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We have over 1000 essays for "Criminal Justice System"

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Criminal Justice Field Research

Words: 1952 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82154449

Concept of Ethics in Criminal Justice Research

Ethics is one of the most important issues in the field of criminal justice given its consideration as the mainstay of professionalism in this discipline. The significance of ethics in the criminal justice field is attributable to the fact that the various professionals or actors in this field exercise discretion when making decisions and need to enforce the law in the process. Therefore, ethical considerations are critical in decision-making processes involving discretion, due process, and force. Additionally, such considerations are necessary in criminal justice research, which plays a crucial role in criminal justice practices. This paper focuses on examining the concept of ethics in criminal justice research and potential ethical questions/issues that criminal justice researchers are likely to face.
As previously indicated, professionals and actors in the criminal justice field are faced with various situations that require ethical decision-making. An example of these…… [Read More]

References
Paterline, B.A. & Orr, D. (2016, December). Adaptation to Prison and Inmate Self-Concept. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 4(2), 70-79.
Paternoster, R. (2010). How Much Do We Really Know About Criminal Deterrence? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 100(3), 765-824. Retrieved from  http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7363&context=jclc 
Rupp, T. (2008, July 1). Meta Analysis of Crime and Deterrence: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Retrieved from  http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/1054/2/rupp_diss.pdf 
Wakefield, A. (2006). The Value of Foot Patrol: A Review of Research. The Police Foundation. Retrieved from  http://www.police-foundation.org.uk/uploads/catalogerfiles/the-value-of-foot-patrol/foot_patrol.pdf 
Wolfgang, M.E. (2010). Confidentiality in Criminological Research and Other Ethical Issues. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72(1). Retrieved from  http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6222&context=jclc 
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Criminal Justice Reform and Bail Reform

Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56907867

Introduction
What is criminal justice reform? It is the focus on improving the criminal justice system through the implementation of evidence-based best practices, policies that promote greater equitability fairness, and systems that are more cost-efficient (National Criminal Justice Association, 2019). One area in which reform is needed is the issue of bail. Bail is the bond that allows an arrested individual to leave jail while awaiting trial, which could last for many months. If the individual has the money, he may post bail. If not, he is stuck in jail. Essentially, the system favors the rich over the poor (ACLU, 2019). There are many examples of abuses regarding bail—from the woman mistakenly jailed pre-trial, who ended up losing her job and kids as a result (Woods & Rosnick, 2019) to the $2 billion bail industry that profits off the impoverished (ACLU, 2019). This paper will discuss the history of reform,…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Inequality and Conflict Theory

Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88382152

Discussion 1:Topic: Miranda Rights
I feel that Miranda Rights should be read at point of arrest and again before interrogation. That way the detained person knows his rights. In today’s world, there are so many laws and so many confusing issues in the world, people are frightened and scared if they have a run-in with the law. There is no reason that law enforcement cannot go out of its way to make sure that people feel safe and secured even when they are under arrest and about to be interrogated. All people need to be treated with more compassion and empathy. The Supreme Court’s guidelines are inadequate on this issue because they do not take into consideration the trauma of the arrestee or the fact that he may not be aware of his right at the time of arrest and may talk before interrogation, unaware that what he is saying…… [Read More]

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Racial Inequality Within Justice System

Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96880167

Problem Statement
It is no lie that people of color are more severely punished for violating the law than white Americans. This can be traced back through history. This discrimination on the law is based on historical injustices that gave harsh sentences to people of color and lighter sentences for white Americans. considering that slavery was abolished many years ago, this justice system discrimination has continued to prevail until today. People of color are more likely to be arrested for misdemeanor charges and they are also likely to be jailed as compared to the white Americans. While people of color account for 12% of the total American population, the number of those incarcerated is quite high. This is disproportionate to the actual number within the whole population. When a comparison is made to the general population, one can see that the numbers do not add up. There might be fewer…… [Read More]

References
Alexander, P. G. (1999). Inequality in Sentencing: Is Race a Factor in the Criminal Justice System. Law & Ineq., 17, 233.
Burch, T. (2015). Skin Color and the Criminal Justice System: Beyond Black?White Disparities in Sentencing. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 12(3), 395-420.
Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision?making in the criminal justice system. Criminology, 54(2), 332-359.
Hetey, R. C., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2018). The numbers don’t speak for themselves: Racial disparities and the persistence of inequality in the criminal justice system. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 183-187.
National Academies of Sciences, E., & Medicine. (2018). The Criminal Justice System and Social Exclusion: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Stringer, R. J., & Holland, M. M. (2016). It's not all black and white: A propensity score matched, multilevel examination of racial drug sentencing disparities. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14(4), 327-347.
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The Use of Intermediate Sanctions Alternatives

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59477436

Intermediate sanctions like intensive probation are fast becoming fully integrated into the criminal justice system. McGarry’s (n.d.) monograph “Improving the Use of Intermediate Sanctions” summarizes the findings of recent research by the National Institute of Corrections and the State Justice Institute. The research covered 25 participating jurisdictions, including input from local and state governments as well as law enforcement, correctional workers, and the courts. Methods of acquiring data included surveys and interviews on the future of intermediate sanctions: how to best implement and integrate them to fulfill multiple and diverse criminal justice goals. The McGarry (n.d.) monograph and the research supporting it point to several core concepts. Because it offers a balanced view and suggests a pragmatic and realistic approach, overall the McGarry (n.d.) document offers a promising and accurate vision of the future of intermediate sanctions.
The most important reasons cited for using intermediate sanctions include cost savings, reducing…… [Read More]

References

Byrne, J.M. (1990). The future of intensive probation supervision and the new intermediate sanctions. Crime and Delinquency 36(1): 6-41.
Caputo, G.A. (2004). Intermediate Sanctions in Corrections. Number 4 in the North Texas Crime and Criminal Justice Series. Denton: University of North Texas Press.
McGarry, P. (n.d.). Improving the use of intermediate sanctions. Center for Effective Public Policy. Retrieved online:  https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.nicic.gov/Library/010427.pdf 
Tonry, M. (1995). Intermediate sanctions in sentencing reform. The University of Chicago Law School Roundtable: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 3. Available at:  http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/roundtable/vol2/iss2/3 
Tonry, M. & Lynch, M. (1996). Intermediate sanctions. Crime and Justice 99, available at  http://scholarship.law.umn.edu/  faculty_articles/484
 
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Mental Health Courts

Words: 417 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87330522

Mental health courts in the criminal justice system are designed for individuals with a mental health disability. They act as alternative courts for such individuals though they are similar to other specialized courts like veterans’ courts and drug courts. These courts were developed to help address the inability of conventional courts and jails to address the needs of defendants with mental illnesses (Mental Health America, 2020). Traditional policing, courts and corrections lacked measures to address defendants with mental health issues, which resulted in the establishment of these courts. Traditional policing initiatives and courts treated mental health ill defendants in the same manner as other offenders while corrections did not include programs that sought to provide mental health treatment to these individuals. As a result of unique needs of these individuals, practitioners altered their approaches to mental health individuals coming into contact with the criminal justice system through establishing mental health…… [Read More]

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Race and Incarceration Rates

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97402010

Introduction
Race has always been a cultural factor in the U.S. and it is certainly a factor in today’s criminal justice system. James (2018:30) has shown that current “research on police officers has found that they tend to associate African Americans with threat” (30). A significantly higher percentage of the African American population is incarcerated than any other population in the U.S. And, worse, as Lopez (2018) points out, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” The evidence indicates that African Americans receive a disproportionate amount of attention from police and are disproportionately punished and incarcerated because of institutionalized racism within the American ruling class. This racist worldview was evident from the early days of the nation, when the concept of Manifest Destiny was put forward by John O’Sullivan (1845). That concept expressed…… [Read More]

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Gender and Crime

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68489150

Gender and Crime
Problem of Equality in the Criminal Justice System
Why Women Need Special Gender Specific Programs in Prison
Some of the biggest hurdles the criminal justice system faces in implementing programs and policies that effectively address the needs and experiences of female offenders are that this population is so small compared to the rest of the incarcerated population that it would require a significant amount of resources to tailor programs and policies to meet the needs of this population exclusively (Bloom & Covington, 1998). Some of these programs that are needed include child care services, separate dwelling places for pregnant offenders, mentor programs tailored for women so that they can get out of the system and not become recidivists, and substance abuse treatment resources. There is also the need to promote support systems for women so that they can build and develop healthy and supportive relationships.
These are…… [Read More]