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Investigative Task Force
Assuming that legal authority was not an issue, should this investigation be conducted by VPD personnel or a multijurisdictional task force? This investigation should be carried about by VPD personnel as the lead agency and head of a multijurisdictional task force. There are several reasons for this. First, VPD was the first agency to begin investigation of the crimes because the first explosion and damage occurred there. Second, the task force is needed because there are multiple locations for the explosions, deaths, and injuries. With seven counties and two different states involved, it is very important that a task force is established to work together on a cohesive plan to convict the individuals responsible for the criminal acts. When task forces work together, they can provide proper coverage of a criminal act over a larger area (Baden & oach, 2001).
At what point should the…… [Read More]
The formation of a hypothesis in this case could involve the identification of the most likely suspects. It is important to note that hypothesizing as to whom the suspects could be does not necessarily result in the loss of objectivity on the part of the investigator. This is more so the case if the hypothesis is based on an analysis of the motive and/or presence of physical evidence. Data collection on the other hand could include interviewing witnesses, interrogating a potential suspect, etc. Data interpretation could take the form of evaluating as well as reviewing evidence gathered at that point in time. A suspect can be arrested once there is sufficient evidence to charge him or her in a court or law. This allows for the drawing of conclusions. It is however important to note that the hypothetical example I highlight above in an attempt to relate the scientific method…… [Read More]
Such problems usually contribute to numerous difficulties in the successful prosecution of suspects of such cases. In most cases, the ethical problems originate from speedy investigations that are not handled in thorough and professional manner leading to false arrest or the case being thrown out of court. Therefore, there is a huge need for the investigator to adopt various measures that help in reducing ethical problems when investigating the cases.
For homicide cases, these problems can be lessened through treatment of suspects as innocent people until proven guilty and not coercing or unduly forcing the suspect to provide information. Moreover, the investigator should inform the suspect of his/her constitutional rights during the investigation process. For rape cases, ethical problems can be reduced by not distrusting the victim's information and treating the victim's testimonial evidence as the initial step for ongoing investigation until the actual perpetrator is convicted. This is particularly…… [Read More]
As a result, if an illegitimate interrogation or investigation contributes to the identification of physical evidence, the investigation and physical evidence must be excluded from trial. In this case, the interrogation or investigation is excluded on the basis of the exclusionary rule while the physical evidence is excluded on the basis that it's the fruit or product of illegal interrogation.
The significance of the exclusionary and the fruit of poisonous tree doctrine is that they both provide a deterrence approach regarding criminal investigations and the admissibility of evidence obtained from the investigations. Based on constitutional and federal violations, these legal concepts are based on deterrence as the rationale and exclusion as the remedy (Pitler, 1968, p.650). In the scenario involving the warrantless search and seizure of Ellis household, the exclusionary rule and the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine are significant in determining legality of the investigation and the admissibility…… [Read More]
Potential contamination issues with the collection of evidence include: environmental and human factors. Environmental contamination occurs when heat, humidity and related elements will damage any kind of clues that are at the scene of the crime. While human factors, are when investigators, emergency personnel and the family could touch something (effectively contaminating the crime scene). Once this happens, is the point that it is more difficult for investigators to establish that a particular individual was at the location. ("Contamination Issues," 2001) ("Collecting Evidence at a Crime Scene," 2012)
To address possible contamination issues a number of tools must be used in conjunction with each other to include:
Having everyone wearing protective gear: A common challenge that will occur at any crime scene is human contamination. To prevent this from happening, everyone must wear protective gear to include: rubber gloves, suits and shoes. This will ensure that any kind of evidence…… [Read More]
Criminal investigation plays a crucial role in law enforcement in relation to the arrest, prosecution, and conviction of criminals. This paper examines the evolution of criminal investigation research in light of the developments that have taken place in this field. A history of the criminal investigation is also discussed as well as a definition of the criminal investigation process. The author also examines how DNA, fingerprinting, and forensic science have developed to become crucial in criminal investigation research.
A criminal investigator can be described as an individual who collects, records, and analyzes evidence and information related to a criminal offense. The main goal of criminal investigation is to discover the truth regarding the events and processes that contributed to the occurrence of a criminal offense. Generally, the investigative process has four major objectives i.e. establishing the occurrence of an offense, determining and arresting the suspect, recovering stolen property,…… [Read More]
This kind of evidence differs from circumstantial evidence. Circumstantial evidence attempts to prove some facts by attesting to or proving events or circumstances from which other occurrences may be reasonably inferred. It differs from direct evidence, which does not need reasonable inference to prove a fact.
A d) Relevant evidence attempts to prove or disprove any issue of fact, which has some consequence to a given case (FindLaw 2009). It is the opposite of competent evidence, Competent evidence is one that is admissible, relevant and material to the factuality of the issue.
A e) Non-competent evidence includes hearsay, privilege communication and illegally- seized evidence (FindLaw 2009). Hearsay is a statement given out-of-court and not under oath to serve as evidence of proof that what it states is true. Privileged communication is a private statement kept in confidence (Answers.com 2009). It cannot be used as evidence in court because it excludes…… [Read More]
History of criminal investigations
The first "detective force" dates back to 1750, when a small group of community members called the "Take Thieves" banded together and rushed to crime scenes to investigate (Swanson, 2003). This group, spearheaded by Henry Fielding, eventually led to the founding of a police force in London (Swanson, 2003). The next famous "father of criminal investigation" is obert Peel, who authored the twelve "Peel's Principles," outlining proper ethics for policemen and bureaus, from how to conduct oneself to where to build a police station (Swanson, 2003). Many of his ideas are still in use today. Despite Peel's efforts, corruption was rampant in the first metropolitan police departments, and failures to communicate between jurisdictions allowed suspects to escape (Swanson, 2003). Ultimately, these problems led to detective work being outsourced to private organizations such as Pinkerton's (Swanson, 2003). Pinkerton's detective agency was famous for protecting President…… [Read More]
This analysis covers different questions on investigative practices and methods. It gives explanation to every question and at the same time gives example of how every question makes sense in practical application. The discussion will mainly dwell on the element of investigation in Criminal Investigation.
We have different methods of inquiry; examples at their most basic level are interviews and interrogations, while on a specific level on a crime scene it involves canvassing as well. Canvassing entails passing through the neighborhood always door to door with intention of getting witnesses who could be able to provide investigators with information on whatever they saw at the crime scene. Interviews tend to be non-custodial, and are the most common methods used to collect information from victims of crime and witnesses. The method of interrogation tends to be custodial because they are always carried out on individuals who are already arrested…… [Read More]
Do you believe the police should have access to these records and be able to use them in their investigations?
Yes, in the case that was examined the police should have access to the motor vehicle, employment, criminal records and other pertinent information on the suspect. This is because these pieces of information can establish patterns of behavior that were exhibited prior to and after the burglaries were committed. For example, the criminal records are showing that the suspect in custody has previous convictions for these offenses using the same method of operation. Moreover, they have no known address and do not live at the one listed on their driver's license. (Orthmann, 2012) (Foster, 2005)
If the police have access to different pieces of information, they can use this to show how this person is connected to the crime. For instance, the ability to monitor their financial transactions…… [Read More]
oth the U.S. Senate and the U.S. Congress are slowly coming to the realization that they will have to address this issue which the ush administration left behind to muddy the waters of citizen privacy rights in combination with the cases that are presently awaiting an appeal in the appeal courts throughout the United States due to violation of their rights to privacy during search and seizures arrests.
Panetta, Toni (nd) The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act. Human Ri9ghts & Human Welfare. Duke University. Online available at: http://www.du.edu/korbel/hrhw/digest/terror/patriotact.pdf
PATRIOT Act the submajoritarian Fourth Amendment. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review Vol. 41. Online available at: http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crcl/vol41_1/herman.pdf
Sher, Justin M. (nd) Travel at Your Own Risk: The Government Does not Need a Warrant When it Investigates American Citizens Abroad. Arkin Kaplan Rice LLP in New York. F.3d --, 01 Cr. 1535, 2008 WL 5517638 (2d Cir. Nov. 24, 2008).
Wecht, Cyril H.…… [Read More]
Criminal Investigations: Changes in Cybercrime
The rate at which internet usage is growing is expeditious. The World Wide Web is fast eliminating the physical borders that originally existed between nations and individuals, and rapidly transforming the world into a global village. The conduct of business has been made easier, and so has education, sports, communication, to mention but a few. Thanks to the internet, people located miles away from each other, who would have otherwise been oblivious of each other's existence, or been able to communicate, can now relate at the touch of a button. This high degree of interaction is, however, also the cause of one of the most damaging cyber related concerns -- cybercrime.
Cybercrime, according to the Oxford Dictionary, is a crime "carried out by means of computers or the internet." Thus, any crime that makes use of a computer, either as a target, instrument, or…… [Read More]
Criminal Investigation: The Necessary Steps to Successful Completion
The criminal investigation may seem like a complex process that is highly dependent upon the nature of the crime itself -- but in fact there is a science to criminal investigation that has been developed over the years and distilled into a basic, formulaic procedure that can be applied in virtually every case (Lyman, 2016). Essentially, the necessary steps to completing a successful criminal investigation begin with an examination of the crime scene and conclude with the involvement of a prosecutor regarding whether or not to press charges (based on evidence) against a suspect. This paper will examine these steps in order and show how they follow one upon the other in the system of criminal justice to address the issue of crime and the problem of identifying and prosecuting a perpetrator in the case.
As Birzer and oberson (2016) show, the…… [Read More]
Analyzing the role of the forensic psychologist in criminal investigation and prosecution
Analyzing the role of the forensic psychologist in criminal investigation and prosecution
It should be noted that psychology has not had a clearly defined space in the judicial field. On the one hand, while the law demands tangible and verifiable data, psychology, answers from knowledge conjectural. Oracle named as legatees, seduces us with a place on condition that reveal the hidden, denied the truths we inquire, we are decoders that which appears as enigmatic to the right. "The psychologist is therefore an employee" handyman "who knows everything, very cooperative, but unscientific and therefore, with very little chance of being considered a serious professional and capable. The need to be active in psicolegal stage we do what we ask (Hollin, 1989, p. iii).
For this reason, the legal psychologist must tend increasingly to scientific training…… [Read More]
New Technologies in Criminal Investigation: Using GPS to go where police officers cannot go
The computer age has brought on a whole new set of criminals: Hackers, virus perpetrators, business secret pilferers, identity thieves and more. The computer age has also changed the way in which traditional crimes are perpetrated too. As we saw in the horrific terrorist attacks of September 11, the Al Queda henchmen stayed in contact with their shadowy bosses over email, and were well aware of planes' schedules and fuel capacities significantly ahead of time via usage of the wide variety of information sources on the Internet.
True, technology has changed the way we live our lives in many positive ways, but it has also enabled criminals to attack their work from entirely different and more potent angles. Fortunately, similar technological advances are also available to the criminal investigation elements of our society as well.
One…… [Read More]
False Confessions in America
What factors do you see as relative to the increasing number of false confessions in America?
The literature on police investigations is clear on four points: 1) Investigators are overconfident in their abilities to make judgments about suspects; 2) innocent people put themselves in harm's way because of misplaced belief in the interview / investigation aspects of the criminal justice system; 3) the interview behavior of innocent people evokes unnecessarily aggressive interrogation responses from trained investigators; and 4) the interview and interrogation behavior of investigators elicits behavior from suspects that often results in false confessions. The participants in criminal investigations that involve interviews and interrogations seem caught up in a Parisian Apache dance, in which the behavior of either participant brings about an escalation in the behavior of the other…and the battle rages on until the parties arrive at some resolution. In roughly 25% of wrongful…… [Read More]
Domesitc Violence I resource cited I provided source: To access book online website: www.coursesmart. Login info. Username: [email protected] Password: Lj101509 Directions: Once logged MY BOOKSHELF link top corner book titled Heavy Hands Scenario: BEHS453 FINAL PAPER Javier Escondido a 68-year Mexican-American man living Los Angeles.
The case of Javier Escondido's death and the injuring of his partner, Pablo, has generated much controversy as a consequence of the circumstances of the incident. Both the authorities and the general public have mixed opinions concerning the event, with the victim's sexual orientation making things somewhat divisive for some. The reality is that the contemporary society still contains homophobic elements and many are hesitant about discussing with regard to the topic on account of how the masses are yet to fully accept homosexuality as an active part of the social order.
In order to gain a more complex understanding of the case, one…… [Read More]
Crime Scene Analysis
The case study presents a homicide incident, which occurred at 9170 Old Annapolis oad Columbia. The victim was Ashley Nicole Smith, and the investigations identified two suspects who were Scott Jory Jones, and Frederick James Johnson. This case involves a series of events in the efforts to bring the involved into justice. This case study presents an actual case, but the case study does not use the actual names for protection purposes. It was on 11/3/00 when two truck drivers while making a U-turn saw fresh blood. On close observation, the truck drivers saw the victim's body and notified the police (VCUI, 2000).
The police responded, and on the scene of the crime, police noted that the victim (Ashley Nicole Smith) was dead. The efforts of identifying the victim were futile. However, scene technicians, forensic experts and other crime experts were in a position to collect substantial…… [Read More]
Van Dam Murder
The disappearance of Dannielle van Dam in February of 2002 had all the markings of abduction - murder. The primary suspect appeared to fit the stereotypical description of a person who would likely do harm to a child. AS the details unfolded, there were no significant twist and turns to lead the police astray from identifying David Westerfield, a neighbor who lived just two doors down from the van Dam's as the primary suspect, and convicting him of the abduction which turned into murder.
David Westerfield was a quiet professional design engineer who kept mostly to himself. Other than washing his RV in the driveway in front of his home, Mr. Westerfield lived a reclusive life. He did not appear to be hiding any deep secrets, but then he did not let any friends and acquaintances close enough to look too deeply into his life. The following…… [Read More]
, 2007, p. 153).
The research showed that DNA evidence can be a valuable tool for the criminal justice system, but the effectiveness of such evidence depends on a number of factors. Among the more salient of these factors was the need to ensure that the DNA sample is collected and stored properly, and that it is transported to a testing facility in a timely and appropriate fashion. Other issues that emerged from the research included the need to maintain a strict chain of custody for all DNA evidence, as well as the need to ensure that the results of DNA testing were interpreted in an informed manner. Finally, the research was consistent in emphasizing that although DNA evidence can help prove innocence and guilt, the accuracy of such evidence depends on the type of DNA testing protocol that is involved and how these results are used in the…… [Read More]
A plea-bargain is frequently attained at this time in order to circumvent a trial. In the event that a plea-bargain is reached, the case does not move forward to a trial but failure to offer enough evidence to establish a plea bargain will mean that the case goes on to trial (Criminal Justice System Handbook, 2009).
Trials consist of a sequence of proceedings where the prosecutor presents evidence which will be used to prove the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In felony cases, the defendant is given chances to admit their innocence but there are also times where they are presented that they may dispute the validity of evidence that has been presented by the prosecutor. Felony cases normally entail the services of a jury who listen to the case proceedings together with the judge and then after careful assessment of the evidence that is presented; they…… [Read More]
As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.
On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…… [Read More]
The criminal association principle suggests that being socialized to regard crime as acceptable or to admire criminals plays a role in the choices made in that regard. The fact that Pistone and Napolitano were actually raised in very similar circumstances where each had the same type of exposure to organized crime families illustrates that rational choice is more important than criminal association because Pistone made the conscious choice to become a federal agent rather than one of the criminals who controlled his childhood neighborhood (Macionis, 2003; chmalleger, 2008).
The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed by Episode 71 is criminal investigations and the operations of the criminal justice system. Fisher was allowed to plea bargain the charges of attempted murder despite the fact that she deliberately shot the wife of her lover in the head in the attempt to murder her. The episode suggests that her age was a…… [Read More]
Drumming my hands on the desk before me, I finally spoke. "You're right, you're absolutely right." My academic advisor patiently raised a single eyebrow. "What? You thought I would steer you wrong?"
I didn't believe her when she called me; I definitely thought she would be joking. Yet as I gazed at the piece of paper, reading for the third time the letter addressed to me, I had to admit, she had me pegged.
'Congratulations," she said with a huge grin. "You got the internship.
'I can't believe it," I finally managed, and stood up abruptly. Far less stunned than I was, my advisor had watched me blossom from a fledgling freshman into an academically accomplished senior. When in my junior year I finally realized that I was beginning to accomplish all I had set out to do, I did not feel as relaxed as some of my…… [Read More]
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…… [Read More]
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…… [Read More]
Thus, police need to be more results oriented, and take more time in their investigations to gain public support, which in turn will help them solve more crimes along with creating a better global outlook among taxpayers. This also helps the police build partnerships with the people they serve and this will aid them in investigations, as well. More citizen involvement means a community more alert to strangers and occurrences such as robbery or burglary, and that can only help the police when it comes time to conduct investigations. Thus, the efforts-results conclusion translates into much more than simple routine investigations, it translates into a relationship with the community that can build and help investigations over time.
Brandl, S.G. And Frank, J., Worden, .E., and Bynum, T.S. (1994). Global and specific attitudes toward the police: Disentangling the relationship. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1. 119-134.
Eck, J.E. (?
).…… [Read More]
Michigan, in which police officers had failed to satisfy the knock requirement of a "knock and announce" search warrant before obtaining incriminating evidence. The Court decided that technical violations of proper warrant execution in "good faith" of the nature described in Hudson would not trigger the exclusionary rule (Schott, 2006)..
Ultimately, as constitutional criminal procedure developed since Mapp, a balance arose between the need to safeguard the constitutional rights of the accused with the need to preserve the admissibility of evidence when violations associated with its procurement do not rise to the level necessitating its exclusion. More than any other factor, this balance also allowed police the appropriate freedom to perform their assigned function of preventing crime, apprehending criminal suspects, and collecting evidence without having to compromise their ethics and violate their sworn oaths to do so effectively.
Cloud, M. (1994) Emory Law Journal, the Dirty Little Secret. Accessed…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice esearch
Torres, A.N., Boccaccini, M.T., and Miller, H.A. (2006). Perceptions of the validity and utility of criminal profiling among forensic psychologists and psychiatrists, American Psychological Association, 37 (1), 51-58.
Study purpose, research topic, and research questions. This research explores the perceptions of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in regard to the utility and validity of criminal profiling. It is important to first establish a clear definition of the key term used in this research: Criminal profiling. The definition of criminal profiling in this research is not the same as in the vernacular. The authors discriminate forensic criminal profiling as the use of "behavioral evidence left at a crime scene to make inferences about the offender, including inferences about personality characteristics and psychopathology" (Torres, et al., 2006, p. 51). From the literature (Davis & Follette, 2002), the authors overly the simplest of definitions: "…profiling is simply the postdiction of behavior;…… [Read More]
Scholars believe the Fifth Amendment as competent of breaking down into five separate constitutional privileges. These include grand juries for capital offenses, a ban on double jeopardy, prevention against compulsory self-incrimination, an assurance that all criminal defendants will have a just trial, and an assurance that the government will not take private property without paying fair market worth. Although the Fifth Amendment initially only concerned federal courts, the U.S. Supreme Court has construed the Fifth Amendment's requirements as currently pertaining to the states by way of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (Fifth Amendment, n.d.). In this case Victor Violent would be protected from testify against himself in his aggravated assault trial because of his Fifth Amendment protections.
In all criminal proceedings, the accused has the right to a speedy and open trial, by an unbiased jury of the State and district in which the crime was allegedly…… [Read More]
Corporate Criminal Justice
The following study is a critical analysis of four articles or book passages relevant to the study of criminal justice in a corporate context. Each essay or book excerpt will be analyzed in turn and in the context that each has a significant intellectual contribution to make to the contemporary study of corporate criminal justice. hile this is a relatively new specialization within the corporate and criminal justice fields, it is nevertheless a very important one. The IRS indicates that crime has recently been categorized in terms of motivation, not in terms of the victim (Internal Revenue Service). This means that greed has become an enormous criminal category, one that must consider the excesses of white-collar crime. Additionally, there is the matter of corporate security and management of asset securities. For corporations, this means achieving a delicate balance between complying with the law, relying on federal law…… [Read More]
The consequences of impermissible detention and searches without sufficient probable cause or reasonable suspicion of criminal conduct can result in civil liability on the part of the police agency involved. The most serious types of criminal procedure violations, such as those depriving individuals of fundamental civil rights and freedoms can also trigger serious criminal violations under federal law in addition to civil monetary penalties (Schmalleger, 2008; Zalman, 2008).
Modern American criminal procedure establishes very strict rules that limit the authority of police to question or interrogate criminal suspects as well. Once an individual has been validly arrested, police must advise the individual of his Fifth Amendment rights against self-incrimination and of his Sixth Amendment right to the presence of legal counsel during any questioning before police conduct any interrogation.
The consequences of failing to understand the requirements of criminal procedure in this respect can potentially negate the entire value of…… [Read More]
Police oles and Functions:
Similar to the teaching and medicine field, policing is a field that has close or intimate connections with social life, change, and progress. Police agencies are part of the complex network of law enforcement in the United States. While these agencies are distributed across the local, state, and federal governmental levels, they have varying degrees of specialty. Despite of these differing degrees of specialty across the police agencies, they work closely with each other and other elements of the criminal justice system. In the United States, police agencies have a variety of functions that range from protecting the society to intercepting the transportation of illegal drugs. However, the role and function of a specific police agency is basically dependent on its location and jurisdiction in law enforcement. Nonetheless, policing and police agencies generally originated as a means of social control, especially to respond to the need…… [Read More]
De minimus communication refers to occasional communication between defendants and jurors that would have no impact on the outcome of the case. Minimal communication like a hello or giving directions would not influence the case in anyway and this is allowed within the American legal system (Hess & Orthmann, 2009). This allows the defendants to not seem aloof or unfriendly to the jurors. Minimal communication is permissible and is at times unavoidable, and this rule ensures that one can have slight interactions with the jurors without it affecting their case. Unauthorized communication can affect the trial and result in a mistrial, but the law has recognized that it is not possible to avoid all contact especially with the jurors. This would ensure that greeting a juror or giving them directions does not result in a mistrial.
The discovery process is a formal process of exchanging information amongst the parties regarding…… [Read More]
The thing is, a few people in your neighborhood already know that you came down here to talk to me today, right? Well, the way I look at it, you're already in whatever danger from the suspect that you're worried about. Between you and me, if they're as dangerous as you say they are, and I believe you by the way, they're not going to believe that you didn't help us, you know? I'd feel horrible if anything really bad happened to you or to your family because I wasn't able to put these guys away first, and the worst part is that I already know that I could make sure they go away for a very long time, but I can't do it without your help. I need your help to solve my case, but the thing is I also need your help with this for me to help…… [Read More]
Criminal Identification Procedures
The dawn of the twenty-first century has become the era of George Orwell's "1984." Technology that was found only in science fiction a few decades ago, is part of today's standards and procedures.
The world today is filled with cameras that can film an individual wherever he goes, his cell phone signal can pinpoint his location, and even one glance can reveal his true identity (Shenk 2003). Iris-recognition technology, soon to be common in places such as airports, offices, and banks, will simply scan an individual's eyes to reveal his idenity (Shenk 2003). Many feel that in this post-9/11 landscape, there is a serious need for these high-tech tools to help detect money laundering, encrypted e-mails, bio-weapons, and suitcase nukes (Shenk 2003).
Poseidon, a new electronic surveillance system, is a network of cameras that feeds a computer programmed to use a set of complex mathematical algorithms to…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements
San Francisco County Sheriff's Department
The minimum qualifications for applying to the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) are as follows: the candidate must be at least 18 years of age; must be a U.S. citizen or a "permanent alien who is eligible and has applied for citizenship"; must have a U.S. high school diploma (or GED certificate) or a 2-year or 4-year college degree; cannot have any felony convictions (and certain misdemeanor convictions); must be physically and mentally healthy and be of good moral character.
The selection requirements include: a) testing reading and writing ability (an acceptable score must be obtained on the POST Entry-Level Law Enforcement Test Battery); b) an oral interview (the department head and another department employee, or an oral panel, gives this oral interview; a candidate's "experience, problem solving ability, communication skills, motivation/interest, interpersonal skills and community awareness /…… [Read More]
When the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation in 1789, the United States of America formed a government that specifically divided its powers between three separate branches. This was done in order to make certain that no one branch of government could accumulate too much power. These three are called the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of government, and the Constitution defines the powers each branch of government is allowed to exercise. While the Executive and Legislative branches of government deal with the running of the government, the Judicial branch is limited to dealing with legal matters. While it may seem that the Judicial branch is someone less important, it is the judiciary that decides whether the actions taken by the other two branches of government are legitimate.
Alexander Hamilton argued in the Federalist Papers that a separation of powers was necessary in order to prevent one particular…… [Read More]
If this is indeed the case, Leach is within his rights to appeal for an overturn of his conviction. The Fourth Amendment protects travellers from unwarranted police searches, which appears to be what happened in this case.
The Fourth Amendment then protects the rights of individuals to reasonable expectation of privacy. While Archibald Leach voluntarily yielded his luggage for investigation, the search itself was not conducted in a legal manner if there was neither warrant, reasonable suspicion or probable cause. The case does not mention any of these, based upon which the conclusion can be that Leach has sound grounds for appeal.
Criminal Law Lawyer ource. (2009). earch Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html
Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm
Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? upreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html
Walker, Jayme . (1998, Dec…… [Read More]
rown, in her biographic article for World of Forensic Science, states,
She views investigative criminal profiling as a dynamic process that does not conclude until a suspect is arrested and convicted. She deems it a support process for the criminal investigative team, made up of a combination of four skills: investigation, forensic analysis, psychological assessment, and the application of cultural anthropology. rown considers this type of profiling to be a real-time, speculative process requiring ongoing checking to avoid missing any significant data, and should never be done in isolation, but rather as one piece of the entire criminal investigative process (rown, ¶4).
rown works 'pro bono' on several cold case file crimes, trying to be closure for the family.
The profilers use a variety of known characteristics to start the profile. The years of research done by early profilers such as Douglas has enabled the profilers to obtain clearer pictures…… [Read More]
S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…… [Read More]
Under the stewardship of Police Commissioner Howard Safir, the NYPD began analyzing daily crime statistics collected from its 40,000 officers throughout the five boroughs of New York City and generating computer modeling of crime trends in a system dubbed CompStat that allowed the accurate identification of crime trends with pinpoint accuracy, often permitting nearly as precise predictive modeling via extrapolation (Safir, 2003).
The other main benefit and purpose of CompStat was that is enabled police administrators to grade the performance of every precinct according to any criteria defined by policy considerations. That aspect of CompStat is relied upon heavily by NYPD administration to the extent that Commissioner Safir reassigned, removed, or demoted fifty-four precinct commanders during his tenure as commissioner between 1996 and 2000 (Safir, 2003). Naturally, the technical means of data collection and analysis techniques differ quite profoundly from those available to previous generations of police administrators, but the…… [Read More]
At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.
Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…… [Read More]
To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.
Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.
In that regard, directed police patrols and…… [Read More]
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]
e. height, weight, age, race, etc.), in connection with the investigation of specific criminal activity, that information allows authorities to narrow the search for individuals who match those identifying characteristics. The process is perfectly logical and obviously makes infinitely more sense than continuing to search for individuals who bear no resemblance to the descriptions provided by reliable sources.
However, the same legitimate techniques with respect to specific evidence of crimes also has a history of impermissible application in ways that deprive subjects of police investigation of their fundamental constitutional rights. For example, in the late 20th century, the U.S. Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both made extensive use of what they called "criminal indicators" in connection with their efforts to apprehend criminal drug traffickers as they attempted to enter the U.S. At the borders (Schmalleger, 2007).
Among other criteria, those sets of indicators including Hispanic origin and language,…… [Read More]
History has shown us that, time and again, more privileged offenders become excused of higher-level degrees of crime and are, instead, tagged with the lower-level descriptor of white-collar crime. The FBI's definition merges with this second definition in that the FBI agrees that most white-collar crimes are perpetrated by business and government professionals, and that these crimes can be severe in that they can devastate individuals, families, and organizations (Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [online]).
What is the National Insurance Crime Bureau, and what functions does it perform for law enforcement?
The National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB), supported by approximately 1,000 property/casualty insurance companies, is an American non-profit organization located in Illinois that deals with insurance-related crimes and works with law enforcement agencies to ensure control and vigilance. Much of its work is related to motor vehicle theft. In general, however, the NICB describes itself as "partnering with insurers and…… [Read More]
Criminal Decision Making: The Elements of the Culture of the Street and Party Life and Their elation to Criminal Decision-Making
Understanding offenders' lifestyles and the process by which they choose to commit criminal acts is critical particularly because it has important implications for crime control. Very often, certain elements of the street and party life influence the offender's assessment of the risks and rewards of crime. According to Shover and Honaker (1992), commitment to drugs and partying, as well as street culture, leads to alienation of offenders from mainstream society and pushes them away from a conventional life. Over time, they adopt a socially bounded rationality and become accustomed to a criminal lifestyle to a point where they break the law as a result of addiction, rather that free will. It is, therefore, imperative to understand the role played by these lifestyles in shaping the motivation for crime because it…… [Read More]
The future technologies will assure authentication along with evidence. Another advancement that will assist to recognize the criminal is the "Face Software" that will help to create the image of the suspected criminal and it will be a great help for the police department. DNA profiling and fingerprinting is also under process for the purpose of identification of the criminals. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the fluid present inside the human cell. DNA is the content of the human body that remains unchanged throughout the life, and every human has the different composition of the DNA form another human. Even the two identical twins with same physical features have different DNAs. Therefore, any person can be identified through his/her DNA profile. DNA is a powerful investigation tool for the Criminal justice system and the FBI to stop the anti-human activities in the world. The scientific progress will also help to manufacture…… [Read More]
They prepare a holding statement for the media if necessary. They must record everything they survey and assess. They assume interim control of investigation. They should take photos of the scene. Following investigation, they then contact all necessary officials and make a report.
Explain fingerprints and palm prints, the three possible findings, and their value person can be positively identified through their fingerprints. Fingerprints and palm prints are relied on for (1) verifying a person's identity and linking them to a criminal history or other background check records. Fingerprints and palm prints are (2) collected as evidence at crime scenes and used as evidence. They are also used in (3) processing persons through the criminal justice system, as a fingerprint is unique and cannot be passed to another, or assumed, as a name may be. Fingerprints may positively identify a person taken into custody when the person arrested claims to…… [Read More]
criminal justice SAA
Criminal Justice: SAA
The objective of this work is to describe what SAA is and explain how it is used in fighting crimes. In addition, this work will answer as to what type of policing model is SAA most effectively used and why.
is described in the work of Phillip Lyons to be the "dominant model for police problem solving." (2000) The S.A..A. model was developed by Eck and Spelman more than a decade ago. The implementation of the S.A..A. model includes four steps, which are those as follows: (1) Scanning; (2) Analysis; (3) esponse; and (4) Assessment. (Lyons, 2000) The S.A..A. model is reported as being "widely applicable to problems faced by many neighborhoods" and to be such that has "produced excellent results for hundreds of communities across the United States." (NAM, 2000) This model is reported to establish a "collaborative systematic process to address issues…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice -- Sentencing and Analysis
Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez was indicted for kidnapping. Her case was handled in the Circuit Court for the Western District of Texas. Based on her attorney's advice, she accepted a plea bargain, pleading guilty to kidnapping. The normal sentence for kidnapping in Texas is 10 years in prison; however, Hernandez was sentenced to 15 years in prison, along with other punishments.
According to a plea bargain in which Defendant Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez pleaded guilty to kidnapping, she received a sentence of 15 years in Federal prison, and then three years of supervised release, plus she is order to pay $3,000 in restitution for the kidnapping of the 2-1/2-year-old girl (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010).
The Victim's Role in Sentencing
The 2-1/2-year-old girl is too young to participate in the sentencing process; however, her mother can participate. There is no indication that the mother…… [Read More]
In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.
Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]
That means they have to know how to locate evidence that can be traced, but they also need to know how to test it and preserve it so it can be used at a later date. They have to guard against contamination, and make sure they collect enough evidence to tie it to a perpetrator.
Ultimately, investigators at a crime scene have one purpose and goal, to solve the crime and find the perpetrator. Trace evidence is a key ingredient in solving the crime, and investigators know this, so they are always on the lookout for any type of evidence they can find. Sometimes investigations take years, but with the right crime scene collection and preservation, the trace evidence left behind can lead to conviction, and that is the ultimate purpose of the time and energy that goes into collecting trace evidence.… [Read More]
Dershowitz and others have pointed out, rightfully, that Miranda principles were designed to prevent the use at trial of evidence obtained improperly and that the prevention of mass casualties may constitute a sufficiently important goal to suspend certain constitutional issues. In that regard, even the terrorist is entitled to the same protections against self-incrimination and prosecution using illegally-obtained evidence of guilt. However, the legitimate need to protect the public from wide-scale death and destruction may be another matter entirely.
Dershowitz (2002) outlined the principles for designing a "torture warrant" in connection with which authorities may interrogate suspects known to possess information necessary to prevent mass casualties and loss of innocent life in imminent terrorist attacks through means ordinarily strictly prohibited by the Constitution and the laws applicable to all fifty American states. The fundamental distinction is that those efforts would relate to securing information for the purposes of preventing mass…… [Read More]
The two should know better but their emotions got the best of them. In this case I would myself (or ask another person who knows the two) pull one of the two aside gently but firmly and ask that he take a deep breath and not cause commotion to the point where we all suffer. I would say, "Take a break guy, please cool your jets for a few moments because you are causing all of us to be distracted from what we are supposed to be doing here. You're forcing us to be involved and we aren't part of your problem, so please, quiet down…"
If that wouldn't work, the next step of course is to notify the supervisor or foreman that we need help -- or to follow company policy in whatever form is required in that situation.
Who are my heroes?
I don't have any "heroes" in…… [Read More]
The first officer has to make sure the crime scene is not damaged, and must keep onlookers and others away from the scene to avoid contamination of evidence. Thus, the first responder can ultimately be responsible for the overall success of the physical evidence gathering and evaluation.
Physical evidence can be anything from fingerprints to ballistic evidence and even footprints and tread prints. Physical evidence can also include weapons and other items left behind at the scene by the suspect. All of this evidence can be used later in trial, but it must be documented and evaluated correctly for it to be effective. No crime scene is without physical evidence, so understanding how to collect and evaluate it is extremely important for every police officer, no matter their function, because sooner or later, they could be the first responder on a crime scene, and collecting or managing physical evidence could…… [Read More]
After completion of standard measurements and photographs of the victim, the hands were separately bagged to preserve any evidence contained thereon. Subsequent forensic examination and analysis disclosed organic evidence in the form of human skin and blood identified as originating from the same source as the other blood and tissue samples as those not associated with the victim. Thirty-six strands of hair, subsequently positively identified with the victim were recovered from the external clothing, as well as nine strands of human hair not identified with the victim.
Inorganic Evidence Collected:
Shoe imprints were preserved in standard casts and subsequently identified as originating from a size-12 Timberland® men's workboot. Minute quantities of blood were also recovered from within the prints before casting but of insufficient quantity to determine type other than being from a human source. A ballpoint pen and a partial roll of blue tape, subsequently identified as standard "plumber's…… [Read More]
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…… [Read More]