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A crucible essay is an essay that draws on Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible. The Crucible is a 1950s play that used the context of the Salem Witch trials to highlight the hysteria surrounding Senator McCarthy’s communist hunts during the Red Scare. Essays about The Crucible may focus on content found within the play, but may also require the writer to go beyond the source material and investigate history to support his or her points.
Crucible is a play by Arthur Miller with layers of meaning and subtext. Miller's mission was to draw a direct analogy between the social and political themes of the 20th century with those of pre-Revolutionary America. Setting the play in Puritan New England, in the town of Salem, allows the playwright to explore the thematic connections between the witch trials and McCarthyism. Doing so seems seamless, as the audience perceives three main themes that remain salient in American culture. Those three themes include that of social conformity; sexual repression; and religious rigidity. Miller explores social conformity, sexual repression, and religious rigidity throughout The Crucible, to warn of the cyclical nature of history and the resistance to change that permeates American society.
One of the primary themes of Miller's The Crucible is the ways social conformity and mob mentality manifest in American society. The Crucible remains primarily concerned with the ways…… [Read More]
Most of the American public did not know what communism or Marxism really was as an ideology, they simply knew that it was 'bad' and it was 'un-American,' although logically it could be argued that nothing is more un-American than prosecuting a person for holding certain political beliefs.
The tragedies of Miller's "The Crucible" and the McCarthy hearings are that good men and women, as well as fearful and ignorant people were silenced by the witch hunts. People who defended the accused were called witches themselves. This can be seen when Proctor and Mary Warren are both, at different times and for different reasons called witches. When they defy Abigail's desires, their nonconformity makes them vulnerable to being accused. Witchcraft and communism are shadowy forces in the public imagination because neither is fully understood.
Both witch hunts begin with dramatic events -- the 'fits' of the Salem girls; the take-over…… [Read More]
Indeed, the arrival of Hale, the specialist on witchcraft, brings with it a
gloomy sense of foreboding. ith the sentence of death being the outcome
to such proceedings, I am moved by the remarkable errant authority.
Act III: The courtroom drama in this act is compelling if a little
overstated. Here, the genuine hysteria has set in and the outrageous
turnabout between first Mary and John toward Abigail and ultimately, Mary
and Abigail toward John demonstrates the greatest problem of the play. It
is clear that everybody is on trial.
Act IV: I am most surprised by the reversal of Hale in this act.
Initially, I viewed him as a sinister figure but it is clear by this
juncture that the forces governing Salem had leapt far beyond his intent or
control. The finality of the play here is unforgiving, as the accused are
hanged with no redemption.
4. Two…… [Read More]
While he resists coming completely clean and exposing his affair, he eventually tells the whole truth, but only after the town is in chaos.
The climax of The Crucible occurs toward the end of the play when Mary accuses Proctor of being a witch and he is summarily arrested. Prior to this the action builds as several girls in the play get caught up in the witch hysteria. Proctor's arrest at the hands of his servant Mary marks the downfall of his pride and his reputation. Proctor eventually offers a full confession but he honorably refuses to falsely label anyone as a witch.
Disillusioned but determined to spiritually redeem himself, Proctor tears up his confession. The resolution of the play occurs at this point, when Proctor makes peace with himself. Although the ending of The Crucible is tragic and Proctor is sent to the gallows, he establishes himself as a…… [Read More]
Hale begins the play as the most idealistic character, but ends the play telling Proctor to lie under oath and confess to being a witch, after Proctor is accused by Abigail. Hale comes to see the judicial system as bankrupt. This shows how a corrupt system can corrupt even decent people. The system also uses Hale's idealism for its own ends, as pro-democracy, pro-American people were used in subservience of McCarthyism. Just as dangerous as idealists like Hale are weak people, looking for a sense of belonging. Mary Warren, Proctor's new servant, enjoys the sense of community she feels with the other girls, and fears breaking from their ranks.
Even Elizabeth Proctor's goodness serves the evil of the system: Abigail accuses Elizabeth of witchcraft, in hopes of making John a widower. Then, to protect her husband's reputation, Elizabeth unwittingly condemns John by refusing to admit that he was unfaithful, just…… [Read More]
Fear, ignorance, personal grievances, and an inflexible political and judicial process result in the death of John Proctor, an innocent man, who dies because he refuses to admit to witchcraft and harm other people.
Individuals who named names were cleared by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) while those who did not name names were often blacklisted and lost their livelihoods. Those who refused to turn others in were the true Americans, protecting freedom, just like John is the truest Christian of the play, even though he dies and does not profess a formal belief in the Christianity of the Puritans.
Q3: Summarize Arthur Miller's experiences with HUAC and discuss the consequences of those experiences for Miller.
Miller was pressured, like so many great artists, to name names of suspected communists. He refused but saw his friends either blacklisted or turn against the Hollywood and artistic hands that had 'fed'…… [Read More]
The film version of Arthur Miller's hit Broadway play of 1953 "The Crucible" was released in 1996. Miller
himself wrote the screen play of the film which starred Daniel Day-Lewis and Winona yder in lead roles and was directed by Nicholas Hytner.
The Crucible is a fictional retelling of events in American history surrounding the Salem witch trials in the year 1692. The film, as well as the play on which it is based, is however in no way an accurate description of history and takes considerable liberties with the actual events that took place during the trial. The film is set in the Puritan era in a small town (Salem) in colonial Massachusetts when twenty innocent men and women were accused of witchcraft and put to death and hundreds more suffered.
When Miller wrote his play, which has been reproduced on film with just a few changes, he…… [Read More]
Arthur Miller's play "The Crucible" is set in Salem, Massachusetts in the last part of the 17th century. The play itself is based on the Salem witch trials that took place during that time. People who lived during that time period were very religious, and also very superstitious. The play revolves around power, jealousy, and superstition, all of which were very common during the Salem witch trials and the years surrounding them.
In Act I of the play, one of the main characters, Reverend Parris, believes that his daughter has been involved in some form of witchcraft with a Negro slave. His daughter is now in a state of unconsciousness, and he believes that it is the work of witches (Classic, 1999). During the first act many of the main characters are introduced, and it is easy to see the power that the idea of witchcraft has over these…… [Read More]
However, ebecca is convicted of witchcraft by the court, and Hale begins to see the hysteria at work in the community, and begins to feel he is responsible. He tells the judge, "I have this morning signed away the soul of ebecca Nurse, Your Honor. I'll not conceal it, my hand shakes yet as with a wound!" (Miller 92). He begins to see how his own actions helped create more hysteria and confusion, and he questions his faith and his conviction that the Devil exists.
By the end of the play, Hale has become disillusioned with the trials and the hysteria. He says, " I came into this village like a bridegroom to his beloved, bearing gifts of high religion; the very crowns of holy law I brought, and what I touched with my bright confidence, it died; and where I turned the eye of my great faith, blood flowed…… [Read More]
UESTION #2: Was John Proctor essentially a good man? Yes, Proctor was a good man in his heart; he made a mistake by getting involved with Abigail, but when she came back to him hoping to rekindle the flame between them, he turned down the chance for another sexual liaison with a woman much younger than his wife. When the community began to turn hysterical, Proctor was a voice of reason. He advised the arriving "expert" Hale that no children were "afflicted" with witchcraft. Proctor was very candid with his wife in confessing that he had an affair with Abigail. And when he and Abigail later fought, it was just part of the insane atmosphere of accusations and reprisals and guilt; the whole town was in turmoil, so Proctor's action cannot be absolutely held against him. In the effort to clear his wife's name, Proctor shows that he has a…… [Read More]
However, the storytelling itself seemed to take a backseat to the drama, and it made the film drag in spots.
It also could have been much more innovative in direction and cinematography. The scenes were rich and full, and the director did use some camera angles (such as above in the church/courtroom), and above again in a scene where Abigail "sees" a spirit above her and collapses in the court. However, for the most part, this film lacked real innovation or unconventional techniques, and I think that was a weakness in the film, and part of the reason it became boring by the end. Since it was based on a stage play, most of the film is dialogue, and without some other kind of action or direction, that can stagnate in a film, and it did that here. Sadly, I think this film could have had much more impact if…… [Read More]
The itch hunt:
An American Tradition
Off with their heads! Burn them up! e need to cleanse our community of good people from the malevolent designs of the wicked! Yes, people! e are at a critical point in the history of our great nation -- and our very existence is threatened by the Godless in our midst! e must, and we will root out the evil doers by any means necessary...and when I say any means necessary, I call upon the good citizens of this land to be vigilant -- to keep their eyes on anyone who might seem suspicious, for they hide amongst us, friends and neighbors -- yes they do.
Although this sentiment may seem a bit over the top, this is exactly the atmosphere that pervaded the town of Salem, Massachusetts during the period known as the Salem itch Hunts...hat? Did you think I was talking…… [Read More]
The Crucible is a 1953 play written by Arthur Miller, an American playwright, on the Salem tragedy that occurred in Massachusetts Bay Colony. The play is dramatized and somewhat fictionalized the story of these trials through which it provides a parable that extends across centuries. In the dramatized play, the author implies that the relationship between Abigail Williams and John Proctor is the major cause of the witch hunt. However, Miller also points a finger at Thomas and Ann Putman, Reverend John Hale, and Reverend Samuel Parris. This paper seeks to identify which of these characters is the most culpable for the tragedy based on the textual evidence provided by the author. Notably, the town of Salem is not as holy as one would think. One important theme in The Crucible is religion and keeping up with it. Witchcraft is looked down upon and is completely prohibited in this town.…… [Read More]
Crucible and Guilty by Suspicion
McCarthyism: The American Witch-Hunts
The fear of communism ran rampant amongst the United States during the late 1940s to 1950s; throughout the nation, the fear of communist spies infiltrating the country caused the Second Red Scare, which was spearheaded by Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy. This phenomenon became so well-publicized that its story has been immortalized in film and literature. Such is the case in Arthur Miller's 1952 play The Crucible and Irwin Winkler's 1991 film Guilty by Suspicion. In both McCarthyism-inspired stories, there is a degree of similarities within their thematic showcases of intolerance, hysteria, and reputation.
Both stories certainly have the underlying idea of intolerance, which is suffused in Miller's and Winkler's works. The authorities in The Crucible did not suffer witches, and those who were against the religious ideas of the community became ostracized and accused. In a poignant scene with Judge Danforth,…… [Read More]
The playwright, Arthur Miller, was born on October 17, 1915 (Hinman et al., 1994). While studying journalism at the University of Michigan he began to write plays and win awards. With a strong interest in the plight of common man, it was inevitable that Miller, writing plays with a current of leftist ideology flowing through them, would capture the attention of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Subpoenaed to appear before HUAC, Miller refused to name names. Fortunately for Miller and American literature, the theatre scene in New York City was relatively immune to efforts to persecute leftists.
As a result of witnessing what was happening to American society under HUAC, Miller writes the now classic play The Crucible. This play is a fictitious account of the events surrounding the witch trials that took place in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692. ather than…… [Read More]
In the book The Family Crucible, family therapists Carl Whitaker and Gus Napier (1978) team up to help a family with dangerous levels of discontent and animosity towards one another. At the center of the rift are the adolescent daughter Claudia and the mother Carolyn. At the periphery are the 6-year-old daughter Laura, an 11-year-old son Don, and the father David. On the surface, it is Claudia's behavior problems that are blamed by both parents for the family's woes. However, during the first meeting with the entire family present, it quickly becomes clear that problems with the marriage may be to blame. This essay will examine the parenting dynamics uncovered by Whitaker and Napier during their family therapy sessions, including the parenting styles used and attachment matrix that exist in the Brice family.
The Brice Parenting Styles
On the surface, the father appears to have an authoritative parenting…… [Read More]
Thus, when the Court supplies judgment, power and justice are supposedly met. Mary Warren echoes this thought:
… like one awakened to a marvelous secret insight: & #8230; it's hard as rock, the judges said. (Act II: 118-28)
Secular laws, of course, are made by men of power. Usually, these laws are enacted under the perception of the public good, or at least what those in power perceive as a way to retain power and engender the status quo. When events and personalities challenge the status quo, however, secular laws may not be enough to silence them. In order to keep control, propaganda and paranoia are often used to "bring events under control."
There is a misty plot afoot so subtle we should be criminal to cling to old respects and ancient friendships (Reverend Hale to Francis Nurse defending the witch trials in the face of the arrest of Rebecca)…… [Read More]
Oftentimes, when spouses begin to have difficulties with their marriage, they lose track of the impact that their arguments have on the children. They are so wrapped up in their day-to-day difficulties, that the rest of the family becomes secondary. In the Family Crucible by Napier and Whitaker, the daughter becomes so depressed that psychological help is required. It is then that the family as a whole has to determine how to rebuild itself, if possible.
The book consists of the ongoing therapy of the "Brice" family, which consists of the parents (David and Carolyn), adolescent daughter (Claudia), six-year-old daughter (Laura), and 11-year-old son (Don).
The therapy begins by involving the father, who would have been more than pleased to have relinquished responsibility at this point. He soon explains that Claudia's problems may be of most importance, but there is a lot more taking place than that. As…… [Read More]
movie, The Crucible, was derived entirely from the book entitled, Salem Possessed: the Social Origins of Witchcraft by Paul S. Boyer, with only a few differences, owing to technical limitations in movie production. The movie had to reduce the number of characters of the books in order to produce it on cinema. Time lapses were shortened, due again to cinematic limitations in presenting the events. Furthermore, the nature of the charges against Giles Corey was not identical. In the book, he is charged with contempt of court for refusing to plead either innocent or guilty. In the movie, he is charged with contempt for refusing to name the person who told him about Thomas Putnam's intent to buy land by means of false accusation. And while Abigail Williams is presented as an 11-year-old girl in the book, she is 17 years in the movie in order to justify or make…… [Read More]
Arthur Miller penned the play The Crucible in the context of McCarthy-era rhetoric and anti-communist propaganda in the United States. Although it has a literal and direct historical reference and application to the Salem witch trials, the play serves as an overarching metaphor for public persecution and the dangers a police state poses to the general public. Through The Crucible, Miller critiques American society and indirectly accuses patriarchy of dismantling some of the core norms and values upon which the nation was built. Moreover, Miller deftly draws analogies between Salem's persecution of women during the witch-hunts and ashington's persecution of all Americans during the Cold ar. hereas women were the only real targets during the witch trials of the late 17th century, all Americans had fallen under the indiscriminate policies of political discrimination. Miller therefore presents patriarchy within a Marxist as well as a postmodernist framework. As a Marxist, Miller…… [Read More]
Crucible and hat I Have Learned
Arthur Miller's The Crucible is a dramatic, engaging work that challenges the reader/viewer to see beneath the "black and white" dichotomy by which the world is simplistically characterized via such "venerable" institutions in America as the "right" and the "left," the "conservative" and the "liberal" establishment, and the "patriot" and the "traitor" conception. In this play, Miller brings to the fore the fact that there can be and often are conflicting motives within every single human heart, a phenomenon that colors the way people act, interact, think, speak, and -- yes -- betray. At the heart of The Crucible is a drama of sexual tension and spite -- a girlish revenge twisted into something much more heinous by the cruel paroxysms of a community going mad with suspicion, condemnation, and holier-than-thou syndrome. It is a play that reflects one of the sinister secrets of…… [Read More]
Leadership Crucible Experience
Leadership is a practice that is learnt from the experiences of the leaders. According to Bennis and Thomas (2002), a crucible is delineated as a changing experience through which a person ends up having a new sense of self and character. In particular, the capacity to mine knowledge from such challenging and difficult experiences is what differentiates and tells apart successful leaders from their counterparts (Bennis and Thomas, 2002). The purpose of this essay is to ascertain, define and justify a crucible experience that one can have in life and delineate how that experience can have an effect on the personal style of leadership, behaviors, outlooks and viewpoint and shed light on how it will impact one as a leader in the organization.
So what can happen to make an individual go through a crucible experience? Leadership ability can be tested when one is abruptly and quickly…… [Read More]
Arthur Miller, notable playwright, wrote the 1953 play, The Crucible that focused on the partially fictionalized and dramatized story of the Salem witch trials that occurred between 1692 and 1693 in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The play was written as an allegory of McCarthyism due to the American government blacklisting of accused communists. Even Miller was questioned by the House of Representatives' Committee on what can be labeled as "Un-American Activities" during the late 1950's and was convicted in 1956 of contempt of Congress for the refusal of identification of others that were present during the meetings Miller had attended. Miller's drama was then translated into his play through themes of intolerance, hysteria, and reputation.
The first theme that The Crucible describes in the beginning of the play is intolerance. ith the play's setting in a theocratic society, where the church and state serve as one, the government uses…… [Read More]
Conflict in the First Scene of Dialogue in Miller's The Crucible
The piece of dialogue at the beginning of The Crucible in which Abigail and Parris reveal their respective characters through snippets and snatches of admissions is an important scene that sets the tone and initial conflict of the drama. The tone is serious but chaotic: a child is in danger; the doctor has no cure; foul play in the form of "possession" is suspected by the community, many members of which are talking in the parlor where the "rumor of witchcraft is all about" (Miller 9). Parris, who is a Reverend in the community, and who himself is at odds with his parish, is afraid because such talk will put him in a very bad light: "There is a faction that is sworn to drive me from my pulpit. Do you understand that?" Parris cries to Abigail. He is…… [Read More]
The court case scene also shows how focused the leaders are on maintaining their power. This is seen where Danforth says to Proctor, "You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between" (Miller 94). This shows the complete lack of choice that the people of the society have. If they do not accept the will of the leaders completely, they are considered as being against them. This leaves no room for anyone to question anything. At the same time, it shows that the leaders of the town are intently focused on maintaining complete power. In this way, the leaders dominate completely, while the people are meant to be submissive to the point that they do not question any aspect of the leader's decisions.
It is in the context of this environment that the actions of…… [Read More]
Miller focuses a created, heterosexual alliance in his fictional retelling, but I, Tituba concentrates on the outcasts, which formed the actual, majority of the accused.
This alliance between marginal categories of persons is humorously underlined with Tituba meets a famous fictional outcast from Puritan society, Hester Prynne, while in jail. Conde creates a jailhouse meeting between the two women, since who knows what transpired while Tituba awaited her fate? Marginal women do not abandon Tituba, even though her Christian owner, the girls she helped, and her beloved John Indian abandon her to her execution. Hester Prynne helps Tituba say the right things to be released. Confession in Miller is shown as weakness and capitulation to the mad witch hunters, but Conde sees this as careful and clever planning, a just action because of the injustice of Tituba's captors. Finally, the alliance of 'others' is shown when Tituba, is freed from…… [Read More]
Napier & Whitaker's (1978) classic The Family Crucible is the benchmark book related to family therapy. The book is thorough, and divided into twenty chapters that cover the gamut of family therapy theory and especially practice. Napier & Whitaker (1978) are family systems theorists, and they openly divulge their appreciation for an approach to individual psychology that takes into account family systems. In other words, no individual can be understood or helped without paying attention to the family situation, its dynamics, and its role in identity formation and coping. The authors discuss dysfunctional family systems via a case study. By focusing on one case study, Napier & Whitaker (1978) show how family systems theory works, and what clients can expect from the process.
The authors weave their personal views and experiences throughout the case study, which clutters and bogs down the narrative, but which also provides a necessary…… [Read More]
How explored prescribed text "The Crucible" Arthur Miller related text "oolvs in the Sitee" Anne Spudvilas?
Societal insiders and outsiders in Arthur Miller's The Crucible
In Arthur Miller's The Crucible, the existence of outsiders in the tight-knit, homogeneous society of Salem, Massachusetts gives rise to a witch hunt that eventually results in the death of the protagonist John Proctor. Proctor is a plainspoken, honest farmer who refuses to condone the hysteria of the town, which he knows is at least partially stirred up by his former lover Abigail to enhance her social status and to separate him from his wife. Proctor also does not go to church on Sundays, out of guilt for his sin against Abigail. This makes him a pariah in a society where open professions of religion are required to be deemed 'normal.'
hile Proctor, a respected farmer, holds himself back from Salem society, Abigail…… [Read More]
" Rather than endlessly musing upon his father's death, like a drumbeat Thomas simply repeats that his father must not "go gentle into that good night." ith every tercet, the repeated lines take on a different nuance. Reading the poem is like hearing a favorite song sung in a different way, again and again -- every time, a different shade of meaning is brought forth in the refrain of the poem. It is all too easy for a free verse poem to say the same thing in different ways: Thomas uses the same words again and again to convey different shades of emotion: good men, wild men, grave men, all for different reasons, he states, have not borne the inevitability of death with meekness.
The reader comes to understand that repeated words are a paradox -- Thomas tells his father, begs his father, to do what is futile -- to…… [Read More]
This type of certainty only signifies authority, but it shows Danforth to be truly powerless over his convictions or any sort of lasting truth. Like Proctor, he is also described upon his first appearance, with Miller commenting that he was of "some humor and sophistication that does not, however, interfere with an exact loyalty to his position and his cause" (Miller 73). Though Danforth has authority over life and death in Salem, he has no real power because he has already completely given himself over to his position as a Judge and his cause of seeking out witches. When the truth and all things eternal cease to matter, all power is gone, and though John Proctor and many others meet death essentially at Danforth's hands, they retain power over themselves in their refusal to give in to Danforth's authority.
Nowhere is the difference between power and authority made more clear…… [Read More]
He was labeled for a belief that he did not openly admitted subsisting to; he was labeled based on the fact that he refused to testify against an ideology.
It is not surprising, then, that the primary message of "The Crucible" resonated his thoughts and feelings about the McCarthy administration's containment policy against Communism. The arguments he presented in the play showed how Miller viewed the government's offensive action against Communism not only futile, but reflection of how American society was slowly developing into: "...for good purposes, even high purposes, the people of Salem developed a theocracy, a combination of state and religious power whose function was...to prevent any kind of disunity that might open it to destruction by...ideological enemies."
This passage aptly described the American society's condition under the paranoid and highly-offensive McCarthy administration. Like John Proctor in his play, Miller refused to say anything against an ideology that,…… [Read More]
Napier and Whitaker exemplify systems therapy with their presentation of the Brice family case. It is necessary to identify the origins of the systems approach in order to fully appreciate its value in the context of family therapy. It approaches the family unit as a system and therefore borrows heavily from systems theory. Systems theory is a general theory applies across many disciplines and looks at systems that have the ability to self-regulate. The theory applies to biological systems, climate, environment, and the family unit.
Systems approach recognizes the interdependencies that exist in the family as a system. The family unit consists of individuals related to one another forming a complex web that should act in congruence. Therefore, although a part of a system is essential, it is the relationship of the part to the whole that is paramount. The family as a system is dynamic since…… [Read More]
S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.
5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).
The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.
With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…… [Read More]
The author shows how American history affected Ohio from the evolutionary War to the beginnings of the Confederacy, and shows how Ohio tried to keep apart from much of the politics going on back east. Hurt also shows how Ohio differed from many other frontier settlements because of trade along the canals and rivers, and how many of the settlers in Ohio preferred a rural community to a "model" city like the ones they had left back East. The book follows white settlement throughout the area, and is a must for anyone who is interested in Ohio or western American history. It is rich in detail and interesting to read, and is a good introduction to further study of what made Americans pick up and move into new and unsettled territories such as Ohio. It is also a good way to understand how a new community matures and changes as…… [Read More]
The United Kenya Club was founded in 1946 and was the first multi-racial social organization in Kenya; the organization sponsored concerts and cultural events open to all ethnicities (if you could afford a ticket price). The liberal paternalists pressed for programs that would introduce "profit-making crafts to landless laborers," would "encourage the growth of a prosperous rural elite" and also would encourage progressive agricultural practices among poor peasants. Moreover, the liberal paternalists (Kennedy 248) wished to "instill estern principles of hygiene and child care" among African women and their daughters.
Missionaries were traditionally among the liberal paternalists, Kennedy points out, and when Sir Philip Mitchell became governor of Kenya, he "sought to invigorate the peasant agricultural sector" in order to build a more diversified economy (Kennedy 249). Mitchell also believed "with some justification" that a few of the white leaders among the British settlers "could be persuaded to cooperate in…… [Read More]
Proctor does not merely repeat of make empty allegations that horrific violations are occurring in Cuba upon the natives at the hands of the Spaniards. He has witnessed these abuses with is own eyes on an observational visit, where he went as a skeptic, with, in his own words, "a strong conviction that the picture had been overdrawn," regarding the terrible conditions of the Cuban populace. (Proctor, 1898)
Proctor came back to the United States convinced that, more so than the destruction of the Maine, the barbarities inflicted by the Spanish forces cry out for United States intervention. ("March 17, 1898: Senator Proctor's Visit to Cuba," 1999, Crucible of Empire: PBS Online) In his words, "if our people could see a small fraction of the need, they would pour more 'freely from their liberal store' than ever before for any cause." (Proctor, 1998)
The call of the advocates of intervention…… [Read More]
It also sought to stop the Atlantic slave trade between those three continents. It has also been referred to as the anti-slavery movement. As a result of the abolitionist movement, slavery was abolished in Europe and America by the last half of the 19th century. Africa finally stopped the practice of slavery by the first quarter of the 20th century.
Women, both white and black, made enormous contributions to the abolitionist movement.
Ann Yearsley, Hannah More, Susan . Anthony, Julia Ward Howe, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frances Ellen Watkins, and many others worked against the enslavement of other human beings. While the white women used their status, money and freedom to work against slavery and help the black women to "find their voices," the black women could tell eye-opening stories of their own experiences to elicit sympathy and support.
In the early years of the…… [Read More]
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…… [Read More]
g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.
In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…… [Read More]
William andolph Hearst, Sr.
Shortly after being expelled from Harvard, William Hearst acquired his first newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, from his father. In 1895, eight years later, Hearst purchased the New York Morning Journal and entered into a fierce competition for circulation dominance with Joseph Pulitzer, who owned the New York World newspaper. In order to make their stories more sensational and therefore increase readership and circulation numbers, both newspapers greatly exaggerated and distorted their reporting. At approximately this same time, Hearst began using color in a comics series called "The Yellow Kid." The yellow dye stained the pages, and the stain as well as the stain of fabricated journalism became known as "yellow journalism."
According to PBS, Hearst understood that "a war with Spain over Cuba would not only sell newspapers, but also move him into a position of national prominence" (PBS para. 6). Both Hearst and Pulitzer…… [Read More]
U.S. FOEIGN POLICY
American Foreign Policy from 1890 to 1930
From neutrality to intervention
Early on in American history, President George Washington advised Americans not be become embroiled in foreign conflicts. However, at the end of the 19th century, it became increasingly difficult for America to remain isolated from the issues affecting its neighbors abroad. The period from 1890-1930 was characterized by a far more expansionist American foreign policy than had been the case before. Although this policy was often defended by the notion that the U.S. was making the world safe for democracy, self-interest rather than idealism was usually the real motivating force.
A good, early example of this in Latin America can be found in the form of the Spanish-American War (1898) which eventually resulted in the U.S. acquiring territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Spain's repression of the Cuban pro-independence movement combined with the sinking…… [Read More]
Michael Jones and I was born on the 19th of March, 1998, in Hawthorne, California. I am currently eighteen years old and in my fourth year of college. My parents are Stephen Jones and Callie Jones. Our family comprises of my father, mother, brother and a sister. My brother's name is James Arnold Jones and my sister's name is Joanne Jones. I am grateful to have my siblings and both of my parents in my life alive and healthy. I do not have a great deal of memory about my early childhood, but my mom incessantly mentions that I was a very lively, inquisitive, and talkative child. I was curious about everything and kept asking questions all the time, even without having to wait for the correct answers in response. It is for this reason that I assume my parents bought me numerous books as well as novels from an…… [Read More]
Outline of Critique of .E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk
Collective Nature of the ork
Black Spirituals as Thematic Introductions
Black Spirituals as conveyors of historical record
Black Spirituals as oral tradition
Assassination of Booker T. ashington and others who agree with him
Capitulation to society as it is, rather than the way it should be for blacks
DuBois, is one of the greatest African-American thinkers, oraters and writers of history. His works are often bold assassinations of the development of the Black, former slave class in the U.S., through periods were they repeatedly faced bold and subtle racism but were simultaneously expected to be successful, because laws were, "better than they used to be." DuBois' work The Souls of Black Folk, though constituent of several divergent essays is to many the source and center of nearly all his messages regarding the truth telling that…… [Read More]
He believed strongly in the government's protection of civil rights and equal opportunities for all its citizens. If a government failed to do so, he called for civil disobedience. King (1986) stated that freedom must be taken from the oppressors (p. 292). His concept of meaning was formulated in the crucible of unjust laws and centered on the notion of social justice. This meant attaining freedom, dignity, and social equality for all, not just for the privileged. His advocacy of non-violent protest aligned him with Socrates, as did his subversive speech. He felt strongly that it was every person's ethical duty to stand up peacefully but powerfully against all forms of oppression, and like Socrates he was willing to face death bravely for his cause. As opposed to Aristotle and close to Socrates, he affirmed that one must work to change the material conditions of life as well as social…… [Read More]
427). The limitations of the steppe people -- for example, the Mongols -- was running into geographical conditions that they were not used to. India was sheltered from invasion by the Tibetan barrier (until a way to go around it was found). These examples show how the lay of the land influences history.
His third key in describing geo-historical dynamics is the technological rivalry between land and sea. His often used term for this is "mobility of power." Mackinder contrasts land-power and sea-power. Land-power during the Columbian period means horses or camels such as those the Mongol hordes used for conquest. These are appropriate instruments for traversing the steppes and engaging in raids across relatively flat land. In contrast to this is sea-power: "Mobility upon the ocean is the natural rival of horse and camel mobility in the heart of the continent" (p. 432). Sea-power is crucial for the outlying…… [Read More]
The moral question of the play is whether Shylock and Antonio -- and by extension those who close ranks around Antonio -- are truly different. Antonio and his friends are just as capable of the same "evil" which Shylock attempts to perpetrate -- just as Christians were the original antagonists of the story, before the roles were reversed -- yet the protagonists are greater in having a solidified group identity. The solidification of that identity, however, would not have been possible without the "evil other." So, is the process of othering moral? Certainly not, answers Shakespeare, but highly useful.
Who is The Merchant of Venice? Ostensibly, the title refers to Antonio, who is repeatedly called a merchant throughout the play. Yet, could not Shylock also be considered a type of merchant? Are not, as shown by their actions, Shylock and Antonio proven to be the same? The process of othering…… [Read More]
The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…… [Read More]
There is much to the assertion by Nachman Syrkin that the Jews have persisted in history because the performed a socio-economic function that other peoples did not want to do or could not do. In his 1898 "The Jewish Problem and the Socialist Jewish State, " Syrkin lays out these ideas. Regarding this, Syrkin argued that a classless society and national sovereignty were the only means of solving the Jewish question completely. He felt that this social revolution would be the key to the normalization of the Jewish condition. ith this in mind, he argued that the Jew must therefore join the proletariat as the only way to end class struggle and redistribute power justly. Since the bourgeoisie betrayed the principles of liberalism, then Jews must be the torchbearers of Socialism.
hile Syrkin is many times seen as working on his own, however he had predecessors and contemporaries who had…… [Read More]
Simultaneously, he forces a man long upheld as honest in the highest Venetian circles into scheming and manipulations; these are roles which Iago takes on too readily, suggesting a certain familiarity, but it must be preserved that no earlier instance is ever presented to suggest that the notables of Venice were in any way wrong to uphold Iago as honest and true. In fact, those same notables are those that appealed to Othello on Iago's behalf in the question of the promotion. Allowing passion to rule what should be societal decisions is Othello's barbarism cracking through the veneer of his civility. Othello, though a great soldier, is no Caesar nor even a Roman at all. His nature is of the wild, and -- like many tamed, wild beasts -- he retains the inner potential to one day bite the hand that feeds him.
And, even after Othello's barbarian passion has…… [Read More]
That irony is not lost on many of the high technology executives who at one time advocated disintermediating their entire dealer channel and taking their largest customers direct only to discover that trust is the greatest catalyst of efficient transactions of all (Smith, Manna, 2004, 377, 378).
Why Disintermediation Failed to Live Up to the Hype
Before discussing the reasons why disintermediation failed to live up to the hype associated with it, there are exceptions that need to be taken into account. The first is in those industries that have undifferentiated supply chains and where price and availability alone are the only differentiators, disintermediation often takes hold. Such is the case with the Indian tea market, and many sectors of the consumer electronics industries that sell on a commodity-based strategy. These are the industries most susceptible to disintermediation as the middle tier of the distribution channels don't deliver that…… [Read More]
The second phase needs to concentrate on initiative and performance to restart the business of Tyco and make it profitable again.
Imagine that you were CEO of Tyco when the former CEO was still on trial for fraud. You are trying to rebuild the company's corporate reputation. Write a script for your address to the shareholders after 18 months in the position. Pay attention to the appropriate use of metaphors in your change conversation to this group.
Transformation is difficult but critical for any business to attain growth and realize its full potential over the long-term. Over the last eighteen months our company has been through a crucible that has tested the trust and value we deliver as a business with our suppliers, customers, employees and shareholders. The goal is to rebuild a solid foundation of trust based on complete accountability. My appointment of a Chief Ethics Officer who is…… [Read More]
The transformation was so effective in the company that it eventually changed an entire industry as well (Lawless, 1998).
Another aspect of leadership lessons learned from Her Keller include his tolerance for individuality and non-conformity on the part of his employees, and how the culture of the company became known as a haven for those who wanted to work hard yet also have fun (Lubans, 2009). Not every leader can accomplish this unique feat of creating a culture tolerant and even promoting non-conformity over time, let alone become its main evangelist for this approach. Yet Mr. Kelleher realized that if management and the employees were going to trust one another, there would need to be an unpretentious, open culture that had a tolerance for failure and nonconformity (Lindebaum, Cartwright, 2010). Getting back to the point made earlier, a mindset that sees failure as feedback, not a dead-end, is critical for…… [Read More]
So alike yet distinct did these early writers create, that they are now required reading in British schools (Duquette).
In terms of religion, American culture emulated Britain less than many of the early settler were reactionary against British conservatism. Several of the original 13 Colonies were established by English, Irish, and Scottish settlers who were fleeing religious persecution. By 1787, in fact, the United States became one of the first countries to place a freedom of religion code into law, even if it was only at the Federal level (Gaustad).
Thankfully, America has a taste for more exotic foods and cuisine than the British, but if we think of many of the celebrated Holidays, they either derive from or are part of the British tradition. Thanksgiving, for instance, is now a traditional American holiday evolving from the Pilgrim's plight during the first winter of their landing. Christmas, Easter, and Lent…… [Read More]
(Major Schools of Economic Thought) This theory was born from the crucible of a Great Depression and a orld ar. Chicago theorists vehemently disagreed. They made the argument that the wealth of nation's increase when the market is allowed to naturally price goods and services. Spending would unnaturally change the prices of these goods, thus changing the reaction of the market to the goods, causing a misallocation of wealth or goods.
According to the Chicago theorists, the role of a government was to make sure individual rights were not trodden upon during market interactions and to mitigate the damage of neighborhood effects. Neighborhood effects are defined by Milton Friedman, the godfather of Chicago Economists, as when, "the action of one individual imposes significant costs on other individuals for which it is not feasible to make him compensate them or yields significant gains to them for which it is not feasible…… [Read More]
It is from this spiritual foundation that I wish to approach healthcare as a professional nurse. Healthcare is my duty, and I shall see to it that I "freely give" of my energy to heal the sick and communicate the word of God via my work.
Heartfelt concern for human beings is a core Christian ideal. In a Christian light, healthcare is not as controversial as it is made out to be in the American media. Rather, the issue of healthcare parallels the three Christian norms of love, justice and peacemaking. To love others is to put into practice Jesus' advice to love our neighbors as ourselves. No matter what a patient's background or physical condition, that individual has the right to receive the best care possible. Love is caring in action, which is the job of the nurse. Justice refers to equal treatment of all patients. Within a Christian…… [Read More]
For Apple, this strategy has translated into market dominance in the smartphone and tablet PC markets. The success of that company continues to underscore the inherent value in synchronizing these three elements of an HM framework, transformational leadership, and a continual supply of disruptive innovation for heavy investment in &D.
The Practicality of Agile HM Frameworks and Their Impact on Long-Term Financial Viability
The creation of an effective HM framework, continual improvement of transformational leaders and their skill sets, and the infusion of innovation can transform a company much like these approaches worked at Apple. For the majority of companies however the practicality of how best to manage these three areas and attain profitability remains a challenge. The majority of companies struggle with creating an agile HM framework that can balance the urgent need to get employees hired and accomplishing tasks quickly using transactional leadership vs. getting employees to buy…… [Read More]
Do you think Nokia's strategy to enter the content area is more successful than the mobile operator Vodaphone's $38 billion attempt to enter the content area? Why or why not. Explain using information from the case or your own research.
Nokia will be more successful than Vodaphone because its senior management realizes that for any content management strategy to be effective there must be an open architecture and revenue sharing with services partners to be effective. One of the key concepts of the Ovi service is to create and support an open architecture that allows services providers to customize the experience and share in revenues (Economist, 2008). As a result, Nokia has been successful in attracting British-based telecom services provider Orange to use the Ovi portal as part of a revenue-sharing arrangement. Nokia apparently has seen that the "walled garden" strategy does not work and has gone to a more…… [Read More]
Moreover, the lack of support from the American public brings to fore an issue raised by Grover (3) with the deployment of U.S. military personnel in various parts of the world. As many of these deployments have "the potential for violent conflict," this calls for "the need to respond quickly and decisively," which is hinged on the "unambiguous support of the American people." There is no other U.S. president who has been demonized because of his war policy as former President George W. Bush.
With this underlying weakness in America's psyche in engaging in war, no amount of hardware and war machinery can beat the will to emerge victorious of no matter how small an army. Despite all the superiority of the U.S. war machine, the nation's -- both its citizens and its leadership -- weakness is all the more exposed, which makes it impossible to decisively support and bring…… [Read More]
According to Elwell this group of fourteen works, all of which have been translated into many languages including English form "the most monumental evangelical theological project of this century." (151) Elwell goes on to describe the works as, "written in an almost conversational style, these volumes deal with topics of theological concern, such as divine election, faith and sanctification, Holy Scripture, and the church, rather than presenting a tightly argued system of thought." (151) Finally according to Elwell and despite Berkouwer's shift in theology regarding human dealings, i.e. regret for spreading lack of tolerance for human differences of opinion Berkouwer, "never wavered from his commitment to the principles of Scripture, faith and grace alone." (151)
Berkouwer also wrote works of criticism against other theologian, most notably Karl Barth and Catholicism which are well read and famous in their theological arguments and as representative of his mid life shift in thought.…… [Read More]
However, many people believe DuBois wrote his work in direct opposition to Washington's "acceptance" of certain white impositions on blacks, like not being able to vote, or not working for a liberal arts education, but gaining a trade instead. DuBois' main arguments then are that blacks should not "settle" for anything, but fight for equal rights in all areas. In the "Forethought" to the book he writes, "Leaving, then, the white world, I have stepped within the Veil, raising it that you may view faintly its deeper recesses -- the meaning of its religion, the passion of its human sorrow, and the struggle of its greater souls" (DuBois 209). This shows he is writing for a black audience, and he is going to give them clues and questions about their identity, their culture, and their equality, and he wants them to use them to better themselves and stop settling for…… [Read More]