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Criminal Justice System
Discuss the means by which police gain access to a suspect's records of cell phone numbers called and received. How do police deal with text messages and emails? Obviously, criminals are using cell phones, text messages, and emails to plan and commit crimes. How does the Fourth Amendment apply to these types of technologies? In what do suspects have a reasonable expectation of privacy?
The way that police are able to gain access to cell phone records is through a warrant. This gives law enforcement the power to listen, monitor and review the activities of the suspect. Text messages and emails will fall under similar guidelines based on the fact that they are considered to be personal communication. (Samaha, 2011)
The way that the Fourth Amendment is applicable is through limiting unreasonable searches and seizures. This means that several different guidelines are used to include:
Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Procedures. Boston, MA: Cengage.
Criminal Justice System
The fourth amendment to the United States constitution is a constituent of the Bill of ights which prohibits unreasonable seizures and searches and requires that any warrant presented has t be sanctioned and supported by a reasonable cause. They have to be supported by oath or affirmation and the place to be searched has to specify as well as the person or things that are to be seized. This was adopted due to the abuse of writ of assistance a general search warrant that was issued by the British government that accused a lot of tension in the pre-evolutionary America.
Common law affirmed that any form of evidence even if it was got through illegal means was admissible and was never to be excluded simply because it was obtained illegally. Common law evidence of the guilt of the defendant defended against the charges with claims that the…
Thomson Reuters.(2014). Enforcing the Fourth Amendment: The Exclusionary Rule. Retrieved January 22, 2014 from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment04/06.html/
For example, Cook County, IL, has built a network of support for juvenile female offenders within the local community. The county has developed its own gender-specific assessment and treatment guidelines and has trained youth-facing community workers on assessing juvenile offenders and recommending programming. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30). Also, the county designed a pilot network of social service agencies in order to provide a community-based continuum of care. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30). This continuum of care helps to prevent at risk youth from slipping through the cracks.
Cook County's program was so successful that the State of Connecticut adopted a similar network of institutions practicing a uniform assessment method. Whereas Cook County agencies used the assessments to select programming choices for at-risk youth, Connecticut criminal justice institutions used the assessments to issue alternative sanctions tailored to the juvenile offender's particular risks, needs, and strengths. (Juvenile Justice Journal,…
Gender-specific, rehabilitative programming is valid in the sense that it is based on the common risk factors and causes of female delinquency, childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and disadvantage. (Hawkins, et al., 2011, p. 7). The programming attempts to build the delinquent's resistance to these behavioural influences, through exposure to a caring adult as well goal-setting exercises. (Hawkins, p. 6). These practices are meant to shift the female delinquent's perception of her environment from one of hostility to one of cooperation, trust, support, and opportunity.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1999). Juvenile Justice Journal, 4, 1, 1-35.
Hawkins, S.R. Graham, P.W., Williams, J., & Zahn, M.A. (2009). Resilient Girls -- Factors That Protect Against Delinquency. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Girls Study Group.
Criminal Justice System in the United States
In today's world, it seems that crime simply cannot be fully stamped out. Yet, that is the essential goal of the field of criminal justice. In fact, criminal justice is the pursuit of investigating crimes, as well as trying and punishing those criminals who commit them. The very essence of criminal justice is the need to protect society from crime that may otherwise harm those within it. This is what makes criminal justice such a crucial element to today's modern world.
The definition of crime is not as cut and dry as many might think. Essentially, the modern dictionary states its definition "an act or the commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is commanded by a public law and that makes the offender liable to punishment by that law" (Encyclopedia Britannica 2012). Crime is essentially…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012). Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Web. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/crime
Johnson, Herbert A.; Wolfe, Nancy Travis; Jones, Mark. (2008). History of Criminal Justice. Elsevier Publishing.
McCloud, Mevelyn. (2010). The law isn't just about crime. Law, Crime & Justice. Web. http://mevelyn-mccloud.suite101.com/the-law-isnt-just-about-crime-a206133
Criminal justice system can be described as a collection of state, federal and local agencies which are concerned about problems of crimes. Such agencies assist to process convicted offenders, defendants and suspects. They are also interdependent as the decision from one agency is capable of affecting the other agencies. Their primary framework of their system has been provided by the judicial, legislative and executive branches of government.
The Legislature: Both federal and state always define crimes, fix sentence, as well as providing funding for criminal justice agencies. The judiciary: They are the trial courts which make judgments on and pronounce a person's guilt that has been charged with crimes, whereas the appellate courts interpret the law as per the principles of the constitution. Federal appallate and state courts can review legislative decision and give decision whether they are categorized under federal law, state law as well as ultimately, the United…
Garland, David (2002). "Of Crimes and Criminals." In Maguire, Mike, Rod Morgan, Robert Reiner. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press. pp. 20.
John Randolph Fuller. 2005,"Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents," Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern University) 81 (3): 567 -- 84.
In addition, victims may make a written victim impact statement and present their statement to the court.
Corrections: Identify 2 to 3 correctional facilities in Louisiana. Provide information about the types of facilities they are (maximum or minimum security); the types of designs; whether they are private or public; their population statistics; and their type of crime statistics.
The Elayn Hunt Correctional Center is the second largest prison within the state of Louisiana. It is a maximum security facility, housing within its confines all three levels of custody: maximum, medium and minimum. "EHCC receives and holds inmates with medium and maximum security for disciplinary transfers, mental health and medical concerns, shock incarceration participants, lifers, and trustees assigned to work crews" (Elayn Hunt Correctional Center, 2009). It is a centralized multi-service facility diversified in functions that benefit all of the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections. It has an inmate…
08-414 Corrections Services - David Wade Correctional Center. (n.d.). Retrieved May 26, 2009,
from Web site: http://www.doa.louisiana.gov/opb/Exec-bud00/08-corr/08-414.html#pgfId=1001047295
Community-Based Centers. (2009). Retrieved May 26, 2009, Narconon International Web site:
Criminal Justice System
Describe criminal justice system a filtering process. What decides cases stay filtered? What type correctional client process produce? How process impact correctional system an individual institution's ability achieve goals?.
Criminal justice system
Criminal justice refers to a close examination of laws regarding criminal behavior and subsequent action that follows once found guilty. It involves the judiciary workforce, police, lawyers, members of the Supreme Court and advocates. The goal is to be always fair to a suspect of any given crime though this is not always achieved hence the reason for flexibility in implementing the laws, the power of the judiciary to interpret laws and capacity to make changes to unfair laws. Knowledge about the laws, privileges and rights of suspects and victims is important in aiming for justice in our law enforcement and court systems Siegel, 2010()
Criminal justice system has the goal of doing justice,…
Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. . (2008). Criminal justice in America. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Siegel, L.J. (2010). Introduction to criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Criminal Justice System Program
REDUCING GUN VIOLENCE AND CRIME
The Violent Gang and Gun Crime Reduction Program
More popularly known as Project Safe Neighborhoods or PSN, this Program was conceived and designed to create safer neighborhoods by reducing crime associated with gang and gun violence (JA, 2012). Its effectiveness derives from the cooperation among the local, State, and federal agencies involved. It is led by the district attorney. He is tasked with establishing a collaborative PSN task force of federal, State and local law enforcement and other sectors of the community to implement gang and gun crime enforcement, intervention and prevention activities within his district. There are 94 federal judicial districts. Through the PSN task force, he implements the five design features of PSN. These design features are partnerships, strategic planning, training, outreach and accountability. They are geared towards addressing the specific and local gun and gang crime problems of…
BJA (2012). Violent gang and gun crime reduction program. Project Safe
Neighborhoods, FY 2012 Competitive Grant Announcement. Bureau of Justice
Assistance: U.S. Department of Justice, 2012. Retrieved on May 25, 2012 from http://www.bja.gov/Funding/12PSNsol.pdf
NIJ. Gun violence programs. Office of Justice Programs: National Institute of Justice,
In this way, the prison system in Britain is attempting to incorporate cultural diversity into the criminal justice system, in an effort to ensure success.
In addition, many other agencies now offer translation services, support services for culturally varied populations, and are working with other agencies to provide consistent improvement in the representation of the varied populations of Britain. In attempting such an open-armed policy, the criminal justice system is helping to ensure lower recidivism, higher acceptance within local communities, higher conviction rates, and a more balanced system.
It is clear that the complex criminal justice system of Britain embraces a range of agencies, cultures and objectives. Each agency, responsible for their own set of objectives, also answers to a higher system, creating a check and balance system useful for widening the potential of the system. In addition, as each agency works with one another, the acceptance of cultural diversity…
Auld, J.S., 2001. A Review of the Criminal Courts of England and Wales. London: Criminal Courts Review.
Chapman, B. And Niven, S., 2000. A Guide to the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales. London: RDS Communication and Development Unit.
Home Office Prison Service, 2005. The Prison Service Associate Race Equality Scheme. London: HM Prison Service.
IMB News, 2006. The IMB National Council. IMB News 10 (1), pp. 28.
Criminal Justice System
The judiciary of the United States is created as a co-equal branch of government under the United States Constitution, along with the executive and legislative branches. It is the judiciary that oversees the country's criminal justice system of courts.
The court system in the United States is a holdover from its colonial days and closely follows system laid out by English Common Law. This has given rise to the adversarial court system today, where two sides -- the plaintiff and defendant -- argue their cases in front of an impartial judge and a jury of their peers (Neubauer 2001).
Most criminal cases are jury trials. A jury is charged with determining the facts of the case, as argued by prosecutors who represent the state and the lawyers representing the defendant. The presiding determines and interprets the law in relation to the case (Rabe 2001).
Beginning of a…
Champion, Dean John. 2000. Corrections in the United States: A Contemporary Perspective. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Neubauer, David W. 2001. America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
Rabe, Gary A. 2001. Criminal Courts. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
' (Johnson, 2003; paraphrased) Congress's work is "initiated by the introduction of a proposal in one of four forms:
1) the bill;
2) the joint resolution;
3) the concurrent resolution; and 4) the simple resolution. (Johnson, 2003)
There are two types of bills:
1) the public bill; and 2) the private bill. (Johnson, 2003) public bill is one that has an effect on the public in a general way while a private bill is one that affects a private entity instead of the population at large. Once a bill has been agreed to by both the Senate and the House of Congress it becomes a law only after:
1) "Presidential approval; or 2) Failure by the President to return it with objections to the House in which is originated within ten days or 3) the overriding of a presidential veto by a two-thirds vote in each house." (Johnson, 2003)
Johnson, C.W. (2003) How Our Laws Are Made. Presented by Mr. Ney June 20, 2003. Online available at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:oV7GPSjFhbEJ:www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/howourlawsaremade.pdf+How+laws+are+made+and+changed&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us
Case Law (nd) E.B. Williams Library. Tutorials. 2001. Georgetown University Law Library. Online available at http://www.ll.georgetown.edu/tutorials/definitions/case_law.html .
What is the difference between a state trooper, state police, sheriff, college campus police officer, game warden, and a correctional officer?
State trooper – The role of the Patrol Division Troopers is law enforcement on rural roads in Texas. They perform such duties as arresting traffic offenders, investigating the cause of accidents, recovering vehicles that are stolen, and to step in to assist other officers in the cause of law enforcement in emergency situations. The troopers also facilitate the populace with education on traffic safety and how to prevent crime. They are also in charge of the security at Austin State Capitol Complex. The state troopers are also mandated to enforce laws relating to registration of vehicles that conduct commercial activity.
State police –the police are in service for the government
Sherriff – A sheriff has powers to enforce the laws across the county. This group of leaders in the…
“About Us,” North Central Texas College, (2018). Retrieved from http://www.nctc.edu/about-us/index.html on 30 November 2018
“Death Row Information.” Texas Department of Criminal Jusctice, (N.D.). Retrieved from http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/death_row/dr_facts.html on 30 November 2018
“Supreme Court.” Texas Judicial Branch, (2018). Retrieved from http://www.txcourts.gov/supreme/about-the-court/ on 30 November 2018
Burress, C. (2018). Researching Texas Law: Cases. Texas A&M University, School of Law.
Cole, G. F., Smith, C. E., & DeJong, C. (2018). The American system of criminal justice. Cengage Learning.
Houle, K. (2016). Texas Death Penalty Developments in 2016: The Year in Review. Texas Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.
Houle, K. (2017). Texas Death Penalty Developments in 2017: The Year in Review. Texas Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.
Keneally, M. (2018, Oct. 9). Meet all of the sitting Supreme Court justices ahead of the new term. ABC News. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/meet-sitting-supreme-court-justices/story?id=37229761 on 30 November 2018
1. Name the three (3) separate government components that make-up the U.S. Criminal justice system and explain their function and how they work together?
The three separate government components that make-up the U.S. Criminal justice system comprise of courts, law enforcement, and corrections. Imperatively, these components are dependent on one another and one would not necessarily be beneficial devoid of the others. First of all, the courts are reliant on the law enforcement to legally gather and comprehensively record and document all evidence and statements made. Secondly, law enforcement works in tandem with the courts in regard to serving warrants and subpoenas. The third component of the justice system, corrections, are employed in making certain that criminals remain under confinement, facilitate the transportation of convicts to hearings, and also partake in the supervision of individuals subsequent to their release from custody. What is more, the courts make certain that the…
Plea Bargaining and the For Profit Prison Industrial Complex
Any discussion of systemic racism in America would be incomplete without mentioning how race impacts the criminal justice system. It should not be surprising to anyone to hear that the black population is overrepresented in the what Angela Davis has termed the prison industrial complex (Lentin, 2020). 37% of America’s prison population is black, yet blacks are only 12% of the total US population (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014). In fact, the for-profit private prison industry uses the labor of the prisoners by farming it out to American corporations, who pay pennies on the dollar for prison labor (Pelaez, 2019). And this is just part of the problem. Clearly there is a conflict of interest in the criminal justice system if there is a for-profit industry that profits from incarcerations. But why do blacks make up such a large percentage of…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Grossman, S. P. (2005). An Honest Approach to Plea Bargaining. Am. J. Trial Advoc., 29, 101.
Lentin, R. (2020). Incarceration, Disavowal and Ireland’s Prison Industrial Complex. In The Carceral Network in Ireland (pp. 259-278). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Nilsen, E. S. (2007). Decency, Dignity, and Desert: Restoring Ideals of Humane Punishment to Constitutional Discourse. UC Davis L. Rev., 41, 111.
Pelaez, V. (2019). The Prison Industry in the United States: Big Business or a New Form of Slavery? Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-prison-industry-in-the-united-states-big-business-or-a-new-form-of-slavery/8289
Crime is Not Just a Criminal Justice Issue
The issue of mental health in the criminal justice system is important because, as Stringer (2019) notes, the US Department of Justice has admitted that nearly 40% of individuals in prison have a history of mental illness. Unfortunately, the criminal justice system does not appear to be focused on addressing the situation in a way that benefits people convicted of crime. The prison industry faces a crossroads with respect to the mental health needs of prisoners: it can either continue forward on its current trajectory, ignoring the obvious mental health needs of inmates, or it can take steps now to address the mental health problem within the criminal justice system. This paper will show why there is a problem and what can be done to address it. It will ultimately explain that the prison industry needs to do a better job…
De Vries, M.F.K. (1998). Charisma in action: The transformational abilities of Virgin's
Richard Branson and ABB's Percy Barnevik. Organizational Dynamics, 26(3), 7-21.
Evans Cuellar, A., McReynolds, L. S., & Wasserman, G. A. (2006). A cure for crime: Can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 25(1), 197-214.
Haney, C. (2018). The psychological effects of solitary confinement: A systematic critique. Crime and Justice, 47(1), 365-416.
Lentin, R. (2020). Incarceration, Disavowal and Ireland’s Prison Industrial Complex. In The Carceral Network in Ireland (pp. 259-278). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Morgan, R.D., Flora, D.B., Kroner, D.G., Mills, J.F., Varghese, F. &Steffan, J.S. (2013). Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis, 36(1), 37-50.
National Conference of State Legislatures – NCSL (2020). Police-Metal Health Collaboration. Retrieved from https://www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/mental-health-needs-of-criminal-justice.aspx
Northouse, P. G. (2019) Leadership: Theory and practice (8th Ed.). Sage Publications.
The Republic of Liberia happens to be an African country located in the west coast (ADC, 2019). The country shares boundaries with Atlantic Ocean and countries like Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Liberia has land area of 111,369 km2 and is made up of 4.732 million people as of 2017 (ADC, 2019). Liberia has a unique history in that it has a unique relationship with the United States. It is one of the only two African countries that were not subjected to the European colonization and scramble for independence (ADC, 2019). The only other African country that was not colonized is Ethiopia. This being said, Liberia become home to American slaves that were released and repatriated with the assistance of some private organization referred to as ACS (American Colonization Society) (ADC, 2019). The ACS founded Liberia and colonized the country beginning from year 1821 to 1822 (ADC, 2019).…
ADC (2019). Here’s What You Need to Know about Liberia, Africa.com. Retrieved 3 March, 2019 from https://www.africa.com/heres-what-you-need-to-know-about-liberia/
International Bridges of Justice, (2016). Liberia, IBJ Criminal Defense Wiki. Retrieved 3 March, 2019 from http://defensewiki.ibj.org/index.php/Liberia
Nations Online (2019). Liberia, One World Nations Online. Retrieved 3 March, 2019 from https://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/liberia.htm
OSAC, (2018). Liberia 2018 Crime & Safety Report, Overseas Security Advisory Council. Retrieved 3 March, 2019 from https://www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=24304
Penal law of Liberia. (1978). Penal Law - Title 26 - Liberian Code of Laws Revised, Penal Code Laws of Liberia. Retrieved 3 March, 2019 from http://www.icla.up.ac.za/images/un/use- of-force/africa/Liberia/Penal%20Code%20Liberia%201978.pdf
Thomas, J., (2006). Liberian Criminal Justice System: In Retrospect and Reforms, the Perspective. Retrieved 3 March, 2019 from http://www.theperspective.org/articles/0217200602.html
Concept of Ethics in Criminal Justice Research
Ethics is one of the most important issues in the field of criminal justice given its consideration as the mainstay of professionalism in this discipline. The significance of ethics in the criminal justice field is attributable to the fact that the various professionals or actors in this field exercise discretion when making decisions and need to enforce the law in the process. Therefore, ethical considerations are critical in decision-making processes involving discretion, due process, and force. Additionally, such considerations are necessary in criminal justice research, which plays a crucial role in criminal justice practices. This paper focuses on examining the concept of ethics in criminal justice research and potential ethical questions/issues that criminal justice researchers are likely to face.
As previously indicated, professionals and actors in the criminal justice field are faced with various situations that require ethical decision-making. An example of these…
Paterline, B.A. & Orr, D. (2016, December). Adaptation to Prison and Inmate Self-Concept. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 4(2), 70-79.
Paternoster, R. (2010). How Much Do We Really Know About Criminal Deterrence? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 100(3), 765-824. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7363&context=jclc
Rupp, T. (2008, July 1). Meta Analysis of Crime and Deterrence: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Retrieved from http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/1054/2/rupp_diss.pdf
Wakefield, A. (2006). The Value of Foot Patrol: A Review of Research. The Police Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.police-foundation.org.uk/uploads/catalogerfiles/the-value-of-foot-patrol/foot_patrol.pdf
Wolfgang, M.E. (2010). Confidentiality in Criminological Research and Other Ethical Issues. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72(1). Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6222&context=jclc
What is criminal justice reform? It is the focus on improving the criminal justice system through the implementation of evidence-based best practices, policies that promote greater equitability fairness, and systems that are more cost-efficient (National Criminal Justice Association, 2019). One area in which reform is needed is the issue of bail. Bail is the bond that allows an arrested individual to leave jail while awaiting trial, which could last for many months. If the individual has the money, he may post bail. If not, he is stuck in jail. Essentially, the system favors the rich over the poor (ACLU, 2019). There are many examples of abuses regarding bail—from the woman mistakenly jailed pre-trial, who ended up losing her job and kids as a result (Woods & Rosnick, 2019) to the $2 billion bail industry that profits off the impoverished (ACLU, 2019). This paper will discuss the history of reform,…
Discussion 1:Topic: Miranda Rights
I feel that Miranda Rights should be read at point of arrest and again before interrogation. That way the detained person knows his rights. In today’s world, there are so many laws and so many confusing issues in the world, people are frightened and scared if they have a run-in with the law. There is no reason that law enforcement cannot go out of its way to make sure that people feel safe and secured even when they are under arrest and about to be interrogated. All people need to be treated with more compassion and empathy. The Supreme Court’s guidelines are inadequate on this issue because they do not take into consideration the trauma of the arrestee or the fact that he may not be aware of his right at the time of arrest and may talk before interrogation, unaware that what he is saying…
Alternative Sentencing Structures in US Prison System
Contemporary laws and the practices of America’s justice system continue to exacerbate the crime problem and have unnecessarily damaged the lives of many people. Moreover, prisons are seen to be systems that are adding more strain to the taxpayers because billions of money goes to waste each year. It has reached a point that the system is almost feeding itself because it takes longer to get off the system and no positive impact is evident on the crime rates. According to research conducted ten years ago, the prison population in America was over two million, which accounts for nearly one-fourth of the world’s total (Alarid, 2016). Having such figures is proof enough of the failure the prison system is facing, and the government should adopt other measures. Rather than stubbornly relying on a system that is a known failure, prisons in America should…
Alarid, L. F. (2016). Community-based corrections (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Cole, G. F., Smith, C. E. & DeJong, C. (2014). The American system of criminal justice (14th Ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
It is no lie that people of color are more severely punished for violating the law than white Americans. This can be traced back through history. This discrimination on the law is based on historical injustices that gave harsh sentences to people of color and lighter sentences for white Americans. considering that slavery was abolished many years ago, this justice system discrimination has continued to prevail until today. People of color are more likely to be arrested for misdemeanor charges and they are also likely to be jailed as compared to the white Americans. While people of color account for 12% of the total American population, the number of those incarcerated is quite high. This is disproportionate to the actual number within the whole population. When a comparison is made to the general population, one can see that the numbers do not add up. There might be fewer…
Alexander, P. G. (1999). Inequality in Sentencing: Is Race a Factor in the Criminal Justice System. Law & Ineq., 17, 233.
Burch, T. (2015). Skin Color and the Criminal Justice System: Beyond Black?White Disparities in Sentencing. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 12(3), 395-420.
Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision?making in the criminal justice system. Criminology, 54(2), 332-359.
Hetey, R. C., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2018). The numbers don’t speak for themselves: Racial disparities and the persistence of inequality in the criminal justice system. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 183-187.
National Academies of Sciences, E., & Medicine. (2018). The Criminal Justice System and Social Exclusion: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Stringer, R. J., & Holland, M. M. (2016). It's not all black and white: A propensity score matched, multilevel examination of racial drug sentencing disparities. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14(4), 327-347.
A defendant that has successfully been prosecuted and then found guilty will have their sentence determined and read out by a judge at the sentencing hearing. The sentencing hearing can only take place after the criminal conviction. During the sentencing hearing, the judge will have to decide on a sentence or a punishment based on the maximum and minimum sentences for the particular crime, as stipulated in the penal code. While all this sounds straightforward, there have been many cases recorded of discrimination and disparity in sentencing (Spohn, 2008).
With regards to sentencing, a disparity exists in two ways – when offenders who are different get the same punishment, and when similar offenders get different punishments. More specifically, a disparity exists when judges impose the same punishment/ sentence on offenders who have very different crimes and criminal histories and when judges impose different punishments on offenders who have carried…
Intermediate sanctions like intensive probation are fast becoming fully integrated into the criminal justice system. McGarry’s (n.d.) monograph “Improving the Use of Intermediate Sanctions” summarizes the findings of recent research by the National Institute of Corrections and the State Justice Institute. The research covered 25 participating jurisdictions, including input from local and state governments as well as law enforcement, correctional workers, and the courts. Methods of acquiring data included surveys and interviews on the future of intermediate sanctions: how to best implement and integrate them to fulfill multiple and diverse criminal justice goals. The McGarry (n.d.) monograph and the research supporting it point to several core concepts. Because it offers a balanced view and suggests a pragmatic and realistic approach, overall the McGarry (n.d.) document offers a promising and accurate vision of the future of intermediate sanctions.
The most important reasons cited for using intermediate sanctions include cost savings, reducing…
Byrne, J.M. (1990). The future of intensive probation supervision and the new intermediate sanctions. Crime and Delinquency 36(1): 6-41.
Caputo, G.A. (2004). Intermediate Sanctions in Corrections. Number 4 in the North Texas Crime and Criminal Justice Series. Denton: University of North Texas Press.
McGarry, P. (n.d.). Improving the use of intermediate sanctions. Center for Effective Public Policy. Retrieved online: https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.nicic.gov/Library/010427.pdf
Tonry, M. (1995). Intermediate sanctions in sentencing reform. The University of Chicago Law School Roundtable: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 3. Available at: http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/roundtable/vol2/iss2/3
Tonry, M. & Lynch, M. (1996). Intermediate sanctions. Crime and Justice 99, available at http://scholarship.law.umn.edu/ faculty_articles/484
Mental health courts in the criminal justice system are designed for individuals with a mental health disability. They act as alternative courts for such individuals though they are similar to other specialized courts like veterans’ courts and drug courts. These courts were developed to help address the inability of conventional courts and jails to address the needs of defendants with mental illnesses (Mental Health America, 2020). Traditional policing, courts and corrections lacked measures to address defendants with mental health issues, which resulted in the establishment of these courts. Traditional policing initiatives and courts treated mental health ill defendants in the same manner as other offenders while corrections did not include programs that sought to provide mental health treatment to these individuals. As a result of unique needs of these individuals, practitioners altered their approaches to mental health individuals coming into contact with the criminal justice system through establishing mental health…
Race has always been a cultural factor in the U.S. and it is certainly a factor in today’s criminal justice system. James (2018:30) has shown that current “research on police officers has found that they tend to associate African Americans with threat” (30). A significantly higher percentage of the African American population is incarcerated than any other population in the U.S. And, worse, as Lopez (2018) points out, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” The evidence indicates that African Americans receive a disproportionate amount of attention from police and are disproportionately punished and incarcerated because of institutionalized racism within the American ruling class. This racist worldview was evident from the early days of the nation, when the concept of Manifest Destiny was put forward by John O’Sullivan (1845). That concept expressed…
Gender and Crime
Problem of Equality in the Criminal Justice System
Why Women Need Special Gender Specific Programs in Prison
Some of the biggest hurdles the criminal justice system faces in implementing programs and policies that effectively address the needs and experiences of female offenders are that this population is so small compared to the rest of the incarcerated population that it would require a significant amount of resources to tailor programs and policies to meet the needs of this population exclusively (Bloom & Covington, 1998). Some of these programs that are needed include child care services, separate dwelling places for pregnant offenders, mentor programs tailored for women so that they can get out of the system and not become recidivists, and substance abuse treatment resources. There is also the need to promote support systems for women so that they can build and develop healthy and supportive relationships.
If the defendant is acquitted by the jury or by the judge in a bench trial, the 5th Amendment government prohibits the government from trying the defendant for the same crime.
Although there are is no constitutional right to appeal convictions, every state has passed its own laws which allow a convicted defendant to appeal a conviction after trial.
The defendant may appeal to an appellate court below the state supreme court or, if there is none, directly to the state supreme court.
If the appellant is unsuccessful at this level, he/she can bring the appeal to a higher court.
If the appellant's complaint is based on a Constitutional issue, she may bring her case to federal court which has jurisdiction over that particular state.
However, if the appellant's complaint involves a right provided by the state's laws, he/she cannot bring this issue before a federal court.
Crime and Justice Volume II: The Criminal in the Arms of the Law, Edited by Sir Leon Radzinowicz and Marvin E. Wolfgang (1977). Basic Books Publishing.
Joshua Dressler and Alan C. Michaels, Understanding Criminal Procedure Vol. 2: Adjudication (4th Edition)(2006). Lexis-Nexis.
Larry J. Siegel, Introduction to Criminal Justice (12th Edition) (2010) Cengage Learning.
Bryan a. Garner, Black's Law Dictionary (8th Edition) (2004). Thomson West.
Criminal Justice System
The civilized society is one that is founded on laws and values where each member of society thereto should abide by and adhere to. Any breach or non-conformance to said statutes and principles will be met with corresponding sanctions and more particularly in cases that are criminal in nature. Thus, the criminal justice system is the law enforcement mechanism that involves the investigation, arrest, prosecution, defense, all the way to sentencing and commitment to the penal institution for those accused of, suspected or charged with criminal offenses. Despite the raison d'etre of the criminal justice system existing to protect the members of society, the system is far from perfect and there are several issues that continually needed to be addressed. These issues vary such as the disparity between the types of defense the rich and the poor accused can avail of where the former can seek the…
Leipold, A.D. (2010). What's wrong with the criminal justice system and how we can fix it? Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 7(515): 516-519. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/osjcl/Articles/Volume7_2/Leipold-FinalPDF.pdf
West, T. (2009, May 7). Criminal justice system -- A pipeline with many problems. Philadelphia Public Record. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.dc47afscme.org/local_810/public%20record/90507.htm
.....abuse and/or neglect of children and the elderly is a major issue in the American criminal justice system because of increased prevalence of such cases. However, getting accurate information regarding the extent of child and elder abuse is increasingly challenging in the United States. Some of the major issues contributing to this problem include the fact that most child and elder abuse cases are not reported, misreporting of these cases, seeming inability of victims to report the cases, and the fact that most perpetrators are caregivers. Children and senior adults are more likely to be victims of abuse, neglect or maltreatment because of lesser physical and mental capabilities, dependence on caregivers, and tendency to trust easily. The likelihood of vulnerable children and the elderly to fall victims to abuse can be decreased through establishing suitable prevention and intervention measures that effectively identify and deal with risk factors and improve reporting…
Criminal Justice System
Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.
Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:
Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…
Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24
BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf
Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.
Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.
Unethical behavior that a few years ago would have been considered appalling has become acceptable. Dishonesty, cheating, lying, and sexual misconduct, is not only common, but in most cases is expected" (Ramirez 2006).
In order to reduce police brutality and force the use of force matrix, criminal justice managers suggest exercise for police officers. If officers are healthier and more physically fit, this could lead to better community perception and relations, and may decrease the amount of citizen complaints against officers for verbal abuse and excessive physical force. Physically fit officers can increase the safety of themselves and fellow officers and change the public perceptions that police officers are out of shape donut eaters. Police departments can lower their medical premiums through decreased sick leave and injuries, as well as decreasing lawsuits from citizen complaints of verbal abuse and/or excessive physical force. Decreasing these lawsuits will also lower the city's…
From the evidence in this paper, it is apparent that police officers need more outlets relieve their stress in order to force ethical issues because they could eventually hurt others. Police organizations must find more help for their officers due to the fact they are in danger of the affects of chronic stress, which could permanently alter their personalities and behavior and that could add to ethical issues that criminal justice managers have to deal with. Beyond physically fitness, more effective research and funding must be put into the mental health of police officers so that they can serve and protect their communities and ethical issues can be addressed properly (Finn 2000).
Criminal Justice System
Australian Criminal Justice System
"When all is said and done, the current criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect"
Overview of the Criminal Justice System: Fair and Effective - Penal Populism
The Democracy at Work thesis proposes that politicians have been properly responsive to public concern about crime by putting into place the more robust responses to offending which people want. An alternative perspective is that politicians have been populist in advocating these tougher policies. "Penal populism"; a term equivalent to Bottoms's (1995) "populist punitiveness"; is defined here as a punishment policy developed primarily for its anticipated popularity. Penal policy is particularly susceptible to populism, because there is a great deal of public concern about crime, and low levels of public knowledge about sentencing practice, sentencing effectiveness, and sentencing equity. This combination of concern and lack of knowledge can present…
Bottoms, A.E. (1995). The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing. In C. Clarkson and R. Morgan, eds., The politics of sentencing reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hogg, R., and D. Brown (1998). Rethinking law and order. Sydney: Pluto Press.
Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity: Complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 48: 12 -- 17.
Sallmann, P., and J. Willis (2003). Criminal justice in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Criminal Justice System Today
Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System
What is the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today?
The urgency needed in addressing crime issues is a factor that is widely acceptable, the public view crime and fear of crime as among the most vital issues. A number of communities have been converted into war zones with a ring of gunshots being the order of the day and night. The society struggle everyday to bring order but, this is challenged by criminal behaviors that do not adhere to traditional standards. On the other hand are the policy makers and administrators in the criminal justice systems trying to unravel the complex nature of crime. There have been significant changes in how policing, adjudication, sentencing, imprisonment, and community corrections are approached. The existence of pressure from the public and ever changing policies creates the need understand…
Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."
Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.
Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.
This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole. This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.
What is at the Core of the Criminal Justice System in the United States?
The Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Crime
Does the Criminal Justice System Need Change?
Selected Title: The Role of The American Criminal Justice…
Criminal Justice System
After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.
Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says
efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…
BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e
CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html
Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/
Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
values" that underlie the American criminal justice system? That is, what would an outsider consider our fundamental value when he/she observed the U.S. justice system? It is by understanding our own values that we better understand the values of other countries. At the same time, we start to realize, I hope, that our values determine our CJ system. So it would be silly to believe that other countries have the same system as us when we know that they do not share our same values.
There are many different underlying values that could be perceived by outsiders. Probably one of the most prominent values observed would be the access to justice. Everyone is provided a lawyer and the legal system is intended to work for all citizens regardless of their place in society. Although many of the outcomes may have variations depending on an individual's background, there is at least…
These followers are also motivated to perform beyond expectations. This leadership principle of leading by example is important in the criminal justice organizations.
It is therefore important for the transformational leaders to pay attention as well as be sensitive to the needs, demand and preferences of their leaders. By doing these, the transformational leaders manage to cultivate a high level of acceptance of group mission by their various followers via individualized consideration coupled with intellectual stimulation. This leadership principle encourages the unity of subordinates as they engage in working towards a common goal. In order for administrators in the criminal justice organizations to apply the principles of transformational leadership, there is a need for them to apply the six-step process that was suggested by Ulrich (1987). The first step that they must take is to ensure that they create and communicate the very need for organizational change. They then need…
Bass, M., & Avolio, B. (1992). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14, 21-37.
Kelley, R. (1988). In praise of followers. Harvard Business Review, 66(6), 142-148.
Ulrich, D (1987).The role of transformational leaders in changing sport arenas.In the organization and administration of sport. University of Michigan Ann Arbor
Stojkovic,,S., Kalinich, D., Klofas, J (2007) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. Cengage Learning
Globlal Organized Crime, ISIS and Criminal Justice
The impact of globalization has not just been felt around the planet in economic, political and social terms: it has also been felt in the sector of criminology. The current crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system on a global basis are, in other words, not as isolated or unconnected as they were a century ago. Today's world is connected in complex ways, especially thanks to the ease of communication that the digital era has provided. In places where the digital divide exists, crimes and criminal issues are more unique and remote (examples include genocide, such as that conducted by Boko Haram for instance in Africa). But in countries where there is no digital divide, the crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system range from counterfeiting to human trafficking to various forms of cyber crime and terrorist-related…
BBC. (2015). Facebook, Google, and Twitter agree German hate speech deal.
BBCNews. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35105003
Baksi, C. (2015). China tackles problem of counterfeit goods head-on. Raconteur.
Retrieved from http://raconteur.net/business/china-tackles-problem-of-counterfeit-goods-head-on
TV Criminal Procedure
Fluffy, unrealistic, demeaning, biased against the routine nature of many of the professional activities that can be expected if one chooses a criminal justice career: This is what reviewers of television shows on law enforcement and the courts of say. But time and again, Hollywood returns to these formats to give the public the chance to love and hate the pursuit of justice. There is probably no way around this because the ends and means of criminal justice will always be in conflict, and that can make for good entertainment.
For the most part police and law enforcement personnel get the best representation as pursuers of right and security, except for when there is a bad guy from these offices, in which case the shows demonstrate how these people hurt their fellow good guys. Somewhat of a change has occurred by the making of more entertaining defense…
Admin (2011). Are criminal justice TV shows full of fluff? A one-sided depiction of criminal justice careers. Viewable at http://www.uscollegesearch.org/blog/resource-articles/criminal-justice-info/are-criminal-justice-tv-shows-full-of-fluff.
Weyenburg, M. (2011). 25 Best & Worst Legal TV Shows. Law School Podcaster: Your guide to law school. Viewable at http://www.lawschoolpodcaster.com/2011/05/27/25-best-worst-legal-tv-shows/
How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free
The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…
Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
criminal justice system and the historical foundations of the system. The study has discussed the current criminal justice system and how it has evolved during the years. The various functions of the criminal justice system are also discussed briefly to get clear understanding on the topic.
Criminal Justice System is a system of institutions and practices employed to uphold crime, deterring and social control or to put sanctions on those who are violating the laws by imposing criminal penalties and through rehabilitation efforts. The accused criminals also have some protections against the misconduct or abuse of prosecution and investigatory powers.
The criminal justice policy in the United States is guided by a ground breaking report that was presented to the President's Commission in 1967 on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. This commission had advised a systematic approach in dealing with criminal justice through a coordinated effort among courts, correctional…
Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice.
Mayo, K. (1920). Justice to All: The Story of the Pennsylvania State Police. Houghton Mifflin.
U.S. Criminal Justice system as in the last few decades and link the trends to the future. We will access the following, including:
ecent and future trends and contemporary issues affecting the criminal justice system.
Value of the criminal justice system in a changing society.
Traditionally, American citizens have traditionally thought of the United States criminal justice system as being in the business of dispensing justice for crimes that are actually committed. Unfortunately, over several decades a move within the criminal justice system has been unfolding where instead of punishing past offenses, it attempts to prevent future crimes through the incarceration and control of dangerous offenders. This is a fallacious approach and erodes our constitutional protections of individual rights under the Bill of ights and the United States Constitution.
Unfortunately for individual rights in the United States, the criminal justice system has misused the War on Terrorism and an act…
Greenberger, M. (2004). Is criminal justice a casualty of the bush administration's
"war on terror"?. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/publications / human
Australian Criminal Justice System
Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).
Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through
Legislation, legal action and negotiation…
Australian Government Department of Foreign Investment and Trade (2011). Legal System. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/legal_system.html
Indehmar, D and Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/D/6/8/%7BD68CD7EA-536A-4025-A8C0-A5BADF59A6AC%7Dtandi387.pdf
Lincoln, R. And Robinson, S. (2010). Crime over Time. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle Tyne.
Roach Anleu, S.L. (1998). The role of civil sanctions of in social control: a social legal examination December 15, 2011 from http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_09/Role_ofCivilSanctions.pdf
Criminal Justice System
The criminal justice system may be seen as an overpowering, puzzling as well as threatening for all those who do not work according to the system on normal basis. Thus, one can easily imagine the response of a criminal since he or she struggle to turn the very inflicting "criminal" justice system (ncvc, 1998).
There are many individuals that may include victims along with their advocates of having believed that the justice system concentrate on the criminal to the loss or damage of the victim (ncvc, 1998). However, after the passage of the isconsin Victims' Bill of Rights in 1980, the victim advocates have supported the passage of victims' rights legislation to have balance justice system (ncvc, 1998).
Thus now to some extent, all states have passed laws in order to protect the rights as well as interests of crime victims. However, the capacity and…
Overview of the Criminal Justice System (1998). The National Centre for Victims of Crime. http://www.ncvc.org/
Criminal Justice. Crime and Violence: Are crime and criminal justice important political issues? Social issues? Why. www. courses.ceu.edu
Chambliss, W. (1976). Functional and Conflict Theories of Crime: The Heritage of Emile
Durkheim and Karl Marx. In Whose Law? What Order?: A Conflict Approach to Criminology. W. Chambliss & Mankoff (Eds.), New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals. This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this aspect, several crimes have taken place in USA marking the statistics in the country by 32% of the total juvenile crime statistics (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this essay, a case study of one of the most fierce juvenile crime acts have been presented which explains a situation where the juvenile criminal was at first ordered to be treated as an adult for the sentence purposes due to committing first degree of the crime. However, later due to his…
Bell, S.J. (2011). Young Offenders and Youth Justice: A Century After the Fact. Toronto: Cengage Learning .
Jones, B. (2012, April 13). http://www.usatoday.com /news. Retrieved from
Disparity and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
Discrimination in the justice system is the dissimilarity based on the difference in treatment given to people regardless of their qualifications or behavior. The criminal justice system has different forms of discrimination including pure justice, contextual discrimination, institutionalized discrimination, and systematic discrimination. Every stage of the criminal justice system experiences systematic discrimination. Further, this form of discrimination occurs without variation in all corners of the world. This implies that systematic discrimination happens when a certain gender, ethnic, age or race group encounters discrimination in different parts of the world. Critics are of the opinion systematic discrimination does not exist while other believes that it exists when groups of people encounter consistent discrimination in the criminal justice system (obinson & Williams, 2009).
Institutionalized discrimination is associated with disparities in the results and not in the policies. Institutionalized discrimination is based on the aspect…
Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.
Federal Courts. New York: Springer.
Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:
Edward Elgar Publishing.
History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police
It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.
The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)
Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…
Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.
Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.
Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
activities of the U.S. criminal justice system focus for the most part on immediate events. Nonetheless, it is important to take a broad look at changes in criminal rate across a period of time, in order to comprehend the context in which individual crimes occur, and establish better means of minimizing their incidence. The present work's aim is to analyze characteristics of New York City's crime rates from the past three years, as reported by authorities, and envision a setting whereby criminality might diminish.
Firstly, local data gathered consistently by The Division of Criminal Justice Services from year to year is to be compared and contrasted in order to identify and assess New York City's important crime trends. The following table illustrates the results pertaining to the analysis.
New York City crime statistics of the last three years
Difference in Percentage
2011 compared to 2010
Division of Criminal Justice Services (June 7, 2013). Crime, Arrest and Firearm Activity Report: Data Reported through April 30, 2013 (page 3001). New York City, NY: Office of Justice Research and Performance. Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/criment/ojsa/greenbook.pdf
Oppel, R.A. Jr. (2011). Steady Decline in Major Crime Baffles Experts, New York Times, May 24,-page A17.
Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Details of the Source
When does police mistake become murder?
The Christian Science Monitor,
Date of publication: 04-05-1999,
Summary of Facts
Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…
Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis
Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:
Criminal Justice Components
management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations
A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent
Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid
The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?
The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.
Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…
Barbaree, H.E., Marshall, W.L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Holmes, S.E, James, R.S & Javad K. (2001). Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, .31
Rozalski, M., Deignan, M., & Engel, S. (2008). The world of juvenile justice according to the numbers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24,143-147.
Juvenile and Adult Justice
Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems
Similarities and differences: Juvenile and adult criminal justice systems
The goals of the juvenile justice and the adult criminal justice systems are fundamentally distinct. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and to provide aid and assistance to the juvenile, enabling him or her to become a more productive adult (La Mance 2010). In contrast, the purpose of the adult system is one of fact-finding, and is designed to see 'justice' done on a societal level: in the case of a guilty offender, this usually means him or her 'paying a debt' to society in the form of some kind of punishment. However, the adult system still does offer many rehabilitative programs for the majority of convicts, including educational and vocational training. And, depending on the state, if the severity of the crime is deemed significant…
Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structures and processes. (1999). Juvenilia Offenders and Victims: National Report. Retrieved: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter4.pdf
Juvenile law: status offenses. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved:
Komisaruk, Kami. 92007). Differences between juvenile and adult court. Just Law Collective.
Culural Competence |
Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System
Culture determines people's experiences of their world. It is important in the reception and delivery of services. Cultural competence starts with knowing your cultural practices and beliefs, and recognizing the different practices and values of people from different cultures. This goes beyond speaking a different language, or just acknowledging a different group's cultural icons. Cultural competence involves changing your biases or prejudgments on a different people's cultural traditions or beliefs (Continuing Education Online, 2002-2016).
Cultural competence, therefore, can be described as a group of attitudes and behavior within a culture. These attitudes and behavior are incorporated into the methods of practice of an agency, system or its experts, and helps them work productively under cross-cultural circumstances. To successfully achieve cultural competency, knowledge about groups and individuals must be incorporated and translated into certain practices and rules applied in suitable cultural…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Case Management for Clients With Special Needs. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from National Center for Biotechnology Information: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Continuing Education Online. (2002-2016). Cultural Competency and Diversity. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from Continuing Education Online: http://www.getceusnow.com
Otu, N. (2015). Decoding Nonverbal Communication In Law Enforcement. Salus Journal, Issue 3, No. 2, 1-16. Retrieved from Salus Journal: http://www.salusjournal.com
Patel, S. (2016). Cultural Competency Training: Preparing Law Students for Practice in Our Multicultural World. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from UCLA Law Review: http://www.uclalawreview.org
Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities
History and the Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Minorities -- 1940 to 1960
The 20-year period from 1940 to 1960 represented a crossroads for the United States in terms of engagement in an enormously costly world war as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the manner in which minorities in general, and Asian and African-Americans in particular, had been historically treated. While blacks had historically been the target of much of the racist views and violence in the U.S. through the mid-20th century, Asian-Americans were never far behind in the social mix and the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 just made matters worse for all concerned. Indeed, tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans were interred during the war "for their own protection," but many observers suggested this fundamental abrogation of these citizen's constitutional rights was tantamount to illegal imprisonment…
Bailey, F.Y., & Green, A.P. (1999). Law never here: A social history of African-American responses to issues of crime and justice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Bouza, A.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Collins, D.E. (1985). Native American aliens: Disloyalty and the renunciation of citizenship by Japanese-Americans during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Queen v. Dudley, a group of sailors were hired to captain a yacht from Essex, England to Sydney, Australia. Dudley was the captain, and Stephens, Brooks, and Parker were his mates and seamen. When The Mignonette capsized, the four men climbed aboard the lifeboat dinghy but had no water or supplies. Several weeks into the ordeal, Captain Dudley suggested that one of the men be sacrificed as a food source for the others so that at least three of them might remain alive rather than having them all die. Dudley first suggested they draw straws to see who would be chosen, but then decided that Parker, one of the seamen aboard, showed signs of sickness and would make an ideal candidate for sacrifice. Dudley killed Parker and the three other men ate Parker's body until they were rescued several days later. When the men returned home to England, they were…
60 Minutes. "Evidence of Innocence: The Case of Michael Morton." Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcyYCJZ5JTI
This American Life. 414: Right to Remain Silent. Retrieved online: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/414/transcript
"The Mignonette, 1884 (Queen v. Dudley)."
Schwartz, J. (2014). Evidence of Concealed Jailhouse Deal Raises Questions About a Texas Execution. The New York Times. Feb 27, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/28/us/evidence-of-concealed-jailhouse-deal-raises-questions-about-a-texas-execution.html
Criminal Justice System
Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement
Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).
Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…
Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.
Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Managing Change in the Criminal Justice System
One organization within the American criminal justice system that has undergone significant changes during the last few decades is the parole board, which is the institution responsible for determining when a prisoner is eligible for early release. Historically, parole has been used by the criminal justice system to regulate overcrowded prison inmate populations, while providing rehabilitated criminals with a second chance to assimilate into society. Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, a confluence of increased security during the War on Terror, rising crime rates across the nation, and widely publicized instances of recidivism has spurred politicians and the public alike to call for the abolishment of the parole system. According to the United States Senate esearch Center's brief on the shifting landscape of parole boards in the American criminal justice system, "while some states have abolished parole, systems similar to parole…
Bahe, E. (2004, March 22). Organizational change: Managing transition -- part 1. weLEAD Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.leadingtoday.org/Onmag/dec04/eb - dec04.html
Reimers, T. United Sstaes Senate, Senate Research Center. (1999). Parole: Then and now. Retrieved from Government Printing Office website: http://www.senate.state.tx.us/SRC/pdf/ib0599.pdf
Due Process Model concentrates on providing suspects with a fair investigation and with removing all possible ideas that might have an unreasonable influence on defendants. The defendant's rights are one of the most important concepts throughout the criminal justice process. hile in some justice systems a technicality does not necessarily represent an important factor in a person's justice process, it can be especially significant in a situation where the due process model is being supported. This means that a person is very likely to be released from charges if the authorities consider that the defendant's rights had been violated at one point during the process.
Being concerned with due process is believed by many to be an essential part of the justice system, especially considering corrupt jurisdictions where particular individuals feel that they need to do anything in their power in order to apprehend criminals, even in cases when this…
Campbell, L. "FROM DUE PROCESS TO CRIME CONTROL -- THE DECLINE OF LIBERALISMIN THE IRISH CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM." Retrieved July 5, 2015, from http://www.academia.edu/269582/From_Due_Process_to_Crime_Control_The_Decline_of_Liberalism_In_the_Irish_Criminal_Justice_System
Coulter, C. "Ahern aims to curb crime in new bail Bill," retrieved July 5, 2015, from http://www.irishtimes.com/news/ahern-aims-to-curb-crime-in-new-bail-bill-1.772955
Hsieh, A. "The Exclusionary Rule of Evidence: Comparative Analysis and Proposals for Reform." (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 28 Dec 2014)
Roach, K. "Due Process and Victims' Rights: The New Law and Politics of Criminal Justice." (University of Toronto Press, 1999)
Islamic criminal justice system to the criminal justice Systems of the common Law and the Civil law
Law is implied to hold a fundamental position in the societal system of the western and near eastern regions. Two customary beliefs are present in these "law-centered" societies. The custom of divine revelation is the first one. This has given rise to the Talmudic and Islamic systems of law, among which the importance of Islamic legal system is increasing in many nations. The other is the custom of involvement of the public that gave rise to either Greek and Roman models and consequently the civil law system, or the weird historical happenings in England from which the common law system has emerged. Islamic law is neither a remnant from the history nor a revisit to ancient origins, but somewhat an intricate, multithreaded cluster of thoughts and actions that the Islamic persons shaped and…
Canadian criminal justice system corrections
The Canadian justice system
Since the last decade, there's been a huge hue and cry pertaining unjust convictions and its disastrous consequences. As in the case of Canada, there have been numerous high profile cases which concluded with unjust verdicts, putting the Canadian justice system and its judicial process in question. Even though, the media's attention has increased on this matter, academic literature on the issue is razor-thin in case of Canada (Denov & Campbell, 2005). The media's coverage of crimes and criminal justice is now excessively given coverage during the last decade, since it's a form of entertainment and news. Criminal justice and crime have emerged as a viable form of entertainment across the media spectrum. In case of TV shows, depictions of criminal justice and crime are observed in courtroom TV seasons as well as daily talk's shows.
Popular culture and criminal courts…
Blatchford, C. (2015, Febuary 27). News. Retrieved from National Post: http://news.nationalpost.com/2015/02/27/christie-blatchford-canadians-seem-to-imagine-that-slow-justice-is-better-justice-but-thats-not-the-case/
Denov, M., & Campbell, K. (2005). Understanding the Causes, Effects, and Responses to Wrongful Conviction in Canada. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice.
Entmann, R., & Gross, K. (2008). Race to judgment: stereotyping media and criminal defendants. 93-133. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1495&context=lcp
Gallant, J. (2015, Febuary 23). Crime. Retrieved from The Star: http://www.thestar.com/news/crime/2015/02/23/ontario-courts-slow-to-speak-up-about-hush-orders.html