Criminal Justice System Essays (Examples)

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Criminal Justice Field Research

Words: 1952 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82154449

Concept of Ethics in Criminal Justice Research

Ethics is one of the most important issues in the field of criminal justice given its consideration as the mainstay of professionalism in this discipline. The significance of ethics in the criminal justice field is attributable to the fact that the various professionals or actors in this field exercise discretion when making decisions and need to enforce the law in the process. Therefore, ethical considerations are critical in decision-making processes involving discretion, due process, and force. Additionally, such considerations are necessary in criminal justice research, which plays a crucial role in criminal justice practices. This paper focuses on examining the concept of ethics in criminal justice research and potential ethical questions/issues that criminal justice researchers are likely to face.
As previously indicated, professionals and actors in the criminal justice field are faced with various situations that require ethical decision-making. An example of these…… [Read More]

References
Paterline, B.A. & Orr, D. (2016, December). Adaptation to Prison and Inmate Self-Concept. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 4(2), 70-79.
Paternoster, R. (2010). How Much Do We Really Know About Criminal Deterrence? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 100(3), 765-824. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7363&context=jclc
Rupp, T. (2008, July 1). Meta Analysis of Crime and Deterrence: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Retrieved from  http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/1054/2/rupp_diss.pdf 
Wakefield, A. (2006). The Value of Foot Patrol: A Review of Research. The Police Foundation. Retrieved from  http://www.police-foundation.org.uk/uploads/catalogerfiles/the-value-of-foot-patrol/foot_patrol.pdf 
Wolfgang, M.E. (2010). Confidentiality in Criminological Research and Other Ethical Issues. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72(1). Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6222&context=jclc
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Racial Inequality Within Justice System

Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96880167

Problem Statement
It is no lie that people of color are more severely punished for violating the law than white Americans. This can be traced back through history. This discrimination on the law is based on historical injustices that gave harsh sentences to people of color and lighter sentences for white Americans. considering that slavery was abolished many years ago, this justice system discrimination has continued to prevail until today. People of color are more likely to be arrested for misdemeanor charges and they are also likely to be jailed as compared to the white Americans. While people of color account for 12% of the total American population, the number of those incarcerated is quite high. This is disproportionate to the actual number within the whole population. When a comparison is made to the general population, one can see that the numbers do not add up. There might be fewer…… [Read More]

References
Alexander, P. G. (1999). Inequality in Sentencing: Is Race a Factor in the Criminal Justice System. Law & Ineq., 17, 233.
Burch, T. (2015). Skin Color and the Criminal Justice System: Beyond Black?White Disparities in Sentencing. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 12(3), 395-420.
Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision?making in the criminal justice system. Criminology, 54(2), 332-359.
Hetey, R. C., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2018). The numbers don’t speak for themselves: Racial disparities and the persistence of inequality in the criminal justice system. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 183-187.
National Academies of Sciences, E., & Medicine. (2018). The Criminal Justice System and Social Exclusion: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Stringer, R. J., & Holland, M. M. (2016). It's not all black and white: A propensity score matched, multilevel examination of racial drug sentencing disparities. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14(4), 327-347.
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The Use of Intermediate Sanctions Alternatives

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59477436

Intermediate sanctions like intensive probation are fast becoming fully integrated into the criminal justice system. McGarry’s (n.d.) monograph “Improving the Use of Intermediate Sanctions” summarizes the findings of recent research by the National Institute of Corrections and the State Justice Institute. The research covered 25 participating jurisdictions, including input from local and state governments as well as law enforcement, correctional workers, and the courts. Methods of acquiring data included surveys and interviews on the future of intermediate sanctions: how to best implement and integrate them to fulfill multiple and diverse criminal justice goals. The McGarry (n.d.) monograph and the research supporting it point to several core concepts. Because it offers a balanced view and suggests a pragmatic and realistic approach, overall the McGarry (n.d.) document offers a promising and accurate vision of the future of intermediate sanctions.
The most important reasons cited for using intermediate sanctions include cost savings, reducing…… [Read More]

References

Byrne, J.M. (1990). The future of intensive probation supervision and the new intermediate sanctions. Crime and Delinquency 36(1): 6-41.
Caputo, G.A. (2004). Intermediate Sanctions in Corrections. Number 4 in the North Texas Crime and Criminal Justice Series. Denton: University of North Texas Press.
McGarry, P. (n.d.). Improving the use of intermediate sanctions. Center for Effective Public Policy. Retrieved online:  https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.nicic.gov/Library/010427.pdf 
Tonry, M. (1995). Intermediate sanctions in sentencing reform. The University of Chicago Law School Roundtable: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 3. Available at: http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/roundtable/vol2/iss2/3
Tonry, M. & Lynch, M. (1996). Intermediate sanctions. Crime and Justice 99, available at http://scholarship.law.umn.edu/ faculty_articles/484
 
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Criminal Justice as Portrayed in

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12872871

The criminal association principle suggests that being socialized to regard crime as acceptable or to admire criminals plays a role in the choices made in that regard. The fact that Pistone and Napolitano were actually raised in very similar circumstances where each had the same type of exposure to organized crime families illustrates that rational choice is more important than criminal association because Pistone made the conscious choice to become a federal agent rather than one of the criminals who controlled his childhood neighborhood (Macionis, 2003; chmalleger, 2008).

The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed by Episode 71 is criminal investigations and the operations of the criminal justice system. Fisher was allowed to plea bargain the charges of attempted murder despite the fact that she deliberately shot the wife of her lover in the head in the attempt to murder her. The episode suggests that her age was a…… [Read More]

Sources Cited

Macionis J. (2003). Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.

Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Criminal Justice - Corrections Issues

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43638375

Whereas judicial decisions are more likely to concern substantive matters of law and definitions of legal concepts, legislative adjustments generally reflect social consensus, particularly over large spans of time. Admittedly, political access and the relative ability of specific individuals, communities, and entities to generate legislative changes beneficial to them are not, in any sense, equal when viewed from the microcosmic perspective. Nevertheless, over time, changes in the American criminal justice are largely functions of widely-shared societal concerns and social values in the United States.

In recent years, the American criminal justice system has changed in several significant respects: it has become increasingly federalized; it seen a dramatic increase in the privatization of criminal justice facilities; and it has become ever-more effective by virtue of its technological evolution. Likewise, concepts and principles of criminal reform have continually undergone cyclical changes, due in part to unanticipated flaws in prior approaches or simply…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Victimization Whether One Is a

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8642155

Criminal Justice

Victimization

Whether one is a survivor of violent crime or dealing with financial crime victimization, it is vital to recognize that all victims experience some type of loss. While there are different kinds of losses, each can be intense, depending upon the viewpoint of victims and survivors (Victims of Crime Overview, 2012). There appear to be two different views on how victims should deal with being a victim of a crime. One view says that victims of crime should rely on the criminal justice system in order to deal with their victimization while the other view says that victims of crime should rely upon private support and insurance payments to deal with their victimization.

Those who believe that the criminal justice system should contribute to helping victims believe that helping the victim to cope is the responsibility of all of society. Law enforcement agencies, courts, and correctional and…… [Read More]