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Crime Scene Investigations:
Many crime scene investigations revolved around safeguarding the crime scenes, protecting physical evidence, and gathering and transferring the evidence for scientific evaluation. This process is based on the role that physical evidence plays in the overall investigation and determination of a suspected criminal activity. Notably, the ability for physical evidence to play its role in the overall investigation process is dependent on actions that are taken early enough during the criminal investigation process at the crime scene. In the past few years, criminal investigation processes have been enhanced by technological developments in the examination and interpretation of physical evidence obtained from the crime scene. These developments have place greater emphasis on proper documentation and preservation of evidence. The eventual significance of evidence obtained from the crime scene involves investigations that are thorough, objective, and thoughtful. Nonetheless, crime scene investigations consist of various processes such as controlling the…
"A Guide for General Crime Scene Investigation: Arriving at the Crime Scene." (2009 June 1).
National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.nij.gov/topics/law-enforcement/investigations/crime-scene/guides/general-scenes/arrive.htm
"Crime Scene Investigations: A Guide for Law Enforcement." (n.d.). National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs -- U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/178280.pdf
Garrison, DH (n.d.). Protecting the Crime Scene. Retrieved October 24, 2013, from http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312020/protecting_the_crime_scene.htm
While these standard procedure are relevant in the preservation of any crime scene, certain specifications exist when dealing with the unique challenges associated with the different types of crime scenes including homicides, rapes, arson, and nighttime crime scenes. For instance, in the case of homicide, as well as the aforementioned steps, the area must be preserved for trace evidence such as fingerprints. In the case of rapes or sexual assaults, the victim unfortunately becomes the most essential part of the crime scene and prior to medical examination, these individuals cannot bathe, shower, use the restroom, change clothes, comb hair, clean or tidy themselves, or move anything the offender might have touched (AINN, 2010, pp.1). In the case of arson, unlike burglary or homicide scenes, arson scenes are often not confirmed as actual crime scenes for hours, days or even weeks after the fire is suppressed which makes preservation exceedingly…
Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network. 2010. "Preserving and collecting forensic evidence." Web. Retrieved from: http://www.rainn.org/get-information/aftermath-of-sexual-assault/preserving-and-collecting-forensic-evidence [Accessed on 30 April 2012].
Ross, D. 2012. "Preserving the arson scene." California Fire Journal. Web. Retrieved
from: http://www.carolinafirejournal.com/articles/article-detail/articleid/113/preserving-the-arson-scene.aspx [Accessed on 30 April 2012].
Technical Working Group on Crime Scene Investigation. 2000. "Crime scene investigation: a guide for law enforcement." Department of Justice. Web. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/178280.txt [Accessed on 30 April 2012].
Apparantely in good health, need to investigate insurance and other issues, get medical report.
Married, one-4-year-old son
Appears happily married with young child, no indication of turmoil in marriage; check.
Colleagues say victim was "very organized," and kept to himself, did not make friends nor enemies
Mr. T. appears to be inoffensive, not prone to situations that would engender violence.
Profession: Attorney; normal office hours 8am-5pm; known to work late on cases as necessary
Q: What type of attorney? What are recent cases? Are any controversial or involving something or someone who has a vested interest in keeping information private.
Mr. T. was wearing black pants, a shirt and tie and a wedding ring. The clothing was intact; wallet appeared to be in order, no missing money or credit cards.
Suggests this was not a crime of passion (victim killed not brutalized and left intact); no money or credit…
Helfgott, J. (2008). Criminal Behavior: Theories, Typologies, and Criminal Justice. Thosand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Houck and Siegel. (2010). Fundamentals of Forensic Science. Elsiver.
Koblinsky, L., et.al. (2004). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Wiley-Interscience.
Myers, D. (2004). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
Crime Scene Investigation:
A homicide crime has just occurred at a convenience gas station that included the presence of an employee, a mother, and her 15-year-old son who were witnesses of the crime. Upon arrival at the crime scene as a crime scene investigator at 3a.m, I found the deceased victim with an obvious gunshot wound in the chest as the first officer informed me of the present witnesses. As a crime scene investigator, my primary responsibility is the processing of tasks that are related to latent print work. Consequently, my responsibility does not involve any interviews since I'm not the case detective.
Items to Process for Latent Impressions:
While carrying out responsibilities associated with latent print work and other related tasks, there are various items that can be used processed for latent impressions. Upon arrival at this crime scene, I noticed that the scene had already been secured, integrity…
"Evidence Collection Guidelines." (n.d.). Crime Scene Investigator Network. Retrieved December 17, 2011, from http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net /collect.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Crime Scene Investigation: Homicide and Its Psychological Effects
Crime scene investigation is often a challenging and difficult line of work for even the most experienced law enforcement agent. There are some crimes that are more difficult to handle spiritually and emotionally than others. Crimes against children and the elderly are often most difficult to excuse and most difficult for crime scene investigators to process psychologically (Swanson, Chamelin & Territo, 1999: 313). Such investigations often result in tremendous psychological burden with time (O'Hara, 2003: 178). Homicide in generally is often difficult to recover from emotionally, and often requires the investigator become deeply involved in the forensics model or inner workings of the mind of the criminal to help solve a case (O'Hara, 2003). This can result in increasing psychological stress with time. This paper will review a recent criminal investigation of homicide to two young children and the psychological and emotional…
O'Hara, G.L. (2003). A Review guide for fundamentals of criminal investigation. New York: C.C. Thomas.
Swanson, C.R., Chamelin, N.C. & Territo, L. (1999). Criminal Investigation. New York:
Challenges: How to process the crime scene safely
etrieving a body from the water so it can be analyzed appropriately is a considerable forensic challenge. In most crime scenes, everything is supposed to remain 'as is' until forensic personnel investigate. However, a crime scene located near a body of moving water usually means that the body must be retrieved as quickly as possible, to prevent further damage to the evidence. "Nobody is supposed to move the body (other than look for ID and some superficial moving) until the coroner's investigator gets there" (Pileggi, n.d., Crime scene). The body's removal from the water must be expedited, without disturbing any vital clues. In most terrestrial settings, "sometimes the position gives them a clue as to the cause and method of death. Also they need to see if the lividity (where the blood has settled in the body, it will always…
Claridge, Jack. (2010). Drowning and forensics. Explore Forensics. Retrieved:
Ramsland, Catherine. (2012). Underwater forensics. Crime Library. Retrieved:
Crime Sene Evidene
Laying the Foundation for Crime Sene Evidene
In reent deades, signifiant advanes in forensi tehnology and ommuniations have revolutionized the art of olleting, sharing and using evidene to proseute and onvit aused riminals. These advanes definitely make it easier for law enforement (polie and proseutors) to put riminals away, but this not at the expense of the aused's onstitutional rights to a fair trial. Therefore, ourts have established different measures for ensuring that the forensi evidene that is used against a defendant is authenti and reliable. This paper will disuss the various safeguards in plae and how law enforement navigates through the proess to maximize the benefit of the available forensi tehnology.
Generally speaking, on order for forensi evidene to be used against a defendant in ourt, the state must lay a proper foundation for that evidene. Speifially, this means the state must demonstrate that the evidene…
cited in the preceding footnotes, relates to the legal relevance of the expert witnesses who will present the forensic evidence and the corresponding incriminating conclusions. Thus, the relevancy question plays a crucial, if indirect role in forensic evidence.] [5: Federal Rule of Evidence 403- Exclusion of Relevant Evidence on Grounds of Prejudice, Confusion, or Waste of Time]
Laying the Foundation to Specific Forensic Evidence
As discussed briefly above, different types of crime scene evidence require very different evidentiary foundations. Common objects/samples contained at a crime scene that are examined forensically include fingerprints, blood alcohol level, blood typing, DNA testing and identification of firearms. For fingerprints, the state will have to show that the fingerprints taken at the crime scene are the ones that were tested for identification (authenticity); that the prints 'lifted' by the crime scene technician were clear enough to make the positive identification (reliability) and that the prints match those of the defendant and this fact helps prove the defendant committed the crime (relevance).
For blood alcohol, blood typing and DNA analysis, the state must show the chain of custody of the sample taken from the crime scene until the time of testing and trial (authenticity); the scientific reliability of the testing done to reach the conclusions; and that the results implicate the defendant (relevance). Finally to admit a firearm into evidence, the state must show that the firearm is the precise weapon removed from the crime scene via a chain of custody and other methods, such as through serial numbers (authenticity); that science proves the weapon matches the type of weapon used in the crime (reliability); and that the weapon helps to prove the defendant's guilt (relevance).
Crime scene investigation is a field with rapidly changing tools that seem to evolve almost every day as a result of the changes made in technology. However, even the simplest elements of a crime scene can still inform investigators an epic amount.
For instance, in this case, the position of the body and the weapon used represent the main forms of evidence and can help investigators uncover the elements which motivated the crime and caused it to happen. "Firearms evidence is usually encountered in crimes against persons such as homicide, assault and robbery; but may also be found in other crimes such as burglary, rape, and narcotics violations" (crime-scene-investigator.net). Thus, the very fact that this crime scene even involves a rifle means that there is a strong likelihood that it was a violent crime and that the victim was a murdered and that the case is a homicide. However, this…
CBS. (2008, July 1). Guns Used More For Suicide Than Murder. Retrieved from CBSNews.com: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/guns-used-more-for-suicide-than-murder/
Crime-scene-investigator.net. (n.d.). Physical Evidence Bulletin. Retrieved from Crime-scene-investigator.net: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net /CAfirearms.pdf
Fisher, B., & Fisher, D. (2012). Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, Eighth Edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Cime Scene) Response:
"It gets acoss that it's a ceepy guy who's just slimy and has a fetish fo bondage. Like he can be a nomal fam guy but is actually some sick twisted kille. It also makes me want to know moe about this guy and what makes him kill." The eade seems to get the gist of the scene and undestands that the kille has a dual pesonality, one that is consideed taboo by society. I don't eally know if he can be classified as a "nomal" fam guy, but maybe that is one of the things that make him moe appealing. He is so eseved and fa emoved fom eveyone that nobody eally knows him o what he is capable of. The eade thinks that the next thing to happen in the scene will be a moe in-depth look at the fame and/o the cime scene.
references to other crimes by well-known killers or an explanation of Charles' history with crime scene investigation. The reader thinks that the next scene will be Charles getting called to investigate another crime scene of the same killer the next day, but he will be hungover from his drinking binge the previous night.
The Importance of Effective Crime Scene Management
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to explain the importance of securing crime scenes in order to protect evidence from contamination and preserve it for use by the courts. In addition, a discussion concerning different methods that might be necessary to document evidence at a crime scene and different collection methods that might be used at a crime scene is followed by an explanation concerning the chain of custody and why it is important. Finally, the repercussions of failing to protect evidence or establish chain of custody is followed by an explanation concerning how an investigator or forensic expert differentiates between what is or is not evidence. A summary of the research and key findings concerning the foregoing issues are presented in the paper’s conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Why it is important to secure the…
The author of this report has been asked to construct an experiment surrounding the spattering patterns of liquids at crime scenes or anywhere else where the way a drop hits and makes a pattern on a surface matters. The common example of this would be blood drop patterns at verifiable or known crime scenes. Indeed, the way in which drops fall would tend to indicate how they fell, from how far they fell, from what angle they hit the surface and what the likely cause of all of the above was. This report will list a problem statement, a hypothesis, the procedure that will be used to test the hypothesis and address the problem and a conclusion. The safety precautions used will also be listed and described. While blood and other fluid spatter can lead to varying or wild conclusions, there are certain patterns and trends that are fairly…
Take simulated anti-A, anti-B, and anti-D and place a drop onto the labeled sections on the plate
4. Using an clean dropped drop the questioned blood into each of the three sections
5. Using a clean toothpick for each section, mix the blood
6. The formation of clumps shows that there is that type of antigen in the blood.
esulting Blood Type
The victims' blood: Kenny-11811B3:
Blood #1 found at scene- 11811B2
Blood #2 found at scene- 11811B1
Suspect 1: Stan- 11811B6
Suspect 2: Cartman- 11811B4
Suspect 3: Kyle- 11811B5
From the above chart one can see that:
1. Blood #2 found at scene belonged to the victim
Schiro, G. (2010). Collection and Preservation of Evidence. Crime Scene Investigator Network.
Retrieved from: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net /evidenc3.html
physical evidence include: trace evidence, impression evidence, and biological evidence.
Several examples of physical evidence include: Biological material such as blood, saliva or semen; fingerprints; hair; and fibers. Physical evidence is that evidence that consists of tangible materials such as paint, glass, ballistics, dust, dirt, and wounds (www.nfstc.org). Impression evidence is also physical evidence and it can be tire tracks, prints from shoes or boots, bite marks on a victim's body, and tool marks (for example, nicks and chips from a certain tool that was used to break into a building are part of impression evidence).
How is evidence collected, packaged, and preserved?
The Oregon State Police Forensic Services Division offers "General Evidence Guidelines" -- and the report asserts that all evidence has to be collected, handled, and stored in such a way as to "ensure" its integrity. The guidelines are presented in bullet points, and will be presented here:…
National Forensics Science Technology Center. (2007). Preservation of Evidence. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.nfstc.org .
Oregon State Police Forensic Services Division. (2011). General Evidence Handling.
Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net .
Warrington, D. (2006). First Responding Officer Gives Direction to Crime Scene. Forensic Magazine. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.forensicmag.com .
This would be true although no evidence at the crime scene would connect Manson physically to the murders. The pronunciation at the crime scenes of his motive and philosophy would provide a clear line leading directly to Manson though. As the courts attempted to gain testimony against him through the young women that he'd brainwashed, the power which he levied over all of his followers became apparent. In one of the many moments of high drama characterizing the case, "the three girls shouted that they wanted to testify. The judge and everyone else was bewildered. The girls had decided that they would testify that they planned and committed the murders themselves and that Charlie had nothing to do with it." (Bardsley, 1)
Though all evidence was to the contrary, the relative failures of collecting sufficient evidence at the gruesome crime scenes would make this conviction far more difficult than perhaps…
Bardsley, M. (2008). Charles Manson and the Manson Family. TruTV Crime Library. Online at http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/manson/22.html
Campbell, C.D. (2004). The Bizarre Case of Mass Murderer Charles Manson. Mystery Magazine Web. Online at http://lifeloom.com/II2Campbell.htm
Linder, D. (2002). The Charles Manson (Tate-LaBianca Murder) Trial. Charles Manson Trial Homepage. Online at http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/manson/mansonaccount.html.
Older, C.H. (1971). Charles Manson Trial: 1970-71 - Atkins Reverses Course, A "helter Skelter" Scheme, Case Draws Presidential Remark, Manson Speaks. Law Library. Online at http://law.jrank.org/pages/3206/Charles-Manson-Trial-1970-71.html#ixzz0dUevSoiG
A POTENTIAL AND VALUALE LINK
lood evidence is an extremely valuable item in criminal justice (Schiro, 2011; NIJ, 2000; OSP, 2002; NFSTC, 2013; estino, 2013). It has the unique and undisputable potential of solving a case or a crime as it can accurately identify a participant or a victim in a crime. It can form a connection between a person and a criminal act, enhance or contradict a testimony. It sets the investigator's direction in solving the case. When blood evidence is carefully documented, collected and stored, it can be presented in court even after a number of years from the time of the commission of a crime. Most importantly, blood evidence has the potential of pinning a particular suspect down or eliminating him (Schiro, NIJ, OSP, NFSTC, estino).
The Role of Communication
In order to assure that the collection and preservation of this very essential item, open…
Bestino (2013). Crime -- scene investigation and evidence collection. Chapter 2.
Cengage Learning Solutions: Cengage Sites. Retrieved on September 13, 2013 from http://www.cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/4827/bertino_chapter2.pdf
NFSTC (2013). Location and collection of evidence. Science Serving Justice: National
Forensic Science Technology Center. Retrieved on September 13, 2013 from http://www.nfstc.org /pdi/Subject101/pdi_s01_m01_03.htm
The author talks about several investigations, including the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, jr., that have been aided by firearm evidence teams.
Evidence Submission Guideline #10: Firearms Evidence. Indianapolis-Marion County Forensic Services Agency Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.indygov.org/eGov/County/FSA/Documents/Firearms.pdf
This documents provides the guidelines for investigators submitting firearm evidence in Indianapolis-Marion County. It has guidelines for every step of the evidence-collecting process. For example, photos that are taken must have a scale (such as a ruler next to it) to show size. In the firearm itself, the investigator is asked to include certain information in their notes such as the appearance of the cylinder, the marks made on each side of the top strap, and diagrams showing the direction of the rotation. There are also directions on how to package cartridges (both fired and unfired) such as making sure they are surrounded by cotton or a…
"Detroit police suspends firearms testing, orders audit" USA Today, April 25, 2008 Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-04-25-318512256_x.htm
Evidence Submission Guideline #10: Firearms Evidence. Indianapolis-Marion County Forensic Services Agency. Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.indygov.org/eGov/County/FSA/Documents/Firearms.pdf
"Firearms Evidence Collection Procedures" Physical Evidence Bulletin, California Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services, Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.cci.ca.gov/Reference/peb/peb12.pdf
Psarreas, Tricia. "Crime Scene Investigations: Firearm Evidence," Helium.com. Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.helium.com/items/1481011-crime-scene-investigation-firearm-evidence
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…
Crime in Literature and Film
"Red Dragon" by Thomas Harris and "Manhunter" by Michael Mann
The original version of the novel red dragon was written by Thomas Harris in 1981. In the words of est, only few authors have risen to the level of relevance and success as Thomas Harris, who authored just five novels, beginning from 1975. The Red Dragon, with other fictional works in the same series, is a famous fictional book built around a crime thriller. The book was later adapted in the 1986 Michael Mann movie, Manhunter. Some key actors that played key roles in these movie series are Brain Cox, the first ever actor to play the role of Dr. Hannibal Lecter, the manhunter antagonist, who became the Red Dragon's protagonist. However, some other actors like Anthony Hopkins in the movie, the Silence of the Lamb and Red Dragon, Hannibal's Mads Mikkelsen and Hannibal Rising's…
Vest, Jason P. "Dissecting Hannibal Lecter: Essays on the Novels of Thomas Harris." Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts (2009): 297-300.
Vlastelica, Ryan. Tracking Hannibal Lecter, from Manhunter to Red Dragon. 25 August 2015. 17 February 2016 .
Williams, Nicholas. "Eating Blake, or an essay on Taste: The Case of Thomas Harris's Red Dragon." Cultural Critique (1999): 137-162.
In other words, there is a preoccupation with repeat offenders and the first time offenders seem to get less severe penalties. As crime levels continue to rise although the media tends to report the opposite, citizens seem more dedicated to getting even first time offenders off of the streets.
Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & obinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.
Curry, Theodore ., Lee, Gang, & odriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.
Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.
Sanders, Trevor, & oberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: esults of a National Survey.…
Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & Robinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.
Curry, Theodore R., Lee, Gang, & Rodriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.
Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.
Sanders, Trevor, & Roberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: Results of a National Survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 32 No. 4, 199-207.
CSI Profile: Investigating the Crime Scene
Given the proximity of the time of death to the neighbor's call, a 'hot search' would be deployed. This means that the search would be conducted with the assumption that the perpetrator of the crime might still be on the premises. Although there was no information or eyewitness accounts about the individual possibly lurking in the bushes or lingering in the area, the possibility that he (or she) might still be presents warrants caution ("Crime scene search and processing," 2015). Once it has been determined the scene is safe, then the investigators can begin to take the necessary photographs. "Photographs should be taken as soon as possible, to depict the scene as it is observed before anything is handled, moved, or initiated into the scene" ("Crime scene search and processing," 2015).
The first photographs involve panoramic-type shots of the whole crime scene ("Snapping up…
Crime scene response for police officer. (2006). Police Magazine. Retrieved from:
Crime scene search and processing. (2015). Texas Association of Police Explorers. Retrieved from: http://www.co.wise.tx.us/constable/Downloads/Crime%20Scene%20Search%20and%20Processing.pdf
Schiro, G. (2015). Collection and preservation of evidence. Crime Scene Investigator.
Securing the Scene
The objective of this study is to develop a plan to approach and secure an incident scene and discuss the initial steps taken for an investigation while explicating the importance of creating an order of volatility by identifying the potential evidence that is most volatile and explain how evidence would be extracted. This study will identify the high-level steps that would be performed in collecting and analyzing the evidence including the required steps and what should be avoided in order to maintain the admissibility of the evidence.
Securing the Scene
Securing the scene of a computer crime investigation requires that all electronic devices be secured including personal and portable devices and ensuring that no person unauthorized has access to any electronic devices found at the scene of the crime. The investigator should refuse anyone who offers to assist with anything technical in nature and should remove all…
Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders, Second Edition (2008) National Institutes of Justice. 14 Apr 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.nij.gov/nij/publications/ecrime-guide-219941/ch5-evidence-collection/computers-components-devices.htm
Computer Crime Investigation and Computer Forensics. Information Systems Security, Summer 1997. Vol. 6 Issue 2. Retrieved from: http://www.moreilly.com/CISSP/DomA-2-Computer_Crime_investigation.pdf
Source: National Institutes of Justice (2008)
In fact, and quite surprisingly, one of the key findings of the Rand Report was that 50% of the nation's detectives could be eliminated without having a significant effect on clearance rates in the country (O'Connor). This conclusion flies in the face of conventional wisdom on police work, yet was fully supported by the exhaustive study. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice and was designed to monitor the effectiveness of detectives in clearing cases in a variety of situations. Surveys were designed and then sent to local and county police departments throughout the country with at least 150 fulltime personnel or a municipal jurisdiction of more than 100,000 people. In total, three hundred agencies were solicited, of which 153 responded with answers to the survey. hile all of the data from those 153 agencies was used in the compilation of the study, twenty-five of the respondents…
Christianson, Scott. "Statistics Showing Falling Crime Rates Don't Tell Whole Story." Desert News (Salt Lake City). 22 Jan. 2006. 23 Nov. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20060122/ai_n16018257 .
Livingston, Jay. "Crime and the Media: Myths and Reality." USA Today. May 1994. 23 Nov. 2007 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_n2588_v122/ai_15282521/pg_3 .
O'Connor, Tom. "Traffic, Patrol, and Detective Operations." 13 Oct. 2005. 23 Nov. 2007 http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lect08.htm.
Purpura, Philip P. Criminal Justice: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996.
The term signature aspect is used to refer to unique behavior that is exhibited by the criminal that is peculiar to that particular criminal though may not be necessary in committing the crime. One of the most common signature aspects is the calling card, or tattooing of the dead bodies, use of excessive force, leaving notes behind and many more. These are not necessary in killing of victims but are a sign of claiming the crime (John E. Douglas, 2011).
The components of crime classification that I learnt about and are central in the crime classification are finding out the defining characteristics of the crimes and the crime scenes, this will be instrumental in telling the motive behind the crime and in the case of multiple motives, the most outstanding will guide the profiling. The other component is victimology which is the complete history of the victim which will help…
Anthony Lantosca, (2006) IAFEI: The truth about Deception Detection. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.iafei.com/deception-detection/
Encyclopedia of mental Disorders, (2012). Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Retrieved February 11,
2012 from http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Hare-Psychopathy-Checklist.html
Hwakins, (2012). The Baseline Killer. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/predators/baseline-killer/1.html
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
Traditional Crime Policy
Over the last several decades, the policy approach that is used in enforcing the law has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a sharp rise in the crime rates around the world since the end of World War II. At first, these increases were believed to be a part of the adverse changes from the war and its impact on society. (Gilling)
However, by the 1950s it was obvious that society was facing tremendous challenges with these rates. In response, a series of studies were conducted to effectively deal with the root causes of criminal activity (by focusing on the pathology of the individual). This created heated debates between traditional and evidence based advocates, who believed that the current approach can address these issues (by serving as a deterrent for everyone). (Gilling)
As a result, tough sentences were handed down to…
"Key Facts at a Glance." BLS, 2011. Web. 5 Sept. 2012
Gilling, Daniel. Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Walker, Samuel. Sense and Nonsense about Drugs. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.
Overall System Design
Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified…
ASCLD/LAB-International (2010) "Program Overview" Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.ascld-lab.org/documents/AL-PD-3041.pdf
CSTL. (2000) "Quality assurance standards for Forensicnda DNA Testing Laboratories"
Forensic Science Communications, vol. 2, no. 3, Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/QAS/Final-FBI-Director-Forensic-Standards.pdf .
Forensic Access. (2011) "Quality management and quality standards support to the police:
As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.
On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…
Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations. (2010). Retreived from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3220/3220lect02c.htm
United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay
Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320. (1988). Retreived from http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/841/841.F2d.1320.86-1501.86-1402.86-1115.html
Crime analysis and crime investigation are the methods by which criminologists study and prevent crime. Violent crimes pose multiple dangers to the public. Violent crimes are often complex and require resources to understand how the crime was committed. Criminology studies not only how crimes are committed, but also the study of the criminal behaviors and personalities of the criminals who commit violent crimes. Criminology has been made exceptionally popular in the late 20th century and early 21st century in many television dramas. The increase in attention to criminology and criminologists has influence the interest in criminology as well as influence the development of criminologists' tools and methods. This paper will examine the violent crime of murder briefly and offer insight as to methods by which the crime can be analyzed.
Criminologists studying murders and murderers absolutely use prescriptive interviews. Interviewing murderers has become part and parcel of…
Kiefer, M. (2010, August 4). New 'Baseline Killer' details emerge Tuesday in court testimony. The Arizona Republic. Available from
"The Manson Snyder Interviews." Web. Available from
Toolshed -- Night
A single light bulb swings from a rusty socket at the center of the room. The bulb both creates and distorts shadows on the grayed and weathered wooden walls.
Who used to live here?
INT. CA GAAGE -- NIGHT
A SLING BLADE hangs from wall with fresh blood on the blade. The grey wooden floor has been covered with a PLASTIC drop cloth and is spattered with blood.
Sometimes I'm glad walls can't talk.
INT. BASEMENT -- NIGHT
Across the tools, against the opposing wall, there are large meat hooks dangling from the basement ceiling. The light bulb casts the hooks' shadow onto the wall.
The perpetrator was a butcher.
INT. LIVING OOM, FAMHOUSE -- NIGHT
The news is ending with a story about a MAIAGE POPOSAL at a baseball game and quickly transitions to paid programming.
Consulting other sources. (2013). A primer on oblique strategizing. Retrieved from:
Introduction. (2013). A primer on oblique strategizing. Retrieved from:
Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime
This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.
Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.
However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…
Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.
Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.
Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.
Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Enhancing Citizen Participation for Solving Serious Crime
The Presentation Includes
The need of involving communities in crime controlling activities
The stake of community
The approach of the crime stoppers
Greg MacAlesse, 1976
Enhancing Citizen Participation and Solving Serious Crime: A National Evaluation of Crime Stoppers
National Evaluation 1984
The research work
THE NEED OF INVOLVING COMMUNITIES IN CRIME CONTROLLING ACTIVITIES
Communities form a major portion of the society, the fact can therefore not be neglected that with the active involvement of communities in crime controlling menace can yield to the results that the law enforcing agencies can not achieve alone
THE STAKE OF COMMUNITY
The different communities living and working together form societies, and therefore have a greater stake
So with the increasing number of crimes the it is the human community that is affected the most.
THE APPROACH OF THE CRIME STOPPERS
One such movement that has come about…
(Fishman & Cavender, 1998) To some degree this, as well as the fictional license many "reality" and "reality based" programs take with technology applications put a great deal of pressure on real law enforcement and force public scrutiny that many find unwelcome. (Arcuril, 1977)
The challenge is then placed squarely on law enforcement as well as their support systems, like crime scene investigators (usually for legal reasons a completely separate entity), to resolve crime in hours rather than days, months or years. Most people who have been victims of crime are fundamentally aware that these images are functionally unrealistic, and yet they and others are still building a case, through viewership for the value and continued desire for such programming. The visual imagery, possible through technology has also challenged the public to learn to stomach, and even covet more and more Technicolor representations of "reality." Where Perry Mason utilized static…
Arcuril, A.F. (1977). You Can't Take Fingerprints Off Water: Police Officers' Views Toward "Cop" Television Shows. Human Relations, 30 (3), 237-247.
Fishman, M., & Cavender, G. (1998). Mark Fishman, Gray Cavender. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Surette, R., & Otto, C. (2002). Journal of Criminal Justice, 30 (5), 443-453.
Strategic, Tactical and Administrative Crime Analysis
Crime analysis is one of the most important processes in the fight against crime and efforts towards enhancing the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with crime. In the past few years, crime analysis has continued to expand in law enforcement agencies across the globe. This expansion has contributed to the development and use of different methods of crime analysis including strategic, tactical, and administrative strategic analysis. These techniques of crime analysis are utilized when examining different crime incidents and resolve them. This paper provides a review of different crime incidents using different techniques of crime analysis and an analysis of the various factors of crime in these incidents.
Review of the Crime Incidents
When reviewing these incident summaries, the type of analysis being conducted is tactical crime analysis whose main focus is to promote the short-term development of patrol, investigative priorities,…
As a result, the invited audience was essentially being asked to play the role of the person who is shocked by such a discovery -- and insofar as they knew they were being invited by Mendieta, and probably had basic knowledge of the crime that occurred, they were also being invited to imagine that the victim of such a crime might well have been Mendieta or any other female student on campus. This is interesting insofar as it relates to an observation made by Kwon about Mendieta's early work from this period: Kwon notes that "Mendieta's use of her/the body almost always approached erasure or negation: her 'body' consistently disappeared. This is striking given that most feminist artists during the 1970s vied for visibility and self-affirming expression through figurative, literal, sometimes 'in-your-face' presence. It is curious that Mendieta traced her absence instead."[footnoteRef:5] In "Rape Scene" this is paradoxically true: the…
Bowers, Nancy. "Spring Break Killer: Murder of Sarah Ann Ottens, 1973." IowaUnsolvedMurders.com, March 2010. Web. Retrieved 24 April 2014 at: http://www.iowaunsolvedmurders.com/beyond-1965-selected-unsolved-iowa-murders/spring-break-killer-murder-of-sarah-ann-ottens-1973/
Butler, Cornelia and Mark, Lisa Gabrielle. WACK!: Art and the Feminist Revolution. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT Press, 2007. Print.
Chau, Monica, Feldman, Hannah J.L., Kabat, Jennifer, and Kruse, Hannah. The Subject of Rape: June 23-August 29, 1993. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. Print.
Deutsche, Rosalyn. "Breaking Ground: Barbara Kruger's Spatial Practice." In Kruger, Barbara. Thinking of You. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. 77-84. Print.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
If any of the above are present, or if family members concur that the deceased was significantly depressed it is important to consider the death for evidence of final exit suicide instead of a homicide.
First Degree Murder
An investigator would rely on one question to determine whether to charge someone with first degree murder or with manslaughter. Did the killer decide to kill, and then act on that decision resulting in the victim's death?
If a person was in a club and someone bumped into him and he angrily hit the man in the head with his beer bottle and the man died, that would be manslaughter, because the man committing the act did not plan to kill anyone when he entered the club that night and he didn't think through the moment he reacted.
A difference scenario would be if the man found out his wife was having…
Crime Victims and the Media
Crime victims and survivors may find dealing with newspaper and television reporters very difficult. People who are victims of crimes often find themselves in one of two positions when it comes to the media. There are those who use the media to highlight there cases and bring as much attention to it as possible, while there are others who find themselves being exploited by the media in order to enhance ratings. Wether to talk to the media or not is a very personal decision that a victim has to make and one that should not be done without first thinking through the consequences.
Not all crime victims receive equal attention in the news media. Occasionally, intense media coverage may be devoted to victims in order to boost ratings. Frequently, media resources are allocated to the representation of those victims who can be portrayed…
Greer, C. (n.d.). News Media, Victims and Crime. Retrieved from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/stout/greer_news_media%20-%20vic_crime_soc.pdf
Privacy and the Media. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=323
Razumikhin Serves as Raskolonikov's Foil In Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime And Punishment; However, There Are Other Foils Present In The Book
Differences between seeing life
How each man describes each other
Similarities between Razumihin and Raskolonikov
Differences between treatment of friendship
Differences in the symbolism of the names
Other foils to Raskolonikov
Raskolonikov's conscience and intellect
All other characters
Razumikhin and Raskolonikov
Razumikhin serves as Raskolonikov's foil in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment; however there are other foils present in the book. In many ways the Razumikhin and Raskolonikov's characters are similar, for instance in their social and financial statuses; nevertheless, their personalities and ideals are quite different. Razumikhin is not Raskolonikov's only foil. There are several foils, including Sonia and Svidrigailov. To push the definition of a literary foil, Raskolonikov's split personality also serves as a foil to each other. The purpose of the paper…
Beyer, Thomas, Jr.. Crime and Punishment: Summary and Study Guide. Some facts that the English reader should know. 2002. 18 Nov. 2003. http://community.middlebury.edu/~beyer/courses/previous/ru351/novels/cp/CPstudy.shtml
From the London "Times." 1917.Criticisms and Interpretations. III The Harvard Classics Shelf of Fiction. Volume XVIII New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-1917. New York: Bartleby.Com, 2001. 20 Nov. 2003. http://www.bartleby.com/318/1003.html .
Heino, Hannes. "Crime and Punishment as a Polyphonic Novel." Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment. 2000. 20 November 2003. http://www.slav.helsinki.fi/russ/kurssit/prestup.html.
Jones, Malcolm V Dostoevsky: The Novel of Discord. London: Paul Elek, 1976.
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:
Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent
Personal annual income
Access to mass media
Viewing behavior of TV crime programs
Kind of TV crime programs usually watch
Frequency of watching TV crime programs
Duration of crime TV-watching
Personal concern for crime and public safety
Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety
Units of Analysis
Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…
Bollhofer, B. (2006). "Screenscapes': placing TV series in their contexts of production, meaning and consumption." Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 98, No. 2.
Hennigan, K., L. Heath, and J. Wharton. (1982). "Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: empirical findings and theoretical implications." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3.
Holbert, R., D. Shah, and N. Kwak. (2004). "Fear, authority, and justice: crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 2.
Yanich, D. (2004). "Crime creep: urban and suburban crime on local TV news." Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 5.
With the advent of technology, there are other tests apart from Blood Type present to rule out a crime. If today, the assailant's blood type does not match the blood on the crime scene, it does not necessarily prove him guilty. Forensics studies have indicated that there are two types of people on this planet regarding secretion of ABO proteins in body fluids. There are the secretors, and then there are nonsecretors. In cases of rape, the fluid usually tested is semen. The thing to note is that if that person is a secretor, only then his blood antigens will be present in the semen. If the semen is negative for any antigen that can either mean that the person is type O or is a non-secretor (Lyle, 2011) Furthermore, there are thousands and millions of people who have the same blood type. Due to this reason, DNA testing…
Flaherty, C. (2013). Cops: black mob kidnaps, rapes teen girls. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.wnd.com/2013/11/cops-black-mob-kidnaps-rapes-teen-girls / [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Gross, S.R., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D.J., Montgomery, N. & Patil, S. (2005). Exonerations in the United States 1989 through 2003. The journal of criminal law and criminology (1973-), 95 (2), pp. 523 -- 560.
Innocenceproject.org. (2014). The innocence project - know the cases: browse profiles:bennett barbour. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Bennett_Barbour.php [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Johnson, S. (1984). Cross-Racial Identification Errors in Criminal Cases. CORNELL L. REV., 69 (934), 935-36.
Dark Figure of Crime
The amount of crime in society gets known when it is reported to the police, through public response to victim surveys and studies of offenders who admit committing crime, and when transmitted to other agencies, such as hospital accident wards, battered women's refuge centers and similar ones (Young 2001). Other than these, the amount of crime committed is unknown. That unknown volume (of crime) that does not get reported, thus not registered, in criminal statistics, constitutes the dark figure of crime.
Statistician Adolphe Quetelet of the 1830s recognized this problem and modern statisticians do, too. All current methods of collecting crime incidence still have a dark figure. Victimization surveys, like the ritish Crime Survey (CS) and the National Crime Survey (NCS) are more accurate (Young). In 2000, CS estimated that the dark figure, or the actual extent of crime, was 4 1/2 more than what was…
Dougherty, J. (2000) Britain, Australia Top U.S. In Violent Crime. World Net Daily. http://power.consumercide.com/aust-uk-us-crimefigs.html
George, M. (2002) Tackling Crimes: Drug Links. BBC News Online. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/uk/2253559.shtm
Kury, H. (2000) Concerning the Dark Figure of Crime in Eastern Europe. Max-Planck Institute. http://www.asc41/www/2000/absdm005.htm
Mason, T. (1991) Official Statistics and the Dark Figure. Lecture 2, p 196. Social Trends. HMSO: Central Statistical Office. http://peso-click-internet.fr/tmason/WebPages/Deviance/Deviance2.htm
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…
Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice
Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology
Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.
Children who commit crimes of violence be tried as adults in the criminal justice system?
Juveniles should be treated as adults in the criminal justice system. The paper is an analysis of this view and also deals with an opposing argument.
Most societies seek a sort of "revenge" on the habitual offenders of its norms of behavior and this is termed as retribution. In the case of young offenders, this is sometimes translated into putting them in adult courts instead of juvenile courts. This also reflects the anger of society for their crimes. This is an important question that has to be looked into, especially in the social milieu of the United States. The trial of youth as adults is already accepted in some of the states, when there are incidences of serious crime. At the same time we keep on referring to the children as the greatest available resource…
Post-arrest, the promising programs included: drug courts, drug treatment in jails, intensive supervision and aftercare of juvenile offenders, and the use of fines and other penalties in lieu of incarceration for technical violations. (Sherman, 1998, p. 82-85).
From the results, the reviewers were able to come to several different conclusions. First, they concluded that there is widespread interest in the use of scientific evidence in criminological policy-making. However, they also concluded that "the current development of scientific evidence is inadequate to the task of policymaking." (Sherman, 1998, p.86). They suggest the use of control groups to help increase external validity. They also suggest looking at the geography of crime. Finally, they believe that there is simply a need for a greater number of impact evaluations. All of these recommendations make sense and help explain how the scientific process can help policymakers identify appropriate crime-prevention strategies.
One of the most encouraging…
Classification of Crimes
Joe should be charged with murder, since he wielded the murder weapon. As it was a drive-by shooting, multiple shots were fired and another person was injured, the charges should include capital murder, and attempted capital murder. Larry, who served as an accomplice in the drive-by shooting, should also be charged with the same crimes, as he assisted in them by driving the car. Even though he did not operate the murder weapon, he was complicit in the act and enabled it to happen. Thus, the same charges that are leveled at Joe should also be leveled at Larry. They could also be charged with conspiracy to commit the crime, as it was premeditated.
As for Bob, he heard what the plan was and promptly quit the vehicle at the first chance he could. However, he did not attempt to stop what was about to happen and…
In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.
Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…
Beichman, Arnold. "Pulitzer-Winning Lies." The Daily Standard. 2003. http://www.theweeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/002/791vwuaz.asp
Bernard, Henri. Le communisme et l'aveuglement occidental (Soumagne, Belgium: editions Andre Grisard, 1982)
Boris Bajanov, Avec Staline dans le Kremlin. Paris: Les editions de France, 1930, pp. 2 -- 3.
Connor, Walter D. "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1972, pp. 403-413.
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM
A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.
With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…
(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [ http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
Whether it is a matter of terrorism as revealed by the 9/11 attacks or that of the Tamil Tigers, the question remains on the legitimacy of the claims the groups are making. On the one hand, there is the matter of religious claims, which are common depending on the type of religion, and with which its adepts can identify, and on the other there are the ethnic groups, which support the terrorist movements providing them legitimacy. The religious part is most often associated with the Jihad whereas the ethnic nationalist terrorism is associated with groups as mentioned above. However, the ethnic groups tend to provide more legitimacy because they are based on more common history, geography and have more arguments in their favor.
Overall, the issue of terrorism, be it of any nature, is a rather sensitive aspect in the last decades. Ethnic nationalistic terrorism is often associated with a…
Defining Terrorism: A Principled Approach. (n.d) Accessed 5 April 2013, from http://lawofwar.org/defining_terrorism.htm
O'Neill, William. "Concept Paper: Beyond the Slogans: How Can the UN Respond to Terrorism? In Responding to Terrorism: What Role for the United Nations?" International Peace Academy. 2002. Available from www.ciaonet.com
Pickert, Kate. "The Tamil Tigers." Time World. Online edition. 2009. Accessed 5 April 2013 from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1869501,00.html
Townshend, Charles. "Terrorism: in search of the definite article." Open Democracy. 2007. Accessed 5 April 2013, from http://www.opendemocracy.net/conflicts/democracy_terror/what_is_terrorism
Media Presentation of Hate Crimes Against African-Americans: Annotated Bibliography
Baum, M., Potter, P. he relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: oward a theoretical synthesis. Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65. Web.
Potter and Baum's paper firstly assesses the wide-ranging advances in academic knowledge with regard to foreign policy and public opinion in the course of the last decades, placing emphasis on comparatively recent researches. Subsequently, the authors propose a structure, on the basis of the market equilibrium principle, designed to synthesize the unconnected research programs which make up the literature pool on foreign policy and public opinion. For achieving this, the authors integrate mass media -- a third key strategic player -- that, in their opinion, has a crucial part to play, together with leaders and ordinary citizens, in influencing public outlook towards, and power over, foreign policy, besides considering the leader-public relationship. hey…
This research work specifically explores game "enemies" and the extent of violence players inflict upon these virtual enemies. Findings reveal that most games scrutinized fostered conflict and intense violence toward Jews and Blacks. In the games Selepak studied, players were meant to brutally slay, dismember, and injure minorities for proceeding forward. These games were, typically, adapted classic video game versions wherein racial, ethnic, and religious minority characters replaced the original enemy characters. The study indicates that radical and hate websites offer video games aimed at indoctrinating players holding white supremacist beliefs, enabling racists to practice aggression against minorities. This can, subsequently, have a bearing on their interactions in the real world.
Mastro, Dana, Maria Knight Lapinski, Maria A. Kopacz, and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz. The Influence of Exposure to Depictions of Race and Crime in TV News on Viewer's Social Judgments, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, (2009), 615-635. Web.
Mastro and colleagues' two-study experiment makes use of a group-centered priming structure for exploring the link of exposure to TV news depictions connecting violence and race to viewers' actual racial views. The first study's outcomes suggest that viewers' gender as well as the news suspect's racial identity have an influence on successive judgments, including victim and criminal attributions. The second research provides fairly consistent outcomes, suggesting, further, that the suspect's racial identity greatly impacts attitudes towards the Black community in the wider society, outside of the mediated situation.
Henry V is the last, and perhaps most important, play of Shakespeare's tetralogy. Shakespeare's three earlier plays, Richard II, Henry IV, Part I, and Henry IV, Part II, established the foundation for Henry V. hat makes Henry V so pivotal is that it shows King Henry V as the ideal Christian monarch, i.e., a figure of enlightenment and perfection.
This paper examines the function and significance of Act IV, Scene I in the overall development of the play. One of the most remarkable facets of this scene is that it allows the readers to gain an understanding of the common soldiers' view of the matter as well as witness the doubts and insecurities that plague Henry as he prepares for the crucial Battle of Agnicourt. This battle resulted from a dispute between England and France over certain lands and titles.
ACT IV, SCENE I
Act IV, Scene I is critical…
W.R. Owens and Lizbeth Goodman, eds. Shakespeare, Aphra Behn and the Canon. London: Routledge, 1996.
" (Magrid and McKelvey, 1990).
Although some analysts still toss around the question of nature vs. nurture, current research seems to be edging out nature and placing much more emphasis on nurture. Another notable expert who agrees with the author's premise is Benjamin B. Wolman. Wolman explores the foundations of deviant behavior in his widely-read book, "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide," and emphasizes nurture almost to the exclusion of nature, in explaining why sociopaths are more and more prevalent in our society. According to Wolman, "the way that parents rear their children can be crucial. Parental rejection can adversely affect their children's self-confidence and self-reliance. Undeniably, these children will feel neglected and unwanted if their parents are not affectionate and considerate. These children cannot however behave aggressively toward their parents as they fear that they might retaliate. Instead, they behave aggressively toward weak people who are unable…
Karr-Morse, Robin and Wiley, Meredith S., (1999). "Ghosts from the Nursery: Tracing the Roots of Violence" (1999). Chapter 2: Grand Central: Early Brain Anatomy and Violence. Pub Group West.
Magrid, Ken & McKelvey Carole a. (1990). "High Risk Children without a Conscience." Bantam, Doubleday, Dell.
Wolman, Benjamin B. (1999). "Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders from Hostility to Homicide." Prometheus Books.
Overarching theme of the Democratic-epublican National Committee
Statement of the purpose of the exercise
The objective of the table top stimulus has been to replicate as practically as one possibly can the likeliest circumstances that the actual work-team task force might experience throughout the DNC, in addition to a worst-case scenario.
Participating entities and their roles
A few of the entities included within the table top conference consist of: Major Susan Barker, the commander of the Crime Scene Investigations Bureau related to the Miami-Dade Police Department (MDPD) together with professionals coming from the Miami-Dade Police Crime Lab, the Broward County Sheriff's Workplace Crime Scene Investigations Bureau, the town of Miami PD Crime Scene Section, Jackson Memorial Hospital, the FBI's Hazardous Material esponse Unit, the Miami-Dade Police Bomb Squad, the Miami-Dade Healthcare Examiner's Office, the 44th Civil Support Team related to the Florida National Guard, along with Miami-Dade Fire escue's Urban…
Corley, J., and Lejerskar, D. (2003). Simulation for Emergency Response: Homeland Defense Center Network - Capitalizing on Simulation, Modeling and Visualization for Emergency Preparedness, Response and Mitigation. In Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Winter Simulation: Driving Innovation (New Orleans, LA). Winter Simulation Conference, 1061-1067.
DHS (Department Of Homeland Security). (2004). Fact Sheet: National Incident Management System (NIMS). http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0363.shtm.
Frishberg, L. (2005). Looking Back at Plan AHEAD™: Exercising User-Centered Design in Emergency Management. In CHI '05 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Portland, OR). ACM Press, New York, NY, 988-1003.
Jain, S., and Mclean, C. 2003. Simulation for Emergency Response: A Framework for Modeling and Simulation for Emergency Response. In Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Winter Simulation: Driving Innovation (New Orleans, LA). Winter Simulation Conference, 1068-1076.
Improving the Science of Fingerprinting: A Literature Review
Fingerprints are one of the most commonly employed tools that we have in investigating crime. This powerful forensics methodology has contributed to the solving of countless criminal cases and has been used as convicting evidence in courts of law. However, as this literature review shows, even the use of fingerprints is in a state of evolution as we gain ever greater and more accurate tools in the struggle to investigate and solve crimes.
At the outset of the discussion, the text by Neumann (2012) helps to dismantle the notion that fingerprints are infallible as a way of drawing identity. According to the research provided by Neumann, fingerprints achieve a certain statistical probability that makes identity matches likely but not certain beyond a doubt. This finding helps to underscore the critical imperative of continuing forensics research, such that we may come in…
Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.
Hildebrandt, M.; Kiltzm, S. & Dittmann, J. (2013). Printed fingerprints at crime scenes: a faster detection of malicious traces using scans of confocal microscopes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8665.
Merkel, R.; Breuhan, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Vielhauer, C. & Brautigam, A. (2012). Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8436.
Neumann, C. (2012). Fingerprints at the crime-scene: Statistically certain, or probable? Significance, 9(1), 21-25.
It is possible that other people have already been through there and touched things, and those people must be eliminated as suspects. Avoiding further contamination, however, is vital to ensuring that the crime has the highest chance of being solved. In addition to wearing gloves, collecting evidence at a crime scene also involves making sure that the evidence, once collected, remains free from any contamination (Penrod, 2003). There are specialized containers which are used to collect certain types of evidence from crime scenes. Other evidence, such as hair or fibers, is usually just placed in a clean, dry baggie and sealed up. It is very important at that point that where the evidence came from and who collected it is documented. Any time it changes hands, that must also be documented. This can help to ensure that it can be used as evidence at trial, because there is allegedly no…
Penrod, S. 2003 Eyewitness identification evidence: How well are witnesses and police performing? Criminal Justice 18(1): 36-47.
John Wayne Gacy, Jr.
Crime Scene and Discovery
When the police were called to search John Wayne Gacy's home in Des Plaines, Illinois on December 13, 1978, they were not aware that their investigation into the disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest would lead them to uncover some of the most grisly murders committed in the United States (Evans, 2007). Piest was last seen leaving a pharmacy where Gacy, then working as a contractor, had recently completed a remodeling job (Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, 2012). Three hours after his disappearance, his mother, Elizabeth Piest, notified the Des Plaines Police Department and Lt. Joseph Kozenczak was tasked with leading the investigation (Sullivan & Maiken, 1983, p. 7; ell & ardsley, n.d.). During his initial investigation, Lt. Kozenczak learned that Gacy had recently offered Piest a job and proceeded to go to Gacy's home, located at 8213 Summerdale Ave, to…
Associated Press. (2011, October 13). Detectives exhume bodies of eight unknown victims of 'Serial-killer Clown' John Wayne Gacy in bid to identify remains. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Mail Online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2048363/John-Wayne-Gacy-Detectives-exhume-bodies-8-unknown-victims.html
Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.). John Wayne Gacy, Jr. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from TruTV.com: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/8.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (2005). John Wayne Gacy: Killer Clown. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Crime and Investigation Network: http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/john-wayne-gacy-killer-clown/arrest.html
Donovan, D. (2011, November 29). Another Gacy victim identified thorugh DNA evidence. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Daily Herald: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20111129/news/711299790/
In addition, they may not see anything wrong with actions that would otherwise be considered dangerous (Penrod, 2003).
Examining the body at a crime scene involves many different things. How the person died is important, but not always obvious. Many pictures are taken at the scene, and any evidence that might be left on the body (hair, blood, etc.) is collected (Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2000). From that point, it is left up to investigators to determine whether the person was killed in that spot or moved in from somewhere else. It is also important to determine whether there is any damage to the body and whether that resulted in death, as well as how long the person has been dead. All of these things can be used together in order to help determine what happened to the victim of a crime (Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2000).
Penrod, S. 2003 Eyewitness identification evidence: How well are witnesses and police performing? Criminal Justice 18(1): 36-47.
Scheck, B., Neufeld, P, and Dwyer, J. Actual Innocence. New York: Doubleday, 2000.
obstacles to prompt and efficient forensic investigation in major crime scenes. The presence of too many unnecessary personnel in the crime area and poor communication or reporting of the details are these obstacles. The applicable FI rules and an analysis of each issue follow. A conclusion is also provided for each issue.
Too Many Unnecessary Personnel at the Crime Scene
The presence of too many extraneous personnel is considered the biggest hindrance to effective and prompt crime investigation (Schiro, 1999). What makes it worse is that most of these unnecessary people are police officers themselves (Schiro).
The policy mandates the initial responding officer or officers to identify all personnel or persons at the crime scene and to oversee their movements (FI, 2000). Then the officer or investigator in-charge shall evaluate the scene in order to come up with a list of specialized resources needed in the investigation (FI).
FBI (2000). Crime scene investigation. Office of Justice Programs: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.fbi.gov/about.-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/twgcsi.pdf
Schiro, G. (1999). New crime scenes -- same old problems. Southern Lawman Magazine:
Forensic Science Resources. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.forensicsciencresources.com/NewScenes.htm
Yolasite (2012). Crime scene analysis. The Investigation, Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.theinvestigation.yolasite.com/crime-scene-analysis.php
Authors present the results of a national law enforcement technology survey and comparable forensics technology survey that was conducted by the RAND Corporation to assess the effectiveness of this support and constraints to applying forensic technologies at the state and local level. Authors devote several chapters to different types of forensic analyses, including what types of techniques are best suited for various types of crimes and the evidence that may be present. A discussion concerning the types of evidence, including controlled substances, firearms, explosives, fire debris, bullets, footwear, vehicle tire marks, latent fingerprints, blood, gunpowder residue and so forth that are typically encountered in different crime scenes is followed by a useful description concerning how and why specific forensic technologies are used. Authors also present a description concerning how computer-based technologies are facilitating the application of these forensic investigatory methods to achieve higher conviction rates by providing improved testing results.…
Watterson, J., Blackmore, V. & Bagby, D. (2006). Considerations for the analysis of forensic samples following extended exposure to the environment. The Forensic Examiner, 15(4),
Authors are all forensic scientists who present a timely discussion concerning the harmful effects that extended exposure to the environment can have on forensic evidence, including its analysis and the interpretation of test results. Because crime scenes may produce less-than-optimum samples of DNA, blood and other molecular-based evidence based on environmental factors such as sunlight, rain, and microorganism growth, authors provide a review of the relevant literature to explain how these constraints must be taken into account when conducting forensic investigations and analyses. In particular, authors emphasize that biomolecular substances such as enzyme and DNA analyses are adversely affected by these environmental factors. While these biomolecular materials may remain amenable to forensic analyses over time if they are properly stored and maintained, extended exposure to environmental elements can cause them to degrade in ways that confound even the most sophisticated technologies. Authors also present a discussion concerning how both biological and non-biological samples are affected by exposure to environmental factors, and how toxicological tests to ascertain time and cause of death can be hampered by these effects. Authors point out, though, that it is possible to interpret the results of forensic analyses of even degraded biological samples if forensic scientists are cognizant of the processes these samples tend to undergo as they degrade. Although some types of samples such as paint chips and glass fragments may not be adversely affected by extended exposure to the environment, other substances such as volatile ignitable liquids tend to evaporate altogether, making time of the essence in gathering evidence and conducting suitable testing protocols. Authors also emphasize, though, that there remains a dearth of timely and relevant guidance in the literature concerning the interpretation of biological samples that have experienced extended exposure to these environmental elements and call for additional research in this area. Taken together, this journal article presents useful guidance for forensic scientists who are confronted with degraded samples as a result of extended exposure to the environment, and note that the nature of crime means that these types of samples will be far more common in forensic scientists' experience than the pristine samples with which they may have been trained.
The writer of this work assumes the position of Crime Scene Investigator who is responding to a homicide scene at a convenience store/gas station at 3:00 A.M. Upon first arriving the officer who first responded at the scene relates information that there was an additiaonl employee present during the incident in addition to a mother and her 15-year-old son who are both witnesses to the crime. There is a deceased victim with a gunshot wound in the chest. The responsibility fo the Crime Scene Invesetigator includes latent print work and other related tasks.
Upon arrival to the sceneit is noted that the scene was secured prior to the arrival of the Crime Scene Investigator. In additional all crime scene integrity precautions and procedures are in place and the crime scene photographer has taken all necessary on-scene photographs for you. All sketches and measurements have already been taken. Other…
Crime Scene Procedures (2012) National Forensic Science Technology Center. Retrieved from: http://projects.nfstc.org/property_crimes/Crime_Scene_Procedures_III.pdf
Crime-Scene Investigation and Evidence Collection (nd) Chapter 2. Retrieved from: http://www.cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/4827/bertino_chapter2.pdf
Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis of exigent circumstances and/or plain view"
This may only occur during the extinguishing operations or immediately after, otherwise a warrant or the owner's consent is necessary. This came as a response to an accusation of "conspiracy to burn real property," where the prosecutors had collected and used evidence of numerous days after the firefighting operations. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant, as evidence was collected without warrant in the subsequent days.
I think the process used by a gas chromatograph (heating, etc.) is not appropriate for separating sand granules and the gas chromatograph cannot identify sand grains as a substance. In my opinion, something like filtration should have been used to separate sand from the rest of the…
1. Ramsland, Katherine. Trace Evidence. On the Internet at http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/1.html?sect=21
2. Pierce, Dwain A. Focus on Forensics: Latent Shoeprint Analysis. On the Internet at http://www.totse.com/en/law/justice_for_all/latshoe.html
3. Expert Law. On the Internet at http://www.expertlaw.com/library/pubarticles/Criminal/Drunk_Blood_Alcohol.html#Q16