Crime Prevention Essays (Examples)

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Crime Reduction and Prevention Proposal for Detroit

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26693638

Crime eduction and Prevention Proposal for Detroit

Crime Prevention Proposal for Detroit, Michigan

In the midst of a very instable economic environment around the nation, it is crucial for all cities to bump up their strategies at preventing crime in order to be able to avoid future costs associated with fighting crime and imprisoning criminals. Crime prevention is one of the most cost effective strategies in criminal justice, and it can help save property and lives. This is especially crucial for the city of Detroit, which faces its own set of unique challenges in a severely volatile economy that has the potential to lead to increase in a wide variety of crimes, making prevention methods and strategies a crucial tool for local law enforcement.

First and foremost, the city of Detroit needs to bolster its community policing programs through increased community involvement with its law enforcement agencies. Unfortunately, the number…… [Read More]

References

Gray, Steven. (2009). In Detroit, improvement on crime? Time Magazine. Web. http://detroit.blogs.time.com/2009/10/26/in-detroit-improvement-on-crime/

Kerlikowske, Gil & Davis, Robert. (2008). Twelve Tenets to Prevent Crime and Terrorism: Major Cities Chiefs Association. Homeland Security Committee. Web.  https://www.majorcitieschiefs.com/pdf/MCC_12TenetFinal52108.pdf
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Crime as Schmalleger Explains the American Juvenile-Justice

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34971095

Crime

As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.

Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
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Crime and Violence

Words: 1708 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70633697

Crime and Violence: Cultural eliefs and iases

Religion and Stereotyping

Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).

Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, A. C. (2015). Race, Prison Discipline, and the Law. UC IRVINE LAW REVIEW, 759.

Barak, G. (2009). Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Ways of Seeing Difference. Second Annual Conference on RACE, GENDER and CLASS.

Blow, C. M. (2014). Crime, Bias and Statistics. Retrieved from The New York Times:  https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/08/opinion/charles-blow-crime-bias-and-statistics.html 

Becker, Gary S. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (1968): 169 -- 217.
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Crime Arm New York to

Words: 690 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54089909



New York City has some of the toughest gun laws in the country. And it's essentially impossible for a normal, law-abiding citizen to acquire a concealed handgun permit. The result is that the majority of New Yorkers are defenseless against the criminals who wish to prey on them. As pointed out by the NY Times article, the SQF program does little to stop criminals, but does a great deal to strip away a New Yorker's fundamental right of self-defense. This is counterintuitive to public safety. hile crime prevention is an important aspect of police work, the reality is the majority of the time law enforcement arrives after a crime has been committed.

The answer then is to arm New York. Arm the public. Restore their fundamental right of self-defense. There's an old saying, "An armed society is a polite society," and this rings true all across the country (except for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blannelberry, S.H. (2011). Ron Paul on Guns. Guns.com. Retrieved from http://www.guns.com/ron-paul-on-guns.html

McKnight, G.D. (1998). The Last Crusade: Martin Luther King, Jr., the FBI and the Poor People's Campaign. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Rivera, R., Baker, a. & Roberts, J. (2010, July 6). A Few Blocks, 4 Years, 52,000

Police Stop. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/12/nyregion/12frisk.html?_r=1
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Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal

Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452

Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:  http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
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Crime Has Been Taking Place Although the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63695941

crime has been taking place. Although the forms of crime have evolved, so too has the strategies used to prevent crime. This essay will compare and contrast three of most common Crime Prevention strategies, which are, environmental design, social intervention and situational intervention. Crime prevention generally refers to preventing crime and anti-social behavior before it occurs. Crime Prevention Victoria, defines crime prevention as "any public or privately based initiative or policy aimed at reducing or eliminating criminal behavior, violence and fear of crime or violence in the community" (Armstrong, 2002). This essay aims to demonstrate not only the strengths and weaknesses of these three strategies but also to identify the individual crime causation theory that each strategy is based around. These being

ne of the main crime prevention strategies used around the world is environmental design. This strategy is based on the relationship that is created between people and the…… [Read More]

One of the extreme levels of environmental design strategies being used today is through gated communities. Gated communities are small groups of residents who are enclosed and separated from the rest of society. A good example of gated communities can be seen in South Africa, which is known for its extremely high crime rates, it also has the highest amount of gated communities (Landman,2008). Gated communities in South Africa incorporate all physical elements by either high walls, gates, electric gates, alarm systems, boom gates, check ins and even access cards (Landman,2008). Gated communities are created with the basic principles of the environmental design strategy (Landman,2008). These communities are defensible spaces, target hardened and have advanced access control. Throughout the U.S., two and a half million citizens live in gated communities (Blakely & Snyder 1998).

Environmental design theory also has a strong connection to routine activity theory. Routine activity theory states that for a crime to be committed, three things need to be present, an offender, a target and no one watching the target (Chainey,2005). Environmental theory aims at removing two of these mentioned items, by closing off areas to the public possible offenders are removed and by using such things as natural vision or CCTV there is always the possibility of someone watching. According to routine activity theory without any one of these items the crime can not take place (Chainey,2005).

However people argue that changes made to the built environment to reduce crime often simply cause offenders to move their criminal behaviors to other locations. For this reason design theory can be seen to do little against causes of crime (CSRI,2003). By increasing protection, people argue that they are just funneling criminals to more unprotected areas or forcing criminals to commit more dangerous crimes (CSIR,2003). Environmental design can therefore not always be totally preventive and needs to be constantly reviewed and adapted to fight against the ever learning criminal mind. It is also important for crime preventions strategies to be adapted to specific areas as what works in one situation might not be appropriate in another. Numerous factors influence crime and all of these will affect the way in which it needs to be
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Crime for Many Years Sociologists Criminologists and

Words: 1637 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39857678

Crime

For many years, sociologists, criminologists, and other scientists have been examining crime and what deviant behavior to help understand and gain control on society and prevent potential victims and fairly treat offenders who do commit crimes. However, many experts like Emile Durkheim feel there is a lot to be considered besides what is deemed as wrong. Durkheim, a French sociology expert from the late 1800s, who felt that deviance was a typical part of a society in order for it to function normally because it sets the moral margins of a society that lets people know what is and what is not tolerated (Henry, Lanier 1-80). Theories and conflicts of crimes and the assumptions and contrasting arguments of what influences and provokes deviance within a given culture have caused people to develop different views and beliefs.

People, like Stuart Henry and Mark Lanier, who examine crime and the subsets…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Walsh. "Introduction and Overview of Crime and Criminology." Sagepub.

(2008): 1-19. Web. 7 May 2011
/23879Page119.pdf>.

"Criminological Theory: Past to Present." Essential readings (2002): n.
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Crime the Importance and Significance

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3336847

The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.

These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof

Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.

Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html

Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
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Crimes against Property

Words: 1288 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50256713

The common characteristics of all property crimes

Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Delinquency and Crime's Impact

Words: 2126 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83690595

Crime and Its Impact on Youth

Crime impacts children differently than it does adults. This paper examines the differences and the reasons children are affected uniquely by crime. It looks in particularly at the multiple theories that can be used to explain these impacts, such as Strain Theory and Social Control Theory. It also identifies the unique challenges that children and adults face as they struggle to cope both with the environments in which they live and the criminal justice systems that confront them. The paper concludes that children are uniquely impacted by crime because they are still in their developmental stage, wherein their psychology and physicality are still highly susceptible to external influences.

Introduction

Children suffer from the effects of crime in different ways from adults. This is primarily due to the fact that children are still developing, both cognitively and physically, whereas adults are already developed. Crime thus…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems.

(pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.

Benns, W. (2015). American Slavery, Reinvented. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/prison-labor-in-america/406177/
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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565

Crime

On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]

References

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Crime Detection and Prevention it Is an

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49799329

Crime Detection and Prevention

It is an unfortunate fact of modern society that crime and criminal activity are part of our world today. This is particularly the case in situations that make an easy target for criminals. ape and robbery, for example, tend to be encouraged in environments that appear to be easy targets. All-night convenience stores, for example, may appear to be easy targets because they have low security features and often have only one employee per shift. The specific crime under discussion in this case is therefore the night-time robbery of all-night convenience stores.

When considering the factors in the Problem Analysis Chart offered by Clarke and Eck (p. 29), the environment provides a significant incentive for criminal activity. A convenience store at a remote location, for example, might appear to be an "easy" target for robbery. The problem analysis triangle, or crime trianble, may therefore offer valuable…… [Read More]

References

Center for Problem Oriented Policing. (n.d.). Twenty Five Techniques of Situational Prevention. Retrieved from:  http://www.popcenter.org/library/25%20techniques%20grid.pdf 

Clarke, R.V. And Eck, J.E. (n.d.) Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from:  http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/60steps.pdf 

Crime in America.net (2011, Feb 22). Top 10 Factors Contributing to Violent Crime. Retrieved from:  http://www.crimeinamerica.net/2011/02/22/top-10-factors-contributing-to-violent-crime/
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Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus

Words: 1861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68215282

Crime

In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.

When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…… [Read More]

References

Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.

GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from:  http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp 

Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
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Crime Trends in Indiana 1981-2011 With an

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51825625

Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011

With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.

Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.

Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from  http://www.stats.indiana.edu  August 15, 2011.

Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from  http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com  August 15, 2011.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]

References

Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
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Low-Crime Community an Analysis of

Words: 2387 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20446829

In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)

It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
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Community Safety and Crime Reduction An Evaluation

Words: 4216 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35797603

Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology

ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…… [Read More]

References

Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: < http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/october/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released > [Accessed 8 January 2013].

Grolle, S., 2009. CCTV to Prevent Crime? To What Extent Does CCTV Prevent Crime and How Does it Effect the Life in Our Cities. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
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Terrorism Prevention Identify and Define

Words: 2617 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19799465



Outline the Minneapolis Domestic violence experiment, cite its findings and discuss the results of its replication studies. Compare and contrast collective and selective incapacitation with suitable examples

The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment was an evaluation of how effective the Minneapolis police responded to various domestic violence calls. The experiment was conducted between 1982 and 1982 by Lawrence W. Sherman, and the Minneapolis Police Department. Funding was supported by the National Institute of Justice. From a pool of known domestic violence offenders who there was a possibility for arrest, the study required the officers to select randomly one third for arrest, one third for counseling, and one third for separation with their partners Buzawa and Buzawa ()

. From the three methods suggested for dealing with domestic violence offenders, arrest was found to be the most effective. Those arrested during the study had been deterred from committing the offence again. The…… [Read More]

References

Buzawa, E.S., and C.G. Buzawa. Domestic Violence: The Criminal Justice Response. 1 Oliver's Yard: SAGE Publications, 2003. Print.

Lab, S.P. Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations. Maryland Heights, MO 63043: Elsevier Science, 2013. Print.

Wilkinson, P. Terrorism vs. Democracy. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis Group, 2011. Print.
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Bcu Local Crime Community Action Q1 How

Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11013543

BCU Local Crime Community Action

Q1 ow long have you lived in this neighborhood and do you know all your neighbors by face and name and if not can you see reasons for this, please explain?

Rationale 1 This question is designed to attempt to understand how well the neighborhood knows one another and if there is at least facial recognition between long time residents and student tenants. This question also attempts to create a written rather than anecdotal record of the residential beliefs regarding the variant student population and the increase in crime and is open ended for this purpose.

Q2 When did you first notice that crime began to increase and can you describe the events and experiences that you have been witness to or been victim of in relation to crime?

Rationale 2 Again this question is a way of discerning the current crime conditions and to…… [Read More]

Hope T. 2007. The Distribution of Household Property Crime Victimisation: Insights from the British Crime Survey. In Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies Vol. 22, edited by M.G. Maxfield and M. Hough. Uffculme, Devon: Willan / New York: Criminal Justice Press.

Shu SC-F. 1999. Housing layout and crime vulnerability. In Space Syntax - Second International Symposium Proceedings 1: 25

Shu, S. And J. Huang. 2003. Spatial Configuration and Vulnerability of residential Burglary: A Case study of a city in Taiwan. In Proceedings, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by J. Hanson. London: The Bartlett, UCL.
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Gang Prevention Program Gangs Contain

Words: 5590 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76787344



George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.

Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs

Suppression techniques may be one of the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009

from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx

ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.

Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
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Measurement of Crime

Words: 1345 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2965408

Evidenced-Based Practice in Canadian Policing and Crime Prevention

The objective of this work in writing is to examine evidence-based policing and crime prevention practice in Canada and to report on the same. ccording to the Public Safety Canada document entitled "evidence-based Crime Prevention: Scientific Basis, Trends, Results and Implications" policy on crime prevention and practice "should be based on solid scientific knowledge and evidence. Even though support for and recognition of evidence-based crime prevention (EBCP) is growing, much work still remains to put this knowledge into practice. " (Welsh, 2007, p.1) The report states that the evidence-based approach is such that "…typically refers to programs and practices that are proven to be effective through sound research methodology and have produced consistently positive patterns of results." (Welsh, 2007, p.1) EBCP is reported to ensure that "the best available evidence is considered in the decision to develop and implement a program or…… [Read More]

A program is stated to be "in contrast, focused on an effort to change, restrict or crate a routine practice in a crime prevention setting." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002) Programs are stated to overtime change into practices with the original introduction of the program upon which these practices are based long forgotten. Stated to be that which makes the "clearest distinction between programs and practices" are those, which require governmental funding as new programs are required to undergo scientific evaluations in the form of those seeking evidence upon which to base crime prevention programs. There is a trend reported toward 'demanding accountability for public expenditures." (Sherman, Farrington, Welch and MacKenzie, 2002)

Summary and Conclusion

No longer does the flavor of the month in crime prevention efforts and initiatives work to allay the fears of citizens and law enforcement professionals in addressing crime because crime is an ever growing and evolving phenomena in society. Law enforcement has matured in the United States and due to the heavy workload of law enforcement professionals the methods chosen for prevention of crime must necessarily be effective or 'evidence-based' methods. Canada has implemented evidence-based programs for crime prevention and policing control and it has been clearly demonstrated in this study that evidenced-base practices and programs are those based on scientific research study findings rather than pop theory. The evidence-based programs are those with efficacy in terms of success. The importance of evidence-based programs is within the effectiveness of the programs on the receiving end of government funding. The public and those in positions of accountability have demanded that evidence-based practices be used in today's law enforcement initiative because these programs are effective and cost-efficient through successful reduction of crime. This work has reviewed some of the programs and initiatives used that are evidence-based including school-based programs that are evidence-based as well as family- and community-based programs and place-focused programs.
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How to Prevent Violent Crime in My Personal and Professional Life

Words: 1919 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31972571

Doing this ensures early identification of an unknown crime hence, the adoption of proactive approaches against it. Achieving this relies on the establishment of a positive relationship between the police and the truck drivers (U.S., 2001).

Establishing park watch in the community also helps in preventing violent crime since it addresses a wide range of criminal acts. The program aims at enlisting the users of the park and neighbors to take the responsibility of watching over the parks. Significant evidence shows that involving the youth in activities that involve them in building the community reduces the rates of violent crimes in the community. Engaging the youth in different activities such as cleaning the parks and recreational spaces creates a healthy environment that attack a variety of economic activities. Through this, the unemployed youth acquires alternative source of income contributing to the minimization of violent crimes caused by youth unemployment. Other…… [Read More]

References

Gilligan, J. (2001). Preventing violence. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Texas Department of Criminal Justice Community Justice Assistance Division (2014). Battering Intervention and Prevention Program (BIPP) Accreditation Guideline. New York: Texas Department of Criminal Justice.

Workplace Violence Prevention. (n.d.). FBI. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/january2011/workplace_violence_prevention

(U.S.), O. Of the S.G., (U.S.), N.C. For I.P. And C., (U.S.), N.I. Of M.H., & (U.S.), C. For M.H.S. (2001). Chapter 5 -- Prevention and Intervention. Text. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44295/
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Environmental Manipulation as a Crime

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83037833

Along the same lines incivilities deals with the notion that low level breaches of community standards indicate erosion of conventionally accepted norms and values enhancing people's fear of crime and signaling that a particular area is out of control, possibly increasing the incidence of crime (298).

Worrall notes that CPTED works to inhibit criminal activity in areas such as residences and areas surrounding residences, businesses, public transportation locations, such as bus terminals and airports, parking garages, and open spaces through target hardening interventions environmental modifications, and increased awareness of law abiding citizenry. These interventions include; access control -- that practice of limiting access to only legitimate users and target hardening, that is efforts to make it more difficult for criminals to target specific locations, surveillance - defined as any method of ensuring that offenders will been seen, activity support -- functions that assist and enhance interaction between citizens and other…… [Read More]

References

Worrall, J.L. (2008). Crime control in America:What works? Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Neighborhood Crime Looking at a

Words: 1791 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25732146

Free Press, 1998.

Lab, Steven P. Crime Prevention, Seventh Edition: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations.

Anderson; 7th Edition. 2010. Print.

Snell, Clete. Neighborhood Structure, Crime, and Fear of Crime: Testing Bursik and Grasmick's

Neighborhood Control Theory. LFB Scholarly Publishing. 2001. Print.

University of Richmond. Thriving Neighborhoods. Solutions for America. 2003. eb. Accessed

on January 10, 2011: http://www.solutionsforamerica.org/thrivingneigh/crime-prevention.html

OUTLINE

Thesis: The "broken windows" theory is the best way to explain neighborhood crime, as it relates to social disorder and a lack of control in the neighborhood; when social disorder arises as a lack of connection between individuals and their neighborhood, crime always follows.

I. Crime isn't associated with individuals, but rather with neighborhoods

A.

Systematic theory of neighborhood control

B.

differences in neighborhood crime, victimization, and fear of crime can best be explained by variations in the abilities of neighborhoods to regulate and control the behavior of their residents

Victimization and a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elliott, Delbert S., Menard, Scott., Rankin, Bruce., Elliott, Amanda., Wilson, William Julius & Huizinga, David. Good Kids from Bad Neighborhoods: Successful Development in Social

Context. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition. 2006. Print.

J-Rank.org. "Causes of Crime -- Social and Economic Factors." 2011. Web. Accessed on January

10, 2011:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/11999/Causes-Crime-Social-economic-factors.html
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Social Marketing Plan Stop Crime Be a

Words: 3285 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30386786

Social Marketing Plan

Stop Crime, Be a Human first

Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).

According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…… [Read More]

References

SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at  http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm  (Accessed 18 May 2011)

BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm  (Accessed 18 May 2011)

Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor

Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
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Hate Bias Crimes in New Jersey

Words: 2722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1918204

Hate is in fact moving the modern society away from freedom and democracy, and it is imperative that remedial measures are taken immediately to combat this. (Shulman, 1997)

Some of the tools, other than legal options, can be education, and the promotion of social interaction between different groups. However, there are frequent criticisms of the law, stating that it is more 'reactive' than 'proactive', meaning that legal remedies are more often than not applied to actions that have already taken place, rather than preventing them, like for example, when a hate crime has already taken place, then the law can be applied. However, the law is far above being just a punitive measure to be taken whenever necessary; law, in the form of legal sanctions, or human rights laws, or laws meant for immigration, or the law made by a judge, also known as 'common law', is primarily meant to…… [Read More]

References

About ADL, Hate Crimes" Retrieved at http://www.adl.org/focus_sheets/focus_hate_crimes.asp. Accessed on 23 July, 2005

Bell, Jeannine. "O Say! Can you see: Free expression by the light of fiery Crosses" Retrieved From www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crcl/vol39_2/bell.pdf+the+words+of+a+criminal+statute+in+New+Jersey+that+penalizes+the+perpetrator+of+hate/bias+crimes.+&hl=en"  http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crcl/vol39_2/bell.pdf . Accessed on 22 July, 2005

Constitutional Rights Foundation: Bill of Rights in Action" (Summer, 1994) Retrieved at http://www.crf-usa.org/bria/bria10_3.html. Accessed on 22 July, 2005

Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice" Retrieved at http://www.ccis.edu/online/schedule/syllabi/CJAD320B.pdf. Accessed on 22 July, 2005
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Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an

Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6186798

The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…… [Read More]

References

Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

 http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/18/local/la-me-ln-feuer-guns-20130418
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Victimization Theories of Crime Victimization Theories of

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51701514

victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.

Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.

Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245

Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951

Ybarra, L.M.R. & Lohr, S.L. (2002). Estimates of repeat victimization using the national crime victimization survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(1).
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Technology in Crime Analysis Technology Used in

Words: 818 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94076573

Technology in Crime Analysis

Technology used in crime analysis

In the contemporary society, there are various crimes that are experienced and in response there have been varied crime analysis techniques that have been employed to ensure the crimes are reduced to the minimum possible.

One of the most accurate and widely applicable technology used in crime reduction is DNA profiling. This involves taking any material like blood, sweat, saliva or even chunks of flesh from the crime scene and subjected to the DNA profiling process and if the VNT (variable number Tandem repeats), which are unique to each individual, are found to be matching to that which is in the database, it is a lead to the possibility of the person having committed the crime or being present at the scene (Shanna Freeman, 2012).

Collecting, storing and retrieving information

For effective crime profiling, there are various ways of data collection…… [Read More]

References

IEEE, (2012). Control Methods in Data-Storage Systems. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6104200&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6104200

Lynch, J. & Jarvis, J. (2008). Missing Data and Imputation in the Uniform Crime Reports

and the Effects on National Estimates. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 24, No 1, 69-85. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/ucr-nibrs-vs.-ncvs-analyzing-criminal-data-5755964.html

Rand, M. (2006). The national crime victimization survey: 34 years of measuring crime in the United States. Statistical Journal of the United Nations ECE 23. 289-301. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/ucr-nibrs-vs.-ncvs-analyzing-criminal-data-5755964.html
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Philadelphia Crime in the City of Philadelphia

Words: 1317 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43362826

Philadelphia

Crime in the City of Philadelphia

The crime rate in Philadelphia has been a major issue for many years. Philadelphia is known as one of the cities with a highest crime rate in America. Crime is any act committed that breaks the laws, breaking rules that were established by a state or federal authority. New York, Chicago and Los Angeles are cities that are bigger than Philadelphia, with much larger populations, however they have lower crime rates compared to Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Police Department have made many different attempts and tried several strategies in an effort to reduce crime rate in this city. In 2002 the Police Department launched Operation Safe Streets, where police officers were placed on all the known drug infested streets in attempt decrease crime rates (Lawton, Taylor & Luongo, 2005). In this paper I will discuss some of the issues associated with the crime rate…… [Read More]

References

Barlas, F. & Farrie, D. (2006). Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety: Social Disorganization and Racial Differences in the Impact of Neighborhood Characteristics. American Sociological Association.

Census (2010). Philadelphia population by race and ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.clrsearch.com/Philadelphia_Demographics/MS/Population-by-Race-and-Ethnicity

Lawton, B.A., Taylor, R.B. & Luongo, A.J. (2005). Police Officers on Drug Corner in Philadelphia, Drug, Crime and Violent Crime: Intended, Diffusion, and Displacement Impacts. Justice Quarterly. 22 (4) 427-451

Miller, L.L. (2010). The invisible black victim: How American Federalism perpetuates racial inequality in criminal justice. Law and Society Review. 44 (3/4) 805-842
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Social Dimensions of Crime

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80292698

Social Class And Crime

For this study the researcher chose to explore social class and crime rates, because while there are many studies conducted on race and crime and gender and crime or related factors, social class seems to be something that is relatively little regarded in modern times at least in places like the U.S. Social class is often a large predictor of factors including crime in many countries overseas, but it is sometimes something that is overlooked in the U.S., where people assume democracy guarantees people the right to safety. Studies suggest however that this is very often not the case.

Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.

In this research study, the authors explore social cohesion and collective efficacy, which they define as the willingness of neighbors to intervene "on behalf of the common good" which they hypothesize is essential to reducing violence. The…… [Read More]

References:

Flango, V.E. & Sherbenou, E.L. (2006 March Online) Poverty, Urbanization & Crime.

Criminology. Vol. 14, Issue 3. Pp. 331-346.

Logan, J.R., & Stults, B.J. (1999 May). Racial differences in exposure to crime: The city and suburbs of Cleveland in 1990. Criminology. Vol. 37(2) pp.251-276.

Markowitz, F.E., Bellair, P.E., Liska, A.E., Liu, J. (2006 Mar). Extending social disorganization theory: Modeling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology. Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 293-319.
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Measuring Crime

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85722559

Measuring Crime

During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…… [Read More]

References

"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
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Traditional Crime Policy Over the Last Several

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48749685

Traditional Crime Policy

Over the last several decades, the policy approach that is used in enforcing the law has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a sharp rise in the crime rates around the world since the end of World War II. At first, these increases were believed to be a part of the adverse changes from the war and its impact on society. (Gilling)

However, by the 1950s it was obvious that society was facing tremendous challenges with these rates. In response, a series of studies were conducted to effectively deal with the root causes of criminal activity (by focusing on the pathology of the individual). This created heated debates between traditional and evidence based advocates, who believed that the current approach can address these issues (by serving as a deterrent for everyone). (Gilling)

As a result, tough sentences were handed down to…… [Read More]

References

"Key Facts at a Glance." BLS, 2011. Web. 5 Sept. 2012

Gilling, Daniel. Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.

Walker, Samuel. Sense and Nonsense about Drugs. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
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Family Delinquency and Crime I

Words: 303 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13978724

Less dramatically, in my own personal experience I have known people who have engaged in minor acts of delinquent behavior, for no apparent reason, and I have (successfully, I believe) had to deal with peer pressure to engage in antisocial acts.

In this course I would like to learn more about the juvenile justice, theories of why young people commit crimes, and how someone's family influences the likelihood that they will commit a crime. On a persona level, I am interested in family law in general, since so many of my friends come from divorced homes and have had to deal with the family court system. I think the course would prove useful in many fields I might choose to enter, including education, social work, the law, or law enforcement.… [Read More]

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Positivist Theory of Crime Lombroso

Words: 1786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72636028

Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso

Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory

The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.

Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)

Three Types of Positivism

Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from:  http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract 

Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
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Youth Crime Over the Last Several Years

Words: 2146 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49908882

Youth Crime

Over the last several years, the issue of juvenile crime has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of concerns about how to effectively deal with this problem vs. using traditional approaches (i.e. incarceration). As a result, the rates will vary dramatically when comparing the different decades with each other. This has created periods that will see an increase in juvenile crime (which is followed by sharp declines). In a number of situations, a host of theories have been introduced to help explain why these decreases are occurring. (Butts, 2007, pg. 16)

One of the notable is the quality of education. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Lochner (2003) who says, "There are a number of reasons to believe that education will affect subsequent crime. First, schooling increases the returns to legitimate work, raising the opportunity costs of illicit behavior. Additionally, punishment for…… [Read More]

References

Brewer, D. (2010). Economics of Education. San Francisco, CA: Academic Press.

Butts, J. (2007). Where Are Juvenile Crime Trends Headed? Juvenile and Family Justice Today, 16 -- 21.

Edwards, H. (2001). Lecturing. New York, NY: Routledge.

Gregory, G. (2007). Differentiated Instructional Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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Violence Prevention Plan Problem Oriented

Words: 2104 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98696280



3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.

4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.

5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).

One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…… [Read More]

References

Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.

Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.

Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
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Preventing Crime What Works What

Words: 3144 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54158290

Post-arrest, the promising programs included: drug courts, drug treatment in jails, intensive supervision and aftercare of juvenile offenders, and the use of fines and other penalties in lieu of incarceration for technical violations. (Sherman, 1998, p. 82-85).

From the results, the reviewers were able to come to several different conclusions. First, they concluded that there is widespread interest in the use of scientific evidence in criminological policy-making. However, they also concluded that "the current development of scientific evidence is inadequate to the task of policymaking." (Sherman, 1998, p.86). They suggest the use of control groups to help increase external validity. They also suggest looking at the geography of crime. Finally, they believe that there is simply a need for a greater number of impact evaluations. All of these recommendations make sense and help explain how the scientific process can help policymakers identify appropriate crime-prevention strategies.

One of the most encouraging…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Random Prevention Patrol

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96582727

In addition, they could be effective in super high-crime hot spots, such as the bar the authors describe in Minneapolis, which recorded an astounding number of assaults throughout the year; roughly 1 in 4 patrons would suffer an assault during the study (Sherman et al. 44). Thus, random patrols in a hot-spot area like this could help deter crime and apprehend offenders. However, chances are that the very nature of the random patrol would be so random that it would not encounter criminal activity, and so, it would be less effective than other forms of patrol.

Interestingly, most patrol officers disagree with the findings of these studies. Author Kelling and his colleagues write, "Three-fourths of those surveyed in the South Patrol Division [in Kansas City] more than moderately agreed that routine patrol was the most important function of the department" (Kelling, et al. 38). This is not only because they…… [Read More]

References

Kelling, George L., Pate, Tony, Dieckman, Duane, and Brown, Charles E. The Kansas City

Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report. Washington DC: Police Foundation, 1974.

Kessler, David a. "One or Two Officer Cars? A Perspective From Kansas City." Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 13, 1985. pp. 49-64.

Sherman, Lawrence W., Gartin, Patrick R, and Buerger, Michael E. "Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place." Criminology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1989. 27-55.
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Vice Refers Specifically to Crimes of a

Words: 1157 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37851760

Vice refers specifically to crimes of a moral nature and usually refers specifically to prostitution, gambling, and also the dealing of drugs. Vice activities are defined differently by different communities and in general do not represent the laws of the nation or even of the state. Moreover, vice crimes are to be contrasted with crimes of a violent nature. Vice crime is community-defined; local laws generally reflect the social and political beliefs of its citizens as well as their expectations of the character of the jurisdiction. The town of Spurberry has a relatively low incidence of violent crime but vice crime is relatively common. Therefore, the Spurberry Police Department has had to beef up its vice squad in response to the growing needs of the community.

Spurberry is a mid-sized suburban town in the American Midwest with a population of 20, 371. The population is largely middle-class and mostly Caucasian.…… [Read More]

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Classical Theories of Crime vs Modern Theories

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35141854

Advance

(and please do not forget to include a reference!)

What are some benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on places instead of people? How does crime analysis relate to this practice?

Crime prevention efforts focused upon 'place' are founded upon an idea that the environment gives rise to crime, rather than a failure of an individual's will. By creating an environment not conducive to crime that is heavily patrolled by police and neighborhood watch units, for example, there can be potential improvement of the crime rate, not simply more persons convicted of crimes. This requires the analysis of high risk areas for crime in particular city districts. This concept heavily underlines the UK approach called 'neighbourhood policing,' "a truly local policing style: local people working with local police and partners to identify and tackle issues of concern in their neighbourhood" (About safer neighbourhoods, 2014, Metropolitan Police). The approach taken…… [Read More]

References

Greek, C. (2005). The classical school. Criminal Theory Homepage. Retrieved:

http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/week3.htm