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"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede
After working for six years as a clinical psychologist at BM, both collecting and analyzing data from over 100,000 individuals from forty different counties, Hofstede became interested in the sociology of communication between people of different cultures. An expert, Hofstede's influential wisdom on the interactions between national cultures and organization cultures begot a model identifying five dimensions to differentiate cultures; these dimensions, particularly as they relate to strategy, team communications, influence tactics, and conflict management, are integral in analyzing the cultural communications of such vastly different states as the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, and Spain.
n his work, Gert Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the different dynamics of behavior in organizations, both corporate and civic.…
"Spain." < http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/spain.htm >
Both France and Greece are Mediterranean countries in Europe. They are both part of the EU and have a shared Western Civilization heritage. Both have moderately high power distance and uncertainty avoidance. However, France scores much higher for individualism and Greece for masculinity. Hofstede does not outline time horizon for Greece; France scores as a short-term time horizon society.
II. Cultural Dimensions
There are five dimensions under Hofstede. Power distance "expresses the attitude of the culture towards the inequalities amongst us." A high power distance country would be more accepting of these differences. The second dimension is individualism. This reflects "the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members." A high individualism society has members who reflect their self-image as I, rather than we. The third dimension in masculinity/femininity. This dimension defines masculinity as desiring achievement and success, with femininity oriented towards caring for others…
Heritage Foundation. (2013). 2013 Index of economic freedom. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2013 from http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking
Geert Hofstede: France. (2013). Retrieved April 8, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com /france.html
Geert Hofstede: Greece. (2013). Retrieved April 8, 2013 from
Based on the competitive nature of the business environment, strict formalities had to be kept up in order not to go beyond the boundaries of good business ethics and practices.
The final dimension was created after the first initial four and later adopted by Holfstede into his dimensional structure of cultural organizations. This dimension is associated with the group being more associated with long or short-term orientation. Companies with more long-term associations have employees and group members who have been a part of the particular organization for an extended period of time. Typically, these types of organizations present a collected look to the future on behalf of all of the members. This is based on the idea that the members expect to still be a part of the group in any particular point in the future. Therefore, long-term strategies can become fruitful, with several group members working hard for a…
Holfstede, Geert, (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Sage Publications.
Importantly, there is a certain structure and decorum involved in business negotiations. For example, the atmosphere is usually relaxed and contemplative and "…periods of silence are not uncommon and are an essential part of negotiating" (Doing usiness in Poland | Polish Social and usiness Culture). Consequently, small talk is not seen as part of the negotiating situation. However, before a business meeting casual conversation is usually part of the process.
5. Conclusion: Recommendations
In terms of the above analysis a number of central aspects emerge. The most significant is the Polish respect for authority and hierarchy which must be balanced against their strong sense of individuality. Small points of etiquette, such as shaking hands and addressing people formally at first, are also important to remember.
In the final analysis, the most important aspect of interacting with someone for Warsaw is to not only be aware of their customs but also…
About Poland, viewed 15 December, 2011,
Batorska-Miller, K 2007, Understanding communication and body language of polish people, viewed 15 December, 2011, http://www.helium.com/items/550690-understanding-communication-and-body-language-of-polish-people .
Corruption through our Culture (based on Geert Hofstede Analysis 2011, viewed 15 December, 2011, < http://imsingh1999-mannu.blogspot.com/2011/05/corruption-through-our-culture.html >.
Cross Cultural Business. Doing Business with Poland: Do They Know It's Lunchtime?, viewed 15 December, 2011, .
S. scored 40. The Turks still distrust although they know well how to hide it. Turkey scored 45 in femininity vs. masculinity. Holfstede used feminine values of modesty and caring and masculine values of assertiveness and competitiveness to arrive at this score. Masculinity differs from the macho image. When the difference is not recognized, Turkey rated lower than if it was recognized. Compare with Japan, which got the highest score at 98% and Sweden at only 5% (McPherson).
In conducting research on national cultures, one must keep in mind that averages do not relate to individuals in a country or destination under study. Even if Holfstede's model has proved accurate quite often in general population studies, a researcher must be careful not to assume that all the individuals or even regions with subcultures, necessarily fit. Research can only serve as guide to understanding differences between countries. It does not set…
Agnarella, Paul J.M. Turkey. Countries and Their Cultures: Advameg, Inc., 2011.
Retrieved on December 14, 2011 from http://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/Turkey.html
Beyazit, Eda et al. Evaluating Istanbul in the Process of European Capital of Culture
2010. 42nd ISoCaRP Congress. International Society of City and Regional Planning,
Geert Hofstede: Cultural Dimensions
Please define Power Distance in one sentence and summarize the differences (if any) in Power Distance among France, Italy, Arab World and Indonesia.
People in societies exhibiting a large degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification, but in societies with low power distance, people strive to equalize the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. France, Indonesia and the Arab World all score high on the Power Distance scale compared to Italy, which makes them more authoritarian societies.
With a score of 68, France scores high on the scale of the PDI, compared to Italy which has a score of 53. It is therefore a society in which inequalities are accepted. Hierarchy is needed if not existential; the superiors may have privileges and are often inaccessible. Power is highly centralized…
Managing Cultural Diversity: Hofstede's Five Cultural Dimensions Applied to the U.S. And Cuba
Cuba Relations Background
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions - U.S.
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions - Cuba
Implications for Rescue orkers
This paper analyzes the history and cultural differences between the United States and Cuba using Hostede's cultural scale. Cuba and the U.S. have a long history of political tension which manifested in a trade embargo being issued against Cuba. This not only a source of tension between the Americans and Cubans but nearly every nation that is a member of the United Nations has consistently voted to lift the embargo except Israel and some island called Palau which has accepted the U.S. position. Not only are there staunch political differences, the cultural differences are estimated to be nearly polar opposites; especially on the criteria of the individualism cultural dimension. It was concluded that if these two cultures had…
ITIM International. Geert Hofstede ™ Cultural Dimensions - Venezuela. 2011. Web. 12 September 2011.
-- . Geert Hofstede ™ Cultural Dimensions Latin American Averages. 2011. Web. 12 September 2011.
-- . Geert Hofstede ™ Cultural Dimensions USA. 2011. Web. 12 September 2011.
Murray, M. Katrina aid from Cuba? No thanks, says U.S. 14 September 2005. Web. 12 September 2011.
S. (Matviuk, 2010). The Mexican managers believed that individuality (IDV) was essential for them to operate their factories successfully. The fact that their overseas senior management teams did not causes significant conflict. As a result, the Mexican managers chose to create more tacit and explicit knowledge programs so the senior management teams could see how much information was being lost due to their insistence on managing in a strict hierarchy (Matviuk, 2010). Using the Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimension the impasse was solved and more collaborative working arrangements were created.
A final example is one that illustrates how quickly the ussian economy shifted in the last two decades. esearchers using the Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Model successfully counseled managers on how to navigate and manage their careers from state-run and often communist manufacturing centers to privately run and nationalized ones (Astakhova, DuBois, Hogue, 2010). This resulted in higher levels of effectiveness…
Astakhova, M., DuBois, C., & Hogue, M.. (2010). A typology of middle managers in modern Russia: An intracultural puzzle. International Journal of Intercultural Relations: IJIR, 34(5), 527.
Francesca Auch, & Hedley Smyth. (2010). The cultural heterogeny of project firms and project teams. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 3(3), 443-461.
Hofstede, G.. (2009). Business goals for a new world order: beyond growth, greed and quarterly results. Asia Pacific Business Review, 15(4), 481.
Matviuk, S.. (2010). A Correlational Study of Culture and Leadership Expectations in a Mexican Manufacturing Plant. The Business Review, Cambridge, 15(1), 14-19.
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
multicultural business environment, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimension provide an interesting framework by which to understand the management function. Hofstede proposed that there are five dimensions along which cultures differ -- power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, and time horizon. Managers today must understand each of these dimensions, because they closely relate to how well the workers in the company are going to respond to management challenges.
Since their inception, Hofstede's dimensions have come under scrutiny by the academic community, even though people in business have found them particularly useful to put intercultural interactions into their appropriate context. Hofstede (2011) himself notes that the dimensions are aggregate, and should not be placed on any given individual, because while some individuals more readily fit the dimensions, every individual is different and it is risky to assume that there is going to always be a perfect fit.…
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: the Hofstede model in context. Psychology and Culture. Article 8, retrieved April 24, 2014 from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014
Minkov, M. & Hofstede, G. (2011). The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal. Vol. 18 (1) 10-20.
Taras, V., Kirkman, B. & Steel, P. (2014). Examining the impact of culture's consequences. University of North Carolina
Jones, R., Lyu, J., Runyan, R., Fairhurst, A., Kim, Y., Jolly, L. (2014). Cross cultural consensus: Development of the universal leadership model. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. Vol. 42 (4)
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland
The LJ Products Co. is proud to announce that one of our executive staff will be joining our staff in Zurich Switzerland in January of 2012. Mr. Didier Burkhalter will be joining our Zurich staff as chief financial officer. Mr. Burkhalter will report directly to the CEO and other members of the board. To make Mr. Burkhalter feel welcome in his new position it is requested that all staff members read the following briefing prior to his arrival and that they become familiar with the customs of Mr. Burkhalter's country of origin. All staff members should extend Mr. Burkhalter a warm welcome by familiarizing themselves with his customs. The following summarizes many of the customs of Swiss society, using American culture as a reference point.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions is the most widely used system for developing a framework that assesses national cultures and…
COMMUNICAID GROUP LTD. 2009. Doing Busineass in Switzerland: Swiss Social and Business Culture. [online] Available from: http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Switzerland.pdf [accessed to December 2011}.
EDIPLOMAT. 2011. Switzerland. [online] Available from: http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_ch.htm [accessed to December 2011}.
EXPATICA. 2011. Management Culture in Switzerland. Expatica.com. [online] Available from: http://www.expatica.com/ch/employment/employment_information/Management-culture-in-Switzerland_13331.html [accessed to December 2011}.
HOFSTEDE, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…
Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.
Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
Cultural Challenges of Doing Business Overseas:
Steve Kafka, franchisor for Chicago Style Pizza
Steve Kafka, a proprietor of Chicago Style Pizza, a U.S.-based franchise, is attempting to capitalize upon his Czech heritage, and knowledge of Czech culture and language to expand into Prague and take advantage of a largely untapped pizza market in the region. However, it is critical that Steve does not forget that, despite his familiarity with Czech culture, he was born in the United States and must orient himself to the unique cultural worldview of the Czech nation
Major differences and incompatibilities between cultures and risk mitigation
Perhaps the most significant difference between the U.S. And Czech business culture is a historical one, namely the legacy of communist rule in the Czech epublic. "All commentators on Czech business culture focus on the difficulty of developing deep levels of trust within any business relationship" (Doing business in Czech…
Czech Republic. (2010). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved December 10, 2010 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_czech_republic.shtml
Czech Republic. (2010). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 10, 2010 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3237.htm
Doing business in Czech Republic. (2010). World Business Culture. Retrieved December 10,
2010 at http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Czech-Business-Style.html
At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches.
The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998
Culture-Epoch Theory: The fact of Ceaseless Change. N.d. 20 May 2008 http://iws.ccccd.edu/mbailey/culture_epoch_theory.htm
Hispanic Society. Paintings from the Middle Ages. 2006. 20 May 2008 http://www.hispanicsociety.org/hispanic/paintings_medieval.htm
Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions
This paper examines cultural comparisons and discusses how an American manager carries out management functions in the process of supervising German employees. With respect to individualism vs. collectivism, both Germany and the U.S. score high in individualism, that is, the degree to which individuals further their own interests. However, according to Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, Germany's score of 67 ranks far enough below the U.S. score of 91 that the manager should expect differences in their approaches to working together in teams for instance. German employees would have only a moderate amount of group cohesion, with only a moderate amount of interpersonal connection and sharing of responsibility.
For the American manager, the two country's respective scores indicate that the manager should expect his or her German employees to be less individualistic than their manager. The manager should place a relatively high value on people's…
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
IDV skyrockets in the U.S. which is supported by the concept of rugged individualism and taking care of one's own family (Minkov, Hofstede, 2011). It's nearly the opposite in Japan, where communities care for each other, showing IDV to be a measure of collectivism and collaboration over individuality (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). For Mercedes, the brand in Japan would need to stress a wealthy homeowner or land owner using their new car to help their neighbors and those around them who are not necessarily relatives. In the U.S., the Mercedes brand has quickly become a symbol of individual achievement, status and financial accomplishment. As a result, the Mercedes brand means something completely different in Japan than it does in the U.S. On the Long-Term Orientation (LTO) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) areas of the model, Japan far outpaces the U.S. For Mercedes and Nike, the safety and security of their brand need…
Anders Bengtsson, Fleura Bardhi, & Meera Venkatraman. (2010). How global brands travel with consumers: An examination of the relationship between brand consistency and meaning across national boundaries. International Marketing Review, 27(5), 519-540.
Czinkota, M.. (2011). Why international marketing? Marketing Management, 20(2), 14.
Geert Hofstede, & Robert R. McCrae. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Michael Minkov, and Geert Hofstede. 2011. The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management 18, no. 1, (January 1): 10-20.
Cultural Profile of Danny
Below is the profile of a college Freshman using the ADRESING format by Hays (Hays; Hays 309-315) This method of assessment of cultural awareness is used by many clinical psychologists in order to guarantee cultural sensitivity during therapy and to provide culturally relevant care:
Age or generational differences:
Danny is 19, and a Freshman in college
He has no visible disabilities and none of which he is aware.
He is a Christian, but is not currently attending any local church.
Danny is Han Chinese.
At home in Beijing, Danny is upper middle class. His parents have good jobs and are party members, though they are not rich.
He is a member of the majority culture in Beijing, but is Asian minority in America.
Citizen of the PRC
Danny is a college freshman…
"China - Chinese Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Explained "Web. 11/23/2010 .
"China today "Web. 10/31/2010 .
Hays, Pamela A. "
Multicultural Applications of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 26.3 (1995): 309-15. Web.
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…
Because these issues have become more pronounced in recent years, it is not surprising that efforts have been made to define these differences in an effort to measure them. In this regard, Hofstede (1980) identified five basic dimensions of culture as follows:
1. Power distance (focusing on the extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally);
2. Individualism-collectivism (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships -- highly individualist cultures believe individual is the most important unit, whereas highly collectivistic cultures believe group is the most important unit);
3. Uncertainly avoidance (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, uncertainty and ambiguity within the society)
4. Masculinity-femininity (focusing on the extent to which a society emphasizes achievement or nurturing -- masculinity emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles, whereas…
Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Hartford, B.S. (2005). Interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring institutional talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mann, GA. (2006). A motive to serve: Public service motivation in human resource
management and the role of PSM in the nonprofit sector. Public Personnel Management
Business in Czech epublic
Doing business in a foreign country is never easy. It is not so much about the tax regulations, import/export duties or getting a license. The main challenges accrue from the differences in cultural values and social or religious beliefs. For Steve, it may prove easier to at least communicate with the people and establish a bond with them. It is also important to know that Czech epublic is very keen on attracting foreign investment and a strong U.S. presence is desired. For this reason, Steve doesn't need to worry about whether he will be welcome in that country or not. As for cultural differences, it must be borne in mind that both Czech epublic and the U.S. have some similarities and some differences but these differences can act as a major hurdle if not properly understood. Business is often taken seriously in the Czech epublic and…
1. Greet-Hofstede- Cultural Dimensions for Czech Republkic: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_czech_republic.shtml [Accessed 14th September 2005]
2. Greet-Hofstede-Cultural Dimensions for the U.S.: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_states.shtml [Accessed 14th September 2005]
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
Cultural Diversity in the United States
The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.
Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense…
Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:
Cultural Analysis of Japan for Expansion of Postmates
Before any business into a new market, it is essential the marketplace itself is considered. Postmates is looking to expand. This organisation is an on demand delivery service established within many areas of the United States, making more than 100 deliveries a month utilising the model of crowdsourcing most commonly associated with the. The mission of the organisation is to be "the on demand delivery infrastructure for every major city in the world" (Postmates, 2016). With successful establishment within the United States, the company is likely to seek out new markets where there will be sufficient demand for the service, as well as a sufficient supply of individuals willing to work as post mate "partners." One potentially valuable market is Japan;
Background to Japan
Japan is a developed market, which may benefit Postmates with its high level of concentration in metropolitan areas…
CIA. (2016). Japan. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library /publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja.html
Flath, D. (2005). The Japanese Economy (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gioeli, A. (2014). International Business Expansion. Los Angeles: Over And Above Press.
Investigating Japan. (2016). Political Culture & Socialisation. Retrieved from http://investigatingjapan.weebly.com/political-culture -- socialization.html
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
When planning a health promotion program, we should consider the positive (empowerment process) and the negative behaviors. As we begin to understand our intended audience we can assure the most culturally-appropriate educational intervention. In doing so, we are more likely to create partnerships that help people successfully achieve lasting change and truly promote health.
One of the most common issues that are not discussed in the armed forces is military sexual trauma (MST). This is when an individual will face unnecessary amounts of sexual pain from others they are serving with. A few most common forms include: unwanted sexual touching / grabbing, threating / offensive remarks about someone's body / sexual activities and unwarranted sexual advances. This has begun to occur so frequently that the Veteran Administration conducted a study, where they found that the total amounts of MST affected: 1 in every 5 women and 1 in…
Coping Skills for Trauma. (2004). Ibiblio.org. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/copingskills.html
Military Sexual Trauma. (2011). VA. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/military-sexual-trauma-general.asp
Robins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
But most important, Geert Hofstede will give you the 'edge of understanding' which translates to more successful results" (Geert Hofstede's Website, 2003).
If Steven Kafka conducted an analysis of the Czech market through the lens of cultural features, there is an increased likelihood for the results to indicate major discrepancies. This should not however disappoint him, as different does not implicitly mean worse.
A d) in its desire to adhere to the great economic powers of the globe, driven by its sense of innovation and its adaptability to the forces in the macro and micro environments, the Czech epublic has managed to remove most of its trade barriers. These measures were due mostly to its adherence to the European Union and other international trade organizations. "The Czech market has no trade barriers to food and agricultural product imports, except for the usual import duties and tariff rate quotas permitted under…
Briffett, C., August 28, 2008, Observing the Czech Republic through the U.S. Lens, Czech Business Weekly
Fennesz-Berka, a., November 1996, Czech Republic and Slovenia Offer Opportunities for U.S. Consumer Foods, AgExporter
2007, Differences between the Czech Republic and the U.S., Associated Content
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/392236/differences_between_the_czech_republic.html?page=2&cat=16last accessed on September 9, 2008
Cultural school focuses on the culture of the individual entities that form the organization. Culture, it asserts, drives the organization's judgment and operational strategy resulting in differences such as between a Japanese and American organization.
In contradistinction to the power school that places the loci on the individual as well as the entrepreneurial school that does likewise (this time on the leader), the cultural school insists that individuals are a homogenized whole, their decision, beliefs, judgments, and actions formed by their specific culture. In this way, therefore, to understand an organization necessitates understanding its culture. Organization culture -- the premise of the cultural school -- is, oftentimes, understood as collective cognition since a deeply rooted culture produces closely interwoven interpretations and activities.
Content and Process.
Culture is ineradicably part of the individual's makeup. His or her perspective on the world is shaped by this culture, and since organizations are a…
Rieger, F. 1987. 'The influence of national culture on organizational structure…' Dissertation, McGill Univ., Montreal.
Roth, K. & Ricks, D.A. (1994). 'Goal configuration in a global society context.' Strategic Management Journal, 15, 103-140.
Wright, J.P. 1979. On a Clear Day you can see General Motors. Wright Enterprises: MI.
Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.
Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…
Africaguide.com (2011). Africa people & culture, accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.africaguide.com/culture/weddings.htm
Euroevents & Travel (2004). Wedding Traditions and Customs around the World Bridal
Customs in different Countries accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/
Gardner, H. (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Instead, countries like Russia are more spiritual and believe in an interpretive form of the Christian text (Cross 2012, 3.1). These populations have formed a new form of Christianity which accepts certain tenets and rejects others.
The period known as the Enlightenment had a much more profound on the western world than the east. Religious principles were given secondary consideration to individual accomplishment and the growing importance of scientific development and logical conclusions. This period led to the importance which was placed on the individual in western culture. Individualism is directly contradictory to the eastern emphasis on community and communal thinking, particularly during the time of Communism (Cross 2012, 3.1).
Nations of the west have embraced immigration, particularly in the United States, but still the majority of the population has a estern European heritage which has determined the majority culture. In the east, there is less immigration within to other…
Cross Cultural Perspectives (2012). Ashford University.
Cultural Ethical Variances
The author of this report has been asked to complete a short essay about the differing ethical dimensions that are present in different situations. One can compare and contrast among many different group types and locations. Indeed, the ethics of doing business and giving gifts can vary greatly from country to country, from region to region, from state to state, from city to city or even from business to business in the same general vicinity. The reasons for these variances typically vary based on things like religion, ethnicity, race, age and family status. This report shall explore the differences that exist all within the United States because even the differences in a single country can vary quite a bit. While there are some standards and practices in business that are pretty consistent, not everyone is singing from the same proverbial hymnal when it comes to what is…
Gilman, S.C. (2005). Ethics codes and codes of conduct as tools for promoting an ethical and professional public service: Comparative successes and lessons.
Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/mena/governance/35521418.pdf
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2013). Ethics: Legislator gift restrictions overview. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/50-state-table-gift-laws.aspx
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
The latter type of employees will act as mediators between the foreigner and the host, will point out potential mistakes and will also be more easily accepted by the staff. Undoubtedly, if Chinese who haven't had international experiences are capable of appropriately managing the business, they will be given the chance to hold top management positions after a certain period of intercultural training.
4) Referring to demand and customer relations, a foreign company should display a high respect towards its clients by offering them qualitative products and services that take into account their cultural background (i.e. avoiding colors which are associated with fatality, avoiding gestures, words that are considered to be offensive etc.).
The Chinese market's demand for a foreign company's products is significantly influenced by collectivism. For instance, in Japan which is a collectivist culture too, a U.S. based company selling ice cream paid several Japanese to stay in…
1. China Interview (2007). On the internet at: www.cyborlink.com/besite/china_interview.htm. Retreievd March 4.
2. Chinese Business Etiquette (2007). On the Internet at: www.cyborlink.com/besite/china.htm. Retrieved March 4.
3. Geert Hofstede Analysis (2007). On the Internet at: www.cyborlink.com/besite/hofstede.htm. Retrieved March 4.
4. Hofstede's Analysis for China (2003). On the Internet at: www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_china.shtml. Retrieved March 4.
Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States
Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study
The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…
Gupta, V. & Wang, J. 2004, "The Transvergence Proposition Under Globalization: Looking Beyond Convergence, Divergence and Crossvergence," Multinational Business Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 37-57.
Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. (2006) 'Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors', Journal of International Management, 12 (1), pp. 67 -- 84, Science Direct [Online]. DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2005.04.002 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Ralston, D.A. 2008, "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27-40.
Sarala, R.M. & Vaara, E. 2010, "Cultural differences, convergence, and crossvergence as explanations of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1365-1390.
Social, Cultural, And Economic Dimensions of Information Use
Library institutions play a vital role in addressing social and political issues through the provision of relevant information. It is the responsibility of front-line employees, reference service librarians, and the paraprofessionals to make decisions and set the tone that will inspire a dynamic relationship within a community. In order to find the best ways of creating and maintaining a strong community involvement, library floor-employees consider the economic, social, and cultural factors for information use (Gallagher & Leckie, 2010).
Librarians are responsible in ensuring that their institution meets the demands of its users in multiple ways. In terms of the community, libraries are more than access to media and books or even the internet. In some cases, it acts as the focal point for community opportunity and involvement. In small cities, libraries are among the few public buildings where community members…
Gallagher, A., & Leckie, S. (2010). Economic, social, and cultural rights: A legal resource guide. Philadelphia, Pa: Univ. Of Pennsylvania Press.
Trauth, E.M. (2011). The culture of an information economy: Influences and impacts in the Republic of Ireland. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Cross Cultural Age of Globalization
The quickening pace of globalization continues to force varying cultures, their expectations, norms, value and practices together at a pace that is much faster than had been the case in the past. This presents a unique series of challenges for managers who must navigate the task of creating an agile enough organization to compete, yet still provide enough structure and stability for objectives to be attained. National political culture is a critically important foundation to guiding the definition of a globalization strategy in that it encompasses citizenship practices (Bird, Fang, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to critically evaluate if the concept of a theoretical framework is sufficient to support globalization strategies aligned to the nuances and specific considerations of a given region. Appraising the legitimacy of management strategies in the context of cross-cultural citizenship practices is central to this analysis (Chevrier, 2009).
Bird, A. & Fang, T. (2009) 'Editorial: cross cultural management in the age of globalization', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 139 -- 142, Sage Premier Database [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335713 (Accessed: 21 December 2009).
Chevrier, S. (2009) 'Is national culture still relevant to management in a global context? The case of Switzerland', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 169 -- 181, Sage Journals [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335723 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R.R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Fons Tropenaars researched value dimensions in his work. There are some of the dimensions such as individualism that have been discussed by other people. A lot of what takes place in places of work can be explained by the innate value systems that people have as Tropenaars describes it. Being aware of such differences which are in existence and how they can influence the behavior in workplaces is very useful to an individual who aspires to be an international manager (Coburg, 20O8). The paper will look at the four value dimensions developed by Trompenaars and also placement of particular countries along specific dimensions.
Universalism vs. particularism
The main focus on this dimension is obligation. Universalistic approach puts into application rules and systems in an objective way without taking into consideration individual circumstances .on the other hand a particularistic approach has its first obligation as relationships and for this reason it…
Deresky, H. (2011). International management: Managing across borders and cultures (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Coburg, FH, L. (20O8).Cultural Dimensions: The results of the research of Fons Tropenars. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://kautz.hu/ip2008/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=20&Itemid=19
International Organizational Behavior-Cultural Differences in Job Satisfaction and Motivation
As the forces of globalization continue to reshape the international marketplace, understanding cross-cultural differences in job satisfaction and motivation has assumed new importance and relevance. To this end, this paper provides a comparison of the United States with two of its major trading partners, China and Canada, drawing on Geert Hofstede's five cultural dimensions. A comparison of the U.S. with these two countries using Hofstede's five cultural dimensions is followed by an analysis concerning how various job factors contribute to satisfaction in different cultures. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the implications of cross-cultural factors for international organizational behaviorists in promoting job satisfaction and motivation are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
While it is reasonable to suggest that the overwhelming majority of people in the world work to earn a living, making pay and benefits…
Kim, Y-J & Na, J-H (2007, July). Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: The role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(4), 310-314.
Sablosky, T. L. (2009, May). Did you get the message? In this era of far-flung branch locations, new methods of internal communication-such as teleconferences, videoconferences and intranets-are growing in popularity. ABA Bank Marketing, 37(4), 26-29.
Examining Cultural Influences of Behavioral Nutrition: The Traditional and Nutritional Values of the Chinese Cultural Diet
It is a general belief that adequate nutrition equals healthy living. From time immemorial, human beings have understandably placed a premium on diets. Rightly so as lives have been saved or lost through food. However, while nutrients will always be a significant factor which decides what people eat or do not eat, there are other as worthy elements that influence human eating behavior. One of those other several factors that determine people's choice of food is cultural influences. This explains why food is one of the crucial elements that define people's way of life. People’s culture cannot be holistically discussed without good attention to their diets. One of the world's cultural groups that are very popular for their diet culture are the Chinese people. Of several other components of the Chinese, food is a…
Ethics and Culture
Ethical and Cultural Competency
Vanaki, Z., Memarian, A. (2009). Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25 (5), 285 -- 291
The author found that the professional ethics are the core determinants to perform a better duty at the workplace. The behavior of a person at work place helps in making relationship and bonds with the team members, responsibilities, the patients, the staff and helps in better understanding of workplace strategies that are termed as professional ethics. The researchers found that the personality of a person depends a lot on the expression of compassion, love, care and attention. The survey was done on the nurses working in the hospital where they explained that despite the cultural differences, if they make a bond or a relationship of care with the patients. That helps a lot in maintaining the confidence of the patient and…
Siegel, C., Haugland, G., Rose, L.R., Reid, L., Hopper, K. (2011). Components of Cultural Competence in Three Mental Health Programs. Psychiatric services, 62 (6).
Vanaki, Z., Memarian, A. (2009). Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency.
Journal of Professional Nursing, 25 (5), 285 -- 291
Management Issues Facing Australian Banks in Asia Today
Today, the Australian banking industry enjoys a high level of confidence among domestic and international investors alike, and the nation has managed to weather the fallout from the Asian financial crisis and Great ecession far better than many of its neighbors, and continues to grow economically. This economic development is due in large part to Australia's increasing commercial trade and cultural exchanges with its largest trading partner, China (Chinese economy, 2016). Not surprisingly, the Australian banking industry has taken advantage of these opportunities to establish an ever-increasing number of branches in China, which have largely experienced positive returns on their investment. Nevertheless, given the fundamental cultural differences and worldviews that exist between consumers in Australia and China, it is the argument of this paper that there are also a number of significant management issues facing Australian banks in Asia in general and…
Allen, D. E. & Powell, R. (2011, March 1). Customers and markets: Both are essential to credit-risk measurement in Australian banks. Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal, 5(1), 57-61.
Anbari, F. T. & Khilkhanova, E. V. (2009). Managing cross-cultural differences in projects. Orlando, FL: PMI Global Congress North America.
Australia's banking industry. (2011). Australian Trade Commission. Retrieved from http://www.austrade.gov.au/articledocuments/2792 / australias-banking-industry.pdf.aspx.
Australian banks in Asia. (n.d.).
Knowledge-Oriented Software Engineering Process
In a Multi-Cultural Context
In the peer-reviewed article Knowledge-Oriented Software Engineering Process In A Multi-Cultural Context (Jaakkola, Heimburger, Linna, 2010) the authors contend that the accelerating nature of software development leaves little time for cultural assimilation and integration of teams to an optimal level. The authors have defined the specifics of how software development is changing very rapidly due to mobile platforms, cloud computing and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Exacerbating the challenges of creating software so rapidly are the cultural challenges as well, especially the multicultural and inter-organizational issues of software engineering (Jaakkola, Heimburger, Linna, 2010). The authors argue that a three layer model is needed to increase the performance of software engineering globally (Jaakkola, Heimburger, Linna, 2010). The authors have taken on a very complex problem that takes into account the multifaceted nature of software development in large organizations while also managing the complexities and nuances of…
Jaakkola, H., Anneli Heimburger, & Linna, P. (2010). Knowledge-oriented software engineering process in a multi-cultural context. Software Quality Journal, 18(2), 299-319.
Stranger Things is a television show on Netflix that recounts the story of a missing boy, a frantic mother, and three friends looking for an answer. The show is a pastiche of popular 80's movies and television shows that featured monsters like E.T. and telekinetic children like Charlie in Firestarter. While the show does not hit on anything original, it does manage to hit a nerve among fans and has swept the nation with its sweet whispers of nostalgia. The show perhaps invites people to reach for their own ideologies in life vicariously through the main characters. Althusser discusses ideologies in his piece, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses" and Bell Hooks examines desire and resistance in "Eating the Other: Desire and Resistance" that can point towards a better understanding of such a fast-growing cultural phenomenon.
Althusser defines ideologies from a traditional standpoint as 'world outlooks. However, Althusser admits they do…
" (Devine, 2007)
Summary and Conclusion
Policy evaluation enables educators to make determines as to the accountability of the system and the conditions needed to expand the capacity of the educational institution to provide high quality curriculum and instruction as well as in the formulation of assessment and toward the increase of learning of students. This brief study has demonstrated how the competing and opposing forces locally, statewide and federal serve to formulate policies and ultimately to test the soundness and effectiveness of those policies. Policy evaluation is critical for educational institutions and use of the four dimensions of policy making offers a framework that enables the comprehension of policymaking toward the enhancement of education and improvement of the educational institution.
Cooper, .S, Fusarelli, L.D., & Randall, E.V. (2004). etter policies, better schools: Theories and applications. Pearson Education, Inc.
Cooper, ruce S., Fusarelli, Lance D, & Randall, E. Vance…
Cooper, B.S, Fusarelli, L.D., & Randall, E.V. (2004). Better policies, better schools: Theories and applications. Pearson Education, Inc.
Cooper, Bruce S., Fusarelli, Lance D, & Randall, E. Vance (2003). Better policies, better schools: Theories and applications. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Devine, Jack (2007) Four Dimensions of Educational Policy Theory: Normative, Structural, Constituentive and Technical. Associated Content 31 Dec 2007. Online available at: http://220.127.116.11/article/500765/four_dimensions_of_educational_policy.htmlLuxemburg, Fred C. And Irby, Beverly J. (2006) the Principalship: Vision to Action. Political and Policy Context. Thomson -- Wadsworth. U.S. Online available at: https://classshares.student.usp.ac.fj/ED453/R12%20Political%20and%20Policy%20Context.pdf
Fullan (2001) in Luxemburg, Fred C. And Irby, Beverly J. (2006) the Principalship: Vision to Action. Political and Policy Context. Thomson -- Wadsworth. U.S. Online available at: https://classshares.student.usp.ac.fj/ED453/R12%20Political%20and%20Policy%20Context.pdf
International and Intercultural Communication
The power distance between the U.S. and Japan are near matching showing that they are almost equal, and hence, inequality is not that great and the influence of people regarding ideas and behavior is same. In the society, people are different. The attitudes of culture towards power inequalities are almost the same with a difference of 14, where the U.S.A. has 40 and Japan 54. Japan is greater than the U.S., but the difference is minimal compared to the other variables under scrutiny such as long-term orientation and individualism. This shows that the use of power is legitimate, and subjects to the criteria of good and evil plus their assessment systems are based on the precise setting of targets. The mentality of the people in both U.S. and Japan is that of 'can do,' which has created dynamism in the society. Moreover, the hierarchy means…
Bergiel, E. B., Bergiel, B. J. & Upson, J. W. (2012). Revisiting Hofstede's Dimensions: Examining the Cultural Convergence of the United States and Japan. American Journal of Management, 12(1): 69-79.
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1): 1-26
National Culture. (n.d.). http://geert-hofstede.com /national-culture.html
The author of this report has been asked to take on the role of a Chief Marketing Officer of a United States department chain that competes on the same level as Macy's and Nordstrom's. As part of the plan, the overall strategy will be enumerated and discussed, the product/market boundaries will be looked at, the marketing segmentation strategy will be identified, the customer relationship management strategy will be described, the general strategy of collecting information about potential customers will be given and all of the above will be buttressed and reinforced with three academic and scholarly resources. While taking on the role of marketing leader in a retail environment can be complex and difficult, there are several core strategies that should always be present and they are not hard to understand conceptually.
The overall marketing-driven strategy is going to be dictated in large part by the fact…
Crockett, D. (2009). Marketing blackness: Using race to sell products. Business & Economic
Review, 55(3), 6-9.
Port, K.L. (2012). A case against the ACTA. Cardozo Law Review, 33(3), 1131-1183.
Treanor, T. (2010). Amazon: Love them? Hate them? Let's follow the money. Publishing Research Quarterly, 26(2), 119-128. doi:10.1007/s12109-010-9162-7
Cultural differences acts as communication barrier and can affect my ability to motivate the group I lead and build connections. There are many ways to start understanding these differences and work with effectiveness with my group from different cultures. Learning how to work with co-workers and different teams from all over the world is important. Based upon Hofstede’s Six Dimensions, I would adapt my leadership approach in the below mentioned ways to lead a group if I were the CEO of a multinational organization. Hofstede’s Six Dimension works effectively with different groups of individuals from different geographical and cultural backgrounds. It is used internationally as a recognized standard for understanding differences in cultures. The six dimensions include; high verses low power distance index, individualism verses collectivism, masculinity verses femininity, high verses low uncertainty avoidance index, long term verses short term orientation and indulgence verses restraint (Hofstede, 2006).
Power distance index…
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
Cultural Diversity in the Professions
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is global investment banking, securities and investment management firm that provides a wide range of financial services geared towards a substantial and diversified clientele, which comprises of firms, financial organizations, governments as well as high-net-worth people (Forbes, 2015). This paper would focus on the company's cultural diversity that is reflected in its content, design and graphics of the website.
Accessibility of the Diversity-elated Material on the Website
There is a link for "Careers" on the website, in which there is a sub-section for "Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action" (Goldman Sachs, n.d.). Also, the homepage has a link "Who Are We" in which there is another link leading to "Diversity and Inclusion." By typing the word "diversity" in the search bar of the webpage, the results yield "Our commitment to diversity" and the company's culture that has an in-built inclination…
Forbes. (2015). America's best employers: #352 Goldman Sachs Group. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/companies/goldman-sachs-group/
Goldman Sachs. (n.d.). Home. Retrieved from http://www.goldmansachs.com/index.html
Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility HACR. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved from http://www.hacr.org/about/
NASSCOM. (n.d.). Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.nasscom.in/diversity-and-inclusion - awards-2016
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
Cross Cultural Business
Conducting Cross-Cultural Business
Three Cross-Cultural Differences:
Certainly, among the most critical differences that must be accounted for before one begins practicing business in Asia is that regarding the way that people interact. In many ways, estern and Eastern culture stem from very different perceptions of the self and, consequently, how individuals should be expected to conduct themselves in interaction with one another. Indeed, Anbari (2008) et al. highlight this issue, indicating that "two main cultural differences have been identified. Hofstede distinguishes between individualism and collectivism. Trompenaars breaks down this distinction into two dimensions: universalism vs. particularism and individualism vs. communitarianism." (p. 2)
As we most certainly know from experience, the United States is a culture, both professionally and socially, where individuality is stressed. By contrast, in a general sense and throughout its business culture, Asia tends more toward collectivism or communitarianism. This influences how individuals express themselves…
Anbari, F.T.; Khilkhanova, E.V.; Romanova, M.V. & Umpleby, S.A. (2008). Cross Cultural Differences and Their Implications for Managing International Projects. GWU.edu.
Kolesnikov-Jessop, S. (2012). Respecting Cultural Differences. New York Times.
Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch
From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…
Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.
Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating with the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. (2012). Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Visible and Hidden Dimensions of Student Diversity
The use of Multimedia in educational contexts is producing a growing opportunity to improve the accommodation of diversity. So demonstrates the MyPlace project, identified as "The Place for Diversity Multimedia Analysis." In the course of such analysis, we find that there are several distinct values to embracing this type of identity-driven diversity in an educational community.
The visible dimensions of diversity are typically characterized as relating to race, religion, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation. Here, it is expected that an educational institution will make use of the literature, technology and cultural resources at its disposal to ensure that all groups are equally represented and, at the very least, ensure that no groups are actively or passively excluded. Legal terms relating to Affirmative Action are perhaps the most visible regulatory considerations relating to diversity in American education. To the point, a recent Supreme Court…
Boyer, E. (1990). Campus Life: In Search of Community. Jossey-Bass.
Brunner, B. (2004). Timeline of Affirmative Action Milestones. Black History
Farstrup, A.E. (2002). The Value of Diversity. Reading Today, 19.
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
ROLES OF PHYSICAL, CULTURAL & VERNACULAR
LANDSCAPES IN HUMAN DIMENSIONS RESEARCH
As an extension of the sciences of geography and physical morphology, human dimensions research explores various concepts associated with human fairness, risk, biodiversity and sustainability and provides methods to measure public satisfaction and identify different communities of interest, conflict or consensus. Human dimension categories include economics with a focus on the monetary measurement of ecosystems; recreation which seeks to understand the relationship between the recreation setting and human experience; cultural heritage which explores the characteristics of sustainable societies, and lastly environmental psychology and social interactions which involve the measurement of ecosystem-related public perceptions, attitudes and beliefs and the objectives of the concerned parties.
A prime example of this research concerns the findings of the Department of the Interior and its exploration on how human dimensions affect certain areas of the western United States. Research topics associated with these findings…
Alanen, Arnold R. "Grounded in Reality: The Importance of Vernacular Landscapes."
Courier 34 (August 1989): 10-13.
Appleton, Jay. The Experience of Landscape. New York: John Wiley, 1975.
United States Global Change Research Program. The Human Dimensions Program.
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
unified cultural need to establish their dominance in another land is the most important reasons for the foothold established by the English and the Spanish in the New orld. It is true that a plethora of different races, ethnic groups, nationalities, and cultures arrived on the North American soil prior to 1776, the year that America began its process of embarking upon its independence, of officially becoming the independent country of United States of America.
This begs the question of why did the Spanish (and Spanish Americans) and later primarily the English (and English Americans) become the dominant ethnic groups in the New orld, and not the other nations that established settlements, for instance, perchance, the Dutch?
This paper will argue that the predominant historical evidence, as discussed in The Ethnic Dimension in American History and Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History as well as American Mosaic suggests…
Class Notes and Discussion
Gierde, J Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History. New York:
Houghton Mifflin College Edition, 1998.
The Ethnic Dimension in American History. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
.....leader is someone that has confidence, enthusiasm, and vision. Many leaders exist in the world. However, most leaders can only lead well at home. Global leaders transcend cultural diversity and differences and provide effective leadership behaviors within any context. This is because they are aware of the key differences cultures have and can group them in such a way that allows for easier understanding and successful strategy implementation. Because cultural style can dictate the ethical perception of a leader in terms of authority, power, and influence, this paper will focus on diversity and ethical decision-making and its influences on leadership models. Additionally, the paper will explore certain commonly accepted leadership traits and how servant leadership may be used as an effective tool for influencing organizational culture.
Followers see an inspirational leader as more beneficial than a transactional leader across any cultural setting. However certain behaviors leaders may perform within one…