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Criminal Justice System Essays (Examples)

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Criminal Justice Field Research
Words: 1952 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82154449
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Concept of Ethics in Criminal Justice Research

Ethics is one of the most important issues in the field of criminal justice given its consideration as the mainstay of professionalism in this discipline. The significance of ethics in the criminal justice field is attributable to the fact that the various professionals or actors in this field exercise discretion when making decisions and need to enforce the law in the process. Therefore, ethical considerations are critical in decision-making processes involving discretion, due process, and force. Additionally, such considerations are necessary in criminal justice research, which plays a crucial role in criminal justice practices. This paper focuses on examining the concept of ethics in criminal justice research and potential ethical questions/issues that criminal justice researchers are likely to face.
As previously indicated, professionals and actors in the criminal justice field are faced with various situations that require ethical decision-making. An example of these…

References
Paterline, B.A. & Orr, D. (2016, December). Adaptation to Prison and Inmate Self-Concept. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 4(2), 70-79.
Paternoster, R. (2010). How Much Do We Really Know About Criminal Deterrence? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 100(3), 765-824. Retrieved from  http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7363&context=jclc 
Rupp, T. (2008, July 1). Meta Analysis of Crime and Deterrence: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Retrieved from  http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/1054/2/rupp_diss.pdf 
Wakefield, A. (2006). The Value of Foot Patrol: A Review of Research. The Police Foundation. Retrieved from  http://www.police-foundation.org.uk/uploads/catalogerfiles/the-value-of-foot-patrol/foot_patrol.pdf 
Wolfgang, M.E. (2010). Confidentiality in Criminological Research and Other Ethical Issues. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72(1). Retrieved from  http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6222&context=jclc 

Criminal Justice Reform and Bail Reform
Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56907867
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Introduction
What is criminal justice reform? It is the focus on improving the criminal justice system through the implementation of evidence-based best practices, policies that promote greater equitability fairness, and systems that are more cost-efficient (National Criminal Justice Association, 2019). One area in which reform is needed is the issue of bail. Bail is the bond that allows an arrested individual to leave jail while awaiting trial, which could last for many months. If the individual has the money, he may post bail. If not, he is stuck in jail. Essentially, the system favors the rich over the poor (ACLU, 2019). There are many examples of abuses regarding bail—from the woman mistakenly jailed pre-trial, who ended up losing her job and kids as a result (Woods & Rosnick, 2019) to the $2 billion bail industry that profits off the impoverished (ACLU, 2019). This paper will discuss the history of reform,…

Criminal Justice Inequality and Conflict Theory
Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88382152
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Discussion 1:Topic: Miranda Rights
I feel that Miranda Rights should be read at point of arrest and again before interrogation. That way the detained person knows his rights. In today’s world, there are so many laws and so many confusing issues in the world, people are frightened and scared if they have a run-in with the law. There is no reason that law enforcement cannot go out of its way to make sure that people feel safe and secured even when they are under arrest and about to be interrogated. All people need to be treated with more compassion and empathy. The Supreme Court’s guidelines are inadequate on this issue because they do not take into consideration the trauma of the arrestee or the fact that he may not be aware of his right at the time of arrest and may talk before interrogation, unaware that what he is saying…

Ethical Behavior in Criminal Justice
Words: 1957 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61937003
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Part One
The recent death of George Floyd sparked a tidal wave of violence and protests around the US in 2020. Black Lives Matter become stronger in its activism at an international level. The death of Floyd harkened back to the beating of Rodney King in Los Angeles in 1991 and it suggested to many in America that nothing had changed in terms of criminal justice in the US: blacks were still being targeted by police. In many ways the Rodney King beating was even worse than the death of Floyd. Both Floyd and King had abused substances prior to their arrests. Floyd’s death was not the result of any police violence per se; King’s beating was, on the contrary, quite extensive and malicious and showed law enforcement acting much more brutally than the officers involved in Floyd’s death. The topic underlying the narrative is one of police misconduct. The…

References
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from  https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf 
Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
Nilsen, E. S. (2007). Decency, Dignity, and Desert: Restoring Ideals of Humane Punishment to Constitutional Discourse. UC Davis L. Rev., 41, 111.
Pelaez, V. (2019). The Prison Industry in the United States: Big Business or a New Form of Slavery? Retrieved from  https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-prison-industry-in-the-united-states-big-business-or-a-new-form-of-slavery/8289 
Sastry, A. & Bates, K. (2017). When LA Erupted In Anger: A Look Back At The Rodney King Riots. Retrieved from  https://www.npr.org/2017/04/26/524744989/when-la-erupted-in-anger-a-look-back-at-the-rodney-king-riots 

Racial Inequality Within Justice System
Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96880167
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Problem Statement
It is no lie that people of color are more severely punished for violating the law than white Americans. This can be traced back through history. This discrimination on the law is based on historical injustices that gave harsh sentences to people of color and lighter sentences for white Americans. considering that slavery was abolished many years ago, this justice system discrimination has continued to prevail until today. People of color are more likely to be arrested for misdemeanor charges and they are also likely to be jailed as compared to the white Americans. While people of color account for 12% of the total American population, the number of those incarcerated is quite high. This is disproportionate to the actual number within the whole population. When a comparison is made to the general population, one can see that the numbers do not add up. There might be fewer…

References
Alexander, P. G. (1999). Inequality in Sentencing: Is Race a Factor in the Criminal Justice System. Law & Ineq., 17, 233.
Burch, T. (2015). Skin Color and the Criminal Justice System: Beyond Black?White Disparities in Sentencing. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 12(3), 395-420.
Clair, M., & Winter, A. S. (2016). How judges think about racial disparities: Situational decision?making in the criminal justice system. Criminology, 54(2), 332-359.
Hetey, R. C., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2018). The numbers don’t speak for themselves: Racial disparities and the persistence of inequality in the criminal justice system. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 183-187.
National Academies of Sciences, E., & Medicine. (2018). The Criminal Justice System and Social Exclusion: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Stringer, R. J., & Holland, M. M. (2016). It's not all black and white: A propensity score matched, multilevel examination of racial drug sentencing disparities. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14(4), 327-347.

The US Sentencing System Disparities and Discrimination
Words: 2275 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28286224
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Introduction
A defendant that has successfully been prosecuted and then found guilty will have their sentence determined and read out by a judge at the sentencing hearing. The sentencing hearing can only take place after the criminal conviction. During the sentencing hearing, the judge will have to decide on a sentence or a punishment based on the maximum and minimum sentences for the particular crime, as stipulated in the penal code. While all this sounds straightforward, there have been many cases recorded of discrimination and disparity in sentencing (Spohn, 2008). 
With regards to sentencing, a disparity exists in two ways – when offenders who are different get the same punishment, and when similar offenders get different punishments. More specifically, a disparity exists when judges impose the same punishment/ sentence on offenders who have very different crimes and criminal histories and when judges impose different punishments on offenders who have carried…

The Use of Intermediate Sanctions Alternatives
Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59477436
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Intermediate sanctions like intensive probation are fast becoming fully integrated into the criminal justice system. McGarry’s (n.d.) monograph “Improving the Use of Intermediate Sanctions” summarizes the findings of recent research by the National Institute of Corrections and the State Justice Institute. The research covered 25 participating jurisdictions, including input from local and state governments as well as law enforcement, correctional workers, and the courts. Methods of acquiring data included surveys and interviews on the future of intermediate sanctions: how to best implement and integrate them to fulfill multiple and diverse criminal justice goals. The McGarry (n.d.) monograph and the research supporting it point to several core concepts. Because it offers a balanced view and suggests a pragmatic and realistic approach, overall the McGarry (n.d.) document offers a promising and accurate vision of the future of intermediate sanctions.
The most important reasons cited for using intermediate sanctions include cost savings, reducing…

References

Byrne, J.M. (1990). The future of intensive probation supervision and the new intermediate sanctions. Crime and Delinquency 36(1): 6-41.
Caputo, G.A. (2004). Intermediate Sanctions in Corrections. Number 4 in the North Texas Crime and Criminal Justice Series. Denton: University of North Texas Press.
McGarry, P. (n.d.). Improving the use of intermediate sanctions. Center for Effective Public Policy. Retrieved online:  https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.nicic.gov/Library/010427.pdf 
Tonry, M. (1995). Intermediate sanctions in sentencing reform. The University of Chicago Law School Roundtable: Vol. 2: Iss. 2, Article 3. Available at:  http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/roundtable/vol2/iss2/3 
Tonry, M. & Lynch, M. (1996). Intermediate sanctions. Crime and Justice 99, available at  http://scholarship.law.umn.edu/  faculty_articles/484
 

Mental Health Courts
Words: 417 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87330522
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Mental health courts in the criminal justice system are designed for individuals with a mental health disability. They act as alternative courts for such individuals though they are similar to other specialized courts like veterans’ courts and drug courts. These courts were developed to help address the inability of conventional courts and jails to address the needs of defendants with mental illnesses (Mental Health America, 2020). Traditional policing, courts and corrections lacked measures to address defendants with mental health issues, which resulted in the establishment of these courts. Traditional policing initiatives and courts treated mental health ill defendants in the same manner as other offenders while corrections did not include programs that sought to provide mental health treatment to these individuals. As a result of unique needs of these individuals, practitioners altered their approaches to mental health individuals coming into contact with the criminal justice system through establishing mental health…

Race and Incarceration Rates
Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97402010
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Introduction
Race has always been a cultural factor in the U.S. and it is certainly a factor in today’s criminal justice system. James (2018:30) has shown that current “research on police officers has found that they tend to associate African Americans with threat” (30). A significantly higher percentage of the African American population is incarcerated than any other population in the U.S. And, worse, as Lopez (2018) points out, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” The evidence indicates that African Americans receive a disproportionate amount of attention from police and are disproportionately punished and incarcerated because of institutionalized racism within the American ruling class. This racist worldview was evident from the early days of the nation, when the concept of Manifest Destiny was put forward by John O’Sullivan (1845). That concept expressed…

Gender and Crime
Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68489150
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Gender and Crime
Problem of Equality in the Criminal Justice System
Why Women Need Special Gender Specific Programs in Prison
Some of the biggest hurdles the criminal justice system faces in implementing programs and policies that effectively address the needs and experiences of female offenders are that this population is so small compared to the rest of the incarcerated population that it would require a significant amount of resources to tailor programs and policies to meet the needs of this population exclusively (Bloom & Covington, 1998). Some of these programs that are needed include child care services, separate dwelling places for pregnant offenders, mentor programs tailored for women so that they can get out of the system and not become recidivists, and substance abuse treatment resources. There is also the need to promote support systems for women so that they can build and develop healthy and supportive relationships.
These are…

Reducing Recidivism Using an Evidence Based Approach
Introduction
One of the ironies of the United States, the “Land of the Free,” is that this country incarcerates more of its citizens per capita than any other country on earth today. While substantive changes are currently envisioned for reforming the nation’s criminal justice system, the harsh reality facing many lawbreakers has been the potential for lengthy prison sentences --even for some nonviolent offenses. Further exacerbating the problem are the numerous challenges that offenders face when they are released from incarceration into the community. Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that the recidivism rate for ex-offenders remains disturbingly high. Indeed, nearly 44% of all incarcerated prisons reoffend during their first year and more than two-thirds reoffend within 3 years following their release despite increasingly aggressive efforts by public and private sector organizations to help these individuals make the transition to society successfully.…

References
Braga, A. A., Piehl, A. M., & Hureau, D. (2009). Controlling violent offenders released to the community: An evaluation of the Boston reentry initiative. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46(4), 411–436.
Can corrections heal? Reducing recidivism and increased public safety in Virginia. National Institute of Corrections. Retrieved from  https://nicic.gov/can-corrections-heal-reducing-recidivism-and-increasing-public-safety-virginia .
Hooley, D. (2010, March 30). Six evidence-based practices proven to lower recidivism. Corrections1. Retrieved from  https://www.corrections1.com/re-entry-and-recidivism/articles/6-evidence-based-practices-proven-to-lower-recidivism-MRzqFIO9P1okPNBF/ .
Interventions for adult offenders with serious mental illness. (2013, August). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 121. 3-I, 1-15.
Lipsey, M. W., Wilson, D. B. & Cothern, L. (2009, April). Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders. U.S. Department of Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from  https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/181201.pdf .