Crime Control Essays (Examples)

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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565

Crime

On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]

References

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Crime as Schmalleger Explains the American Juvenile-Justice

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34971095

Crime

As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.

Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
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Crime & the Treatment of

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10798349



Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.

Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.

Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,

Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,

Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
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Crime and Violence

Words: 1708 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70633697

Crime and Violence: Cultural eliefs and iases

Religion and Stereotyping

Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).

Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, A. C. (2015). Race, Prison Discipline, and the Law. UC IRVINE LAW REVIEW, 759.

Barak, G. (2009). Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Ways of Seeing Difference. Second Annual Conference on RACE, GENDER and CLASS.

Blow, C. M. (2014). Crime, Bias and Statistics. Retrieved from The New York Times:  https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/08/opinion/charles-blow-crime-bias-and-statistics.html 

Becker, Gary S. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (1968): 169 -- 217.
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Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal

Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452

Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:  http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
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Controlling Organized Crime

Words: 1634 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99164481

Organized Crime Control

Controlling Organized Crime

The purpose of this paper is to research "Organized Crime" historically and what effects it has on society in the present time as well as implications for the future and then to examine what suggestions have been offered for asserting effective control over that which is termed "organized crime."

Organized crime can be defined as structured business framework that with no regard to moral, ethic or societal concerns or standards prospers from that which promises to prosper the individual and group within that network the most. Some examples of organized crime are the drug trafficking trade, illegal weapons and nuclear arms trade, slave trade, gambling rings, pornography rings among many other variations of the major crime categories.

Many of the Organized Crime networks are based on familial relations although there are networks defined by religion, government, country, political persuasion among other groups which characteristic…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

DeYoung, Karen (2001) "Alarm on Spreading Ecstasy; Illegal Pills Fly in from Europe, Eluding Standard Remedies for Smuggling: Washington Times Aug 2001 [Online] available at: http://wwwlhighbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCIS=IPI:32174317 & num=1& ctrlInfo=R

International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: "Testimony of Louise Shelley" American University Prof. & Dir. Transnational Organized Crime and Corruption [Online] available at; http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.a p-ct rlInfo=Round9a %3AProd%3ADOC%3APrint& DOCID=1P1:28418991& print=yes

Kaufman (1990) U.S. History 1990: Americas' Habit: "Drug Abuse, Drug Trafficking, & Organized Crime": Chapter VI Part 2: Interdiction U.S. History 1990: 9/1/1990; http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?D

Hagan, John (2001) "When Crime Pays: Capital, Competence and Criminal Success" Social Forces 2001 March [Online] available at: www.highbeam.com/library/search
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…… [Read More]

References

Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf

Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf

Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
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Crime Rates and Abandoned Buildings Is There

Words: 1399 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97455983

Crime ates and Abandoned Buildings

Is there a relationship between crime rates and abandoned buildings?

Theoretical background

A vast portion of research on crime and its relation with location is centered at either validating or refuting 'broken window theory'. The theory states that disorders such as graffiti, litter, and broken windows may encourage or cause increase in other disorders and petty crime. The theory by virtue of its title, research objectives, and conclusions does not merit our research question regarding relationship of abandoned building and crime rate. Most policing and preventive efforts for curtailing crime in the U.S. And elsewhere have also been based on broken window theory. Disorder does not imply that any serious crime will take place at a place and serious crimes are neither taking place at littered or disordered places. Policing activities are focused on securing the abandoned buildings and how far is that helped by…… [Read More]

References

Braga, A.A., & Bond, B.J. (2008). Policing crime and disorder hot spots: A randomized controlled trial. Criminology, 46(3), 577-607.

Harcourt, B.E., & Ludwig, J. (2006). Broken windows: New evidence from New York City and a five-city social experiment. The University of Chicago Law Review, 271-320.

Immergluck, D., & Smith, G. (2006). The impact of single-family mortgage foreclosures on neighborhood crime. Housing Studies, 21(6), 851-866.
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]

References

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Controlling Street Gang Activity in Canada the

Words: 2593 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57815604

Controlling Street Gang Activity in Canada

The number of street gangs in Canada has grown considerably. These gangs pose a threat to life as well as property in urban and suburban areas. The primary strategy adopted in Canada is the use of policing force to suppress the activities of street gangs. This paper discusses the policing strategy commonly used in Canada as well as other preventative and rehabilitative strategies used to control the rise of street gang activity in Canada.

Strategies Implemented in Canada

A number of programs to prevent and suppress street gang activity have been implemented in Canada. Some of these have been developed within Canada while a number of such programs are based on similar programs in the United States and have been adapted to the Canadian context. These programs have been successful in varying degrees and provide lessons for improvement. In Canada, the primary vehicle for…… [Read More]

References

Canada and the World. (2010). Street Gangs in Canada. Accessed on 20 October 2012 from http://www.canadaandtheworld.com/gangs.html.

Criminal Intelligence Services canada. (2010). Provincial and territorial overviews. Accessed on 20 October 2012 from http://www.cisc.gc.ca/annual_reports/annual_report_2006/provincial_territorial_overviews_2006_e.html.

Department of Justice. (2012). Criminal Code. Accessed on 20 October 2012 from  http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-46/FullText.html .

Jones, D., Roper, V., Stys, Y., & Wilson, C. (2004). Street gangs: A review of theory, interventions, and implications for corrections. Accessed on 20 October 2012 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r161/r161-eng.shtml#51.
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Controlling the Prison Population According

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78083676

S. pp). This is partly due to high recidivism because within three years of their release, two of every three prisoners are back behind bars (U.S. pp). Criminologists attribute the prison population growth to "get tough on crime" policies that have subjected hundreds of thousands of nonviolent drug and property offenders to long mandatory sentences (U.S. pp). Malcolm Young of the Sentencing Project, says, "e have to be concerned about an overloaded system which sentences many offenders quickly and is not dong a good job of sorting out people who should be incarcerated from people for whom other responses would produce better, less expensive results" (U.S. pp).

The rise in the prison population varies by state, yet since 1998, twelve states experienced stable or declining incarceration rates but crime rates in those states declined at the same rates as in the other thirty-eight (U.S. pp).

Young says, "e're working under…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Incarcerated America. April 2003. Accessed from the Human Rights Watch web site on May 04, 2005. http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/usa/incarceration/

Mandatory Sentencing Laws Fuel Prison Overcrowding Crisis, Fill Prisons With Non-Violent Substance Abusers. Accessed from the Families Against Mandatory Minimums web site on May 05, 2005. http://famm.org/si_sbs_arizona_press_release_5_11_04.htm

McDonough, Siobhan. Crime rate down, but prison population on the rise.

Houston Chronicle. April 25, 2005. Accessed from the Houston Chronicle web site on May 05, 2005. http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/nation/3151865
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Crime Detection and Prevention it Is an

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49799329

Crime Detection and Prevention

It is an unfortunate fact of modern society that crime and criminal activity are part of our world today. This is particularly the case in situations that make an easy target for criminals. ape and robbery, for example, tend to be encouraged in environments that appear to be easy targets. All-night convenience stores, for example, may appear to be easy targets because they have low security features and often have only one employee per shift. The specific crime under discussion in this case is therefore the night-time robbery of all-night convenience stores.

When considering the factors in the Problem Analysis Chart offered by Clarke and Eck (p. 29), the environment provides a significant incentive for criminal activity. A convenience store at a remote location, for example, might appear to be an "easy" target for robbery. The problem analysis triangle, or crime trianble, may therefore offer valuable…… [Read More]

References

Center for Problem Oriented Policing. (n.d.). Twenty Five Techniques of Situational Prevention. Retrieved from:  http://www.popcenter.org/library/25%20techniques%20grid.pdf 

Clarke, R.V. And Eck, J.E. (n.d.) Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from:  http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/60steps.pdf 

Crime in America.net (2011, Feb 22). Top 10 Factors Contributing to Violent Crime. Retrieved from:  http://www.crimeinamerica.net/2011/02/22/top-10-factors-contributing-to-violent-crime/
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Crime and Corrections Historically Crime Has Been

Words: 1025 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50776325

Crime and Corrections

Historically crime has been a concern for the public, and by extension policy makers because of the ways in which it can change and shape society. Criminal activity has the potential to influence social and economic environments within a society thus it is critical to identify measures that reduce outcomes of crime and support the reintegration of offenders into society. Consequently, crime and corrections have become big business in the United States (Smith). The money from the public purse that is expended to deal with crime is increasing in all of the states. More money is being moved from other areas of the budget to address the challenge of crime and criminal behavior. This increase in expenditure occurs in multiple areas of the criminal justice system and in spite of cost control measures. Additionally, there are fewer prisoners in within the system. This reduction in prisoners has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calvo-Armengoi Antoni and Zenou Yves Social Networks and Crime Decisions: The Role of Social Structure in Facilitating Delinquent Behavior International Economic Review

Vol. 45, No. 3 (2004):939-958.

Minton Todd D. Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010 - Statistical Tables U.S. Department of Justice

Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011) Web.
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Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus

Words: 1861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68215282

Crime

In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.

When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…… [Read More]

References

Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.

GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from:  http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp 

Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
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Crime and Gender as Steffensmeier

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12940363

"Greater freedom has increased female participation in the public sphere," which would expose greater numbers of women to criminal behaviors and the opportunities to commit crimes (Steffensmeier & Allan1996, p. 469). Combined with social control theory, opportunity theory offers a plausible explanation for the gender gap in criminal behavior. Social control theory and opportunity theory share in common the basic assumption that deviance is a natural human instinct; that left to their own devices both men and women are predisposed to crime. Criminal behavior is always an option, according to social control theory and opportunity theory. The two sociological theories suggest that deterrents to committing crime, such as a lack of opportunity or strong social bonds, determine patterns of criminal behavior. Moreover, social control theory and opportunity theory emphasize sociological variables at the expense of psychological or personality-based ones.

The opportunity theories such as theories of routine activities present deviance…… [Read More]

References

Chapple, C.L., McQuillan, J.A., & Berdahl, T.A. (2004). Gender, social bonds, and delinquency: a comparison of boys' and girls' models. Social Science Research 34(2005): 357-383.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (2005). Crime in the United States: Ten-Year Arrest Trends. Table 33. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_33.html

Smith, D.A. & Paternoster, R. (1987). The gender gap in theories of deviance: Issues and evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 24(2): 140-172.

Steffensmeier, D. & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology. 22: 459-487.
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Crime in Urban Cities Is at Least

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87267949

Crime in urban cities is at least 1.5 times higher than suburban or rural areas. Many factors account for this difference including higher poverty, more densely populated centers, presence of poor minorities, low education, limited resources etc. The paper studies crime in urban cities from the perspective of causes and impact so explain why higher urbanization translates into higher crime rate.

Crime in urban cities

Crime in urban cities of the United States continues to be a major problem for the society. The effect of violent crime against persons and property on general welfare is unmistakable since it takes a serious toll on mental, physical and emotional health of people while it places a huge burden on society's resources and finances. It is important to mention that while crime has a profound impact on welfare of people; it also costs the country almost 0.7% of GDP in variety of ways…… [Read More]

References

GLEASER, EDWARD L. And SACERDOTE, BRUCE. (1996) Why is there more crime in cities? NBER Working Paper # 5430, January.

MASIH, ABUL M.M. And MAS-H RUMI. (1996) Temporal causality and the dynamics of different categories of crime and their socioeconomic determinants: evidence from Australia, Applied Economics, 28, 1093-1104.

Winters, Clyde A. "Learning Disabilities, Crime Delinquency, and Special Education Placement." Adolescence 32.126 (1997): 451.
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Crime and Punishment Acutely Aware of and

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5528623

Crime and Punishment

Acutely aware of and deeply concerned about Russia's social, political, and economic problems, Fedor Dostoevsky infused his literature with realism and philosophical commentary. Crime and Punishment, besides being a superbly crafted novel, captures the economic despair that characterized life in Russia before the revolution. Dosteovsky's novel serves as a historical marker that delineates the social, political, and economic motivators for the Russian Revolution. Through the minds of the novel's main characters, modern readers perceive the various changes that swept through Russian society at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. In Crime and Punishment, Dostoevsky focuses primarily on the economic despair that caused widespread social and psychological problems in pre-Revolutionary Russia. However, the author denounces radicalism as a viable solution to social and economic woes. Instead, Dostoevsky proposes humanitarian ideals such as love, compassion, and friendship, as the only real means to creating…… [Read More]

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Control Strategy the Primary Objective

Words: 365 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50938178

One is to stem the tide of bad behavior. A clear code of conduct will set forth the rules; the rules will be enforced by a clear code of punishment. It is important in a bureaucratic control system to establish expectations of the workers, and then have a clear-cut means by which to assess their performance against those expectations. Failure and deviations are therefore easily defined and the actions to address these behaviors easily prescribed. This will allow me as chief to gain control of the department. It will provide me with recourse to eliminate problem behaviors and implement the structures needed to manage staff behavior. The problems of old stemmed from the inability to manage staff behavior. By establishing a strong hierarchy, I will be able to establish firm control mechanisms that will be used to control behavior.

orks Cited

Barnat, Ryszard. (2005). Bureaucratic Control. Strategic Control. Retrieved December…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnat, Ryszard. (2005). Bureaucratic Control. Strategic Control. Retrieved December 1, 2008 at  http://www.strategic-control.24xls.com/en111 

Nieminen, Anu & Lehtonen, Mikko. (2008). Organizational control in programme teams: an empirical study in change programme context. International Journal of Project Management Vol 26, No. 1 pp.63-72.
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Controlling TV Programmes The Debate on Whether

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79365455

Controlling TV Programmes:

The debate on whether or not to adopt stricter means of controlling television programmes arises from the impact of certain programmes on the viewers. This debate also emanates from the cultural and ethical concerns raised by various people regarding the suitability of certain television programmes. According to research on television, it has emerged that programme-makers and broadcasters sometime fail to draw the line when showing certain programmes. As a result, certain sections of the public has lost their degree of trust in television programming arguing that there should be stricter measures to control television programmes while others differ with them.

Arguments Supporting Stricter Control of TV Programmes:

The increased loss of trust and ethical concerns regarding television programming has resulted in various people supporting the adoption of stricter mechanisms of controlling TV programs. The proponents of such measures point at the following reasons & #8230;

Negative Impact…… [Read More]

References:

Hayes, D.A. (n.d.). The Children's Hour Revisited: The Children's Television Act of 1990.

Retrieved from Indiana University website: http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v46/no2/hayes.html

Kiisweko, O. (2011, August 19). The Dilemma of Children Hooked Onto TV. Retrieved August

31, 2011, from http://dailynews.co.tz/feature/?n=22940&cat=feature
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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]

References

Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
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Crime Arm New York to

Words: 690 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54089909



New York City has some of the toughest gun laws in the country. And it's essentially impossible for a normal, law-abiding citizen to acquire a concealed handgun permit. The result is that the majority of New Yorkers are defenseless against the criminals who wish to prey on them. As pointed out by the NY Times article, the SQF program does little to stop criminals, but does a great deal to strip away a New Yorker's fundamental right of self-defense. This is counterintuitive to public safety. hile crime prevention is an important aspect of police work, the reality is the majority of the time law enforcement arrives after a crime has been committed.

The answer then is to arm New York. Arm the public. Restore their fundamental right of self-defense. There's an old saying, "An armed society is a polite society," and this rings true all across the country (except for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blannelberry, S.H. (2011). Ron Paul on Guns. Guns.com. Retrieved from http://www.guns.com/ron-paul-on-guns.html

McKnight, G.D. (1998). The Last Crusade: Martin Luther King, Jr., the FBI and the Poor People's Campaign. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Rivera, R., Baker, a. & Roberts, J. (2010, July 6). A Few Blocks, 4 Years, 52,000

Police Stop. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/12/nyregion/12frisk.html?_r=1
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Control of Proliferation of Weapons

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85430327

If there are people, of whatever nationality, who will be found guilty of creating and scattering MD, will be subjected to penalties and/or punishment which will be imposed by the overall leader o the UN itself. More so, countries which will be proven allowing the research and development and eventual use of MD should also be asked to answer from the call of the UN.

The entire populace can also share their efforts to controlling the use of any form of MD, thereby preventing any possibility of massive deaths or environment destruction. People must voice out their concern. The people should be activist enough in letting their leaders know how they want the use of MD to be abolished. The media can play a detrimental role in airing and showing how the people, across all nations, are against any form of MD. Newspapers, magazines, TV programs, radio stations, are good…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, Robin, 2005. A step in the right direction: the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Ploughshares Monitor

Everett, R 2004. Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction - Radiological, Chemical and Biological. Langford Chichester: John Wiley & Sons

Kalyadin, Alexander 2003. A strategy for active Non-Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Publication: Military Thought
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Reducing Crime

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43517338

educing Crime:

From the beginning of the 19th Century, the criminal justice system has basically revolved between two models that are geared towards reducing crime through distinct approaches. As part of their different approach, the crime control and due process models have separated the individuals that work in the criminal justice system. The crime justice structure has used more of crime control model than the due process model which has enabled the Supreme Court to rule on a number of court cases that extends the rights of culprits. These court cases include absolute defense against search and arrest as well as providing attorneys to unlawful defendants at the cost of state. It was noted that after a certain period of time, the rate of crime started to increase, the economy failed and people lost confidence with the government.

The purpose of the due process model was to maximize on powers…… [Read More]

References:

Delaney, K. (2009, December 7). Due Process vs. Crime Control. Retrieved August 21,

2012, from http://voices.yahoo.com/due-process-versus-crime-control-5003656.html

"Which Model? Crime Control or Due Process." (n.d.). Cliffs Notes. Retrieved August 21, 2012,

from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Which-Model-Crime-Control-or-Due-Process.topicArticleId-10065,articleId-9911.html
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Organized Crime Groups Operating in

Words: 979 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62163337

The Italian mafia as it still works in Italy is extremely powerful (Summerfield,2005). As late as in the 1990's they were very active in the killing of law enforcement officers with terroristic bombing techniques. The Italian mafia is noted to have found its way into the United States in the early 1900's when the banned IOC figures came to the country illegally (Porter & Lyman, 2006). Most of these were members of the Sicilian Mafiosi. It is most of these who in the 1920s aided in the establishment of the La Cosa Nostra (American Mafia). The other organized crime groups that are recognized by the FBI thereafter came into being.

The traditional organized criminal groups in the U.S. preyed on the ignorance as well as vulnerability of the people in the U.S. The immigrants are noted to have been the common victims of these organized criminal organizations. Their vulnerability was…… [Read More]

References

Bjelopera, J and Finklea, KM (2012).Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement . Congressional research Service.

 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf 

Finklea, KM (2010).Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress.Congressional research Service

 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40525.pdf
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Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]

References

Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

 http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/18/local/la-me-ln-feuer-guns-20130418
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Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Suggest That

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45481255

Drug Crime

Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?

While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).

Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…… [Read More]

References

Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Gun Control Legislation Gun Control Is Not

Words: 874 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4026527

Gun Control Legislation

Gun control is not one concern, but several. To some people gun control is a crime issue; to others it is a rights issue. Gun control is a safety issue, an education issue, a racial issue, and a political issue. Within each of these issues, there are those who want more gun control legislation and those who want less. Guns are not for everyone. Certain individuals cannot handle a firearm safely, and some individuals choose to use firearms inappropriately. Our society has passed laws regulating the ownership and use of firearms, and additional legislation is being considered. Most of this legislation restricts, to some degree, the rights of individuals to possess or use firearms. Some restrictions may be necessary, but some recent legislation has gone too far. Society benefits from firearms in the hands of responsible citizens, and taking firearms away from such citizens will do more…… [Read More]

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Measurement of Crime

Words: 1345 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2965408

Evidenced-Based Practice in Canadian Policing and Crime Prevention

The objective of this work in writing is to examine evidence-based policing and crime prevention practice in Canada and to report on the same. ccording to the Public Safety Canada document entitled "evidence-based Crime Prevention: Scientific Basis, Trends, Results and Implications" policy on crime prevention and practice "should be based on solid scientific knowledge and evidence. Even though support for and recognition of evidence-based crime prevention (EBCP) is growing, much work still remains to put this knowledge into practice. " (Welsh, 2007, p.1) The report states that the evidence-based approach is such that "…typically refers to programs and practices that are proven to be effective through sound research methodology and have produced consistently positive patterns of results." (Welsh, 2007, p.1) EBCP is reported to ensure that "the best available evidence is considered in the decision to develop and implement a program or…… [Read More]

A program is stated to be "in contrast, focused on an effort to change, restrict or crate a routine practice in a crime prevention setting." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002) Programs are stated to overtime change into practices with the original introduction of the program upon which these practices are based long forgotten. Stated to be that which makes the "clearest distinction between programs and practices" are those, which require governmental funding as new programs are required to undergo scientific evaluations in the form of those seeking evidence upon which to base crime prevention programs. There is a trend reported toward 'demanding accountability for public expenditures." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002)

Summary and Conclusion

No longer does the flavor of the month in crime prevention efforts and initiatives work to allay the fears of citizens and law enforcement professionals in addressing crime because crime is an ever growing and evolving phenomena in society. Law enforcement has matured in the United States and due to the heavy workload of law enforcement professionals the methods chosen for prevention of crime must necessarily be effective or 'evidence-based' methods. Canada has implemented evidence-based programs for crime prevention and policing control and it has been clearly demonstrated in this study that evidenced-base practices and programs are those based on scientific research study findings rather than pop theory. The evidence-based programs are those with efficacy in terms of success. The importance of evidence-based programs is within the effectiveness of the programs on the receiving end of government funding. The public and those in positions of accountability have demanded that evidence-based practices be used in today's law enforcement initiative because these programs are effective and cost-efficient through successful reduction of crime. This work has reviewed some of the programs and initiatives used that are evidence-based including school-based programs that are evidence-based as well as family- and community-based programs and place-focused programs.
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Citizen Participation and Solving Serious Crime

Words: 727 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72144782

Enhancing Citizen Participation for Solving Serious Crime

The Presentation Includes

The need of involving communities in crime controlling activities

The stake of community

The approach of the crime stoppers

Greg MacAlesse, 1976

Enhancing Citizen Participation and Solving Serious Crime: A National Evaluation of Crime Stoppers

National Evaluation 1984

The research work

THE NEED OF INVOLVING COMMUNITIES IN CRIME CONTROLLING ACTIVITIES

Communities form a major portion of the society, the fact can therefore not be neglected that with the active involvement of communities in crime controlling menace can yield to the results that the law enforcing agencies can not achieve alone

THE STAKE OF COMMUNITY

The different communities living and working together form societies, and therefore have a greater stake

So with the increasing number of crimes the it is the human community that is affected the most.

THE APPROACH OF THE CRIME STOPPERS

One such movement that has come about…… [Read More]

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Environmental Manipulation as a Crime

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83037833

Along the same lines incivilities deals with the notion that low level breaches of community standards indicate erosion of conventionally accepted norms and values enhancing people's fear of crime and signaling that a particular area is out of control, possibly increasing the incidence of crime (298).

Worrall notes that CPTED works to inhibit criminal activity in areas such as residences and areas surrounding residences, businesses, public transportation locations, such as bus terminals and airports, parking garages, and open spaces through target hardening interventions environmental modifications, and increased awareness of law abiding citizenry. These interventions include; access control -- that practice of limiting access to only legitimate users and target hardening, that is efforts to make it more difficult for criminals to target specific locations, surveillance - defined as any method of ensuring that offenders will been seen, activity support -- functions that assist and enhance interaction between citizens and other…… [Read More]

References

Worrall, J.L. (2008). Crime control in America:What works? Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Sociology of Crime it Was Argued by

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4108472

Sociology of Crime

It was argued by Greek historian, Herodotus, that there are no universal ethics and that all ethical systems were somehow relative to factors concerning the population (Ishay, 2008). The historian argued that different cultures had different perceptions about what is acceptable behavior and what constituted the moral norms in the societies. Herodotus illustrates this argument by comparing burial rituals that were used by two different cultures -- one culture used a cremation ritual while the other used a cannibalistic practice. The same argument could also be extended to the sociology of crime -- different societies place different values on behaviors in a criminal justice system.

Globalization is steadily working to change the environment in which crime can be committed. When Herodotus was alive up until the recent present, most crimes were limited to a geographic area. However, with the rapid development of technology and communications, people and…… [Read More]

References

Banisadr, A., 2014. Isis is a monster created by many countries. It requires an international solution. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/oct/27/isis-monster-international-solution  [Accessed 31 May 2015].

Hall, T., 2012. Geographies of the illicit: Globalizaiton and organized crime. Progress in Human Geography, 37(3), pp. 366-385.

Ishay, M., 2008. The History of Human Rights. 1st ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
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President Obama and Criminal Control Policy

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81596150

Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention." The criminal justice issue selected is: juvenile detention reform. The article presents information of CCJTDC or the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center. Some things to highlight is the comparison to nationwide statistics stating 90% of detainees are male. Of the detainees in juvenile detention centers, the majority are racial/ethnic minority. Because the majority are non-white, the researchers looked for potential participants that fit within the strata. The range is ages 10-14, Hispanic males and females, African-American males and females, and non-Hispanic white males and females, however greater focused was placed on Hispanic and African-American youth.

One aspect of reform lies in changing the growth rate of transfers from juvenile court to adult criminal court. These kinds of transfers typically result from "judicial waiver on a case-by-case basis, automatic transfers based on the type of offense, criminal history, and age…… [Read More]

References

Abram, K., Zwecker, N., Welty, L., Hershfield, J., Dulcan, M., & Teplin, L. (2015). Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(1), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1375

R, O. (2015). President Obama for the prisoners. The Economist. Retrieved 9 June 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform

Shahidullah, S. (2008). Crime policy in America. Lanham: University Press of America.
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Crime Has Been Taking Place Although the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63695941

crime has been taking place. Although the forms of crime have evolved, so too has the strategies used to prevent crime. This essay will compare and contrast three of most common Crime Prevention strategies, which are, environmental design, social intervention and situational intervention. Crime prevention generally refers to preventing crime and anti-social behavior before it occurs. Crime Prevention Victoria, defines crime prevention as "any public or privately based initiative or policy aimed at reducing or eliminating criminal behavior, violence and fear of crime or violence in the community" (Armstrong, 2002). This essay aims to demonstrate not only the strengths and weaknesses of these three strategies but also to identify the individual crime causation theory that each strategy is based around. These being

ne of the main crime prevention strategies used around the world is environmental design. This strategy is based on the relationship that is created between people and the…… [Read More]

One of the extreme levels of environmental design strategies being used today is through gated communities. Gated communities are small groups of residents who are enclosed and separated from the rest of society. A good example of gated communities can be seen in South Africa, which is known for its extremely high crime rates, it also has the highest amount of gated communities (Landman,2008). Gated communities in South Africa incorporate all physical elements by either high walls, gates, electric gates, alarm systems, boom gates, check ins and even access cards (Landman,2008). Gated communities are created with the basic principles of the environmental design strategy (Landman,2008). These communities are defensible spaces, target hardened and have advanced access control. Throughout the U.S., two and a half million citizens live in gated communities (Blakely & Snyder 1998).

Environmental design theory also has a strong connection to routine activity theory. Routine activity theory states that for a crime to be committed, three things need to be present, an offender, a target and no one watching the target (Chainey,2005). Environmental theory aims at removing two of these mentioned items, by closing off areas to the public possible offenders are removed and by using such things as natural vision or CCTV there is always the possibility of someone watching. According to routine activity theory without any one of these items the crime can not take place (Chainey,2005).

However people argue that changes made to the built environment to reduce crime often simply cause offenders to move their criminal behaviors to other locations. For this reason design theory can be seen to do little against causes of crime (CSRI,2003). By increasing protection, people argue that they are just funneling criminals to more unprotected areas or forcing criminals to commit more dangerous crimes (CSIR,2003). Environmental design can therefore not always be totally preventive and needs to be constantly reviewed and adapted to fight against the ever learning criminal mind. It is also important for crime preventions strategies to be adapted to specific areas as what works in one situation might not be appropriate in another. Numerous factors influence crime and all of these will affect the way in which it needs to be
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Crime Delinquency Teenagers Adolescent Terror Virtually No

Words: 3128 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14952653

Crime Delinquency Teenagers

Adolescent Terror

Virtually no one can deny that there is a definite, tangible link between adolescence and crime. Anyone not familiar with this subject would be hard pressed to dispute the eminent statistical data that alludes to that dangerous link. In 1990, teenagers were more than 3.5 times likely to commit an indexed crime than were adults in the United States. Index crimes are both violent criminal activity such as "murder & non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault" as well as serious property crime such as "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson" (No author 1990). This point is underscored by the fact that in 2005, approximately 10,000 prisoners in the United States were serving life sentences for actions that were committed before they turned 18 (Liptak 2005). This proclivity of teenage criminal offenders is evinced overseas in other countries as well, such as in…… [Read More]

References

Krueger, J.G. (2006). "Brain science offers insight to teen crime." ABQTrib. Retrieved from http://www.abqtrib.com/news/2006/dec/08/brain-science-offers-insight-teen-crime/

Liptak, A. (2005). "Jailed for Life After Crimes as Teenagers." New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/03/national/03lifers.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

No author. (1990). "Teenagers have the highest crime rates." Race Matters. Retrieved from  http://www.racematters.org/hicrimer.htm 

Reynolds, J. (2007). "Crime and the teenage brain." The Monterey County Herald. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/ci_7109878
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Crime When a Person Commits

Words: 1799 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52521823

ut as the morality associated with a society changes as that society changes, it may be that someday people will no longer maintain a difference between attempted murder and actual murder, without it leading to some dystopian future where everyone is hounded by the legal system.

ibliography

outellier, Hans, Crime and Morality: The Significance of Criminal Justice in Post-Modern Culture, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2000, p. 4.

Gardner, John, "Law and Morality," retrieved 5 April 2012, http://users.ox.ac.uk/~lawf0081/pdfs/lawmoralityedited.pdf

"Rowe v. Wade," Legal Information Institute, retrieved 5 April 2012, http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html

Singer, Richard. John Q. La Fond, Criminal Law: Examples and Explanations, Aspen, New York, 2010, p. 56.

Spelman, Jonathon, "The Morality of Killing in Self-Defense: A Christian Perspective," Ashbrook Statesman Thesis, 2008, retrieved 6 April 2012, http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/thesis/spelman/spelman.pdf

The Free Dictionary, retrieved 5 April 2012, http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/attempt

The Free Dictionary, retrieved 5 April 2012, ?

http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/attempt

The Free Dictionary, retrieved 5 April 2012, ?

http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/crime…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boutellier, Hans, Crime and Morality: The Significance of Criminal Justice in Post-Modern Culture, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2000, p. 4.

Gardner, John, "Law and Morality," retrieved 5 April 2012, http://users.ox.ac.uk/~lawf0081/pdfs/lawmoralityedited.pdf

"Rowe v. Wade," Legal Information Institute, retrieved 5 April 2012, http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html

Singer, Richard. John Q. La Fond, Criminal Law: Examples and Explanations, Aspen, New York, 2010, p. 56.
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Crime Workplace Is Not Safe From Numerous

Words: 3278 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2555299

Crime

Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…… [Read More]

Reference List

McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.

Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.

Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA

Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
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Crime for Many Years Sociologists Criminologists and

Words: 1637 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39857678

Crime

For many years, sociologists, criminologists, and other scientists have been examining crime and what deviant behavior to help understand and gain control on society and prevent potential victims and fairly treat offenders who do commit crimes. However, many experts like Emile Durkheim feel there is a lot to be considered besides what is deemed as wrong. Durkheim, a French sociology expert from the late 1800s, who felt that deviance was a typical part of a society in order for it to function normally because it sets the moral margins of a society that lets people know what is and what is not tolerated (Henry, Lanier 1-80). Theories and conflicts of crimes and the assumptions and contrasting arguments of what influences and provokes deviance within a given culture have caused people to develop different views and beliefs.

People, like Stuart Henry and Mark Lanier, who examine crime and the subsets…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Walsh. "Introduction and Overview of Crime and Criminology." Sagepub.

(2008): 1-19. Web. 7 May 2011
/23879Page119.pdf>.

"Criminological Theory: Past to Present." Essential readings (2002): n.
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Crime Statistics Goes Far Beyond Mere Tables

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6577054

crime statistics goes far beyond mere tables, numbers, techniques and formulas. Through the effective use of this information it is possible to garner a greater understanding of the individuals who make up the criminal world, the types of crimes that these criminals participate in, and how best to control crime (McDonald, 2002). In the United States there are two primary sources for crime data. The first source is done through the auspices of the law enforcement agencies and collected through the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the second source is done less formally through the National Crime Survey. Neither reporting source is able to provide a complete picture of the crime situation in the country due to the fact that a majority of crime, for a variety of reasons, goes unreported.

The reporting system utilized by the FBI is done through the processing of crimes through the various police…… [Read More]

References

Dowler, K. (2003). Media Consumption and Public Attitiudes toward Crime and Justice: The Relationship between Fear of Crime Punitive Attitudes, and Perceived Police Effectiveness. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 109-126.

McDonald, Z. (2002). Official Crime Statistics: Their Use and Intrepretation. The Economic Journal, 85-106.

Criminal Justice
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Crime the Importance and Significance

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3336847

The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.

These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof

Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.

Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html

Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
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Crime Investigators Often Use a

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81518133



If any of the above are present, or if family members concur that the deceased was significantly depressed it is important to consider the death for evidence of final exit suicide instead of a homicide.

First Degree Murder

An investigator would rely on one question to determine whether to charge someone with first degree murder or with manslaughter. Did the killer decide to kill, and then act on that decision resulting in the victim's death?

If a person was in a club and someone bumped into him and he angrily hit the man in the head with his beer bottle and the man died, that would be manslaughter, because the man committing the act did not plan to kill anyone when he entered the club that night and he didn't think through the moment he reacted.

A difference scenario would be if the man found out his wife was having…… [Read More]

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Crime Victims and the Media

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26388644

Criminal Justice

Crime Victims and the Media

Crime victims and survivors may find dealing with newspaper and television reporters very difficult. People who are victims of crimes often find themselves in one of two positions when it comes to the media. There are those who use the media to highlight there cases and bring as much attention to it as possible, while there are others who find themselves being exploited by the media in order to enhance ratings. Wether to talk to the media or not is a very personal decision that a victim has to make and one that should not be done without first thinking through the consequences.

Not all crime victims receive equal attention in the news media. Occasionally, intense media coverage may be devoted to victims in order to boost ratings. Frequently, media resources are allocated to the representation of those victims who can be portrayed…… [Read More]

References

Greer, C. (n.d.). News Media, Victims and Crime. Retrieved from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/stout/greer_news_media%20-%20vic_crime_soc.pdf

Privacy and the Media. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=323
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Crimes in New York

Words: 894 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72441202

Stu Dents Charges

The author of this report has been asked to revisit the case of Stu Dents and the litany of crimes he is alleged to have committed against Uma Opee and in general. There is indeed a laundry list of issues to be seen and charges when it comes to Stu Dents and they will be listed out within this report. Each crime that applies will be listed and there will also be the associated act and detail that supports Stu Dents being charged with the crime. For all of the crimes listed, there will be an associated state that Stu will be charged within. While Stu and his counsel might be able to make some arguments for some of the crimes, the case against him is rather formidable and there are a number of different charges that definitely apply to Stu and what he allegedly did.

Analysis…… [Read More]

References

New York. (2017). Article 135 | Penal Law | Kidnapping Imprisonment Custodial. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from  http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article135.htm 

New York. (2017). Article 140 | NYS Penal Law |Burglary Criminal Trespass Laws. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from  http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article140.htm 

New York. (2017). Article 220 | NY Penal Law | Controlled Substances Offenses. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from  http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article220.htm
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Crime Theory Case Study

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33285217

Criminal Minds

The constant battle with violent crime is a perplexing problem for those designated to solve these types of problems. This frustrating cycle of failure and success seems to adopt the mantra, "one step forward, two steps back" in its purest sense. As gains are made it is important to understand the root causes of these results in order to better adapt the ever changing environment that creates new problems in this type of battle.

Zimmerman's (2007) case study investigated this struggle within the city of Boston, MA. In this research he described a story of great success through the help of community involvement as violent crime rates and homicides drastically reduced when this method was applied. Unfortunately, the gains were soon lost after a distorted strategy led the leadership awry.

The purpose of this essay is to explore this case study, and apply the research to the current…… [Read More]

References

Travis, L.F., III. (1983). The case study in criminal justice research: Applications to policy analysis.Criminal Justice Review (Georgia State University), 8(2), 46 -- 51. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=14236432&site=eds-live

Wahyuni, D. (2012). The research design maze: Understanding paradigms, cases, methods and methodologies.Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10(1), 69 -- 80. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=76405928&site=eds-live

Scott, E., & Zimmerman, P. (2007). Revisiting gang violence in Boston.Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Available from http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/web/product_detail.seam?E=3458242&R=HKS329-PDF-ENG&conversationId=192877
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Crime Doesn't Pay Sometimes Is a Whole

Words: 1917 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7829038

crime doesn't pay sometimes is a whole point which can't be applicable, especially when you're trusted with the management of multi-billion dollar corporation, and to be in charge of the well -- being of thousand of people. It's so difficult to criminalize someone's action, if such action doesn't cause any harm to anyone or if someone doing a lot of critical charity works. The case of Richard M. crushy can be described as one of the most important scenario which can acts as one of the success stories, showing how far most of these business ethnical values can be abused to hurt everyone for a period of time. As stated by Jennings (2012) in his book "Business Ethnics Class" unethical practices can only last for a short time, and nothing helpful can be found out of it.

However, the carpenter teachings regarding people who do not pursue wisdom that are…… [Read More]

Sense of entitlement

Jennings (2004a) identified that many corporate cultures are less concerned about their fraud because of their philanthropic endeavors. These good works seem to blind them to their culpability and cause them to both "overestimate their ability and underestimate the risk of being found out" (p. 17). This sense of entitlement constitutes two of the factors that Jennings identifies as "Wild West behaviors" (p. 13) that are common to organizations that ethically collapse; A "culture of innovation like no other" and a "culture of social responsibility" (p. 17). She notes that "the attitude develops slowly as the other factors of iconic status and high levels of success consume the individual right up to a feeling of invincibility" (p. 17). This is amply demonstrated in the behavior of Richard Scrushy, who despite all of the evidence arrayed against him continues to proclaim his innocence of any wrong doing.

Jennings (2004b) identified common red flags that would point to corporate counsel that an investigation into the accounting of the firm might be in order. She indicated that in HealthSouth's case legal counsel "fits the inaction mold" (p. 45), and "like executives at WorldCom, Enron, and Tyco, executives at HealthSouth, particularly Scrushy, lived lavish lives" (p. 46). She concludes that "the presence of many elaborate perks is a red flag all can see" (p. 46). It is these perks that, according to Neeley & Boyd (2010) "encourage[s] executives to take excessive risk with other people's money" (p. 548).
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Categories of Crime

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93043572

Crime

The current designation of the major categories of crime in the U.S. can be traced to England following the Norman Conquest in 1066. Prior to this period the Church was the primary regulator of morality, but over time the Church began to lose control over the lives of people and the local governments began making regulations (Dworkin, 1978). After 1066 Henry II institutionalized law throughout England in order that it would be "common" to the country and he reinstated the jury system. Judges went from London across Great Britain to see cases and they would discuss cases with one another upon returning. This developed "case" law and judges used case law to decide future cases allowing the law to be "common" throughout England. Statutory law did not occur for several hundred years later. There were three basic crimes under the common law: treason (high and petty), felonies (with and…… [Read More]

References

Dworkin, R.M. (1978). Taking rights seriously. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gaines, L.K. & Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal justice in action: The core. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth.

Robinson, P.H. & Dubber, M.D. (2010). An introduction to the Model Penal
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Use of Crime and Punishment

Words: 2218 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29412393

Crime and Punishment

Ours is an extremely violent kind of world where even the most common type of folk can find themselves faced with types of unspeakable horrors and criminal activity through little or no intention of their own. In American literature, a common theme is the concept of the freedom of choice and how a person's choices come to affect not only themselves, but all of the people around them. Some of the choices that people, and their literary counterparts, make lead them to crime. It is the purpose of the American justice system to ensure that crimes are punished. However, in literature, that is not always the case. Crime in the American judicial sense is activity which violates the laws of the United States of America. In literature, these are not always the crimes that the authors feel deserve punishment. Three specific stories which deal with crime and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Andrews, William L., Frances Smith. Foster, and Trudier Harris. The Concise Oxford

Companion to African-American Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. Print.

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." 1957. Print.

Bandy, Stephen C. "One of my Babies: The Misfit and the Grandmother." 2011. Print.
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Juvenile Delinquency and Crime's Impact

Words: 2126 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83690595

Crime and Its Impact on Youth

Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks in particularly at the multiple theories that can be used to explain these impacts, such as Strain Theory and Social Control Theory. It also identifies the unique challenges that children and adults face as they struggle to cope both with the environments in which they live and the criminal justice systems that confront them. The paper concludes that children are uniquely impacted by crime because they are still in their developmental stage, wherein their psychology and physicality are still highly susceptible to external influences.

Introduction

Children suffer from the effects of crime in different ways from adults. This is primarily due to the fact that children are still developing, both cognitively and physically, whereas adults are already developed. Crime thus…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems.

(pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.

Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/prison-labor-in-america/406177/
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Education and Crime

Words: 872 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95612855

Crime

Measurement of Crime and Crime Theories

Crime is perhaps one of the most widespread problems in society today. It can take any form, and range in violence, which is what, perhaps, adds to the danger aspect. However, crime not only affects the victim, but also the perpetrator. In order to truly understand how one views crime, one must not only understand how crime is seen by society, but also how it impacts and how it is impacted by the perpetrators and those mixed within it. This paper will thus analyze research that has assessed the effects of crime and especially of juvenile involvement in the justice system during high school education, and the outcomes of this involvement, in order to see how crime can affect a population, how it can be measured, and what theories can be drawn from the research about crime and criminal activities.

According to the…… [Read More]

Sweeten thus wants his study to take these into account, which is why he decides to draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey, which is administered by the Bureau of Labor Statistic. According to Sweeten, the purpose of this is to minimize weaknesses and oversampling of disadvantaged youth. Sweeten also makes sure to measure various sample populations in order to minimize weaknesses. One such example is that Sweeten utilized a "sampling weight," which was utilized in all analysis to ensure there is no bias. In this method, youths were asked a number of questions that ranged from what kind of delinquent involvement they were involved in, and how they grew up.

Sweeten's documentation of his study, as well as the tables presenting his findings only strengthen the focus of the study and place it as one of the foremost authorities on the topic. Furthermore, his study focuses strongly on data without bias, which is only reinforcing of his strategies, and of completing the lack of data availability in the topic.

Source: Sweeten, G. (2006). "Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Graduation by Arrest and Court Involvement." Justice Quarterly 23(4), pp. 1-20.
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Perceptions of Crime and Reality

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35036969

Crime

There is a big difference between perception of crime and actual crime statistics, a gulf that has become quite clear in recent years. The statistics show that crime of all types is decreasing, but it is still widely reported that the public has a perception that crime is increasing. There are a number of factors for this, but the reality is that crime is decreasing in the United States.

Crime Statistics

The FBI tracks hard numbers with respect to crime in the U.S. Violent crime in the U.S. has been trending down for a long time, and the statistics bear this out:

FBI (2015)

The decrease in property crime has been even more dramatic:

FBI (2015)

Perceptions of crime, however, can be influenced by the type of crime, with more severe crimes standing out more in people's minds. That said, murder rates have been steadily decreasing for several years,…… [Read More]

References

FBI (2015). About crime in the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved November 16, 2015 from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the-u.s.-2014
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Low-Crime Community an Analysis of

Words: 2387 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20446829

In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)

It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John

Wiley & Sons.

Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.