Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Anything that defies the laws and is accountable for punishment forms into a criminal activity with the nature of crime. Crime features harm and violence, to people, to laws, to properties overall showing denial to the existence of these entities. Crime as stated by the judiciary laws must be contrary to the limitations set by the laws and must pose harmful situation to present of future occurring events. Crime or criminal both show varying relationships between each other with respect to the intention of doing the crime and failing to pursue the intention. There are many ways in which the definition of crime is defined and which fall into different categories explaining situational crimes as well as non-situational. Crimes fall into the categories of violent crimes, property crime, white-collar crimes and public order crimes. Crime can be prevented through crime prevention programs however often these programs do not…
Lab, S.P. (2010). Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations. [Albany, N.Y.]: LexisNexis/Anderson Pub.
Worall, & J.L. (2008). Crime Control in America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
ut an open system of prevention could be the alternative. It would subject the court or legislature to closer and public scrutiny (Robinson).
President Lyndon Johnson's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice was viewed as the single and most influential postwar American criminal justice policy (Coles and Kelling 1999). Its wisdom, contained the policy's main report, "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society, published in 1967, swiftly transformed into conventional wisdom. It became the foundation for criminal justice policy in the 70s to the 90s. It recommended that the police firmly adhere to lawful procedures in handling offenders and the nation's criminal justice agencies, especially the police department, should improve their relations with minority communities. The Commission had important contributions, but its findings and conclusions were later challenged and even abandoned. It pointed to the police, prosecutors, jails, prisons, probation, parole, and the courts as comprising the…
Coles, C.M. And Kellling, G.L. (1999). Prevention through community prevention - new approaches to fighting crimes. 10 pages. Public Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
Doherty, B. (1998). Blame society first - responsibility for heinous acts. 2 pages. Reason:
O'Bryant, J. (2003). Crime control: the federal response. Domestic Social Policy Division: 10 pages. Congressional Research Service: The Library of Congress. Retrieved February 28, 2007 at http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/society/crime/crimegun1.pdf
Crime Prevention and Community afety
Key issues in crime prevention and community safety
The recent focus on crime prevention is a very delightful movement within the law enforcement arena. Traditionally crime prevention has been viewed as an unnecessary appendage to its more robust siblings within the system of law enforcement and justice (Community-based 2010). While the importance of crime prevention has been recognized, the implementation of successful strategies has been beset by the problem of proving something that has not taken place (Gerard, 1944). However, it is necessary to have a holistic grasp of the interlaced dynamics that operate within society to produce criminal behavior (Rogers & Prosser, 2006 p.56). Therefore, to deal effectively with crime an understanding of the causality relating to criminal behavior is necessary.
The aforementioned causality is not an easy component to get a hold of since crimes by their very nature are diverse and, as…
Smith, Susan J. (1984), Crime and the Structure of Social Relations Transactions of the Institute
of British Geographers, New Series, 9 (4):427-442.
Walklate, Sandra (1998) Crime and Community: Fear or Trust? The British Journal of Sociology, 49, (4): 550-569.
Also, other intervening variales, such as the expansion of the American economy, reduced crime in other parts of the city, and age cohort factors related to crime decrease, most likely also play a role in the positive oserved.
However, other things have to e taken into consideration when considering the value of such community environmental changes. The first is a much improved mindset y the residents, who are no longer surrounded y ovious street crime and empty uildings. Second, is the mindset of those who live or work outside of this area who are less fearful of settling or putting a usiness here. Third is the overall positive effect this has on the environment, itself, and the etterment of the community and society as a whole.
It may e difficult to determine which is the most important factor, ut it is not impossile to say that the design change had…
bibliography. Property Management 23(5): 328-356
Eck, J., Wartell, J. (1996), Reducing Crime and Drug Dealing by Improving Place Management: A Randomized Experiment. Report to the San Diego Police Department, Crime Control Institute, Washington, DC.
Feins et. al.(1997)Solving Crime in Residential Neighborhoods: Comprehensive Changes in Design, Management and Use. Washington, D.C.: NIJ
Jeffery, C. Ray. (1971). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Beverly Hills:
Finalize all preliminary building design element and prepare for submission to the City Planning Division, Aviation Division, and Mayor's Office
Schedule an informational meeting for all stakeholders to unveil the plans
Due date to submit commentary on the new designs and to provide any suggestions or concerns
Meet with key stakeholders to discuss results of public hearing and submissions. Discuss these changes and decide what to do with them.
Submit designs for approval to licensing and permits entities
Complete any necessary changes and re-submit until final approval is achieved
Complete revision and draft final version of plans
January 15, 2010
Final design approval by all stakeholders.
January 30, 2010
Complete scheduling of phases of project
February 15, 2010
Send out call for bids and proposals to needed contractors
April 15, 2010
Choose contractors from proposals submitted
April 30, 2010
Notify selected contractors of their status and award
City of Atlanta (2008). Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Department of Aviation. Retrieved April 21, 2008 at http://www.atlantaga.gov/government/aviation.aspx?section=Aviation
Crowe, Tim. (2000). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. 2nd edition. Boston: Butterworth - Heinman.
Economist.com. Cities Guide, Atlanta. (2008). Atlanta's Airport. Retrieved April 21, 2008 at http://www.economist.com/cities/Displayobject.cfm?obj_id=2280457
Hartsfield - Jackson Atlanta International Airport. (2007). Terminal Layout. Retrieved April 21, 2008 at http://www.atlanta-airport.com/Default.asp?url=sublevels/terminal/termmap.htm.
Crime Prevention, obinson states "ational choice deterrence theories related theories understand criminal justice -- including crime control crime prevention activities police, courts, corrections -- reduce crime society" (2012).
ational choice and deterrence theories
The rational choice theory of crime is intimately related to the concept of the deterrence theory of crime. ational choice models suggest that all human beings are inherently rational creatures, capable of making reasonable, utilitarian decisions based upon a weighing of pros and cons. A rational actor, in other words, will decide not to commit a crime if the potential costs outweigh the potential benefits. Swiftness and certainty of the punishment for the crime will deter persons from offending. The theory also presumes that "people will engage in criminal and deviant activities if they do not fear apprehension and punishment. Norms, laws, and enforcement are to be designed and implemented to produce and maintain the image that…
Keel, R. (2005). Rational choice and deterrence theory. Sociology 200. Retrieved:
The problem analysis triangle. (2013). Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved:
Crime Prevention -- Digital Gaming
What role does digital video gaming play in crime, delinquency or other forms of antisocial behavior?
American Psychological Association (2011, August 29). Playing highly competitive video games may lead to aggressive behavior. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com- / releases/2011/08/110829114714.htm.
In a unique twist of methodologies, the American Psychological Association added credibility to an interesting study done by several advanced degree students where were looking at the highly debated contemporary issue: is there a relationship between video games and violence? Past studies suggested that the issue of importance was not the violence but the level of competition. Through two versions of their approach, the researchers looked at how subjects reacted to highly or lesser competitive video games and their tendencies as a result to retaliate against another -- by fixing that person a more or less aggressively spiced taste of food in a flavor…
"Video gaming is so widespread among American teenagers that to paint a portrait of a typical teen gamer is to hold a mirror to the population of teens as whole. Nearly every teen plays games in some way, regardless of gender, age, or socioeconomic status." The Pew Internet & American Life Project jumped into the gaming sector headfirst and gave many people a lot to consider. A massive collective of data, it took aim at assumptions about young people who play such games as being isolated or engaged in an environment that let violence go by unchallenged. This study should be reviewed by anyone and everyone who has an opinion on the subject of games and criminal, delinquency or anti-social behavior. It's a rich collection of game-changing knowledge.
Inderscience Publishers (2008, May 14). Could Violent Video Games Reduce Rather Than Increase Violence?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com - / releases/2008/05/080514213432.htm.
The International Journal of Liability and Scientific Enquiry recently featured this piece Patrick Kierkegaard of the University of Essex, England. Kieregaard takes an apparently emotional dive into the question of whether video games really do cause violence by systematically looking back at the full field of study and their biases. Noting that this subject has been of importance since the 1990s, the case can be made that we should currently be experiencing an epidemic of violence given the growth in video game playing. Yet that is not happening. Crime and delinquency among these young people has actually decreased. This review is highly critical of biases about games and aggressiveness, noting that no reliable conclusions of this affect that be found in studies on topics as diverse as fighting at school to criminal assaults. The commentary seems to present a good representation of some of the frustrations that happen when scientists confront public perceptions that may have little grounding in fact. The average reader would likely find this kind of articles easy to read and emotionally appealing if he or she were truly interested in gaming -- which, coincidently, he or she most likely is.
Crime Analysis: CPTED
CPTED -- Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
Before committing a criminal act, offenders often make several decisions with regard to the effort expended and chances of being apprehended. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) seeks to influence the decisions an offender makes, prior to committing a criminal act, via the alteration of the constructed environment. In addition to explaining the function of CPTED, this text will, amongst other things, also highlight how it is used and who exactly uses it.
CPTED, in the words of Sennewald and Christman (2011, p. 69), "is based on the theory that the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the incidence and fear of crime, and to an improvement in the quality of life." As the authors further point out, CPTED is further reinforced by concepts derived from such diverse fields as criminology,…
Hess, K. (2008). Introduction to Private Security (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
National Crime Prevention Council. (2014). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Training Program. Retrieved from http://www.ncpc.org/training/training-topics/crime-prevention-through-environmental-design-cpted-
Sennewald, C.A. & Christman, J.H. (2011). Retail Crime, Security, and Loss Prevention: An Encyclopedic Reference. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
How Community Policing Promotes Social Justice
As Howell (2010) points out, youths “join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect, money, or because a friend is in a gang” (p. 1). In the city of Cincinnati, gang activity among young people is on the rise, and City Council has expressed concerns over how to address this issue. The city of Mesa, Arizona, recently completed the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP), which focused on crime prevention among youths. This program primarily focused on the law enforcement aspect of the juvenile criminal justice system; however, it incorporated help from case workers, community leaders, probation officers, and youth workers. The program was a major success. As Mesa and Cincinnati are relatively similar in size, it is recommended that Cincinnati get serious about juvenile crime by implementing its own Gang Intervention Program modeled on MGIP. This paper will show why this program makes sense for…
Aguiar, C. M., & Leavell, S. (2017). A statewide parenting alternative sentencing program: Description and preliminary outcomes. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 87(1), 78-93.
Carson, D. C., & Esbensen, F. A. (2019). Gangs in school: Exploring the experiences of gang-involved youth. Youth Violence & Juvenile Justice, 17(1), 3-23. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204017739678
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Howell, J. (2010). Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/231116.pdf
Listwan, S. J. (2013). Introduction to juvenile justice (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118513217
Petrosino, A., Petrosino, C. T., & Buehler, J. (2005). “Scared Straight” and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 1(1), 1-62.
Spergel, I., Wa, K., & Sosa, R. (2005). Evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP). School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.
gathering of information on crime prevention initiatives is critical in the quest for a better equipped and evidence-based crime prevention programs (UNODC,2010).In this paper, we present the outcome of an interview which was conducted with Mr. ichard Aborn, the president of the Citizens Crime Commission of New York City, an independent non-profit organization which is nonpartisan and is focused on criminal justice as well as public safety policy reform. A review of their view on the Juvenile justice system is presented below.
Which program have you initiated towards the larger juvenile justice system?
We have started a program aimed at pressurizing the federal government to raise the age of legal responsibility from 16 to 18 years.
What are the program goals and objectives?
The main goal of the program is to prevent underage executions and sentencing. This is because juveniles are supposed to be punished as juveniles and not as…
New York Courts (2011). Citizens Crime Commission.Available online at http://www.courts.state.ny.us/ip/sentencing/CJLippmansRemarksCitizensCrimeCommissionSeptember21201.pdf '
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2010). Handbook on the crime prevention guidelines Making them work.Available online at http://www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/crimeprevention/10-52410_Guidelines_eBook.pdf
Specifically, the criminal justice system is designed more to address crimes after they have already been committed than to prevent them beforehand.
The criminal justice system is well designed to investigate, prosecute, and punish criminal conduct; it is far less well designed to prevent criminal activity ahead of time, particularly in comparison to other social factors.
By the time criminal violations come under the purview of the criminal justice system, they likely represent only a small fraction of criminal activity in society; for every detected crime, hundreds of others go undetected. More importantly, to the extent societal efforts relate to genuine crime prevention rather than crime control after the fact, those efforts must address social values in the larger sense.
Paternalistic legislation also undermines the societal goal of instilling fundamental respect for the formal rules of law, precisely because criminalizing purely personal conduct is so much harder to justify. On…
Applying equally strict enforcement to minor or merely "technical" violations of law that hardly affect others might reduce the quality of life in society instead of improving it. For example, in many jurisdictions motor vehicle codes are classified as penal (rather than civil) infractions that are arrestable offenses under strict application of the state police power through authorized law enforcement functions. However, it is doubtful that (1) taking enforcement action against every perceptible violation of law or (2) implementing physical arrest wherever authorized is in the interest of the driving public or society. On the other hand, certain types of crimes (including some that fall within the purview of vehicular laws) require a zero-tolerance approach by virtue of their capacity to harm other individuals and society as a whole. Furthermore, practical considerations such as the availability of personnel, physical resources, and budget require prioritization wholly apart from the question of…
hat is profitable, of course, is often fashionable. To create a disincentive to participate in criminal activity, expanded opportunities are necessary for the poorest members of society. In keeping with the Republican Party's stress upon free enterprise, giving tax breaks to large corporations that move into disadvantaged communities, and hire and promote members of the community is one way to use commerce to aid the poor. If businesses also include community beautification and betterment projects within their outreach programs, they can receive further tax incentives.
Step 4: Enhance accessibility to education
The average college tuition in 1999 was 8,086 U.S. dollars, accounting for 62% of the income of low-income families" (Randall 2000). This percentage has only increased. Tax incentives for low-income students who come from disadvantaged areas, regardless of their race will enhance social mobility and infuse dollars, through these individual's eventual earnings, into new segments of the economy. Also,…
Doorman, Franz. Global development. (2003). Part 1, Problems, Chapter IV.
Jan van Arkel International Books. Retrieved 22 Oct 2007 at http://home.wanadoo.nl/f.j.doorman/Page15.htm
Kangas, Steve. (1994). "Myth: Poor people and minorities are committing the most crime." The Long FAQ on Liberalism. Retrieved 22 Oct 2007 at http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/L-poorcrime.htm
Nieman Reports." (Fall 1998). "Serving the Poor." Retrieved 22 Oct 2007 at http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/reports/98-3NRfall98/Kirkhorn_Widening.html
Three Strikes dealing crime prevention Support post examples required reading material / scholarly sources, provide -text citation APA style. Page 2 Activity: How Much Are Americans Spending Corrections?
Describe and explain three strikes when dealing with crime and crime prevention 'Three strikes and you're out' laws, as their name implies, mandate "a minimum sentence of 25 years to life for three-time repeat offenders with multiple prior serious or violent felony convictions" (A primer: Three strikes, 2005, LAO). One of the first 'three strikes' laws was passed in California in 1994, based on evidence of chronic recidivism amongst a hardcore group of offenders. The philosophy behind the law was that it was intended to protect the public from inflicting the dangers of these hardened classes of criminals upon the public and implied that certain criminals were to some extent 'behind rehabilitation.'
Passing three strikes laws have the nearly-immediate effect of rapidly…
Billions behind bars. (2013). CNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.cnbc.com/id/44762286
Moore, S. (2009). Prison spending outpaces all but Medicaid. The New York Times.
Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/03/us/03prison.html?_r=0
A primer: Three strikes - the impact after more than a decade. (2005). LAO. Retrieved from:
As education levels go down, gang-related crimes rise. There are more organized gangs in the lower income inner cities than in the surrounding, more affluent suburbs. This is mostly due to and highly correlated with the socio-economic status of these respective areas (Howell, 2010). In order to attempt to equalize these situations, a successful educational system needs to be implemented in order to emphasize the importance of gang crime prevention. The public residing in areas that are more prone to gang violence need to be educated on ways to reduce this type of behavior, while the surrounding communities need to be educated on how to best deal with these types of situations. egardless of who is on the receiving end of the education, prevention strategies need to be implemented to reduce the negative impact on either community.
In order to reduce the crimes associated with the formation of…
Howell, J.C. (2010). Gang Prevention: An overview of research and programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 1-24.
Esbensen, F.A. (2000). Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 1-12.
Matthew Shepard Act
FBI (2009). Matthew Shepard/James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Web.
This source outlines the practical enforcement mechanisms of the Act from the FBI perspective. It provides guidance for FBI agents in dealing with potential hate crimes.
Holder, Eric. (2009). The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009. U.S. Department of Justice. Web.
This testimony from then-Attorney General Holder outlines the text of the Act, to clarify what exactly this Act is.
ABC News. (2004). New details emerge in Matthew Shepard murder. ABC News. Web.
This article from a major news source outlines the details of the Shepard case. It provides critical background to understand why the law was passed.
HC (2016). Hate crimes law. Human ights Campaign. Web.
This source, from a human rights activist group, highlights the historical context of the Act, the support…
ABC News. (2004). New details emerge in Matthew Shepard murder. ABC News. Web.
Biography. (2016). James Byrd Jr. Biography.com. Web.
FBI (2009). Matthew Shepard/James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Web.
Holder, Eric. (2009). The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009. U.S. Department of Justice. Web.
Daytime obberies in City X
City X is facing nightmares of daytime robberies that have crippled social, economic, and political stability in the city. The police officers have failed to obtain adequate information related to the causes and the perpetrators of the robberies. Therefore, coming up with a plan to investigate the cases and end the situation is important to reduce the vice. The following essay discusses some of the actions related to the case that I will undertake to end the robberies in City X. The essay will discuss investigative steps I will employ to solve the situation, technical assistance I will need to conduct the operation and measures I will employ to analyze the pattern of robbery in the city. In addition, it will discuss ways of synthesizing the information acquired, investigation units required to see the success of the process, equipment required and ways of procuring more…
Fish, J.T. (2013). Crime scene investigation. New York: Cengage
Pepper, I.K. (2010). Crime scene investigation: Methods and procedures. Maidenhead: Open University Press
Reyes, A. (2007). Cyber crime investigations: Bridging the gaps between security professionals, law enforcement, and prosecutors. Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub
So many youths in inner cities and other depressed areas fall into the trappings of crime and poverty, and for two major reasons. Whether it be the allure of a quick buck or simple desperation due to the surrounding squalor and lack of opportunity, either can lead very poor choices being made that will haunt a person via their criminal record and/or lack of viable job history or education for much if not all of their life. However, solutions do exist to break this poverty/crime cycle but some initiatve and discipline is necessary on the part of the poor to help themselves escape from their situations and current life paths.
Opportunity for All
Opportunity for all, not equality for all, should be the goal for any anti-poverty program because equality for all is not practical or even wanted by all people. Some people strive to climb…
Brookings. (2012, June 5). Combating Poverty: Understanding New Challenges for Families. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.brookings.edu/research/testimony/2012/06/05-poverty-families -haskins
Frank, A. (2012, June 28). Stunning Progress in Technology: The Death of Unskilled
Labor. Forbes. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/singularity/2012/06/28/stunning-progress-in-technology-the-death-of-unskilled-labor/
McNamara, J. (2013, August 16). The Great Debate. The Great Debate RSS. Retrieved
SAA & POP
The author of this report has been asked to assess a scenario that is pretty dire. Indeed, there is a low-income housing development that itself has become an attractor of crime and much the same thing has happened for the surrounding stores and so forth. One example of the collateral damage is the area in and around a convenience store that is nearby. The author of this report has been asked to create a response that is both POP- and SAA-oriented as a means to reduce or eliminate crime in the area. While calming the crime in this area will not be the easiest thing to do, there is most certainly a way to take a huge chunk of the crime out of the area through more visible policing, some better security measures and security sweeps.
As far as what information could and should be collected…
ATF. (2016). Fact Sheet - National Tracing Center -- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. ATF.gov. Retrieved 1 May 2016, from https://www.atf.gov/resource-center/fact-sheet/fact-sheet-national-tracing-center
LaMance, K. (2016). What Is a Habitual Offender? -- LegalMatch Law Library. Legalmatch.com.
Retrieved 1 May 2016, from http://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/what-is-a-habitual-offender.html
Martin, K. (2015). Drug abuse is not a victimless crime -- NewBostonPost. NewBostonPost.
The author of this report has been asked to detail three different programs that are geared towards crime prevention and control with students. For each program, there will be a description. There will also be a listing of the pros and cons for the program. The difference in the methods as well as a general compare and contrast will be completed. The overall level of success for each program will also be included. While anti-crime programs have varying levels of success with the students of the United States, keeping students out of trouble is something that is deemed to be worthwhile and necessary.
One of the more prolific and prominent programs out there that relates to crime would be DARE, which is short for Drug Abuse Resistance Education. It educates children about the danger of drugs and the related outcomes that can come with the same. It also educates…
Crime eduction and Prevention Proposal for Detroit
Crime Prevention Proposal for Detroit, Michigan
In the midst of a very instable economic environment around the nation, it is crucial for all cities to bump up their strategies at preventing crime in order to be able to avoid future costs associated with fighting crime and imprisoning criminals. Crime prevention is one of the most cost effective strategies in criminal justice, and it can help save property and lives. This is especially crucial for the city of Detroit, which faces its own set of unique challenges in a severely volatile economy that has the potential to lead to increase in a wide variety of crimes, making prevention methods and strategies a crucial tool for local law enforcement.
First and foremost, the city of Detroit needs to bolster its community policing programs through increased community involvement with its law enforcement agencies. Unfortunately, the number…
Gray, Steven. (2009). In Detroit, improvement on crime? Time Magazine. Web. http://detroit.blogs.time.com/2009/10/26/in-detroit-improvement-on-crime/
Kerlikowske, Gil & Davis, Robert. (2008). Twelve Tenets to Prevent Crime and Terrorism: Major Cities Chiefs Association. Homeland Security Committee. Web. https://www.majorcitieschiefs.com/pdf/MCC_12TenetFinal52108.pdf
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…
Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
Crime and Violence: Cultural eliefs and iases
Religion and Stereotyping
Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).
Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…
Armstrong, A. C. (2015). Race, Prison Discipline, and the Law. UC IRVINE LAW REVIEW, 759.
Barak, G. (2009). Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Ways of Seeing Difference. Second Annual Conference on RACE, GENDER and CLASS.
Blow, C. M. (2014). Crime, Bias and Statistics. Retrieved from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/08/opinion/charles-blow-crime-bias-and-statistics.html
Becker, Gary S. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (1968): 169 -- 217.
New York City has some of the toughest gun laws in the country. And it's essentially impossible for a normal, law-abiding citizen to acquire a concealed handgun permit. The result is that the majority of New Yorkers are defenseless against the criminals who wish to prey on them. As pointed out by the NY Times article, the SQF program does little to stop criminals, but does a great deal to strip away a New Yorker's fundamental right of self-defense. This is counterintuitive to public safety. hile crime prevention is an important aspect of police work, the reality is the majority of the time law enforcement arrives after a crime has been committed.
The answer then is to arm New York. Arm the public. Restore their fundamental right of self-defense. There's an old saying, "An armed society is a polite society," and this rings true all across the country (except for…
Blannelberry, S.H. (2011). Ron Paul on Guns. Guns.com. Retrieved from http://www.guns.com/ron-paul-on-guns.html
McKnight, G.D. (1998). The Last Crusade: Martin Luther King, Jr., the FBI and the Poor People's Campaign. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Rivera, R., Baker, a. & Roberts, J. (2010, July 6). A Few Blocks, 4 Years, 52,000
Police Stop. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/12/nyregion/12frisk.html?_r=1
Crime and Deviance
Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.
Theories of Crime and Deviance
Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…
Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved
Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/
Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
crime has been taking place. Although the forms of crime have evolved, so too has the strategies used to prevent crime. This essay will compare and contrast three of most common Crime Prevention strategies, which are, environmental design, social intervention and situational intervention. Crime prevention generally refers to preventing crime and anti-social behavior before it occurs. Crime Prevention Victoria, defines crime prevention as "any public or privately based initiative or policy aimed at reducing or eliminating criminal behavior, violence and fear of crime or violence in the community" (Armstrong, 2002). This essay aims to demonstrate not only the strengths and weaknesses of these three strategies but also to identify the individual crime causation theory that each strategy is based around. These being
ne of the main crime prevention strategies used around the world is environmental design. This strategy is based on the relationship that is created between people and the…
One of the extreme levels of environmental design strategies being used today is through gated communities. Gated communities are small groups of residents who are enclosed and separated from the rest of society. A good example of gated communities can be seen in South Africa, which is known for its extremely high crime rates, it also has the highest amount of gated communities (Landman,2008). Gated communities in South Africa incorporate all physical elements by either high walls, gates, electric gates, alarm systems, boom gates, check ins and even access cards (Landman,2008). Gated communities are created with the basic principles of the environmental design strategy (Landman,2008). These communities are defensible spaces, target hardened and have advanced access control. Throughout the U.S., two and a half million citizens live in gated communities (Blakely & Snyder 1998).
Environmental design theory also has a strong connection to routine activity theory. Routine activity theory states that for a crime to be committed, three things need to be present, an offender, a target and no one watching the target (Chainey,2005). Environmental theory aims at removing two of these mentioned items, by closing off areas to the public possible offenders are removed and by using such things as natural vision or CCTV there is always the possibility of someone watching. According to routine activity theory without any one of these items the crime can not take place (Chainey,2005).
However people argue that changes made to the built environment to reduce crime often simply cause offenders to move their criminal behaviors to other locations. For this reason design theory can be seen to do little against causes of crime (CSRI,2003). By increasing protection, people argue that they are just funneling criminals to more unprotected areas or forcing criminals to commit more dangerous crimes (CSIR,2003). Environmental design can therefore not always be totally preventive and needs to be constantly reviewed and adapted to fight against the ever learning criminal mind. It is also important for crime preventions strategies to be adapted to specific areas as what works in one situation might not be appropriate in another. Numerous factors influence crime and all of these will affect the way in which it needs to be
The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.
In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.
These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…
Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof
Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.
Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html
Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…
Crime and Its Impact on Youth
Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks in particularly at the multiple theories that can be used to explain these impacts, such as Strain Theory and Social Control Theory. It also identifies the unique challenges that children and adults face as they struggle to cope both with the environments in which they live and the criminal justice systems that confront them. The paper concludes that children are uniquely impacted by crime because they are still in their developmental stage, wherein their psychology and physicality are still highly susceptible to external influences.
Children suffer from the effects of crime in different ways from adults. This is primarily due to the fact that children are still developing, both cognitively and physically, whereas adults are already developed. Crime thus…
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems.
(pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.
Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/prison-labor-in-america/406177/
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
Crime Detection and Prevention
It is an unfortunate fact of modern society that crime and criminal activity are part of our world today. This is particularly the case in situations that make an easy target for criminals. ape and robbery, for example, tend to be encouraged in environments that appear to be easy targets. All-night convenience stores, for example, may appear to be easy targets because they have low security features and often have only one employee per shift. The specific crime under discussion in this case is therefore the night-time robbery of all-night convenience stores.
When considering the factors in the Problem Analysis Chart offered by Clarke and Eck (p. 29), the environment provides a significant incentive for criminal activity. A convenience store at a remote location, for example, might appear to be an "easy" target for robbery. The problem analysis triangle, or crime trianble, may therefore offer valuable…
Center for Problem Oriented Policing. (n.d.). Twenty Five Techniques of Situational Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/25%20techniques%20grid.pdf
Clarke, R.V. And Eck, J.E. (n.d.) Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/60steps.pdf
Crime in America.net (2011, Feb 22). Top 10 Factors Contributing to Violent Crime. Retrieved from: http://www.crimeinamerica.net/2011/02/22/top-10-factors-contributing-to-violent-crime/
In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.
When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…
Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.
GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from: http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp
Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011
With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.
Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.
Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…
Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from http://www.stats.indiana.edu August 15, 2011.
Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com August 15, 2011.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:
Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).
Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…
Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.
Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.
Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…
Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…
Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: < http://www.fbi.gov /news/stories/2012/october/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Outline the Minneapolis Domestic violence experiment, cite its findings and discuss the results of its replication studies. Compare and contrast collective and selective incapacitation with suitable examples
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment was an evaluation of how effective the Minneapolis police responded to various domestic violence calls. The experiment was conducted between 1982 and 1982 by Lawrence W. Sherman, and the Minneapolis Police Department. Funding was supported by the National Institute of Justice. From a pool of known domestic violence offenders who there was a possibility for arrest, the study required the officers to select randomly one third for arrest, one third for counseling, and one third for separation with their partners Buzawa and Buzawa ()
. From the three methods suggested for dealing with domestic violence offenders, arrest was found to be the most effective. Those arrested during the study had been deterred from committing the offence again. The…
Buzawa, E.S., and C.G. Buzawa. Domestic Violence: The Criminal Justice Response. 1 Oliver's Yard: SAGE Publications, 2003. Print.
Lab, S.P. Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations. Maryland Heights, MO 63043: Elsevier Science, 2013. Print.
Wilkinson, P. Terrorism vs. Democracy. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis Group, 2011. Print.
BCU Local Crime Community Action
Q1 ow long have you lived in this neighborhood and do you know all your neighbors by face and name and if not can you see reasons for this, please explain?
Rationale 1 This question is designed to attempt to understand how well the neighborhood knows one another and if there is at least facial recognition between long time residents and student tenants. This question also attempts to create a written rather than anecdotal record of the residential beliefs regarding the variant student population and the increase in crime and is open ended for this purpose.
Q2 When did you first notice that crime began to increase and can you describe the events and experiences that you have been witness to or been victim of in relation to crime?
Rationale 2 Again this question is a way of discerning the current crime conditions and to…
Hope T. 2007. The Distribution of Household Property Crime Victimisation: Insights from the British Crime Survey. In Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies Vol. 22, edited by M.G. Maxfield and M. Hough. Uffculme, Devon: Willan / New York: Criminal Justice Press.
Shu SC-F. 1999. Housing layout and crime vulnerability. In Space Syntax - Second International Symposium Proceedings 1: 25
Shu, S. And J. Huang. 2003. Spatial Configuration and Vulnerability of residential Burglary: A Case study of a city in Taiwan. In Proceedings, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by J. Hanson. London: The Bartlett, UCL.
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
Evidenced-Based Practice in Canadian Policing and Crime Prevention
The objective of this work in writing is to examine evidence-based policing and crime prevention practice in Canada and to report on the same. ccording to the Public Safety Canada document entitled "evidence-based Crime Prevention: Scientific Basis, Trends, Results and Implications" policy on crime prevention and practice "should be based on solid scientific knowledge and evidence. Even though support for and recognition of evidence-based crime prevention (EBCP) is growing, much work still remains to put this knowledge into practice. " (Welsh, 2007, p.1) The report states that the evidence-based approach is such that "…typically refers to programs and practices that are proven to be effective through sound research methodology and have produced consistently positive patterns of results." (Welsh, 2007, p.1) EBCP is reported to ensure that "the best available evidence is considered in the decision to develop and implement a program or…
A program is stated to be "in contrast, focused on an effort to change, restrict or crate a routine practice in a crime prevention setting." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002) Programs are stated to overtime change into practices with the original introduction of the program upon which these practices are based long forgotten. Stated to be that which makes the "clearest distinction between programs and practices" are those, which require governmental funding as new programs are required to undergo scientific evaluations in the form of those seeking evidence upon which to base crime prevention programs. There is a trend reported toward 'demanding accountability for public expenditures." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002)
Summary and Conclusion
No longer does the flavor of the month in crime prevention efforts and initiatives work to allay the fears of citizens and law enforcement professionals in addressing crime because crime is an ever growing and evolving phenomena in society. Law enforcement has matured in the United States and due to the heavy workload of law enforcement professionals the methods chosen for prevention of crime must necessarily be effective or 'evidence-based' methods. Canada has implemented evidence-based programs for crime prevention and policing control and it has been clearly demonstrated in this study that evidenced-base practices and programs are those based on scientific research study findings rather than pop theory. The evidence-based programs are those with efficacy in terms of success. The importance of evidence-based programs is within the effectiveness of the programs on the receiving end of government funding. The public and those in positions of accountability have demanded that evidence-based practices be used in today's law enforcement initiative because these programs are effective and cost-efficient through successful reduction of crime. This work has reviewed some of the programs and initiatives used that are evidence-based including school-based programs that are evidence-based as well as family- and community-based programs and place-focused programs.
Doing this ensures early identification of an unknown crime hence, the adoption of proactive approaches against it. Achieving this relies on the establishment of a positive relationship between the police and the truck drivers (U.S., 2001).
Establishing park watch in the community also helps in preventing violent crime since it addresses a wide range of criminal acts. The program aims at enlisting the users of the park and neighbors to take the responsibility of watching over the parks. Significant evidence shows that involving the youth in activities that involve them in building the community reduces the rates of violent crimes in the community. Engaging the youth in different activities such as cleaning the parks and recreational spaces creates a healthy environment that attack a variety of economic activities. Through this, the unemployed youth acquires alternative source of income contributing to the minimization of violent crimes caused by youth unemployment. Other…
Gilligan, J. (2001). Preventing violence. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Texas Department of Criminal Justice Community Justice Assistance Division (2014). Battering Intervention and Prevention Program (BIPP) Accreditation Guideline. New York: Texas Department of Criminal Justice.
Workplace Violence Prevention. (n.d.). FBI. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov /stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/january2011/workplace_violence_prevention
(U.S.), O. Of the S.G., (U.S.), N.C. For I.P. And C., (U.S.), N.I. Of M.H., & (U.S.), C. For M.H.S. (2001). Chapter 5 -- Prevention and Intervention. Text. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44295/
Free Press, 1998.
Lab, Steven P. Crime Prevention, Seventh Edition: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations.
Anderson; 7th Edition. 2010. Print.
Snell, Clete. Neighborhood Structure, Crime, and Fear of Crime: Testing Bursik and Grasmick's
Neighborhood Control Theory. LFB Scholarly Publishing. 2001. Print.
University of Richmond. Thriving Neighborhoods. Solutions for America. 2003. eb. Accessed
on January 10, 2011: http://www.solutionsforamerica.org/thrivingneigh/crime-prevention.html
Thesis: The "broken windows" theory is the best way to explain neighborhood crime, as it relates to social disorder and a lack of control in the neighborhood; when social disorder arises as a lack of connection between individuals and their neighborhood, crime always follows.
I. Crime isn't associated with individuals, but rather with neighborhoods
Systematic theory of neighborhood control
differences in neighborhood crime, victimization, and fear of crime can best be explained by variations in the abilities of neighborhoods to regulate and control the behavior of their residents
Victimization and a…
Elliott, Delbert S., Menard, Scott., Rankin, Bruce., Elliott, Amanda., Wilson, William Julius & Huizinga, David. Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social
Context. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition. 2006. Print.
J-Rank.org. "Causes of Crime -- Social and Economic Factors." 2011. Web. Accessed on January
10, 2011: http://law.jrank.org/pages/11999/Causes-Crime-Social-economic-factors.html
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…
Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:
victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.
Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.
Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245
Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951
Ybarra, L.M.R. & Lohr, S.L. (2002). Estimates of repeat victimization using the national crime victimization survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(1).
Social Class And Crime
For this study the researcher chose to explore social class and crime rates, because while there are many studies conducted on race and crime and gender and crime or related factors, social class seems to be something that is relatively little regarded in modern times at least in places like the U.S. Social class is often a large predictor of factors including crime in many countries overseas, but it is sometimes something that is overlooked in the U.S., where people assume democracy guarantees people the right to safety. Studies suggest however that this is very often not the case.
Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.
In this research study, the authors explore social cohesion and collective efficacy, which they define as the willingness of neighbors to intervene "on behalf of the common good" which they hypothesize is essential to reducing violence. The…
Flango, V.E. & Sherbenou, E.L. (2006 March Online) Poverty, Urbanization & Crime.
Criminology. Vol. 14, Issue 3. Pp. 331-346.
Logan, J.R., & Stults, B.J. (1999 May). Racial differences in exposure to crime: The city and suburbs of Cleveland in 1990. Criminology. Vol. 37(2) pp.251-276.
Markowitz, F.E., Bellair, P.E., Liska, A.E., Liu, J. (2006 Mar). Extending social disorganization theory: Modeling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology. Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 293-319.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…
"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
Crime in the City of Philadelphia
The crime rate in Philadelphia has been a major issue for many years. Philadelphia is known as one of the cities with a highest crime rate in America. Crime is any act committed that breaks the laws, breaking rules that were established by a state or federal authority. New York, Chicago and Los Angeles are cities that are bigger than Philadelphia, with much larger populations, however they have lower crime rates compared to Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Police Department have made many different attempts and tried several strategies in an effort to reduce crime rate in this city. In 2002 the Police Department launched Operation Safe Streets, where police officers were placed on all the known drug infested streets in attempt decrease crime rates (Lawton, Taylor & Luongo, 2005). In this paper I will discuss some of the issues associated with the crime rate…
Barlas, F. & Farrie, D. (2006). Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety: Social Disorganization and Racial Differences in the Impact of Neighborhood Characteristics. American Sociological Association.
Census (2010). Philadelphia population by race and ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.clrsearch.com/Philadelphia_Demographics/MS/Population-by-Race-and-Ethnicity
Lawton, B.A., Taylor, R.B. & Luongo, A.J. (2005). Police Officers on Drug Corner in Philadelphia, Drug, Crime and Violent Crime: Intended, Diffusion, and Displacement Impacts. Justice Quarterly. 22 (4) 427-451
Miller, L.L. (2010). The invisible black victim: How American Federalism perpetuates racial inequality in criminal justice. Law and Society Review. 44 (3/4) 805-842
Traditional Crime Policy
Over the last several decades, the policy approach that is used in enforcing the law has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a sharp rise in the crime rates around the world since the end of World War II. At first, these increases were believed to be a part of the adverse changes from the war and its impact on society. (Gilling)
However, by the 1950s it was obvious that society was facing tremendous challenges with these rates. In response, a series of studies were conducted to effectively deal with the root causes of criminal activity (by focusing on the pathology of the individual). This created heated debates between traditional and evidence based advocates, who believed that the current approach can address these issues (by serving as a deterrent for everyone). (Gilling)
As a result, tough sentences were handed down to…
"Key Facts at a Glance." BLS, 2011. Web. 5 Sept. 2012
Gilling, Daniel. Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Walker, Samuel. Sense and Nonsense about Drugs. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Less dramatically, in my own personal experience I have known people who have engaged in minor acts of delinquent behavior, for no apparent reason, and I have (successfully, I believe) had to deal with peer pressure to engage in antisocial acts.
In this course I would like to learn more about the juvenile justice, theories of why young people commit crimes, and how someone's family influences the likelihood that they will commit a crime. On a persona level, I am interested in family law in general, since so many of my friends come from divorced homes and have had to deal with the family court system. I think the course would prove useful in many fields I might choose to enter, including education, social work, the law, or law enforcement.
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
Over the last several years, the issue of juvenile crime has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of concerns about how to effectively deal with this problem vs. using traditional approaches (i.e. incarceration). As a result, the rates will vary dramatically when comparing the different decades with each other. This has created periods that will see an increase in juvenile crime (which is followed by sharp declines). In a number of situations, a host of theories have been introduced to help explain why these decreases are occurring. (Butts, 2007, pg. 16)
One of the notable is the quality of education. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Lochner (2003) who says, "There are a number of reasons to believe that education will affect subsequent crime. First, schooling increases the returns to legitimate work, raising the opportunity costs of illicit behavior. Additionally, punishment for…
Brewer, D. (2010). Economics of Education. San Francisco, CA: Academic Press.
Butts, J. (2007). Where Are Juvenile Crime Trends Headed? Juvenile and Family Justice Today, 16 -- 21.
Edwards, H. (2001). Lecturing. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gregory, G. (2007). Differentiated Instructional Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.
4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.
5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).
One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…
Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.
Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.
Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
Post-arrest, the promising programs included: drug courts, drug treatment in jails, intensive supervision and aftercare of juvenile offenders, and the use of fines and other penalties in lieu of incarceration for technical violations. (Sherman, 1998, p. 82-85).
From the results, the reviewers were able to come to several different conclusions. First, they concluded that there is widespread interest in the use of scientific evidence in criminological policy-making. However, they also concluded that "the current development of scientific evidence is inadequate to the task of policymaking." (Sherman, 1998, p.86). They suggest the use of control groups to help increase external validity. They also suggest looking at the geography of crime. Finally, they believe that there is simply a need for a greater number of impact evaluations. All of these recommendations make sense and help explain how the scientific process can help policymakers identify appropriate crime-prevention strategies.
One of the most encouraging…
In addition, they could be effective in super high-crime hot spots, such as the bar the authors describe in Minneapolis, which recorded an astounding number of assaults throughout the year; roughly 1 in 4 patrons would suffer an assault during the study (Sherman et al. 44). Thus, random patrols in a hot-spot area like this could help deter crime and apprehend offenders. However, chances are that the very nature of the random patrol would be so random that it would not encounter criminal activity, and so, it would be less effective than other forms of patrol.
Interestingly, most patrol officers disagree with the findings of these studies. Author Kelling and his colleagues write, "Three-fourths of those surveyed in the South Patrol Division [in Kansas City] more than moderately agreed that routine patrol was the most important function of the department" (Kelling, et al. 38). This is not only because they…
Kelling, George L., Pate, Tony, Dieckman, Duane, and Brown, Charles E. The Kansas City
Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report. Washington DC: Police Foundation, 1974.
Kessler, David a. "One or Two Officer Cars? A Perspective From Kansas City." Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 13, 1985. pp. 49-64.
Sherman, Lawrence W., Gartin, Patrick R, and Buerger, Michael E. "Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place." Criminology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1989. 27-55.
Vice refers specifically to crimes of a moral nature and usually refers specifically to prostitution, gambling, and also the dealing of drugs. Vice activities are defined differently by different communities and in general do not represent the laws of the nation or even of the state. Moreover, vice crimes are to be contrasted with crimes of a violent nature. Vice crime is community-defined; local laws generally reflect the social and political beliefs of its citizens as well as their expectations of the character of the jurisdiction. The town of Spurberry has a relatively low incidence of violent crime but vice crime is relatively common. Therefore, the Spurberry Police Department has had to beef up its vice squad in response to the growing needs of the community.
Spurberry is a mid-sized suburban town in the American Midwest with a population of 20, 371. The population is largely middle-class and mostly Caucasian.…
(and please do not forget to include a reference!)
What are some benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on places instead of people? How does crime analysis relate to this practice?
Crime prevention efforts focused upon 'place' are founded upon an idea that the environment gives rise to crime, rather than a failure of an individual's will. By creating an environment not conducive to crime that is heavily patrolled by police and neighborhood watch units, for example, there can be potential improvement of the crime rate, not simply more persons convicted of crimes. This requires the analysis of high risk areas for crime in particular city districts. This concept heavily underlines the UK approach called 'neighbourhood policing,' "a truly local policing style: local people working with local police and partners to identify and tackle issues of concern in their neighbourhood" (About safer neighbourhoods, 2014, Metropolitan Police). The approach taken…
Greek, C. (2005). The classical school. Criminal Theory Homepage. Retrieved:
New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/08/03/new-laws-make-criminal-pasts-off-limits-in-california-city/
The article under reviewed was published August 3, 2013 by Fox News Network. The article states that a suburb of San Francisco has made it illegal for city contractors to inquire about the criminal histories of prospective employees. This city of 100,000 people stated to be "troubled by crime and high unemployment" is part of what is reported as a national trend with the design to bring about an improvement in the employment possibilities of community members "amid wider incarceration." (Fox News, 2013, p.1) Private companies who have contracts with the city and who employ more than nine people are prohibited from asking about the criminal record of applicants. Field research could be handled in this area of study through conducting a survey of applicants who have applied with companies with…
New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/08/03/new-laws-make-criminal-pasts-off-limits-in-california-city/
Surveymonkey (2013) Perceptions of Crime Survey. Retrieved from: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/59VSPHD
motivates people or corporations to partake in enterprise crime?
Among the peculiar aspects that come with business ethics, as in comparison with other domain names of applied ethics, is it handles a wide array of human matters which are more often than not stricken by serious criminality, as well as an institutional structure and atmosphere that is also oftentimes noticeably criminally inclined (Hilts, 2003). The oddity of the situation may also be lost on professionals within the area. It's quite common, for example, at business ethics discussions for most of presentations to become more concerned with straight-forward criminality and they tend to avoid ethical issues within these debates which are actually where we find frequent questions regarding where the correct strategy for countering crimes lies. In this way, all of the discussions of the 'ethics dilemmas' at the beginning of the twenty-first century continues to be very deceptive, since the…
Doris, J.: 2002, Lack of Character (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).
Friedrichs, D. O. And Schwartz, M.D. (2008). Low Self-Control and High Organizational Control: The Paradoxes of White Collar Crimes. In E. Goode (Ed.), Out of Control? Assessing the general theory of crime (pp. 145-159). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Heath, J. 2008, Business Ethics and Moral Motivation: A Criminological Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 83:595 -- 614.
Heath, J.: 2006, 'Business Ethics Without Stakeholders', Business Ethics Quarterly 16, 533 -- 557.
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…
Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921
Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.