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Cuban evolution's major figures, Ernesto "Che" Guevara is widely known as a guerrilla leader and a Marxist revolutionary. However, to some people, he is considered both a mass murderer and a terrorist. Even though some view Ernesto "Che" Guevara as a murderer, he was an idealist and an intellectual with a genuine desire to change Latin America.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara as an Intellectual and Idealist
To begin with, it can be noted that Guevara's revolutionary mind and consequent involvement in social reforms in Guatemala was informed by what he witnessed firsthand while traversing Latin America. Mainly, it was the endemic alienation and poverty he witnessed that led to his radical transformation. In his opinion, the economic inequalities that were deeply ingrained in the region were largely as a result of imperialism, neocolonialism and imperialism. Based on this, Guevara concluded that a revolution was the only way to remedy the situation.…
Dosal, P.J. (2004). Comandante Che: Guerrilla Soldier, Commander, and Strategist. 1956-1967. U.S.A: Penn State Press.
Llosa, A.V. (2005, July 11). The Killing Machine: Guevara, From Communist Firebrand to Capitalist Brand. Retrieved 8th Jan 2012, from the Independent Institute website: http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=1535
Moore, C. (2011). Propaganda Prints: A History of Art in the Service of Social and Political Change. Great Britain: A&C Black.
7, pp. 11-27)
This fear of increased racism is echoed in the voices of the indigenous population as well. They fear a potential backlash against Indians by descendants of Spanish colonialists. There has even been a religious element to the protest against capitalism. Despite again, the common expectation of an outside observer that a new infusion of capitalism would favor religion, since capitalism deems religion, in Marx's words, the opiate of the masses, in fact religion in Latin America has usually offered voice, through liberation theology to the descamidas, or shirtless ones, rather than to the affluent. Although a Catholic religious influence stresses the need to end official state atheism, it does not necessarily see capitalism as the solution to Cuban social problems.
Thus, there are a variety of voiced motivations given for protest, some of which are economic, regarding fears of Cuba's lack of competitiveness on a global level,…
Azicri, Max. "International Journal of Women's Studies." Vol. 2. No. 1. 1981.
Brundenius, Claes. "Growth With Equity: The Cuban Experience (1959-1980)." World Development Vol. 9. No. 11/12(1981) pp. 1083-96.
Casal, Lourdes. "The Position of Blacks in Brazilian and Cuba Society." Minority Rights Group Report No. 7, pp. 11-27.
Proyecet, L. "Cuban Revolution." Retrieved on October 16, 2004 http://www.columbia.edu/~lnp3/mydocs/state_and_revolution/cuba.htm
Dreaming in Cuban" and the Cuban Revolution
Cristina Garcia's, "Dreaming in Cuban" is a novel that tells the story of three generations of women and their triumphs and tribulations while the Cuban Revolution is used as the novel's context. The structure of Garcia's novel is unique as well and helps provide great insight into the characters, setting and events. In each chapter, several characters have a chance to speak which allows the audience to gain perspective from each character. The four main characters in the novel are Celia, Lourdes, Felicia and Pilar, all of whom have very different reactions to the Cuban revolution, mainly due to the wide spectrum of personalities. The themes of the book include exile, primarily due to the events of the Cuban Revolution, family relationships, the power of political control and memory. These themes, along with Cuban history and culture, are illuminated through the different characters…
Garcia, Cristina. Dreaming in Cuban: a novel. New York, New York: Random House, Inc., 1993.
What were the ideological influences on Revolution in Latin America?
Latin America experienced several changes throughout the years in various countries. Cuba, for example, experienced a revolution brought on by influences from Marxism and Soviet-style communism. Seen as a turning point in revolutionary history and Latin American ideology, 1959 became the year of Cuba. The Cuban Revolution and the ideals that came with it, spurred countries like Chile and Uruguay to test the waters of political change. It is important to understand and explore how Marxist and communist ideologies became intrinsically connected to the Cuban Revolution and how these ideals changed Latin America as a whole.
The Cuban Revolution became one of the few instances in Latin America where change in ideology generated a new identity for a country and a people. As Alan Knight points out, the Cuban Revolution brought with it seeds of change towards socialism and later…
What is similar between the Bolivian revolution and the Cuban revolution is the fact that many revolutionaries in Cuba and different groups including the militia, miners and peasants in Bolivia were fighting against each other and for different causes. There lacked consistency of purpose which ultimately affected the economy of each land and resulted in lack of a dedicated leader all could approve of.
The Cuban and Bolivian revolutions also had in common many primary figures of authority that, despite their wrongs or rights, were charismatic enough to capture the support of a great number of people. The Cuban military, much like the revolutionaries in Bolivia, were for the most part ineffective. The United States opposed the leadership of the Cuban government however, during the Cuban war, which separates it from the Bolivian revolution where the United States supplied much in the way of assistance and capital in an attempt…
Latin American Studies.org (2007) "The Bolivian Revolution 1952-1964," LAS.org
Retrieved November 26, 2007:
Fermoselle, R. (1987). The evolution of the Cuban military: 1492-1965. Miami:
Cuban Five -- Criminals or Antiterrorists
The Cuban Five
Why the Trial Was Unfair
The Aftermath of the Trial
The Implications of This Trial on the elations between Cuba and the U.S.A.
Cuban Five as Criminals
The Five as Antiterrorists
Whether the Cuban Five are terrorists or not has to be seen from an international perspective that is impartial and takes into consideration the viewpoints of the Cubans as well as the Americans. The question has gained particular relevance in light of the international protests that consider the Cuban Five as antiterrorists and not criminals. According to obert Pastor the National Security Adviser for Latin America in President Jimmy Carter's time:
"Holding a trial for five Cuban intelligence agents in Miami is about as fair as a trial for an Israeli intelligence agent in Tehran. You'd need a lot more than a good lawyer to be taken seriously."
Campbell, D. (2008, January 9). Society has Become More Punitive. The Guardian .
Denny, P. (1993). UNITED STATES: Cuban Five ruling a "travesty of justice." Retrieved December 10, 2011, from Green Left.com: http://www.greenleft.org.au/node/35107
Mears, B. (2009, Janaury 30). 'Cuban Five' file appeal with Supreme Court . Retrieved December 10, 2011, from CNN: http://articles.cnn.com/2009-01-30/justice/scotus.cuban.five_1_ramon-labanino-cuban-five-gerardo-hernandez?_s=PM:CRIME
Nobel prize winner and 110 British demand the Cuban Five's liberation. (2006, February 9). Retrieved December 10, 2011, from http://www.cubaminrex.cu/english/five%20of%20Portal/2006/Nobel%20prize%20winner.htm
Cuban Missile Crisis
The reports of the arrival of missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads to the island of Cuba. These warheads are capable of reaching almost any part of the continental United States. The presence of these warheads represents an escalation of the conflict with the Soviet Union and its allies, and it represents an existential threat to the United States. For the first time since the arms buildup between the U.S. And USS began, we are in a situation where mutually-assured destruction is a legitimate possibility. The response of the United States to this conflict represents the most significant challenge faced by President Kennedy to this point in his career, and it is imperative that he authorize the right course of action.
May (2011) posits that Kennedy was aware of and had permitted the arrival of defensive missiles from the U.S.S.. To Cuba, and in fact…
Chomsky, N. (2012). Cuban missile crisis: How the U.S. played Russian roulette with nuclear war. The Guardian. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/oct/15/cuban-missile-crisis-russian-roulette
LOC. (2010). Cold war: Cuban missile crisis Library of Congress. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html
May, E. (2011). John F. Kennedy and the Cuban missile crisis BBC History. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/kennedy_cuban_missile_01.shtml
Schwarz, B. (2013). The real Cuban missile crisis. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 17, 2013 from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/01/the-real-cuban-missile-crisis/309190/
Cuban Missile Crisis
In October 1962 the world came closest to a nuclear holocaust than it has ever done before or since in a critical standoff between the two major nuclear powers (the U.S. And the U.S.S..) over the deployment of missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union. This paper discusses the causes and consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis and assesses President Kennedy's handling of the crisis.
After the Spanish-American War of 1898 that ended the Spanish Empire and Spain's control of Cuba, the United States had given itself the right to intervene in the internal affairs of Cuba and U.S. businesses established extensive interests on the island. All of this ended with the Cuban evolution under Fidel Castro in 1959. The U.S. was not prepared to accept a leftist revolution so close to its borders and the CIA carried out several covert and overt attempts to dislodge…
Cuban Missile Crisis." (2003) Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
Brenner, Philip. (2002) "Turning History on its Head." The National Security Archive. The George Washington University Web Site. Retrieved on June 1, 2003 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/brenner.htm
May, Ernest and Zelikow, Philip. (Feb 1998) "Eavesdropping on History: Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Encarta Yearbook, 1998
Through the passing of the Platt Amendment by the U.S. Congress in 1901 that backtracked on the Teller Amendment passed before the War pledging the U.S. intention of not annexing Cuba
It had been complicated for Cubans to be assimilated by the American community right away, as the fact that they came in large numbers prevented them from socializing with U.S. citizens to a large degree. Determined to keep their cultural identity, the first people to immigrate into the U.S. did not want to learn English. Instead, they taught their children and grandchildren Spanish, so that they would take their family traditions further.
Americans have had the inclination to treat Cubans differently from other immigrants coming from Latin America because of the circumstances that lead to each ethnic group leaving their respective country. While most Latin Americans had been coming to the U.S. because they wanted to escape the poverty in their homeland, matters had been different when concerning the Cubans. They left their country because they could not survive there knowing that they were supporting a corrupt political ideology.…
People in Cuba had been desperately trying to emigrate to the U.S. And in 1965, at the time when the Cuban government had announced that "any Cuban with relatives in the United States was free to go there after October 10" (Victor Andres Triay, pp. 100), matters went berserk, with some people even perishing because they attempted to leave the island with unseaworthy boats.
Several waves of immigrants followed throughout the twentieth and the start of the twenty first century. My mother came with the 1980 Mariel boatlifts, which were part of a mass-immigration action performed by people that could not live in the conditions imposed by Fidel Castro. The Cuban leader took advantage of the fact that his people were leaving him in favor of democracy and the U.S. And sent along a large number of criminals from Cuba's prisons.
Adults actually had more trouble adapting to the U.S. environment than children. For children, the U.S. seemed like a place of wonder, where they had access to everything that they dreamed of. "It was only a few weeks until I moved in with the family with whom I lived for two years. They are a very, very nice family" (Aimee How'd). A large number of American families did not hesitate to offer shelter to the children immigrants coming to their country.
Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.
In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system. This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence.
The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…
CBS. U.S.: Raul Castro a "Fidel Lite" Ailing Communist Leader Resigns Post; Fidel's 76-Year-old Brother, Raul, the Heir Apparent. 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/19/world/main3843492.shtml?source=RSSattr=HOME_3843492
Ratliff, William. Raul, China, and Post-Fidel Cuba. Raul Castro will likely implement Chinese-style, market-oriented economic reforms. 2006. 10 March 2008 http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com/app/article.aspx?id=369
Shlaes, Amity. "Cuba Crisis is Avoidable if Bush Can Copy Poppy." Bloomberg. 2008. http://www.cfr.org/publication/15543/cuba_crisis_is_avoidable_if_bush_can_copy_poppy.html?breadcrumb=%2Fregion%2F213%2Fcuba
Sweig, Julia E. "Fidel's Final Victory." Foreign Affairs. 2007. http://www.cfr.org/publication/12362/
Cuban Gender oles
Concurrent evolutions in Cuba
Describe your understanding of gender norms and ideals in pre-revolutionary Cuba -- for both men and women. In what ways did the Cuban evolution and the revolutionary government of Fidel Castro include women and/or women's concerns in the revolution? What were the strengths and weaknesses of these measures? Be sure to discuss "feminine, not feminist" ideas: Did they support or undermine women's equality? Why or why not? Use specific examples to support your answers.
The Cuban evolution was a tumultuous time in which many fundamental shifts occurred in the society. The primary shift occurred due to the use of force to overthrow a dictatorship in order to implement a government with a communist despite. Despite many objections to the use of force to obtain these changes, or possibly to the communist ideals in general, there were many egalitarian ideals upon which the movement…
Brown, V. (2011, February). Cuban socialism and women's liberation -- two revolutions entwined. Retrieved from Direct Action: http://directaction.org.au/issue29/cuban_socialism_and_womens_liberation_two_revolutions_entwined
CDA. (2013). Womens Work. Retrieved from Center for Democracy in the Americas: http://democracyinamericas.org/pdfs/CDA_Womens_Work.pdf
Machado, Y. (2012, July 30). Feminists in Cuba: Is It Time to Take Steps Together? Retrieved from Havana Times: http://www.havanatimes.org/?p=75424
Murray, N. (1979). Socialism and Feminism: Women and the Cuban Revolution. Feminist Review, 99-108.
Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization
The revolutions in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Bahia as described and detailed in the three text From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer and The Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 Dialogos Series, 12 by Michael j. Gonzales all tell varied stories regarding the thematic development of revolution and change. Each has a different story to tell about labor, free and slave, politics, race and freedom yet underlying each of these themes is a current that is not only consistent but largely underdeveloped. This theme is agricultural and its changing labor and production practices. This work will analyze and compare the treatment of agriculture as a theme associated with each local. Each nation demonstrates the story of profiteering through agriculture in varied ways, and the rejection of it.
In each work…
Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868-1898. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Gonzales, Michael. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2002.
Torston Graden, Dale. From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835-1900. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2006.
Of all ethnic groups classified as "Hispanic," Cuban Americans have been seen as a model minority. Compared to groups such as Mexican-Americans or Puerto Ricans, Cubans are seen as an economically-successful sub-group. Furthermore, Cuban Americans are generally regarded as a socially-homogenous group which has parlayed their population and economic might into political clout.
This paper examines the various cultural, political and economic factors that have contributed to the Cuban American success story. This paper argues that counter to popular belief, Cubans are far from a homogenous ethnic group. Rather, it was this group's shared sense of exile and its mobilization of large numbers of immigrants that paved the way for their socio-economic and political clout.
This paper takes a historical approach to the growth of economic and political power of Cuban Americans. It looks at how Cuban exiles slowly shifted focus from anticipating their return to the homeland…
Alvarez, Carlos et al. "Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Available from ERIC database.
Anton, Alex and Hernandez, Roger E. Cubans in America: A Vibrant History of a People in Exile. New York: Kensington, 2002
Azicri, Max. Reinventing Socialism. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000.
Eckstein, Susan and Barberia, Lorena. "Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties." International Migration Review 36(3): 799-837
First-tier buyers are distribution companies who have joint ventures and agreements with the Union of Tobacco Enterprises to re-purchase tobacco and cigars and then re-sell them.
There is a high level of stratification throughout the markets served at the end customer and dealer levels; the varying levels of quality has dictated in the past which cigars are sold to which customers.
Buyers choose which cigars they purchase more on perception of quality than on price. The reputation of Cuban cigars still connotes quality.
Integrating free-market-based strategies into a communist country's industry must begin with privatization of specific aspects of the value chain first so that quality control and enterprise-wide quality management techniques can be brought into this industry to save its products. As the quality of cigars has been faltering, privatization would make it economically feasible for experts in the field of tobacco quality and cigar production quality assurance…
Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. In late April 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. A deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union." (ThinkQuest Team, 1) This provides us with an imperative to undermine Khrushchev's conceptions either that we are indecisive or that we are unwilling to make the sacrifices implicated by a full-scale confrontation with the Soviets.
On the other hand, we must also strike a balance whereby these sacrifices are not necessary. Ultimately, it is our full understanding that the distinctions in the arms race between our tactical long-term abilities and superior stock of weapons and the Soviet Union's decidedly less capable and smaller stock do not constitute…
Divine, R.A. (1988). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Markus Wiener Publishers.
Dobbs, M. (2008). One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Bring of Nuclear War. Random House.
Global Security (GS). (2008). Cuban Missile Crisis. Globalsecurity.org.
Paz, J.V. (1995). The Socialist Transition in Cuba: Continuity and Change in the 1990s. Social Justice, 22.
America's Cuban Conundrum
The Helms-Burton Act and the Cuban-American Trade Relations
The United States and Cuba have had increased amounts of hostility toward each other present in their relations ever since the Cuban revolution. Not only did Cuba nationalize property held by U.S. interests during the revolution, but also Cuba became an ally to Russia during the Cold ar; which was critical to the Soviet strategy since Cuba is in close proximity to the U.S. Both actions consequently undermined the stated values of the American free-market system in regards to America's corporate holdings in the country. This tension has furthermore been manifested by blatantly vocal opposition on both sides of the dispute. In this paper such ongoing tension will be illustrated by one of the most timely and extreme examples of hostility in foreign relations as well as propose an avenue for future trade arrangements.
Cuban Pretexts for Military Action…
Alejandre, A., & Costa, C. (1999, September 29). Human Rights Library. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from University of Minnesota: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/86-99.html
Brothers to the Resue. (2010, January 29). Background and Information. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from hermanos.org: http://www.hermanos.org/Background%20and%20Information.htm
Canadian Senate. (1996). 45 Elizabeth II. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from House Publications: http://www2.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?pub=bill&doc=C-54&parl=35&ses=2&language=E&File=16
Snow, A. (2010, October 26). Cuba embargo: UN vote urges U.S. To lift embargo. Retrieved January 29, 2010, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Latest-News-Wires/2010/1026/Cuba-embargo-UN-vote-urges-U.S.-to-lift-embargo
Many did not agree with this action because Senators Fulbright and Russell believed it would lead to an air strike on est Berlin or a blockade of that city. They knew it would lead to war. Kennedy had few choices but instead did not back down and lead the country through the crisis. He never "lost sight of the fact that once military action started, there was no telling at what level of escalation it could be stopped" (Stern 2003, p. 108).
Timing caused many of the problems Kennedy faced during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Many critics surmise the failure of the blockade but really its lack of strength came down to the fact Kennedy hesitated because he waited for OAS approval. This allowed for Soviet ships to arrive safely to Cuba before the escalation and this represents weakness on Kennedy's part. hy couldn't have acted aggressively? He was not…
1997. Cuban Missile Crisis Left Kennedy with Little Choice But to Act, Congressional
Leaders No Help To President. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 21. Oct.
Bennis, W. 1989. On Becoming a Leader. Reading, Massachusetts:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Diplomay and the Cuban Missile CrisisIntrodutionThe Cuban Missile Crisis (16 Otober 1962 to 20 November 1962) began with the disovery by US intelligene of Soviet missile launh failities in Cuba. The threat of an attak on US soil was made lear to President Kennedy by his Joint Chiefs of Staff, who urged Kennedy to take aggressive ounter-measures. Kennedys main onern was that aggressive ation on his point ould lead to even more aggressive retaliation on the part of the Soviet Union and ultimately to nulear war. Largely seen as exerising oerive diplomay to avoid a military onfrontation, Kennedys diplomati efforts in the Crisis have been praised as a defining moment in the Cold War. The reality of the situation is, however, that behind the senes Kennedy engaged in quid pro quo diplomay to satisfy Khrushhev and avert a war.BakgroundThroughout the latter half of 1962, ampaigns for the upoming Congressional eletions…
c. Nathan, J. (1992). The heyday of the new strategy: The Cuban missile crisis and the confirmation of coercive diplomacy.Diplomacy and Statecraft,3(2), 303-342.d. Nathan, J. (Ed.). (2016).The Cuban missile crisis revisited. Springer.e. Weaver, M. E. (2014). The Relationship between Diplomacy and Military Force: An Example from the Cuban Missile Crisis.Diplomatic History,38(1), 137-181.
In what ways was Salvador Allende's "democratic road to socialism" in Chile distinct from Mexican and Cuban revolutionary movements? In what ways was it similar? Does it seem as though a democratic alternative to political coup d'etat is a workable and useful one? hy or why not?
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens, or just Salador Allende for short, was the first of the South American leader to institute a Marxist form of socialism, who came to power through a democratic election. Although the election that brought Allende to power was virtually a three-way tie, the Chilean Congress eventually named him as president through a run-off process. This victory was substantial for Allende's life and he had tried on three previous occasions to win the presidency. At the time, the Chilean government had several left-leaning government factions, with some more radical than others. This movement mirrored many other movements found…
Gale Group. (N.d.). Salvador Allende Gossens Facts. Retrieved from Your Dictionary: http://biography.yourdictionary.com/salvador-allende-gossens
Guevara, C. (2005 (Originally Printed in 1965)). Socialism and man in Cuba. The Che Reader.
Harris, R. (1999). A Tale of Two Chileans: Pinochet and Allende. Chilean Supporters Abroad.
Sweig, J. (2009). Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground. Boston: Harvard University Press.
War for uban onquest
In 1883, Frederick Jackson Turner gave a speech to the World's olumbian Exposition, introducing what is now known as the "Turner thesis" of American history. This thesis says "continental expansion...was the driving, dynamic factor of American progress. Without [it] America's political and social institutions would stagnate. If one adhered to this way of thinking, America must expand or die." (Musicant) It was an odd moment to being saying such things, and a prophetic one, for America has, perhaps unbeknownst to him, just run out of frontier to conquer. Further expansion had to be overseas. Of course, "overseas" was already conquered, had its own government, and its own citizens. Thus a war of conquest rose on the horizon for America. The perfect opportunity to conquer arose during what was politely called the Spanish-American war, in which America stepped in to help out a struggling band of revolutionaries…
Cuba became increasingly caught up in trade with the United States, "Sugar estates and mining interests passed from Spanish and Cuban to U.S. hand... Cuban sugar producers were more and more at the mercy of the U.S. refiners" (Hernandez) This economic unity no doubt helped provoke America's eventual conquest. In the meantime, revolutionary spirit continued undimmed by the end of the Ten Years' War, building its foundation of support and respect among the people. "It was a multiracial and multiclass movement...Its leaders were no longer members of the creole elite, but men of modest social origin." (Hernandez) This was a true revolution of the people now, and its prospects for success seemed to grow daily under the leadership of Jose Mart', a middle class poet, journalist, philosopher, and dreamer. In 1895, following a Spain-induced loss of trade with America, and further evidence of Spanish despotism, the revolution began.
The revolution seemed successful at first; then Spain sent the best of its worst men.
General Valeriano Weyler, with his reinforcements, began a war of deprivation, forcing peasants into concentration camps where lack of food, sanitation, and water killed thousands upon thousands of them. The revolution continued in the hills and
The absolute deprivation of basic human liberties makes it abundantly clear that all people in Cuba are potential political prisoners, because they are either virtually imprisoned by the country's restrictive laws, or face the threat of real imprisonment by acting out against the country. Moreover, to encourage Cubans to evade U.S. military and police forces in order to gain access to U.S. political asylum only encourages human trafficking and other dangerous practices. Instead of deporting Cubans or forcing them to seek asylum in a third country, which may have more restrictive definitions of what it considers a refugee, the United States should grant asylum to Cubans fleeing political persecution.
Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing
Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .
Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009
Cubana. "Cuba Detains…
Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing
Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .
Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009
Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change
David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…
Dewey, J. (1938, 1998). Education and Experience: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Indianapolis, IN: Kappa Delta Pi Society.
Tyack, D. And L. Cuban (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Harvard University Press.
As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…
Kahn, David. The Code-Breakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. New York: Scribner, 1997
Knight, Judson, CIA (United States Central Intelligence Agency), available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-United-States-Central-Intelligence-Agency.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., United States Intelligence, History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., CIA, Formation and History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-Formation-and-History.html ;
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…
Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press
Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing
Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO
Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
World War Turning Point Europe, Significant Change Occurred Emergence Legitimate evolutionary egimes
Self-Determination in Cuba
There are few who would dispute the fact that following the conclusion of World War II and prior to its revolution (which began in 1953 and concluded on January 1 of 1959) Cuba was a prosperous region of the world that was certainly worth fighting for. The country's leader prior to the ascendancy of Fidel Castro, Fulgencio Batista, had cleverly manipulated the assistance of a number of external forces, primarily that of the United States, to assist the country in achieving a degree of economic gain and modernity the likes of which were comparable to, if not surpassing, those of other parts of the world.
Its economic prowess may be demonstrated from the following quotation. "Cuba in 1958, prior to the government of the Communist Fidel Castro, paid its employees an average of $3.00 per…
Epperson, R.A. (1985). The Unseen Hand. Arizona: Publius.
Guevara, C. (2005). Cuba: Historical Exception or Vanguard in the Colonial Struggle? Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1961/04/09.htm
Kapur, T., Smith, A. (2002). "Housing Policy In Castro's Cuba." Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/education/oustanding_student_papers/kapur_smith_cuba_02.pdf
Jones, L. (1966). Home. New York: William Morrow and Co.
Alpha 66 and Omega 7
Are Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Domestic or International Organizations?
After Fidel Castro's evolutionary movement overthrew the Batista regime in Cuba and declared his country a Socialist nation allied with the Soviet Union -- the principle enemy of the United States at the time -- many Cubans opposed to Castro flocked to the United States. Many of these refugees and exiles were wealthy businessmen who were committed to overthrowing the Castro regime. The anti-Castro opposition by Cuban exiles took different forms, some of them advocating dialogue or diplomatic opposition, while others taking a hardliner position, engaging in militant activities (Garcia, 1998). The Cuban exile organizations known as Alpha 66 and Omega 7 were among the latter, resorting to violent activities inside and outside the United States, attacking persons and installations belonging to the Castro government and its allies as well as those in the United…
Bohning, D. (2005) The Castro Obsession: U.S. Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-1965. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.
Didion, J. (1987) Miami. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Garcia, M. (1998). Hardliners v. 'Dialogueros': Cuban Exile Political Groups and United States -- Cuba Policy. Journal of American Ethnic History, 17(4), 3. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Herman, E.S. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End Press, 1982.
S., become attracted to the U.S. And flee the country. Cuba certainly needs to prevent a brain drain at all costs. It could do so by encouraging the U.S. To invest in its infrastructure and for U.S. doctors to train and learn at Cuban facilities, which, by all accounts, have some of the highest standards of excellence in the world (Schoultz, 2010, 8). By helping to build up the Cuban infrastructure, further economic trade could be encouraged. This could also help both the U.S. And Cuba exploit its other natural resources by providing the necessary framework for extraction and export of its huge nickel and sugar stockpiles.
ith the coming economic recovery, the world will certainly need raw materials like nickel and steel as well as sugar to fuel the building and population boom that will more than likely follow a recovery. The political ties that bind the current U.S.…
Coll, Alberto R. (2007). "Harming Human Rights in the Name of Promoting Them: The Case of the Cuban Embargo." Foreign Affairs. Vol. 3, No. 88. Pp. 199-209.
Griswold, Daniel. (2005). "Four Decades of Failure: The U.S. Embargo against Cuba." CATO
Institute Homepage. Published 12 October, 2005 .
Hanson, Stephanie. (2009). "U.S.-Cuba Relations." Council on Foreign Relations. Report delivered 14 April, 2009.
causes of different economic development among different immigration groups in the United States will be documented on a description of the economic level of each community and some of its characteristics, as well as on the different policies that the U.S. government may have applied in their cases and on the social and human capital they have brought along.
The Cubans represent a case apart, mainly due to the legal stimuli that they received from the White House administration for their immigration. Indeed, as many sources were keen to mention, the Cuban immigrates were privileged, in the sense that, unlike many other populations, they were not required to prove their position as political immigrates, but their status was predefined as such, because of Fidel Castro's Communist regime in Cuba. This meant that they were automatically considered refugees and received the privileges that went with this position.
Additionally, starting from 1966,…
1. Stepick, Alex. Immigrants, Race and Power in Miami: Reconfiguring Relations. November 2003. On the Internet at http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu:7001/Events/fall2003/11-20-03-stepick/
2. Dominicans Are City's Fastest Growing, Poorest Group, Says Study. Columbia University Record -- March 10, 1995 -- Vol. 20, No. 20. On the Internet at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol20/vol20_iss20/record2020.22.html
3. Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at http://www.culturalorientation.net/cubans/index.htm
Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at http://www.culturalorientation.net/cubans/index.htm
In this Kennedy appeared to be following up on his anti-Communist speech with anti-Communist actions. but, the level of actual commitment was clearly not there. Kennedy had the entire United States military at his disposal. All he had to do was use them. but, clearly, he did not have the stomach to follow it all the way through. Kennedy wanted to appear strong but did not want to have to be strong - image meant everything.
Operation Mongoose continued the entire Cuban situation. It relied upon covert use of the CIA to make any and all attempts necessary to overthrow the Cuban government. On the heels of the Bay of Pigs failure, Kennedy attempted another poorly conceived attempt to rid himself of Castro. The operation essentially failed before it could possibly begin. Time after time, plans were brought out to be replaced by others. And those plans were impossibly strange…
LeFeber, Walter. America, Russia and the Cold War: 1945-2002. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Merrill, Dennis & Paterson, Thomas G Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.
Should the United States Normalize elations with Cuba?
It has been more than forty years now since Fidel Castro and his communist insurgents captured control of the Island of Cuba. Originally supported by the American government, Castro quickly lost United States backing once the communistic nature of his government became clear. The evolution did its work, and thousands upon thousands of Cubans were deprived of their property, property that was taken over by the Cuban State, and in accordance with Marxist tenets, "redistributed" among the workers. In response, huge numbers of Cuban citizens fled the country. Many settled in the United States, especially in and around Miami, where they quickly came to constitute a powerful bloc with strong influence over American policy toward their homeland. Of course, over the years, attitudes have softened. Originally cut off from all except its fellow communist nations, and from the non-aligned states of…
Augustine, Jean P.C., M.P. Secretary of State. "Speaking Notes on the Occasion of The 7th Annual Toronto-Cuba Friendship Day," Toronto, Canada: 24 August 2002.
Buaza, Vanessa. "
Comedians and Levity Have Their Limits." The Sun Sentinel. 16 February 2003.
Feehan, Colleen E. "Prague in the '90's: The Paris of the '20s?" 1995. URL:
Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .
Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:
To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…
Anthony DePalma. The Man Who Invented Fidel: Castro, Cuba, and Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.
Barron, F. And Harrington, D.M. "Creativity, intelligence, and personality," Annual Review of Psychology, 1981, 32: 439-476.
Che Guevara. "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City, 1964.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1996.
Splendid Little War
John Hay -- "A Splendid War"
Secretary of State John Hay once wrote to Theodore oosevelt that the Spanish-American War had been "a splendid little war" (Fried, 1998). It was an opinion shared by many Americans at the time. The three-month war -- declared in April 1898 and over by August -- had few American casualties and helped open up many foreign territories for the United States.
The war began with the Cuban evolution. Spanish rule in Cuba was fiercely opposed by Cuban rebels who were routinely dehumanized, degraded and mistreated in the country throughout the late 19th Century (Lovett, 1997). Spanish general Valeriano Weyler instituted many concentration camps to contain insurgents and suppress the threat of rebel uprisings. The camps were scenes of indecency and deplorable living conditions where death, starvation and malaria and typhoid epidemics were rampant. The suffering of Cubans was deemed a social…
Fried, R.M. (1998). Spain Examines the 'Splendid Little War.'. Chronicle of Higher Education, 45(7), B9.
Haskell, B. (1998). The 'splendid little war'. Soldiers, 53(7), 20.
Lovett, C.C. (1997). A Splendid Little Centennial: Remembering the Spanish-American War. Teaching History: A Journal of Methods, 22(1), 37-39.
Smith, J. (1995). The 'Splendid Little War' of 1898: A reappraisal. History, 80(258), 22.
Ernesto Che Guevara
Che went to Sierra Maestra, whose people were considered to be amongst the poorest of Cuba's poor. These poor peasants living in Sierra Maestra didn't have the opportunity of visiting doctors and getting treated. Thus, Che made all the efforts he could to help these people live a better life. When Che came here he was simultaneously playing two roles; one of a fighter and the other of a doctor. Initially, Che had been the medical leader and then became the leader of a small band. In spring of 1957, Che was deemed as the most trusted man of the leader (Castan-eda, 1997).
In 1958, when Batista sent a well- trained army of 10,000 to trap the revolutionaries in their mountain stronghold, Fidel and Che's army along with help of local people was able to defeat Batista's men. Che always had the support of people around him.…
Castan-eda, Jorge G. And Marina Castan-eda.Compan-ero. New York, N.Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. Print.
Coltman, Leycester and Julia Sweig.The real Fidel Castro. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. Print.
Crompton, Samuel. Che Guevara. Pleasantville, NY: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2009. Print.
The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).
Diplomatic options in…
Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm .
Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved
from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm .
Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.
Roosevelt also withdrew the U.S.A. from interfering in Mexican policy by repealing the Platt Amendment, whilst World War II further brought the U.S.A. And most of Latin America closer.
he Cold War 1945-90
he peace in certain parts f Latin America (particularly Cuba) was severed by tendency of parts of Latin America to incline towards communism, which the U.S.A. thoroughly abhorred. he Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro succeeded in toppling Batista government in 1959. Castro adopted a socialist-characterized series of reform, which alienated the Eisenhower administration, severed diplomatic relations between the U.S.A. And Cuba, with the U.S.A. freezing Cuban assets and placing an embargo on the country. he Kennedy administration proceeded in supporting the invasion of Cuba that promptly failed but succeed in sharpening the gap between Cuba and the U.S.A. with Cuba overly allying itself with the Soviet Union. he threat of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated…
The peace in certain parts f Latin America (particularly Cuba) was severed by tendency of parts of Latin America to incline towards communism, which the U.S.A. thoroughly abhorred. The Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro succeeded in toppling Batista government in 1959. Castro adopted a socialist-characterized series of reform, which alienated the Eisenhower administration, severed diplomatic relations between the U.S.A. And Cuba, with the U.S.A. freezing Cuban assets and placing an embargo on the country. The Kennedy administration proceeded in supporting the invasion of Cuba that promptly failed but succeed in sharpening the gap between Cuba and the U.S.A. with Cuba overly allying itself with the Soviet Union. The threat of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. USA intervention in the rest of the county resulted in various insurrections through the country by different political groups (mostly military dictatorships) vying for power.
The post cold-war 1990 to the present.
There is growing criticism on U.S. involvement in the area, particularly sparked by the Washington Consensus which was an economic reform package promoted for developing nations during the 1980s and 1990s. Some Latin American countries have campaigned for polices contrary to the Consensus and neoliberal politics in both U.S. And Mexico have protested against U.S. interference in their national sovereignty. This has been reinforced left-wing political party rising to power that declare themselves socialists, Latin Americans, or anti-imperialists. There is ongoing debate about constraints upon the state and the expanding role of the free market.
Therefore, it is fairly evident that U.S. foreign policy certainly aided in worsening the political situations in much of Latin America during the Cold War. It did so by serving as a source of enmity for many nationalist groups that arose to oppose its domination in the area, by attempting to undermine the reform measures of governments erected in place of those that it favored, and by formally supplying weaponry, funding and training to opposing factions that represented U.S. interest. The effect of all of these measures was that they led to greater and greater reactionary measures among the groups that were infringed upon. This fact is particularly true of Central American involvement in the Cold War, the regimes that were erected and dealt with insurrections and counter insurrections in El Salvador and Guatemala were among some of the bloodiest in the Cold War, excluding those in Vietnam. Yet…
Brand, Hal. Latin America's Cold War. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2004. Print.
The rule of thumb is to strike the enemy at places where the enemy feels 'safe' and then never let the enemy relax (Latin pp). Terrorism is an act of violence by groups that are part of guerilla movements, in an effort to create fear and draw support (Ramli pp). Today, suicide terrorism is the most widely used tactic by the insurgents in Iraq, and the present quagmire in Iraq could transform guerilla warfare into revolutionary warfare, whereby the Iraqis could mobilize and seize the state due to their hatred for the occupying power, thus within these constraints revolutionary warfare can take the form of urban guerilla war or rural guerilla war (Ramli pp).
Guerilla. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerilla
Latin America. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/areas/latin.htm
Ramli H. Nik. "ill we see history repeated in Iraq?" New Straits Times.
June 04, 2005. Retrieved August 20,…
Guerilla. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerilla
Latin America. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/areas/latin.htm
Ramli H. Nik. "Will we see history repeated in Iraq?" New Straits Times.
June 04, 2005. Retrieved August 20, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Chavez government and the present state of Venezuelan society and its recent history. One of the predominant aspects gleaned from the articles are the different views and a general ambivalence and uncertainty as to the actual and practical impact of the Chavez government on the country. There are also varied views relating to the 'Chavez phenomenon' and the impact of his leadership on the future development of the country. All of the articles provide, to a greater or lesser degree, assessments of Chavez's ascent to power and the underlying reasons for this phenomenon in Venezuelan history.
The first article by Christian Parenti, titled Hugo Chavez and Petro Populism, presents a very well balanced and intriguing insight into the populist appeal of Chavez as a central factor in his rise to power. The article also provides some incisive views as to the prospects of the Chavez government in both economics, education…
Cameron M. And Major F. ( 2001) Venezuela's Hugo Chavez: Savior to Threat to Democracy? Latin American Research Review. Volume 36. no 3.
MONTAGNE R. ( 2005) Analysis: Bush administration becoming more critical of Venezuela's president, Hugo Chavez, and his policies NPR News .
Parenti Christian, ( 2005) Hugo Chevez and Petro Populism. The Nation. April.
Sylvis R.D. And Danopoulos, DP. ( 2003) The Chevez Phenomenon: Political Change in Venezuela. Third World Quarterly. Vol24. no1.
On the contrary, he uses the pretext of working as a male nurse on trading ships of the Argentine national shipping-company to travel to several countries of Latin America, such as Brazil and Venezuela. During one of his voyages he meets two people who would change his views and ultimately, his entire life: Doctor Hugo Pesce in Peru and Fidel astro who shares he's revolutionary vision. Upon graduating from Medical School, influenced by the widespread poverty and social decay affecting Latin America, he devotes himself to the profound study of Marxism, political economy and other related disciplines; it is precisely during this stage in he's life that he realizes his vocation had shifted from medical to revolutionary.
he Guevara. he Guevara Politics. The ommunist Party. Online. Available from the Internet:
http://www.thechestore.com/he-Guevara-politics.php, accessed 6 September 2007.
Books and Writers. he Guevara. Online. Available from the Internet: http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm, accessed 7 September 2007.…
Che Guevara Politics, the Communist Party. http://www.thechestore.com/Che-Guevara-politics.php
Che Guevara. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm
Che Guevara Politics, Marxist-Leninist Education. http://www.thechestore.com/Che-Guevara-politics.php
Despite some questionable choices in examples, however, Tuchman was able to supply an ample amount of evidence for her thesis in her information about the corruption plaguing the Catholic church prior to the eformation. This fact, while certainly acknowledged in history books, rarely receives the importance it deserves. This example, and perhaps that of Vietnam, were the most convincing ones that leaders throughout history have displayed an inherent proclivity that is decidedly "contrary to the way reason points and enlightened self-interest suggests" (Tuchman 1985, 1). Her chronicles of America's imperialist appetites and the wanton destruction it achieved in a fruitless siege in Vietnam for years should be taught as much as, if not more, than certain other areas of U.S. history.
Aided by the surety of hindsight, Tuchman's analysis of the evolutionary Way in the U.S. is equally adept and indicates the extent to which policy in British government contributed…
Tuchman, Barbara. The March of Folly: From Troy To Vietnam. New York: Ballantine Books, 1985.
Lessons From Vietnam
The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).
Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…
The Vietnam War. (2006). The History Channel. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com / topics/vietnam-war
Belmonte, L. (2010). Selling the American Way -- U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Damms, Richard, (2001), The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961, New York: Longman.
Davidson, P. (1991), Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975. New York: Norton.
B (d)- the 1950s was an Era of dramatic change. America's victory in World War II pushed America into a predominant role politically and economically. America was "rich," and expected to help other countries, but was going through its own crises at home, and growing pains socially and economically. Several large trends occurred during the 1950s, the Cold War between the United States and the U.S.S.R. developed, Africa began to be decolonialized throwing the economic and political situation out of balance, the Korean War brought the United States into another global conflict, tensions heated up in Egypt (the Suez Canal Crisis) and Cuba (Castro and the Cuban Revolution), and America went through a turbulent time with Anti-Communist feelings and Senator Joseph McCarthy's accusations and focus on the purported threat of communist spies inside the State Department (itzgerald, 2007, pp. 40-5; Gold, 2008).
After the war years, the Civil Rights Movement…
Fitzgerald, B. (2007). McCarthyism: The Red Scare. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books.
Gold, S. (2008). Loving v. Virginia - Lifting the ban Against Interracial Marriage. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
Halberstram, D. (1993). The Fifites. New York: Villard Books.
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
Kennedy and Khruschev
The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 is widely considered to be the moment when the Cold ar between the U.S.A. And the U.S.S.R. came closest to outright hostility and indeed nuclear war. hat is most interesting about the Cuban Missile Crisis in retrospect is its strategic handling by the two national leaders involved, Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy. I hope by an examination of the correspondence exchanged by these two leaders during the period to demonstrate that Kennedy's handling of the crisis, while marked by some errors, was more responsible than Khrushchev's. In some sense, the Cuban Missile Crisis began as an irresponsible gamble by Khrushchev: if he exhibited some clever statesmanship during the crisis, this does not erase the fact that it was begun by him as an attempt to take advantage of a perceived weakness on Kennedy's part that was not ultimately there.…
Kennedy, John F. And Khrushchev, Nikita. "Kennedy-Khrushchev Exchanges." Loyola University. Web. Accessed 25 April 2014 at: http://www.loyola.edu/departments/academics/political-science/strategic-intelligence/intel/FRUS-6.html
United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba. The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. throughout these paranoid and dangerous days of ideological impasse were now neutralized by the dismantling of the infrastructure that had brandished them. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U...R., served as an outpost for anti-American hostilities and a potential vessel through which to deliver the devastating blows that may have turned the Cold War hot, now is an isolated bastion for ideals abandoned by most of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…
Sources can be found and printed at the following sites:
Source 1. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html
Source 2. http://travel.state.gov/cuba.html
Source 3. http://qbanrum.tripod.com/cuba-1.html
Source 4. http://isla.igc.org/Features/Cuba/cuba2.html
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
Bartoleme De Las Casas
An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas
Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…
Adorno, Rolena. "Discourses on Colonialism: Bernal Diaz, Las Casas, and the Twentieth-Century Reader." MLN, vol. 103, no. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 239-258. Print.
Alker, Hayward. "The Humanistic Moment in International Studies: Reflections on Machiavelli and Las Casas." International Studies Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4 (Dec., 1992), pp. 347-371. Print.
Bandelier, Adolph Francis. "Bartoleme de las Casas." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol.
3. NY: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Print.
In Cuba's case, there has really been no real opening up from the United States to the Cuban cause and no acceptance of the Cuban 'wound'. The embargo still stands and is thoroughly imposed, there are no diplomatic relations and no direct flights between the two countries. There are no signs so far that the United States is willing to warm up to Cuba and allow it to come out of its isolation. In other words, there are really no elements to help us determine that the isolators would be willing to allow the isolated to be released.
Drawing again on the parallel, we should point out that this was the same in Philoctetes's case, at least for most of the play. The reason he is able to come out of his isolation is not necessarily because the isolators have realized they have made a mistake or because they are…
1. Sophocles (translated by Carl Philips). Philoctetes. Oxford University Press U.S., 2003
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…
BBC. Bush Pledge Over U.S. Intelligence. BBC News: British Broadcasting Company,
2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4396457.stm
CIA. History of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency, 2007. Retrieved on May 30, 2009cia.html" http://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th - grade/operation-history/history-of-the-cia.html
Harris, James W. The Path to Intelligence Reform: "Changes in the Intelligence Craft
The research also showed that Guevara's trip throughout Latin America as chronicled in his book, the Motorcycle Diaries, was a formative experience for him and transformed him into a revolutionary in spirit as well as in deed. Finally, the research also showed that unlike the reports of other iconographic figures from the 1960s, Guevara's death was confirmed by empirical observation but his popular identity continues to be developed through the use of famous photographic images and his legacy continues to be reinforced by people in search of heroes today.
arbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
iography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
enavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
Gott, Richard. "Che Guevara and the Congo," New Left Review, a no. 220 (1996), 3-33.
"Guevara, Che." The Columbia Encyclopedia,…
Barbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
Biography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
Benavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…
Andres, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only. (New York: HarperPerennial), 1996.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
Painter, David S. The Cold War: An International History. London: Routledge, 1999.
Powers, Thomas. Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: New York Review Books, 2002.
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
This, he felt was the most effective and Christian strategy to resist evil. Also, the Pope's equal desire to embody the Christian virtue of dignity meant that he was not blind to capitalism's abuses, pointing out that severe imbalances in wealth exacerbate tensions amongst peoples in an often non-Christian fashion -- not always a popular principle to take in the est. Pope John Paul II devoted enormous spiritual and physical energy to his visits to the developing world. But he refused to support all popular causes, such as liberation theology or charitable organizations that made use of birth control and abortion. He called the idea of a priest-politician anathema to the Christian vision. During one visit to Latin America he condemned the so-called "popular church" created by left-wing priests as "a deviation." (alker, 20050 He did not support female priests, nor divorce or contraception, even though this might have increased…
Roxburgh, Angus. "The Pope's Role in Communism's End." 2 Apr 2005. BBC World News in-Depth. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/3007787.stm
Walker, Andrew "Pope's Support for the World's Poor. 2 Apr 2005. BBC World News in-Depth. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/3008091.stm
Weigel, George. (April 2001) "Pope John Paul II and the Dynamics of History." Watch on the West: A Newsletter of FPRI's Center for the Study of America and the West. The 2000 Templeton Lecture on Religion and World Affairs. Volume 1: Number 6. http://www.fpri.org/ww/0106.200004.weigel.popehistory.html
As in most other places around the world, the demands of family - caring for children, keeping house, obtaining and preparing food for meals - fall predominantly on women. In the case of Cuba this situation is made worse by the distortions of the communistic economy:
People's motivation to work waned as there was little to work for. Money came to have little meaning in the legal economy - but not by design as, according to Marxism, it was supposed to do in a utopian communist society. There simply was little to buy through officially sanctioned channels, and the government provided most social needs gratis or for minimum fees. Under the circumstances, material as well as moral incentives became ineffective in the legal economy. The burdens of sheer survival and transport difficulties also led people to miss work with increased regularity, above all women on whom the burdens fell most.…
The extent of the personal involvement with Cuba among the exile community was viewed in macabre media frenzy over whether or not to return Elian Gonzalez to his father in Cuba. Many Cuban exiles used the young boy as a political pawn, oddly clamoring to wrest the boy from his father. The nearly insane fiasco illustrates the intensity of opinions over American foreign policy towards Cuba.
These opinions are further intensified in light of the "complex humanitarian emergency" that might result should Castro's regime fall suddenly and without institutional contingency plans (p. 83). American foreign policy towards Cuba has occasionally entertained the use of force, but Kennedy's Bay of Pigs invasion has since made military means untenable from a practical or a political standpoint. Still, the Bush administration championed plans that intended to "hasten" the demise of the Castro regime (p. 87). Those plans evoked frightening visions of another Iraq:…
Given the scale and global penetration of the Bacardi brand and its product line, it is appropriate that Bacardi should possess a visible and meaningful presence in the discussion on underage drinking and alcohol abuse. Certainly, this would be considered an appropriate measure for an organization boasting Bacardi's proliferation. According to Yahoo! Finance (2010), "the company's portfolio consists of more than 200 brands and labels, including Bombay Sapphire Gin, Martini Vermouth, Dewar's Scotch hisky, B&B and Benedictine liqueurs, and Grey Goose Vodka. Other types of spirits in its portfolio include tequila, vermouth, cognac, and sparkling wine. Serving more than 100 countries, the company operates 27 production sites around the world." (Yahoo! Finance, 1)
This accounts for the company's greatest strength, which is its enormity of scale. Though Bacardi has been in operation for well over a century, the growth potential at this scale has only really been realized in the…
Bacardi & Company Limited. (2010). Bacardi Limited. Bacardilimited.com.
Gjelten, T. (2008). Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba: The Biography of a Cause. Viking Adult.
Hambrick, D.C. & Fredrickson, J.W. (2001). Are you sure you have a strategy? The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 48-59.
Mizrahi, A. (2009). Historic Bacardi Building. Urban City Architecture.
Many of those who came here in the first wave after the revolution believed they would be returning home, perhaps within a few months, but as the years have passed the Cuban population has become more socially and economically integrated into the U.S. culture in Florida even while maintaining ties with Cuba and while trying to keep alive the hope that Castro could be overthrown and democracy restored in Cuba. These Cuban ex-patriates still constitute a potent political force in Cuba with considerable influence on the federal government, especially when there is a epublican administration. To a degree, the population in Cuba is better off economically than most of the Mexican-American population in the Southwest, but evidence also shows that migration to Miami is strongest for the elderly, foreign-born Cubans, and more disadvantages Cubans, with a concentration in the Metropolitcan Miami area (McHugh, Miyares, & Skop, 1997). While Miami faces…
Aysa-Lastra, M. (2007, May). Diaspora philanthropy: The Colombia experience. www.tpi.org/downloads/pdfs/Colombia_Diaspora_Philanthropy_Final.pdf.
Bourgois, P. (1996). In Search of Masculinity. British Journal of Criminology, Volume3 36, Number 3, 412-426.
The city in crisis (1992). Los Angeles: Board of Police Commissioners.
Del Pinal, J. (2004). The Hispanic population. U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved September 9, 2007 at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/hisppop.html .
As with other Hispanic groups, there may be a greater reluctance to seek professional help in dealing with psychological issues because of a belief that the church, rather than Western psychological medicine, should address such problems. The greater economic security of middle-class Cuban immigrants and their children thus has not meant an entirely uncomplicated relationship with the new American homeland.
Although it is a small island, the history of Puerto ico has been marked by many influences, spanning from Africa to Spain to Latin America. "There is an essential dichotomy [in] Puerto ico's relationship with the United States. Within American jurisdiction, as reflected by common citizenship, flag, currency and numerous applicable Federal laws, Puerto ico might seem in everything but name a State of the Union. But on the other side you will find a culture and society profoundly different from that in the mainland. It is a…
Bachay, Judith & Rafael Montes. (2010). Article 14: The Cuban-American grieving process
Counseling.org. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/VISTAS/vistas04/14.pdf
The declining economic status of Puerto Ricans. Health Affairs. Retrieved September 17,
2010 at http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc102d.pdf
" ("Ernesto, 'Che' Guevara, Books and riters, 2003) Guevara gave up a potentially successful life and career as a doctor in his native land to set the poor free. He joined Fidel Castro to overthrow the right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1957. The revolution proved successful. But even more successful proved Guevara's charisma and his voicing of the ways ordinary people could wage revolution: "Guerrilla warfare is used by the side which is supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression." (Cited by "Ernesto 'Che' Guevara," Books and riters. 2003, from Guevara's Guerrilla arfare, 1960)
Guevara earned his nickname 'Che,' because of his habit of saluting his fellow revolutionaries as 'friend.' However, after the conquest of power in January 1959 when Guevara gained fame as the leading figure in Castro's government, Che began to lose some of his…
Dorfman, Ariel. "Che Guevara." Time Magazine: 100 heroes special edition. Pp.1-3. [13 Jun 2006]
Ernesto 'Che' Guevara." Books and Writers. 2003. [13 Jun 2006] http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm
Just as in the U.S. economy, where individuals have been economically left behind, such will be, and is, the case in the emerging global economy (p. 10). Ayres says that the impression, or the turning of society's blind eye towards the chaos of the economically disenfranchised, tends to cause the more affluent amongst us to believe that the term "global" means everybody will be a part of the emerging global economics, and this will produce an economic benefit that will be enjoyed by everyone (p. 10). That is not accurate, and, moreover, those people who presume to take a comfort in the economic globalization are not just turning a blind eye to the disenfranchised, but may find their selves vulnerable in a way that serves to be their light, much like Hank's in Monster's Ball. On this point Ayres says:
There is a popular impression, among the affluent and…