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S. had agreed not to invade Cuba in return for removal of the missiles. However, several months later, the U.S. did remove the Jupiters from Turkey, as well. The administration averted the crisis, and the Soviets and Americans did remove their missiles.
Kennedy's actions most certainly avoided a nuclear war. The Soviets admitted they planned to use the missiles against the U.S., and installed them because they were afraid that Kennedy planned to invade Cuba. Before the crisis, there had been talk in the Kennedy administration of invading Cuba, assassinating Fidel Castro, and other actions against Cuba and its Communist leadership, and there was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion that made Cuba very wary of the U.S. So, in a way, the Kennedy administration helped bring on the missile crisis, but how the administration handled it was much more important.
Kennedy assembled a team of experts, including his brother…
Nigro, Louis J. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005): 154+.
Stern, Sheldon M. The Week the World Stood Still: Inside the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.
Cuban Missile Crisis
After the Second orld ar, the nations of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republicans (USSR), who were allies during that conflict, became staunch enemies. For approximately fifty years the two counties faced off, each trying to achieve dominance over the other. Both nations were in possession of nuclear weapons and for a time, the end of the world was literally at the hands of a select group of political leaders. For years, people lived with the imposing specter of nuclear annihilations. Families built bomb shelters beneath their houses and children were taught how to hopefully survive a nuclear attack whether they were at home or at school. Decades of living in a hyper paranoid state where every day was potentially the last were ultimately rewarded by the end of the Cold ar without a single shot ever having been fired. Perhaps…
Allen, Richard V. "The Man who won the Cold War." Hoover Digest. Hoover Institution. 1.
Lechuga, Carlos. The Cuban Missile Crisis. New York, NY: Ocean Press. 2001.
Smith, Joseph. The Cold War: Second Edition, 1945-1991. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2000.
A host of threatening meanings came to be associated with the missiles in America. The American side perceived that avoiding the missiles is considered to be the only probable alternative. (Weldes, 41) The fall out of the incident according to aymond L. Garthoff was that the Soviet Union was miffed and would never attempt another arms race, especially in Cuba. Likewise it kept the United States from invading Cuba. The settlement was thus effective for both the blocks. Only in 1970 did the public become aware of the tacit understanding between both sides. There was no public statement from the U.S. never to invade Cuba. The risks of a direct confrontation during the cold war was enormous and the consequences unthinkable. The Cuban missile crisis was one event that brought out the threat and drove home the necessity of keeping off show downs to both sides. The event according to…
CIA. A Look Back ... Remembering the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2008.
Fursenko, Aleksandr; Naftali, Timothy. One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro,
and Kennedy, 1958-1964 W.W. Norton: New York. 1997.
Khrushchev on the Cuban Missile Crisis
It was Saturday evening, October 27, 1962, the day the world came very close to destruction. The crisis was not over. Soviet ships had not yet tried to run the United States (U.S.) naval blockade, but the missiles were still on Cuban soil. In Cuba, work continued on the missile sites to make them operational. The situation could either be resolved soon, or events could get out of hand and people would die. That afternoon, a U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane had been shot down by mistake. "The Soviet leader had given orders not to shoot down any U-2 surveillance planes. A local Soviet commander violated those orders on October 27 when he downed Major Rudolph's Anderson's U-2 with a surface-to-air missile. Soviet officials seem to have understood this could have brought retaliatory strikes and perhaps even a U.S. invasion."
The Soviet position seemed to…
Abel, Elie. The Missile Crisis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1966.
Blanton, Thomas. "Annals of Blinksmanship." The Wilson Quarterly, Summer 1997, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/annals.htm (accessed April 26, 2005).
Blight, James G. And Welch, David A. On the Brink: Americans and Soviets Reexamine the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989.
Brenner, Philip. "Turning History on Its Head." The National Security Archive, George Washington University, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/brenner.htm (accessed April 26, 2005).
Nikita Khrushchev on the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Inner Workings of the Soviet Government and the Party's Criticism of Him
An Analysis of the Impact of Nikita S. Khrushchev on the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Inner Workings of the Soviet Government and the Party's Criticism of Him
Many people today simply do not realize just how close the world came to nuclear war when John F. Kennedy and Nikita S. Khrushchev squared off for 13 tense days during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. What actually transpired during those fateful days in October 1962 is just now filtering out the American general public, and it remains unclear whether the people of the former Soviet Union have ever been told the complete story either. Given the highly secretive nature of the Soviet regimen during this period in history, it is unlikely that many average citizens were aware of…
Beichman, Arnold. "How Foolish Khrushchev Nearly Started World War III." The Washington
Times (October 3, 2004), B08.
Davis, Shannon G. And Donald R. Kelley. 1992. The Sons of Sergei: Khrushchev and Gorbachev as Reformers. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Frankel, Max. 2004. High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban
Soviet Perspective of the Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban missile crisis -- that is also referred to as October crisis in Cuba as well as the Caribbean crisis within the Soviet Union -- was the clash between USS/Cuba and the U.S. states for a total of 13 days. The crisis or what most people refer to as a crucial part of the Cold War at the time, primarily happened in October 1962. Prior to the clash, the U.S. government had tried to overthrow the Cuban administration leading to incidents like the Bay of Pigs and the Operation Mongoose. This was done due to the fact that the Cuban and Soviet government authorities had privately started to construct bases in Cuba for several medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MBMs and IBMs) having the ability to strike the majority of the continental U.S. States. This course of action then lead to…
Absher, Kenneth Michael (2009). Mind-Sets and Missiles: A First Hand Account of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Strategic Studies Institute, United States Army War College.
Allison, Graham (July/August 2012). The Cuban Missile Crisis at 50. Foreign Affairs Volume 91, Number 4: 11.
Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow (1999). Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. p. 80-105.
Blanton, Thomas. Annals of Blinksmanship. The Wilson Quarterly. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 1997.
Intelligence factors in the Cuban Missile Crisis and the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
In comparing and contrasting the Cuban Missile Crisis and the terrorist attacks on 9/11, account must be taken of the fact that these two incidents were played out in very different political milieus and against the background of different demands on the Intelligence community in the United States. y this is meant that the possible lack of intelligence that many critics see as one of the causes of the events of 9/11 was founded on a complex array of political and international issues and prerogatives that faced the United States at various times.
A number of studies indicate that the nature of the intelligence requirements were very different in the Cuban Missile Crisis due to the overall international political situation at that time. Examining this, various authors attest to the fact that the cold war environment was much…
Carafano. J. (2004) The Case for Intelligence Reform: A Primer on Strategic Intelligence and Terrorism from the 1970s to Today. Retrieved from the National Heritage Foundation. Web site: http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl845.cfm
Intelligence Failure: From Pearl Harbor to 9/11 and Iraq. ( Transcript) Retrieved July 31, 2005 from America Abroad. Web site: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:7YSQ1W6SjxEJ:www.americaabroadmedia.org/docs/Intelligence%2520Failure%2520Transcript.pdf+compare+role+of+intelligence++Cuban+Missile+Crisis+with+9/11+& ; hl=en& lr=lang_en& client=firefox-a
Learning from the Missile Crisis. Retrieved July 30, 2005 from Smithsonina Magazine: Web site: http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues02/oct02/missile_crisis.html
Moritz F.A. (1997) PREDICTING "SURPRISE" ATTACK: Is it negligence or an impossible task? Retrieved July 31. 2005 . Web site: http://www.worldlymind.org/deng.htm
Cuban Missile Crisis
The reports of the arrival of missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads to the island of Cuba. These warheads are capable of reaching almost any part of the continental United States. The presence of these warheads represents an escalation of the conflict with the Soviet Union and its allies, and it represents an existential threat to the United States. For the first time since the arms buildup between the U.S. And USS began, we are in a situation where mutually-assured destruction is a legitimate possibility. The response of the United States to this conflict represents the most significant challenge faced by President Kennedy to this point in his career, and it is imperative that he authorize the right course of action.
May (2011) posits that Kennedy was aware of and had permitted the arrival of defensive missiles from the U.S.S.. To Cuba, and in fact…
Chomsky, N. (2012). Cuban missile crisis: How the U.S. played Russian roulette with nuclear war. The Guardian. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/oct/15/cuban-missile-crisis-russian-roulette
LOC. (2010). Cold war: Cuban missile crisis Library of Congress. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html
May, E. (2011). John F. Kennedy and the Cuban missile crisis BBC History. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/kennedy_cuban_missile_01.shtml
Schwarz, B. (2013). The real Cuban missile crisis. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/01/the-real-cuban-missile-crisis/309190/
Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.
Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…
Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)
Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):
Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):
Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)
Cuban Missile Crisis
In October 1962 the world came closest to a nuclear holocaust than it has ever done before or since in a critical standoff between the two major nuclear powers (the U.S. And the U.S.S..) over the deployment of missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union. This paper discusses the causes and consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis and assesses President Kennedy's handling of the crisis.
After the Spanish-American War of 1898 that ended the Spanish Empire and Spain's control of Cuba, the United States had given itself the right to intervene in the internal affairs of Cuba and U.S. businesses established extensive interests on the island. All of this ended with the Cuban evolution under Fidel Castro in 1959. The U.S. was not prepared to accept a leftist revolution so close to its borders and the CIA carried out several covert and overt attempts to dislodge…
Cuban Missile Crisis." (2003) Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
Brenner, Philip. (2002) "Turning History on its Head." The National Security Archive. The George Washington University Web Site. Retrieved on June 1, 2003 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/brenner.htm
May, Ernest and Zelikow, Philip. (Feb 1998) "Eavesdropping on History: Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Encarta Yearbook, 1998
Through the passing of the Platt Amendment by the U.S. Congress in 1901 that backtracked on the Teller Amendment passed before the War pledging the U.S. intention of not annexing Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was a major cold war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to install ballistic missiles in Cuba although they had made a promise to the U.S. that they would not (Chayes). hen the U.S. discovered the construction of missile launching sites, President John F. Kennedy publicly denounced the Soviet actions, demanding that they remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba.
hen this did not work, Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on Cuba, threatening that the U.S. Days would meet any missile launched from Cuba with a full-scale retaliatory attack later, Soviet ships carrying missiles to Cuba went home. Khrushchev soon agreed to dismantle the missile sites. The U.S. ended its blockade within a month, and shortly after, all missiles and bombers were removed from Cuba.
In 1962, the United States, the Soviet Union and the rest of…
Brugioni, Dino A. Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside story of the Cuban Missile
Chayes, A. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Oxford University Press, 1974.
Crisis. Random House, 1991.
Hersh, Seymour. The Dark Side of Camelot. Little, Brown & Company, 1998.
Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 is widely regarded as the most dangerous moment of the Cold War, and one which, "brought the world to the brink of the unthinkable" (light & Welch, 315). Although the successful resolution of the crisis led to an immediate improvement in relationship between the superpowers, and focussed the world's attention on the issues surrounding nuclear capability and deterrence, it also led to the development of a new method of 'crisis management' known as brinkmanship. This diplomatic theory, which involves using the threat of war in order to coerce an opponent into backing down, would have less celebrated consequences for America in the decades that followed the Cuban crisis.
On October 16th, two days after American surveillance planes had discovered Soviet medium-range missiles being installed in Cuba, the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (ExCom) met to plan a strategy that would resolve, what…
Blanton, T. (1997) "Annals of Blinkmanship." The Wilson Quarterly. Summer 1997.
Blight, J. And Welch, D. On the Brink: Americans and Soviets Reexamine the Cuban Missile Crisis New York: Hill and Wang, 1989.
Bundy, M. Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years. New York: Random House, 1989
In the tense days that followed, Khrushchev offered to withdraw the missiles in exchange for a U.S. pledge not to invade Cuba and to remove U.S. missiles deployed in Turkey. Kennedy privately assured the Soviets about withdrawal of missiles from Turkey but publicly gave only a non-invasion pledge. The crisis was averted when Khrushchev, also wary of the danger of a nuclear confrontation, announced on October 28 that he would remove the missiles from Cuba in return for a U.S. pledge not to invade. ("Cuban Missile Crisis, 2006; Hershberg, 1995)
The Cuban missile crisis was the closest that the U.S. And the U.S.S.. came to a nuclear war during the Cold War period. For a few tense days in October 1962, there was very real danger of a nuclear holocaust, which was only averted due to the good judgment and prudence shown by Kennedy and Khrushchev at the edge of…
Cuban Missile Crisis." (2006). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2006. Retrieved on November 18, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579929_2/Cuban_Missile_Crisis.html
Hershberg, J. (1995) "Anatomy of a Controversy." The National Security Archive: The George Washington University. Retrieved on November 18, 2006 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/moment.htm
Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. In late April 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. A deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union." (ThinkQuest Team, 1) This provides us with an imperative to undermine Khrushchev's conceptions either that we are indecisive or that we are unwilling to make the sacrifices implicated by a full-scale confrontation with the Soviets.
On the other hand, we must also strike a balance whereby these sacrifices are not necessary. Ultimately, it is our full understanding that the distinctions in the arms race between our tactical long-term abilities and superior stock of weapons and the Soviet Union's decidedly less capable and smaller stock do not constitute…
Divine, R.A. (1988). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Markus Wiener Publishers.
Dobbs, M. (2008). One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Bring of Nuclear War. Random House.
Global Security (GS). (2008). Cuban Missile Crisis. Globalsecurity.org.
Paz, J.V. (1995). The Socialist Transition in Cuba: Continuity and Change in the 1990s. Social Justice, 22.
Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Specifically it will discuss what Kennedy says are the most important lessons that he learned from the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis took place in October 1962, and almost resulted in a nuclear war over ussian warheads in Cuba. Kennedy says he learned many things from the crisis, most importantly, that many differing views are the key to good deliberation. Today, that idea is often dismissed, calling for a general consensus on a topic, and that his implications for the U.S. Foreign policy in many areas.
Late in the book, Kennedy writes, "I believe our deliberations proved conclusively how important it is that the President have the recommendations and opinions of more than one individual, of more than one department, and of more than one point-of-view" (Kennedy 111). This is a central idea to democracy and our two-party system of government, which…
Kennedy, Robert J. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1969.
American President John F. Kennedy's handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis played an important role in averting nuclear war between the Soviets and Americans. hile critics (often rightly) accuse Kennedy of making mistakes, including creating the conditions for the crisis in his mismanagement of the Bay of Pigs, his overall performance during the crisis was helpful. Kennedy's choice to avoid a military attack on Cuba was especially important, as was his decision to negotiate diplomatically with Soviet President Nikita Khrushchev.
JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was sparked by American president John F. Kennedy's discovery that the Soviet Union had nuclear missiles in nearby communist Cuba. President Kennedy learned of the buildup of nuclear weapons, which included the installation of offensive nuclear missiles, on October 16th, 1962. At that date, the Soviet Union's nuclear missiles in Cuba were just 90 miles from U.S. territory,…
Blanton, Thomas S. The Cuban Missile Crisis: 40 Years Late. Washingtonpost.com with Thomas S. Blanton, Executive Director, National Security Archive. Washingtonpost.com,
Wednesday, Oct. 16, 2002; 11 a.m. ET. Accessed October 26, 2005.
Dyer, Gwynne. The Enigma of John F. Kennedy, 10 November 2003. Accessed October 26,
Soviet Deception in the Cuban Missile Crisis,
The world came to a standstill about five decades ago in late October when people learned that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) had built nuclear missiles stations in various clandestine locations in Cuba. This tension lasted until the Cuban missile crisis was ended officially-although unknown to the American public, only officially (Chomsky 2012).
The Cuban Missile Crisis as it was a confrontation among the United States (U.S.), the Soviet Union and Cuba that began in October 1962. Later in September 1962 after several missions by the United States such as "Operation Mongoose" and "ay of Pigs" failed to overthrow the Cuban regime, the regime and the Soviet Union secretly began to build several medium and intermediate range ballistic nuclear-armed missiles that could hit and destroy most of continental USA. The participation of the Soviet Union was perhaps partly in response to…
Chomsky, Noam. Cuban missile crisis: how the U.S. played Russian roulette with nuclear war. October 15, 2012. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/oct/15/cuban-missile-crisis-russian-roulette (accessed May 18, 2015).
HC Blog. Perception, Bias, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. june 7, 2013. http://hcintelligence.blogspot.com/2013/06/perception-bias-and-cuban-missile-crisis.html (accessed May 18, 2015).
Saylor Academy. "Cuban Missile Crisis." http://www.saylor.org . n.d.
Cuban Missile Crisis
There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.
After the devastation that the bombs left in…
Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.
Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html .
Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. Marxists.org. 25 June 2003. http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/missile-crisis/index.htm .
Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
Many did not agree with this action because Senators Fulbright and Russell believed it would lead to an air strike on est Berlin or a blockade of that city. They knew it would lead to war. Kennedy had few choices but instead did not back down and lead the country through the crisis. He never "lost sight of the fact that once military action started, there was no telling at what level of escalation it could be stopped" (Stern 2003, p. 108).
Timing caused many of the problems Kennedy faced during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Many critics surmise the failure of the blockade but really its lack of strength came down to the fact Kennedy hesitated because he waited for OAS approval. This allowed for Soviet ships to arrive safely to Cuba before the escalation and this represents weakness on Kennedy's part. hy couldn't have acted aggressively? He was not…
1997. Cuban Missile Crisis Left Kennedy with Little Choice But to Act, Congressional
Leaders No Help To President. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 21. Oct.
Bennis, W. 1989. On Becoming a Leader. Reading, Massachusetts:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Cuban Five -- Criminals or Antiterrorists
The Cuban Five
Why the Trial Was Unfair
The Aftermath of the Trial
The Implications of This Trial on the elations between Cuba and the U.S.A.
Cuban Five as Criminals
The Five as Antiterrorists
Whether the Cuban Five are terrorists or not has to be seen from an international perspective that is impartial and takes into consideration the viewpoints of the Cubans as well as the Americans. The question has gained particular relevance in light of the international protests that consider the Cuban Five as antiterrorists and not criminals. According to obert Pastor the National Security Adviser for Latin America in President Jimmy Carter's time:
"Holding a trial for five Cuban intelligence agents in Miami is about as fair as a trial for an Israeli intelligence agent in Tehran. You'd need a lot more than a good lawyer to be taken seriously."
Campbell, D. (2008, January 9). Society has Become More Punitive. The Guardian .
Denny, P. (1993). UNITED STATES: Cuban Five ruling a "travesty of justice." Retrieved December 10, 2011, from Green Left.com: http://www.greenleft.org.au/node/35107
Mears, B. (2009, Janaury 30). 'Cuban Five' file appeal with Supreme Court . Retrieved December 10, 2011, from CNN: http://articles.cnn.com/2009-01-30/justice/scotus.cuban.five_1_ramon-labanino-cuban-five-gerardo-hernandez?_s=PM:CRIME
Nobel prize winner and 110 British demand the Cuban Five's liberation. (2006, February 9). Retrieved December 10, 2011, from http://www.cubaminrex.cu/english/five%20of%20Portal/2006/Nobel%20prize%20winner.htm
Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.
In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system. This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence.
The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…
CBS. U.S.: Raul Castro a "Fidel Lite" Ailing Communist Leader Resigns Post; Fidel's 76-Year-old Brother, Raul, the Heir Apparent. 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/19/world/main3843492.shtml?source=RSSattr=HOME_3843492
Ratliff, William. Raul, China, and Post-Fidel Cuba. Raul Castro will likely implement Chinese-style, market-oriented economic reforms. 2006. 10 March 2008 http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com/app/article.aspx?id=369
Shlaes, Amity. "Cuba Crisis is Avoidable if Bush Can Copy Poppy." Bloomberg. 2008. http://www.cfr.org/publication/15543/cuba_crisis_is_avoidable_if_bush_can_copy_poppy.html?breadcrumb=%2Fregion%2F213%2Fcuba
Sweig, Julia E. "Fidel's Final Victory." Foreign Affairs. 2007. http://www.cfr.org/publication/12362/
S. wanted Europe to respect its boundaries, but had no intention of respecting Europe's:
Imagine, Mr. President, what if we were to present to you such an ultimatum as you have presented to us by your actions. How would you react to it? I think you would be outraged at such a move on our part. And this we would understand…Our ties with the Republic of Cuba, as well as our relations with other nations, regardless of their political system, concern only the two countries between which these relations exist. And, if it were a matter of quarantine as mentioned in your letter, then, as is customary in international practice, it can be established only by states agreeing between themselves, and not by some third party. Quarantines exist, for example, on agricultural goods and products. However, in this case we are not talking about quarantines, but rather about much more…
Kennedy, Robert. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. NY: W.W.
Norton & Company, 1999. Print.
"Khruschev Letter to President Kennedy." Web. 10 Nov 2011.
Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-
Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America. Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union (Schwab, Orrin, 1998, 1). Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.
President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.
Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…
Brown, Seyom. Faces of Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986354
Clark, General Wesley K. Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986356 .
DeConde, Alexander. A History of American Foreign Policy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550 .
One of the most famous crises that was based on misinterpretation and a zero-sum game was the 1960's Cuban Missile Crisis when misperceptions or fake induced information could have led from a crisis to a conflict and a war.
Conflict in the international arena is often lead by perceptions and power politics games that often are not based on realistic evidence. Conflict is nonetheless a measurable phenomena as many conflicts are also based on other issues than misperceptions, power needs or behavioral changes in a country's leadership. These are different economic interests over material goods, like oil or gas, positional goods like political influence or territorial.
More and more, international relations theorists and analyzers have looked within countries and systems to understand the international arena. The internal struggles for power, equilibrium and social welfare are as important in the development of world politics as the aforementioned types of causes. From…
Jacoby, T. (2008) Understanding Conflict and Violence. New York: Routledge
Waltz, K. (2001) Man, the State, and the War. New York: Columbia University Press
This flexibility gave U.S. intelligence agencies an advantage over their Soviet counterparts, who were unable to demonstrate a similar capacity for rapid and effective responses to the circumstances of the crisis ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). Finally, and most surprisingly, the U.S. intelligence community retained a remarkable ability to take actions that were not heavily influenced by the political climate of the nation. Rather than being influenced by the political platforms of politicians, the intelligence community focused on the matter at hand, to great effect ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). These three factors were most influential in the successful actions of the U.S. intelligence community during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The atson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.
Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497.
Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The Watson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.
Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497 .
Kennedy and Khruschev
The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 is widely considered to be the moment when the Cold ar between the U.S.A. And the U.S.S.R. came closest to outright hostility and indeed nuclear war. hat is most interesting about the Cuban Missile Crisis in retrospect is its strategic handling by the two national leaders involved, Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. I hope by an examination of the correspondence exchanged by these two leaders during the period to demonstrate that Kennedy's handling of the crisis, while marked by some errors, was more responsible than Khrushchev's. In some sense, the Cuban Missile Crisis began as an irresponsible gamble by Khrushchev: if he exhibited some clever statesmanship during the crisis, this does not erase the fact that it was begun by him as an attempt to take advantage of a perceived weakness on Kennedy's part that was not ultimately there.…
Kennedy, John F. And Khrushchev, Nikita. "Kennedy-Khrushchev Exchanges." Loyola University. Web. Accessed 25 April 2014 at: http://www.loyola.edu/departments/academics/political-science/strategic-intelligence/intel/FRUS-6.html
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…
CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION
An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…
An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.
Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp
Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
S.S.R. wanted to be the instigators of a nuclear conflagration. Kennedy had to find out what the other side really wanted. (Ury, 1993, p.12) in 1962, the Soviet Union lagged behind the United States militarily, as Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. Thus, Khrushchev had used intermediate-range missiles in Cuba because a "deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union," once the missiles were assembled ("An Overview of the Crisis," the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1997). In short, the U.S.S.R. wanted security, and security would also mean a safe, and a face-saving way out of the current situation.
Step 4: Reframe
Kennedy shifted to openness, from secrecy, and declared that any nuclear action launched from Cuba against a nation of…
An Overview of the Crisis." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
Discovery." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/discovery.html
Ends of a Rope." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/rope.html
Public Phase." The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1997. 1997. 23 Feb 2007. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/public.html
The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…
Cuban Missile Crisis. (2002). Cuban Missile Crisis. Politics & World Affairs: Cold War, 18.
In Defense of Civil Liberties (2004, September 20). The New York Times, p. A24.
Kaplan, Morton A. (2002). Intelligence Failures. World & I, 17, 12.
U.S. Has "No Objections" to China's Nuclear Buildup (2001). The New American, 17, 13.
S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.
5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).
The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.
With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…
1. Howard Jones. 2001. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897, Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.
2. Robert Kennedy. 1999. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: Norton
3. Samantha Power, a Problem From Hell: American in the Age of Genocide
In this Kennedy appeared to be following up on his anti-Communist speech with anti-Communist actions. but, the level of actual commitment was clearly not there. Kennedy had the entire United States military at his disposal. All he had to do was use them. but, clearly, he did not have the stomach to follow it all the way through. Kennedy wanted to appear strong but did not want to have to be strong - image meant everything.
Operation Mongoose continued the entire Cuban situation. It relied upon covert use of the CIA to make any and all attempts necessary to overthrow the Cuban government. On the heels of the Bay of Pigs failure, Kennedy attempted another poorly conceived attempt to rid himself of Castro. The operation essentially failed before it could possibly begin. Time after time, plans were brought out to be replaced by others. And those plans were impossibly strange…
LeFeber, Walter. America, Russia and the Cold War: 1945-2002. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Merrill, Dennis & Paterson, Thomas G Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.
(2) Blockade (Kennedy, .F., 1969), which would prevent the Soviet Union from carrying out its mission of establishing a Soviet missile base on the island of Cuba, and will send the message to the Soviet Union that they are attempting to cross the line where the United States can maintain a hands-off policy (Powell, Samantha, 2003, pp. 6-7). and, should the first two fail, (3) an air strike and invasion of the island wherein the United States will seize control of the island and work towards making it either a U.S. territory, or we will work to install a democratic government (Kennedy, .F., 1969).
These are the recommendations of this council.
Donald, .(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.
Kennedy, .F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.
Powaski, .E. (1998). The Cold War…
Donald, R.(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.
Kennedy, R.F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.
Powaski, R.E. (1998). The Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888344
Because of the high stakes that surrounded each character's decisions, Thirteen Days remained exciting even during technical discussions of policy. Not only was it entertaining, then, but it also greatly increased my understanding of the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the methods by which decisions are reached, in Washington and probably in most -- if not all -- current and historical halls of government during times of crisis. The negotiation and circumvention of the many personalities involved in powerful, history-making decisions is a delicate and complex dance that only true masters can maneuver in, and in Thirteen Days both Kennedy brothers and, to a degree, Robert S. McNamara were all portrayed as such political masters.
On a somewhat less profound though perhaps more practical level, this film also taught me about the way decision are negotiated between the civilian and military government officials. Though the President is ostensibly…
It is important to note from the onset that the Cold War was not essentially a war that involved conventional military weaponry. It was a war that largely involved the utilization of surrogates, propaganda, and economics -- it was a war of words. In that regard therefore, the Cold War was in basic terms the uneasy relationship that primarily developed between the U.S.S.. And the U.S.A. after the end of the Second World War (Goff, et al. 2008). The Cold War was caused by a variety of factors. In this text, I will analyze two of the many events that may have, in one way or another, deepened the Cold War.
To begin with, the People's epublic of China-Soviet Union alliance "signed during the Moscow meetings between Stalin and Chinese leader Mao Zedong in February 1950, was one of the cornerstones of the early Cold War and one…
Goff, R., Moss, W., Terry, J., Upshur, J., & Schroeder, M. (2008). The Twentieth Century and Beyond - A Global History (7th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Hanhimaki, J.S. & Westad, O.A. (Eds.). (2004). The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Philips, S. (2001). The Cold War: Conflict in Europe and Asia. Burlington, MA: Heinemann.
Kennedy and Brinkley
President John Fitzgerald Kennedy is an important figure in American history and was instrumental in shaping the American identity in the second half of the twentieth century. His personality and optimism, as well as his heroism in the Second orld ar helped the country to formulate a hope that the 1960s could be a time of renewal and rebirth in the United States of America. In recent years, the more scandalous aspects of his life have overtaken his historical significance, something that should be remedied and his importance restored. Most importantly, his actions during the Cold ar between the United States and the U.S.S.R. are credited with saving the world from descending into nuclear war. In Alan Brinkley's 2012 book John F. Kenney, the author attempts to explain the man in terms of his place in history and how his personal abilities and charisma were able to…
Brinkley, A. (2012). John F. Kennedy: The American Presidents Series: The 35th President,
1961-1963. Times: New York, NY.
Kennedy, J. (1961). Inaugural address. American Rhetoric.com
Kennedy, J. (1963). American University commencement address. American Rhetoric.com
The 1956 Suez Canal Crisis caused an indirect confrontation when America's allies France, Britain, and Israel made an unsuccessful military attempt to take over the Suez Canal from the Soviet Union's ally Egypt. After the U.S.S.. threatened to become militarily involved in the crisis, the U.S. forced its allies to concede defeat.
The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis occurred after the U.S. discovered that the U.S.S.. had secretly supplied Cuba with nuclear-armed missiles. This discovery was especially alarming because now the U.S.S.. could militarily subdue its rival by easily launching missiles against it. After a naval blockade around Cuba and intense negotiations the U.S.S.. was finally made to remove the missiles in exchange for the U.S. pledge not to overthrow Cuba's Communist regime.
The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
Had the failure of the Cuban invasion not occurred, Kennedy would not have been able to appear so ascendant, and the positive reaction to his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis might not have been as great in magnitude. Truly however, it was his social programs such as the Peace Corps and his focus on establishing peace with the Soviet Union that truly showed him to be the charismatic leader for which he is remembered today.
Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164
John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/
John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm
O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. etrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1
Parekh, N. (2005). "John F. Kennedy Biography." Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-23-2005-64647.asp
Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164
John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/
John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm
O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. Retrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFRVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1
United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba. The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. throughout these paranoid and dangerous days of ideological impasse were now neutralized by the dismantling of the infrastructure that had brandished them. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U...R., served as an outpost for anti-American hostilities and a potential vessel through which to deliver the devastating blows that may have turned the Cold War hot, now is an isolated bastion for ideals abandoned by most of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…
Sources can be found and printed at the following sites:
Source 1. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html
Source 2. http://travel.state.gov/cuba.html
Source 3. http://qbanrum.tripod.com/cuba-1.html
Source 4. http://isla.igc.org/Features/Cuba/cuba2.html
Alpha 66 and Omega 7
Are Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Domestic or International Organizations?
After Fidel Castro's evolutionary movement overthrew the Batista regime in Cuba and declared his country a Socialist nation allied with the Soviet Union -- the principle enemy of the United States at the time -- many Cubans opposed to Castro flocked to the United States. Many of these refugees and exiles were wealthy businessmen who were committed to overthrowing the Castro regime. The anti-Castro opposition by Cuban exiles took different forms, some of them advocating dialogue or diplomatic opposition, while others taking a hardliner position, engaging in militant activities (Garcia, 1998). The Cuban exile organizations known as Alpha 66 and Omega 7 were among the latter, resorting to violent activities inside and outside the United States, attacking persons and installations belonging to the Castro government and its allies as well as those in the United…
Bohning, D. (2005) The Castro Obsession: U.S. Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-1965. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.
Didion, J. (1987) Miami. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Garcia, M. (1998). Hardliners v. 'Dialogueros': Cuban Exile Political Groups and United States -- Cuba Policy. Journal of American Ethnic History, 17(4), 3. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Herman, E.S. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End Press, 1982.
diplomacy is more likely to work in the de-escalation than the escalation phase. If we have a brief look at the definitions of the two phases, escalation is a phase where "adversaries begin to make greater threats and impose harsher negative sanctions." It is obvious that this phase has left the field of constructive diplomacy. We are no longer talking about negotiations, but about "threats" and "negative sanctions." The de-escalation phase "involves changes within each of the adversaries as well as new forms of interaction between them." The stalemate that has occurred till then makes them more willing to negotiate, so this would be an adequate phase to solve the conflict in a diplomatical manner.
The diplomacy in the de-escalation period should be characterized by small steps towards reducing the tension and towards a gradual normality of the relations between the two parties. Mistrust between the adversaries is another condition…
1. Maiesse, Michelle. Limiting Escalation/De-Escalation. On the Internet at http://www.intractableconflict.org/m/limiting_escalation.jsp
He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…
Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..
Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
The blockade will require the efforts of these military forces to identify and intercept and ship (or submarine) bound for Cuba and prevent it from reaching ports in Cuba. In addition, it would be advisable that once the blockade is instituted that high-level US. officials begin quiet negotiations with the Soviets in order to diffuse the crisis before it escalates. The removal of Soviet missile sites from Cuba could be countered with an offering to remove our own missile sites from an similarly strategically unimportant position in Europe (Alterman, 1997). Such a gesture would do little to affect the balance of power between the U.S. And the Soviets, would give the Soviets the false sense that they had "won" this conflict, and would show the world that the U.S. will respond forcefully when threatened by a foreign power.
Alterman, E. (1997, November 10). Profile in courage? The Nation,…
Alterman, E. (1997, November 10). Profile in courage? The Nation, 265(15), pp. 6-7.
Cuban missile crisis. (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia. The Columbia University Press. 6th ed. p. 9980.
Manning, R. (1997, October 20). How close to the brink. Newsweek, 130(16), p. 18.
McComas, D. (1987, November 20). When the other guy blinked. Scholastic Update, 120(6), pp. 27-29.
Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). After meeting with his advisors over the course of several days, President John F. Kennedy declared a blockade would be put in place around Cuba with the intention of preventing the Soviet Union from supplying Cuba with any more military supplies ("Cuban Missile Crisis," John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). Shortly thereafter, on October 22, President Kennedy announced, via a television broadcast, the presence of the missiles in Cuba, his decision to "enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security" ("Cuban Missile Crisis," History Channel). hile Kennedy and the United States were unsure of the reaction this televised announcement would have on Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, both political leaders recognized the threat nuclear war posed and agreed to negotiate a deal ("Cuban Missile Crisis,"…
Cavendish, Richard. "The First Hydrogen Bomb." History Today. Vol. 56, Issue 5 (2006). Web.
23 March 2013.
"Cuban Missile Crisis." History Channel. Web. 23 March 2013.
"Cuban Missile Crisis." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 23 March
The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).
Diplomatic options in…
Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm .
Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved
from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm .
Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.
Washington on August 28-29
On this day, more than 200,000 Americans congregated in Washington, D.C., for a civil demonstration referred to as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Planned and prepared by some civil rights and religious groups, the incident was intended to spell out the political and social challenges African-Americans constantly experienced across the nation. The march, which turned out to be a fundamental moment in the mounting struggle for civil rights in the United States, concluded in Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, a strong-willed appeal for racial, even handedness, fairness and equality (History, 2016). This topic might be of interest today with the recent cases of killings and discrimination against African-Americans in the United States to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement.
Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show
On this day, the Beatles were introduced to the American public. It is…
Carlson, P. (2010). K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist. Read How You Want. pp. 408 -- 412.
Churchill, R. S., & Churchill, W. S. (1967). The six-day war (Vol. 5). Houghton Mifflin.
Cyr, A. I. (2012). Cyr: Cuban missile crisis offers lessons relevant today. Newsday. Retrieved from: http://www.newsday.com/opinion/oped/cuban-missile-crisis-offers-lessons-relevant-today-arthur-i-cyr-1.4133202
Haas, R. (2011). 9/11 Perspective. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/911-impact/911-perspective/p25735
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…
Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2004.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the U.S., The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2004,
As that of any successful leader, Kennedy's leadership style is a complex combination of different qualities and characteristics. This paper will analyze several of them, as well as the leadership profile overall, with the purpose of understanding what made Kennedy an effective leader and whether this was indeed the case.
Hald-Mortensen (2007) looks at three different areas where Kennedy excelled and that contributed to making Kennedy an effective leader: vision, decision making and delegation. He points out, first of all, that Kennedy had vision, something essential for an effective leader. In practical terms, vision meant that he knew where the U.S. should end up in the future and molded his policy accordingly.
One such example of a clear vision for Kennedy was the space program and the Moon Project. The space program involved not only the vision that competition for the outer space would be the next area…
1. Barnes, John A. (2005). John F. Kennedy on Leadership: The Lessons and Legacy of a President. AMACOM
2. Hald-Mortensen, Christian, (2007). John F. Kennedy -- Leadership Qualities That Moved A Nation. Graduate Faculty of Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.
3. Sabato, Larry, (2013). Lead like John F. Kennedy. The Washington Post.
yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…
1962-Year in Review. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1962/Cuban-Missile-Crisis/12295509437657-6/
BusinessMate. (2009). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. BusinessMate.org.
Retrieved from http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=30
Chayevsky, P. [writer]. (1976). Network. Los Angeles: MGM.
John . Kennedy
Rhetorical context: The audience is a conservative political group that advocates smaller federal government and the right for local communities and states to control as much of their needed government as possible. The occasion is their annual meeting, and the purpose is to demonstrate that although Kennedy was a liberal in many ways, he was still a great, if flawed, man.
John . Kennedy: the very name makes political conservatives cringe. However, his short role in the political history of the Presidency was so pivotal that is necessary to consider what kind of President he really was beyond the hype and the active public relations campaign that kept his many flaws out of the news media. Because the media remained silent about his personal flaws, the country was able to nearly canonize him after his untimely death.
He was a Liberal. Of that there is no doubt.…
For all his flaws, John F. Kennedy was a great president who understood the Communist threat at the most important level. Because he was willing to stand up to the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States triumphed over our greatest enemy without a single battle. By doing this, he made the end of the Cold War inevitable.
Nuclear weapons became a tool of American policy that goes far beyond protection of national interests, for American national interests depend on the propagation of American ideals. The United States is, in the words of Harold Lasswell, a "garrison state;" a crusading nation that seeks to combat all enemies real and imagined and to remake the world in its own image. (Flint 86-87) Under the new doctrine, nuclear strategy becomes a means of enforcing an ideology - all dissent, or supposed dissent, is rooted out through the threat of ultimate and complete destruction. Terrorism is made the defining characteristic of immorality. States that support terrorism become the ultimate evildoers. The Bush Administration redefined international relations in terms of an axis of good led by the United States and its allies, and an axis of evil consisting preeminently of Iraq, Iran, and North Korea and their terrorist associates. Alone among these…
Botti, Timothy J. Ace in the Hole: Why the United States Did Not Use Nuclear Weapons in the Cold War, 1945 to 1965. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Flint, Colin, ed. The Geography of War and Peace: From Death Camps to Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Hilsman, Roger. From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
Hirschbein, Ron. Massing the Tropes: The Metaphorical Construction of American Nuclear Strategy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2005.
However, human error and responses based on mistakes of interpretation greatly escalated the respective bombing campaigns of Britain and Germany. Specifically, both nations had purposely avoided bombing one another's civilian populations when, on August 24, 1940, several German bombers accidentally bombed residential areas of London (Commager & Miller, 2002). In response, Britain bombed factories and airfields near Berlin; the relative inaccuracy of bombing operations of the era lead Hitler to conclude that those raids were intended as attacks on civilians. He immediately began ordering indiscriminate bombing attacks on London, eventually exposing German civilians to even more intense bombing campaigns by the Allies later in the war (Commager & Miller, 2002). To a certain extent, the exchange of attacks on civilian population centers on both sides was the result of inadvertent misunderstanding of intentions that escalated the horrors of Word War II even further.
The Prospect of Inadvertent Nuclear War:
Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons. New York: Columbia University Press.
Commager, H., Miller, D. (2002). The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager. New York: Bantam
Hayes, C., and Faissler, M. (1999). Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present.
They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.
oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.
The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…
1. The Fog of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_fog_of_war
2. Lord of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_war
3. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower
4. Military-industrial complex. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/military_industrial_complex
Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;
(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;
(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;
(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;
(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…
Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/
Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf
Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf
Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
This is a more recent time in history, so it was easier to identify with, as well.
The film really made the entire Cuban Missile Crisis clearer to me, too. I had heard of it, and the U-2 spy plane, but the film really laid out all the events in the order they occurred, and it showed just how dangerous a situation it was. It also showed that military intelligence works, even though the original flyby was just fairly routine. If the people who read the spy photographs had been less vigilant, the weapons might never have been discovered, and the situation could have ended far differently. I think the film did a really good job of portraying just how close the world was to nuclear war, too, which was frightening when you really stop to think about it.
This is also a really good historic look into the presidency,…
Thirteen Days. Dir. Roger Donaldson. Perf. Kevin Costner and Bruce Greenwood. New Line Cinema, 2000.
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…
BBC. Bush Pledge Over U.S. Intelligence. BBC News: British Broadcasting Company,
2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4396457.stm
CIA. History of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency, 2007. Retrieved on May 30, 2009cia.html" http://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th - grade/operation-history/history-of-the-cia.html
Harris, James W. The Path to Intelligence Reform: "Changes in the Intelligence Craft
Soviet Union brought the missiles into Cuba to rile up the American military establishment precisely so that U.S. nuclear missile installations in Turkey and Italy could be brought on the table. Secondly as an ally, Soviet Union was concerned about the fate of Cuba which held a lot of promise for the Communist experiment internationally.
The American leadership understood that what they faced in Cuba was a catch 22 situation. If they failed to act, they would live under threat and shadow of nuclear war. If they carried out a full fledge invasion of Cuba, the Soviet Union would respond by taking over West Berlin thereby severely denting the credibility of the United States of America in the eyes of its European allies. Able master of political chess that Khrushchev was he played the inexperienced but charismatic President Kennedy like a fiddle. There were of course some in the military…
Indeed, over half of the boatlift population had criminal backgrounds. To further support this characterization of the boatlift, Castro himself is quoted as saying that the departing citizens leaving from Mariel are the scum of the country and were surely welcome to leave Cuba for he thought no other country would have them, even America. He openly denounced the population leaving by way of boat at a 1980 May Day celebration during the height of the Mariel migration.
ut the figures about criminality do not alone tell the tale of the character of the migrants. Many criminals in Cuba have been imprisoned for political activities such as freedom of speech that would not be considered criminal in America. Also, homosexuality is illegal in Cuba. Many of the boatlift population had engaged in homosexual relations, which are outlawed in Cuba. The conservative Cuban population of America, however, was by and large…
But the figures about criminality do not alone tell the tale of the character of the migrants. Many criminals in Cuba have been imprisoned for political activities such as freedom of speech that would not be considered criminal in America. Also, homosexuality is illegal in Cuba. Many of the boatlift population had engaged in homosexual relations, which are outlawed in Cuba. The conservative Cuban population of America, however, was by and large no more amicable to alternative sexualities than the Castro regime.
But more to the point, the hostility to the new immigrants may have been racial. The Cuban population who denounced the marielitos as causing a decline in tourism in Miami, noted that the recent boatlift was made up of Cubans who were mostly Blacks and mulattoes of a color that I never saw or believed existed in Cuba." (21) All new immigrant populations present a new face to older and more established members of the community, but in this case, the new face was very literally a distinctive racial shift in the image of Cubans.
Before the boatlift, Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick state that Cubans had a face of a model minority, of staunch Cold War anti-communists, of Ricky Ricardo as a friendly image of a Latin neighbor. In Miami, Cubans were devoted to capitalism, as the first immigrants represented the elite and established commercial classes. As a result, their businesses flourished. But the new Miami immigrants had lived many years under communist influence, and had no such of a work ethic. Furthermore, they were met with rejection from the city of Miami, because of their race, sexuality, and perceived social classes, and this rejection led to their marginal within the city, and hence, criminality. Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick note that after the Mariel exodus, however Cuban Americans found the Cuban people ranked among the undesirables and a 1982 national poll found that Cubans placed dead last in the public's view of contributions made by different ethnic groups to the national welfare. Only 9% of those polled considered Cuban influence to be good for the country and 59% deemed it bad. The fault for this polarization of attitudes towards Cubans however, is complex, lying in the fault of the established community in its expectations of the immigrants, in the difficulties of the immigrants themselves, and to Castro, too.