves, W.B., & Sampson, R.J. (1987). Traditional contributions to radical criminology. Journal of Research in Crime Delinquency, 24(3), 181-214.

Livesy, C. (2005). Radical criminology: Theoretical origins. Retrieved from  http://www.sociology.org.uk/devtrc3.pdf
View Full Essay

Analysis of Murderers Alex and Derek King

Words: 1622 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33619072

Criminology

Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)

Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control

One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Criminal Justice and Criminology the

Words: 5114 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 18724377

Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.

However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…… [Read More]

References

Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.

Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.

Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.

Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
View Full Essay

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Words: 7415 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92508545

Women in Prison

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Problems in corrections:

Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system

The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…… [Read More]

References

Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.

Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,

D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.

Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
View Full Essay

Criminal Procedure Law

Words: 3539 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 42378024

Criminal Procedure Law

This document outlines the proposed criminal justice system. Its aim is to prevent and control crime and criminal acts through punitive measures and penalties to those who violate the set laws. The paper is a suggested criminal justice system for a national jurisdiction, at the federal level. The jurisdiction has a population of about one million people who are equally dispersed in the urban cities and rural areas of the nation. The social and economic status of the residents in this jurisdiction ranges from the very poor to the very rich. The country has its fair share of illegal immigrants and the criminal acts perpetrated in the country do compare throughout all the regions of the country.

Murder/Manslaughter

Murder

Murder is the termination of the life of a human being. The life of a human being starts at the point of conception. Murder is an act committed…… [Read More]

Works cited

Adlerstein, Jo Anne C. "Felony-Murder in the New Criminal Codes." Am. J. Crim. L. 4 (1975): 249. Web.

Bubany, Charles P. "Texas Penal Code of 1974, The." Sw. LJ 28 (1974): 292. Web.

HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE, § CHAPTER 481-Sec. 481.001.-Sec. 481.354. (2013). Web.

Miller, Emily L. "(Wo) manslaughter: Voluntary Manslaughter, Gender, and the Model Penal Code." Emory LJ 50 (2001): 665. Web.
View Full Essay

Ethics in Law Enforcement

Words: 2406 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41080264

Ethics in Law Enforcement

Ethics are what almost anyone would define as a person's determination between what is good or bad, or more accurately what is right or wrong. Although many of these attitudes can be a product of parenting or other factors in one's maturing environment, ethical decisions could also be a product of environmental factors that are outside of the control of individuals. It is difficult to determine where a person's ethical code, but some professions demand an ethic that is not needed elsewhere.

One such profession is law enforcement. Officers of the law are called upon to "stand in "harm's way" not so much against enemies with bullets, but against enemies skilled in every form of trickery, deceit, feigned ignorance, and deception" (Stevens, 2005). Because of the environment that they must exist in, police officers are constantly deciding whether to make the right decision or take the…… [Read More]

References

Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law enforcement ethics: The continuum of compromise. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from  http://emotionalsurvival.com/law_enforcement_ethics.htm 

Russell, B. (1910). Determinism and morals. From The Elements of Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2010 from http://fair-use.org/bertrand-russell/the-elements-of- ethics/section-iv

Sanford, DH (2010). Indeterminism: Causation and conditionals, ethics and history of philosophy, primer on determinism. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from  http://science.jrank.org/pages/22033/indeterminism.html#ixzz16cFBtAvu 

Stevens, M. (2005). Police deviance and ethics. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/205/205lect11.htm
View Full Essay

Causality Is a Legal Term

Words: 1176 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 82210646

X continues to drive and has an accident. Following the accident, a test shows that the seizures are caused from a medical condition. In this case, X is negligent because they were unaware of the medical condition and had not been warned to drive. X knew, though, that something was wrong and should have sought treatment, but based on income levels was not aware of the seriousness of the risky behavior.

Part 2- C- X knows they suffer from seizures, has been warned by a doctor that they should not drive, yet contues to drive and causes an accident in which pedestrians are killed. While X did not willfully set out to kill these pedestrians, they were reckless because they were aware of and disregarding medical and personal knowledge that they had a condition that could cause harm to others. A reasonable person would have not driven, not put the…… [Read More]

SOURCES:

Kutz, C. (2007). Complicity:Ethics and Law for a Collective Age. New York: Cambridge

Lippman, M. (2009). Contemporary Criminal Law. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
View Full Essay

Need to Prove Negligence

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23457558

amberg v. Morgan

Case Summary

In terms of the Doctrine of espondent Superior, the employer of the sued doctor would be or could be liable for the actions or inactions of Dr. Morgan. In this case, the police agency would be the party that is liable. In this matter, Mr. amberg was struck by a car and his body was thrown a couple dozen feet. The driver of the car that struck amberg is the person who called police. Upon showing up, there was only one of blood on the decedent but there was no sign of any fractures or other issues. Indeed, he deemed the man to simply being intoxicated. After the examination concluded, amberg was put in a cell and was basically ignored. He acted very much like a drunk would act. However, as it turns out he had pressure/bleeding in his brain and it eventually killed him.…… [Read More]

References

CaseText. (2015). Casetext.com. Retrieved 13 June 2015, from  https://casetext.com/case/ramberg-v-morgan
View Full Essay

Community Oriented Policing vs Problem

Words: 7854 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7099404

(1990) Municipal Government Involvement in Crime Prevention in Canada. This work provides insight into the way that municipal government interacts with the police in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. (Hastings, 1990, p. 108)

The idea of municipal government interaction in crime prevention is shown to have been spurred on in Canada by "....the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone." (Hastings, 1990, p. 108) This again attests to the prevailing theme in the literature that there is a general consensus that the police force faces problems that are complex and which require the interaction and the assistance of other local community and municipal structures.

Hastings emphasizes this sense of interaction in the field of community policing and particularly…… [Read More]

References

About Community Policing. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at  http://www.communitypolicing.org/about2.html 

BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Comprehensive Communities Program: A Unique Way To Reduce Crime and Enhance Public Safety. (2000) Retrieved 18 August, 2006, at  http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/bja/fs000267.txt 

COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://safestate.org/index.cfm?navID=7

Community-Oriented Policing: Blessing Or Curse? Retrieved15 August, 2006, from, http://www.wsurcpi.org/resources/citizen_invol/Community-Oriented%20Policing%20Blessing%20or%20Curse.htm
View Full Essay

Person as a Born Criminal

Words: 1982 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98407926

As much as 91% of these crimes result in murders. There are some other criminals who are classified as insane criminals and they can be thought to include kleptomaniacs, nymphomaniacs, habitual drunkards and pederasts. These people keep committing the crimes as they are unable to distinguish right from wrong, and it is time that these people are considered to be insane and not considered responsible for their action. But the biggest group of criminals is of four types and the first among them are the non-criminals. They are persons who are forced to kill in self-defense and though they have broken the law, they had no intention of breaking the law, but the circumstances forced them to break the law.

The second group is the epileptic persons who commit crimes by circumstances and they are often known to be very hesitant in their approach to committing crimes. There are also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, William. L; Jackson, Candice. E. (April, 2004) "Washington's Biggest Crime

Problem" Retrieved from  http://www.reason.com/0404/fe.wa.washingtons.shtml  Accessed on 10 July, 2005

"Biological, Physiological and Bio-Social Theories" Retrieved from  http://www.cas.usf.edu/criminology/po3610c.html  Accessed on 10 July, 2005

"Born criminal" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Born_criminal  Accessed on 10 July, 2005
View Full Essay

Criminology Critique the Central Aim

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68055632

The environment extends beyond the family to friends and neighborhood. Neutrality has no effect on development of criminal behavior.

Concept

In order to understand the authors reasoning it is important to understand the concepts of behavior development, i.e. how observation of a behavior leads to development of that behavior. It is also important to understand the dynamics in various groups to understand why behaviors may be imitated from some sources and not others.

Assumptions

The author is working on the assumption that there are no other factors which develop criminal behavior. For example the assumption is that if criminal behavior develops then the criminal will undertake criminal activity at any possible opportunity. The theory does not explain why some children grow up in an environment which promotes crime and yet does not develop these behaviors and vice-versa.

Implications

If the reasoning of the author were to be accepted it has…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Theory and Its Evaluation

Words: 1208 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75926065

Theoretical Evaluation

Theory Evaluation

The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…… [Read More]

References

Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
View Full Essay

Predatory Violations The Researchers Believe

Words: 1455 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68388210

One should understand that there are some basic points that are commonplace in regards to pleasure and individuals seeking that pleasure.

More clarity on the driving forces behind the need or want for pleasure is missing. Even though the writing expresses the various facets behind what comes together to make us want to look for pleasure, there is very little to say what makes one need pleasure, that could help to give more credibility to the writing.

If we are to accept the writers reasoning we will be able to infer that pleasure has many facets and that it is in fact possible to have too much pleasure to the point that it causes one pain. This can help a person realize that everything pleasurable may be okay as long as moderation is used. However, it is only okay if it does not cause harm to anyone else or at…… [Read More]

References

Beccaria, C. (). Of Crimes and Punishments. In (Ed.), the Social Response to Crime (pp. pp.352-360).:.

Bentham, J. (). An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. In (Ed.), Theories of Causation of Crime (pp. pp.105-108).:.

Cohen, L.E., & Felson, M. (). Social Change and Crime: A Routine Activity Approach. In (Ed.), the Classic Descriptions of Crime (pp.52-104).:.
View Full Essay

Death Penalty One Is Most Deterred by

Words: 3141 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87606053

Death Penalty

One is most deterred by what one fears most. From which it follows that whatever statistics fail, or do not fail, to show, the death penalty is likely to be more deterrent than any other.

FACTS:

If it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to prove statistically, and just as hard to disprove, that the death penalty deters more from capital crimes than available alternative punishments do (such as life imprisonment), why do so many people believe so firmly that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent?

Some are persuaded by irrelevant arguments. They insist that the death penalty at least makes sure that the person who suffered it will not commit other crimes. True. Yet this confuses incapacitation with a specific way to bring it about: death. Death is the surest way to bring about the most total incapacitation, and it is irrevocable. ut does incapacitation need to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Bedau, Hugo and Radelet, Michael., Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases, 40 Stan. L. Rev. 21., 1987.

2. Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153. 1976.

3. Louis Pojman, The Death Penalty: For and Against, Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

4. Nathanson, Stephen., An Eye for an Eye, 2d ed., Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield, 2001
View Full Essay

Santos Reyes Is Sentenced to

Words: 1612 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 62453996

The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law has led to various unusual circumstances that have attracted national attention, especially those cases that send third-time offenders to prison for 25 years or more for simple, non-violent, victimless crimes, such as in the case of Santos Reyes in 1998. Despite the controversy and negative consequences, the Supreme Court upheld the Three Strikes Law, saying that it stopped short of constituting "cruel and unusual punishment."

The Three Strikes Law had the intention of limiting recidivism. However, numerous studies suggest that declines in recidivism have been negligible. This is another unintended consequence of the Three Strikes Law; the general failure to curb third offenses. Violent crimes have dropped in urban areas in California, but those declines are in line with declines in…… [Read More]

PA: Mason Crest Publishers.

Tyler, T. (1997). Three Strikes and You're Out, but Why? The Psychology of Public Support

for Rule Breakers. Law & Society Review, vol. 31, 2, pp. 23-246.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice System in Two Countries

Words: 4897 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49687414

Criminal Justice System

Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.

Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:

Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from:  http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24 

BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf

Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.

Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Discuss the Ethical

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48966186

A researcher must limit the number of external and internal variables outside of the study variable that could affect the outcome of the study.

What are the disadvantages to the classic experiment?

The primary disadvantage of an experiment is that the controls imposed by a researcher to control for rival causation may create artificial conditions that alter the ability for the results of the study to be generalized to other populations. This is known as artificiality. Other disadvantages include difficulty in mimicking real-life situations in experimental situations, difficulty in retaining subjects, increased ethical considerations, researcher bias, higher risks to internal and external validity, and more difficult generalization of findings.

Differentiate between probability sampling and non-probability sampling.

Probability sampling refers to samples that permit estimation of the likelihood of each element of the population being selected in the sample. These include simple random samples, where each element has an equal likelihood…… [Read More]