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Unknown Cultural Revolution
In most of the literature, China's Cultural Revolution gets a bad rap. It is considered a time of social turmoil that eventually led to an economic disaster for the country. There are accounts of intellectuals being persecuted as well as violence in many communities. However, the author, Dongping Han, gives a different account of this period. In many cases, history is written by the winners. Therefore, the capitalistic model that eventually won the debate undoubtedly discredited the communist roots of the Cultural Revolution. In this sense, Han points out many of the accomplishments that China was able to produce during this period. As a product of the Cultural Revolution himself, Han is able to give many personal stories of the movement's success.
The fact that Han has actually lived through this experience gives his stories a great deal of credibility. He speaks of the period favorably and…
Chinese Cultural Revolution, which began in the early 1960's and endured until the death of Mao Tse-tung, drastically altered the cultural arena of China from an agrarian system to one of modernity and acceptance by Western nations. Yet the Cultural Revolution was in effect based on communist principles which affected its ability to transcend the needs of the majority at the expense of the needs of the individual, meaning that it failed to achieve true freedom for the Chinese people.
The intermingling of Chinese and Western cultures, beginning in the middle years of the 19th century, effectively ended China's seclusion from the rest of the world and brought about profound changes in all cultural manifestations. As a result, this interplay between foreign and domestic entities gave rise to revolutionary changes in China's political and economic systems, not to mention its social structure and intellectual attitudes and ideas.
Also, the forced…
Brahm, Laurence J.A Concise Review of China's Political Structure. UK: Reed Academic Press, 1995.
Chang, Chi Yun. The Essence of Chinese Culture. Taipei: Asia-China Imperial Press, 2000.
Clubb, O. Edmund. 20th Century China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.
Henderson, Betty. Journeys into Chinese Culture. UK: Constable Press, 1999.
Chinese Cultural Revolution, which was started by Mao Tse-tung in 1966 and did not conclude until after his death in 1976, is referred to officially by the current government of China as haojie; as GAO Mobo notes that "haojie is ambiguous because it can be a modern term for 'holocaust' or a traditional term to mean 'great calamity' or 'catastrophe'." (Gao 15). To some extent, those who lived through the Chinese Cultural Revolution, such as my grandparents, are uncomfortable with discussion of the effects. As a small child, I had often wondered what happened in China in the 1960s and 1970s that my grandparents refused to discuss it, or discuss their lives before emigration, first to Taiwan, then to America. But this was just one of the peculiarities of my "F.O.B." ("Fresh Off the Boat") grandparents, to use a term that sometimes recurs in Chinese-American conversations -- for example, they…
Autographic style book by Dr. Li Zhisui ( the private life of chairman mao pp433-546), and the short stories by Chen Jo-hsi, and the movie The Blue Kites, are all about these authors' and director's experiences of the tumultuous year of the Cultural Revolution and its aftermath. In what way do you think their works (book and movie) are valuable as historical documents?
The Communist Revolution in China was fighting against corruption and government officials who were out of touch with the people. Once they were in power, the communists had their support to a certain extent. However, these views began to change as a series of brutal crackdowns resulted in many people losing faith in their leaders. (Schrecker) (Gao)
To fully understand what was happening, a series of works were created which are highlighting these shifts. The most notable include: the Private Life of Chairman Moa, short stories by…
The Blue Kite. Dir. Tian Zhuangzhuang. Kino International, 1993. Film.
Gao, Yuan. Born Red. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1987. Print.
Hsi, Chen. The Execution of Mayor Yin. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979. Print.
Schrecker, John. The Chinese Revolution. Westport: Praeger, 2004. Print.
It was a new means of defining a control over the cultural aspects of the society. Mao had envisaged a cultural background that would rise from the middle class, the social level on which the Communist Party based its electoral and strength. Given the tight control exercised by the communist party through all its regional, local, and national mechanisms, a new sense of fear and submission affected the society. This however represented a traditional means through which all communist parties ensured their control over the population. Through different institutions at the disposal of the state, the population was soon "re-educated." This in turn determined an annihilation of any potential dissidents or opposition that would at one point challenge the rule of the Communist party.
After severe limitations and terror moments, the population was entrenched in a different mentality that had been inoculated by the Communist party. This is one of…
Chang, Jung. Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China. Simon and Schuster, London, 1991.
Heng, Liang. Son of the Revolution. Vintage Books, New York, 1983.
“Returning Home Robed in Embroidered Silk” and the Cultural Revolution
By comparing the Future Direction of the Party readings with Chang’s Chapter 8, what becomes apparent is the idea that the Party wants total control over its members’ lives, their thoughts, and their feelings. This is especially seen in Chapter 8 of Wild Swans, when Chang’s father and mother return to the father’s childhood home. The father is so happy to be back and his family is excited to see him—but they are also nervous because he was now a Communist official and they had all heard such bad things about Communism. The Communists wanted to root out all the old traditions; they wanted to liberate the daughter-in-law from the old traditions, for example—and so a great deal of attention was paid to Chang’s mother to see how she would react to her mother-in-law; whether she would kowtow as was…
Chang, Jung. Wild Swans. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
The Cultural Revolution.
The mid-1970s would already bring the end of the Vietnam War, the major coagulating action of this period that marked the revolt of the younger generation.
As we can see from this ample comment on Graham's article "Flaunting the Freak Flag: Karr v. Schmidt and the Great Hair Debate in American High Schools, 1965-1975," the hair debate was but a small element of a larger framework of conflicts between generation and revolt against an authority that was often perceived as not functional and as imposing rules that made no sense and had no logic.
While at a national level, this translated into a political fight against the war in Vietnam and at cultural revolt against the older generation, at a micro level, it was a fight against the school authority. It could go to greater debates, such as those against racial discrimination, but also could include revolts against the imposing…
1. Graham, Gael. Flaunting the Freak Flag: Karr v. Schmidt and the Great Hair Debate in American High Schools, 1965-1975. The Journal of American History Vol. 91, Issue 2. April 2006.
In the course of the Cultural Revolution, the communist leader Mao Zedong proclaimed particular cultural requirements for both art and writings in China. This was a period that was filled with violence and harsh realisms for the people within the society. Authors such as Bei Dao, Gu Cheng and Yu Hua can be considered to be misty poets, whose works endeavored to shift from an inactive response to active formation. The aforementioned individuals are renowned authors, writers and poets celebrated for their influential literal works and their impact during the course of the Cultural Revolution in China. Through their short stories and poems, these authors strove to create a cultural force with the purpose of educating the public and offering them revolutionary principles and ideals. The art and literature that was delineated by these authors played a significant role in the sociopolitical realm and the demise of the Cultural Revolution…
Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China
Wild Swans is the story of three generations of women in China in the 20th century. The author is Jung Chang: her autobiography comprises the last third section of the book; the first two sections are devoted to telling the story of her grandmother Yu-Fang and her mother Bao Qin. Instead of writing a straight autobiography, Chang chose to begin her story two generations back—the purpose being to provide not only personal historical context but also a sense of the cultural historical context in which her family came into being. By beginning the book with the statement that her grandmother “became the concubine of a warlord general” at the age of fifteen, Chang immediately gives her story a sweeping, grand epic backdrop: she is no mere commoner of humble origins but rather a figure whose family was right in the heart or thick of…
"9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China") the occupation breakdown for the nation is also rather simplistic, with a large protion of the population still being engaged in agricultural industries: "agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China")
Cultural habits of China are relatively universal as the nation has relatively few national minorities and limited immigration from other nations due to its communist legacy. The majority ethnic group Han Chinese constitutes 91.9% of the total population with the significant minorities including Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities, constituting only a total of 8.1%. There is though a significant social and cultural disparity between urban and rural populations. Urban China is relatively modern, with many conveniences…
CIA World Factbook "China" at http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2005/geos/ch.html
Goldberg, Jonah. "10 Million Missing Girls." National Review 30 Jan. 2006: 8.
About the Author
Anyi Wang was born in 1954 and is still alive today. Her place of birth was Nanjing, China. She was born to a writer by the name of Ru Zhijuan. She attended college at the University of Iowa as part of their international writing program. She is an active member of the Chinese Association of Writers and she remains an active novelist that has written a number of screenplays and short fiction. She engages in a circuit of lectures in both China and the United States. Her credits include a rather large volume of works including The Rain Patters On, Liushi, Huanghe Gudao Ren and others. She is also a consistent and current writer for the magazine known as Childhood (Encyclopedia).
Even the lesser known facts about the author are rather intriguing. She is indeed one of the more prominent voices that exists in an era that…
Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization
The revolutions in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Bahia as described and detailed in the three text From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer and The Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 Dialogos Series, 12 by Michael j. Gonzales all tell varied stories regarding the thematic development of revolution and change. Each has a different story to tell about labor, free and slave, politics, race and freedom yet underlying each of these themes is a current that is not only consistent but largely underdeveloped. This theme is agricultural and its changing labor and production practices. This work will analyze and compare the treatment of agriculture as a theme associated with each local. Each nation demonstrates the story of profiteering through agriculture in varied ways, and the rejection of it.
In each work…
Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868-1898. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Gonzales, Michael. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2002.
Torston Graden, Dale. From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835-1900. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2006.
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…
Hileman, Tony Living on the Creative Edge of Our Culture available at www.americanhumanist.org/about/messageED1.php
Wiener, Philip P. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas available at http://etext.virginia.edu/DicHist/dict.html
Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., the Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978)
We are surrounded on all sides by enemies, and we have to advance almost constantly under their fire. We have combined, by a freely adopted decision, for the purpose of fighting the enemy, and not of retreating into the neighboring marsh, the inhabitants of which, from the very outset, have reproached us with having chosen the path of struggle instead of the path of conciliationæthere can be no talk of an independent ideology formulated by the working masses themselves in the process of their movement, the only choice is -- either bourgeois or socialist ideology. There is no middle course (for mankind has not created a "third" ideology, and, moreover, in a society torn by class antagonisms there can be a non-class or an above-class ideology)."
The Revolution of 1905 developed in two phases. First, a diverse group opposing the Tsar and encompassing much of the political spectrum took form.…
8. Freeze, Gregory. (2002) Russia: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, ibid.
9. Freeze, Gregory. (1995) From Supplication to Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, ibid.
10. Carr Hallet Edward. (1981) A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution. New York: The Macmillan Company, ibid.
Ogburn identifies four social revolutions that have occurred as the result of new technologies. The first was the move from the hunter-gathered model to pastoralism or horticulturalism, where people settled either to raise animals or to grow plants for food. Technologies for hunting or agriculture made such moves possible. As we were able to learn enough about food production to remain in one place for extended periods, we chose to do so.
The next step was the move to an agrarian society. Using both animals and machinery, we were able to make significant improvements in food production, not just for food but for other uses as well. This allowed for much greater population density, as well as excess production for winter months. The third social revolution was the development of the industrial society. Machinery that dramatically increased productivity brought about industrial society, which incorporated a stronger division of labor.…
Boundless.com. (2007). The four social revolutions. Boundless.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-social-change/sources-social-change/four-social-revolutions/
Boundless.com. (2007). Ogburn's theory. Boundless.com. Retrieve April 13, 2013 from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-social-change/sources-social-change/ogburn-s-theory/
Compare similarities differences revolutions America, France, Latin America. Identify common themes present revolution. What fighting ? Who influenced revolutions? What outcome revolution? What effect revolutions world?.
evolutions in America, France, and Latin America:
Causes, ideology, and consequences
Perhaps the most notable difference between the 18th century revolution in America vs. The 18th century revolution in France was one of class: America was not, primarily, a class-driven revolution. The Founding Fathers and supporters of the American evolution came from the elites of American society. George Washington was an important British general during the French-Indian Wars and Benjamin Franklin was a prominent figure in American colonial politics before talk of revolution became common currency. The colonists' frustration at what they perceived as the British Crown's unreasonable taxation policy and their growing economic power that was not honored with political power within the Empire was at the heart of the American evolution.…
Kelly, Martin. (2012). Causes of the American Revolution. About.com. Retrieved:
Minster, Christopher. (2012). Causes of Latin American revolutions. About.com. Retrieved:
evolution Movies Marketing
Workers Protection Acts
Investigate ways in which community arts organizations develop and maintain an audience
In the recent past, there has been a notable improvement in the field of arts. Many people in the community are now garnering interest in arts like never before. As a result, there has also been an increase in the community art organization. This is of course due to the need to fulfill the demand for the interest in art. However, it is an enormous challenge for organizations to acquire audience. Furthermore, the bigger challenge is to maintain the audience that they already have. Therefore, it is imperative that there are strategies that can happen in both situations. Community art organizations need to use all the appropriate methods to acquire a new audience. This is possible through advertising although the most suitable is to get to know the target group. There should…
Carpenter, G., & Blandy, D.E. (2008). Arts and cultural programming: A leisure perspective.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Cherbo, J.M., Stewart, R.A., & Wyszomirski, M.J. (2008). Understanding the arts and creative sector in the United States. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press
Daragh O'Reilly. & Finola Kerrigan. (2010). Marketing the arts: A fresh approach. Taylor & Francis. London.
This feeling of anger and resentment is effectively illustrated through the conflict between Abner and the Negro, De Spain's helper.
In this conflict, Abner is seen resisting the Negro's attempt to stop him from trespassing De Spain's home. Evidently, the Negro's status in life is much better than Abner, who has to toil very hard in order for him and his family to survive everyday. This fact infuriates Abner, and his resentment against the Negro's condition in life is reflected in his hateful statement about his poverty and De Spain's seemingly unfair status as a wealthy man: "Pretty and white, ain't it?...That's sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it ain't white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat in it" (175). This statement is Abner's own way of protesting against his condition in life, a bitterness that reflects not only class conflict between the wealthy and…
Fox, R. (1998). A companion to American thought. MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Horton, M. (2000). "Balzacian evolution and the origin of the Snopeses." Southern Literary Journal, Vol. 33, Issue 1.
Kartiganer, D. (1997). Faulkner in cultural context. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
Krevling, M. (1998). Inventing Southern literature. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi.
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…
1. Cultural Environment
Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.
Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.
Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…
Cultural school focuses on the culture of the individual entities that form the organization. Culture, it asserts, drives the organization's judgment and operational strategy resulting in differences such as between a Japanese and American organization.
In contradistinction to the power school that places the loci on the individual as well as the entrepreneurial school that does likewise (this time on the leader), the cultural school insists that individuals are a homogenized whole, their decision, beliefs, judgments, and actions formed by their specific culture. In this way, therefore, to understand an organization necessitates understanding its culture. Organization culture -- the premise of the cultural school -- is, oftentimes, understood as collective cognition since a deeply rooted culture produces closely interwoven interpretations and activities.
Content and Process.
Culture is ineradicably part of the individual's makeup. His or her perspective on the world is shaped by this culture, and since organizations are a…
Rieger, F. 1987. 'The influence of national culture on organizational structure…' Dissertation, McGill Univ., Montreal.
Roth, K. & Ricks, D.A. (1994). 'Goal configuration in a global society context.' Strategic Management Journal, 15, 103-140.
Wright, J.P. 1979. On a Clear Day you can see General Motors. Wright Enterprises: MI.
How can we respond to their criticism? Both Freud and Marx were attempting to define something that is not quantitative in a quantitative manner. Faith cannot be measured in dynamic terms, nor can it be universally quantified. We might also point out that there is a clear difference between faith and religion. Faith is a concept, a belief, a trust; religion is manmade, and as any student of history knows, variable over the course of time, society, and individual cultures.
Does faith have a psychological and social value? Based on the very scientific principles of conservation of energy, humans would not be able to conceive or participate in, the concept of faith and religion unless it had elements that were essential to human culture. Just as people have many different tastes in food and clothing, so has history shown us that the same is true for religion? Faith is a…
Ambrose, S. (2006). Religion and Psychology. New York: Nova Science Publications.
Palmer, M. (1997). Freud and Jung on Religion. New York: Routledge.
Pals, D. (2006). Eight Theories of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The following quotation provides an indication of the changes that an emerging China represents. "We are now witnessing an historic change, which though still relatively in its infancy, is destined to transform the word. The developed world...is rapidly being overhauled in economic size by the developing world. (Jacques, 2009, p. 2) This view is also supported by other predications such as the projections by Goldman Sachs that "…the three largest economies in the world by 2050 will be China, followed by a closely matched America and India some way behind…" (Jacques, 2009, p. 3)
In the final analysis, an ideological impetus and the struggle for power were the main reasons for the inception of the Cultural evolution. This revolution brought about many dramatic changes in the society that had mainly negative social and economic consequences. However, it is also possible that the excesses and failures of the Cultural evolution have…
Chen, Jack 1976, Inside the Cultural Revolution, Sheldon, London.
Cohen, M.L. 1993, 'Cultural and Political Inventions in Modern China: The Case of the Chinese Peasant', Daedalus, volume 122, no 2.
Fenby, J 2008, the Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to 2008, Allen Lane, London
Gao, M 2008, the battle for China's past: Mao and the Cultural Revolution, Pluto Press, London.
The expansion meant progress and it implemented the idea of progress into the minds of the new people. As Thomas Jefferson noted, the permanent moving forward of the boundaries and the idea of growth and multiplication enhanced the feeling of unfailing progress: "However our present interests may restrain us within our limits, it is impossible not to look forward to distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand itself beyond those limits, and cover the whole northern, if not southern, continent, with a people speaking the same language, governed in similar forms, and by similar laws; nor can we contemplate with satisfaction either blot or mixture on that surface." (Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation, 1970, p. 746) Turner was the one who has actually laid the basis for a theory of the frontier in American history in the nineteenth century. Before him however, Jefferson, long before he came…
Donald McQuade, Robert Atwan et all. (1999) Harper American Literature, Single Volume Edition. Third Edition. New York: Harper.
Peterson, Merrill D. 1970. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation. New York: Signet
Smith, Greg. (2001) "Supernatural Ambiguity and Possibility in Irving's 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow'." The Midwest Quarterly 42.2: 174.
The Frontier and the West.(2001)" Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons.
Over the course of the 1960s, the United States saw great social and political upheaval, as countless young people revolted against a system that was fundamentally incapable of effectively representing them or their desires. Though the decade saw the development of a number of important social and political efforts, such as the civil rights movement, the hippie movement has come to define the era, and for good reason. Hippies not only opposed the Vietnam War, but they also formed a counter-culture, opposing repressive standards of dress, behavior, and even thought, and, ultimately, they ended up forcing the entire country to undergo a dramatic ideological shift. The films Head, Skidoo, and Psych-Out represent three different reactions to the social conflict that gave rise to the hippie movement, and each films' implicit or explicit treatment of psychedelic drugs, as well as its representation of preexisting entertainment genres, reveals its particular…
Becker, M. (2006). A point of little hope: Hippie horror films and the politics of ambivalence.
Velvet Light Trap, (57), 42-59.
Goostree, L. (1988). The monkees and the deconstruction of television realism. Journal of Popular Film & Television, 16(2), 50-50.
Thomas, K. (1968, Nov 20). Monkees cavort in head at the vogue. Los Angeles Times (1923-
Social Revolution 1945 to 1990
Eric Hobsbawm's writing style was that of a historian. Nevertheless, his objective was always: adding to political action and thought, which he accomplished more effectively through this book than all his other works. Retrospectively, the author discovered that global socialism's challenge to the capitalist idea had a strength which was its opponent's weakness. Also, in truth, a large number of individuals who backed socialism sincerely to the very end held a belief, for long, that socialism's political yzantinism, bureaucratic rigidities, and mass murders would eventually be overcome, and that the above horrors were responsible for ensuring capitalism remained afloat. The weaknesses of the socialist theory were underrated, while those of the capitalist theory were overvalued. In effect, the world was convinced in its belief that capitalism was unable to solve issues, while socialism could tackle their own issues. However, the latter issues were deep-rooted rather…
Araghi, F. A., 1995. Global Depeasantization, 1945-1990. The Sociological Quarterly, 36(2), pp. 337-368.
Berman, S., 2011. Understanding Social Democracy. Columbia University, pp. 2-38.
Freedman, L., 1997. Review of The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991. [Online]
Available at: http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/28
The regime was crazy, as were the times. It was a very difficult thing for the young boy and his family since the regime of Mao constantly went from one extreme to another. Like most people, they were just trying to find their way in the world and probably at a base level could not have cared one way or other about the party or politics except as far as it was necessary to have a decent life and to get ahead. This cultural craziness was followed up later with the Cultural Revolution (ibid, 116). All of this chaos was combined with food shortages, so the quality of life was not good for Liang Heng's family (ibid, 16-17).
It is amazing that Liang Heng is able to keep his humanity. He is told "You're a human being, not an animal. You have the right to be loved" (ibid, 262). This…
Heng, L., & Shapiro, J. (1984). Son of the revolution. New York, NY: Vintage.
Deng Xiaoping and Modernization
During the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong led a tremendously aggressive and transformative movement within mainland China that would forever change the face of his country and the people within its borders. Since the beginnings of Mao's communist China, there existed a powerful will amongst his supporters to remove the liberal bourgeois from Chinese society; the Cultural Revolution took this agenda to further, far more frightening extremes, in order to achieve that goal. During Mao's iron grip on China, he led the country into a nightmarish world of flawed policies, persecution, and utter destruction of the economy. Originally intending to industrialize and develop the nation by means of a proletariat movement, Mao sought to lift the lower class out of their poverty, calling on farmers, small-time laborers, and other low-income citizens to band together in order to oust undesirable members of society. At many points throughout his…
1. "The People's Republic Of China: II," University of Maryland, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/prc2.html .
2. "China Is a Private-Sector Economy," Bloomberg Business Week, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948478.htm .
3. "Remembering Mao's Victims," Spiegel Online International, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,483023,00.html .
4. "China -- "Socialist market economy" or just plain capitalism?," International Marxist Tendency, accessed December 7, 2010, http://www.marxist.com/china-socialist-market-economy200106.htm.
Just as in the U.S. economy, where individuals have been economically left behind, such will be, and is, the case in the emerging global economy (p. 10). Ayres says that the impression, or the turning of society's blind eye towards the chaos of the economically disenfranchised, tends to cause the more affluent amongst us to believe that the term "global" means everybody will be a part of the emerging global economics, and this will produce an economic benefit that will be enjoyed by everyone (p. 10). That is not accurate, and, moreover, those people who presume to take a comfort in the economic globalization are not just turning a blind eye to the disenfranchised, but may find their selves vulnerable in a way that serves to be their light, much like Hank's in Monster's Ball. On this point Ayres says:
There is a popular impression, among the affluent and…
Ayres, Ed. "The Expanding Shadow Economy." World Watch July-Aug. 1996: 10+. Questia. 3 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000388341 .
Boin, Arjen. Crafting Public Institutions: Leadership in Two Prison Systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001. Questia. 3 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105966245 .
Bloody Aftermath of evolution: Did it Have to Happen?
evolutions have a tendency to gain a terrible momentum. The level of both organization an anger that is required to overturn an established government (especially one that is either of long standing or autocratic nature or both) can continue to build in intensity and force even after the previous government has fallen, thus making the revolution a success. The result of such revolutionary force tends to run in at least two directions and often both at once. The revolution may turn inward, destroying (and usually executing) its original leaders. And it may turn outward, destroying the nation that it sought to rescue. The most revolutionary governments are likely to do both.
This paper analyzes the purges of the Khmer ouge that followed its revolutionary takeover of the government of Cambodia, assessing whether such purges were necessary to maintain the…
Kiernan, B. (2004). How Pol Pot Came to Power: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Communism in Cambodia, 1930 -- 1975 (2nd Ed.) New Haven: Yale University Press.
The fall of the Khmer Rouge, http://www.edwebproject.org/sideshow/khmeryears/fall.html
Khmer Rouge, http://www.enotes.com/genocide-encyclopedia/khmer-rouge
Rinaldo, R. (1997). Revisiting the Killing Fields: The Khmer Rouge and Globalization. http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/revisit.htm
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
What autos a society depends on says a lot about that society too, and the gas-guzzling SUVs and pickups that have made up the backbone of American transportation indicate our indifference to global problems, including the problems the country is creating itself.
What is so disturbing about America's role in the five-gas-stations theory is the message it sends quite openly to the rest of the world. Friedman notes in his essay that this message breeds resentment because the United States is not content to spread technology and industrialization. In addition, it is spreading democratization, capitalism, fast food, and even Hollywood values to the rest of the world, and many of them strongly resent America for its presumption that everyone would be better off following her example, whether they want to or not (Friedman 134). The country feels the need to drag everyone down the same "righteous" path, and that is…
Friedman, Thomas L. "Revolution is U.S." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 130-135.
Pierre Bourdieu, "The Field of Cultural Production" from David Finkelstein and Alistair McCleery, the Book History Reader, London: Routledge, 2002.
Bordieu's work is interesting in terms of analyzing contemporary media production. It is interesting that a person's profession defines and narrows is or her perspective. To wit: Bourdieu spoke about 'culture'. Now, even though his intention was culture in the conventional sense, fields including science (which in turn includes social science), law and religion, as well as expressive domains such as art, literature and music, when he spoke about culture he onerously focused on the expressive-aesthetic fields, namely literature and art. These were his occupations and this is what the man thought about. It is possible that another, perhaps a scientist, writing about culture, would extract th scientific aspect of it. Since Bourdeau was an author, he approached it form that tangent and, thereby, gave culture his own p-articular meaning.…
1297). Another study referenced by Correll in the article claims that female consultants are rated "less competent" when described as being "a mother" than women who have no children at home. In our culture, Correll continues, fathers are not discriminated against because "…understandings of what it means to be a good father are not seen in our culture as incompatible with…what it takes to be a good worker" (p. 1298). But when women are mothers, they are seen as less "committed" than women without children.
Brown, Alan S. "Study: Women Are Putting Family Before athematics." echanical
Engineering 131.5 (2009): 10-12.
In this article two Cornell University professors conducted a study by researching "400 studies and analyses of women in math-related professions"; the results of their research shows that twice as many women as men "drop out of math-intensive careers, including engineering" Brown, 2009). Why do women leave engineering and math-intensive…
Mason, Mary Ann, and Ekman, Eve Mason. Mothers on the Fast Track: How a New
Generation Can Balance Family and Careers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
In this book, the authors present -- in a positive light -- a wide swath of issues that face working mothers, but the sum and substance is that "Mothers who persist do remarkably well" (p. 53). In fact, mothers with children "under six" earned more "and were promoted more quickly than women without children." Indeed, "successful mothers get the workplace to work for them," the authors report (p. 54). They get the work done well and completely, but they do it in a different time frame than men. One reason female lawyers and corporate executives who are also mothers succeed, the book explains, is that they have "the ability to say no" (p. 54). They refuse evening meetings, and to stay strong mothers in corporate positions have "physical stamina, an ambitious nature, and just plain luck" (p. 53).
Thompson "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," The Romantics.
In the article "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," author E.P. Thompson explores the restoration of literary works by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Specifically, Thompson is interested in the moment when the poet became politically aware and disenchanted with the environs around him, turning his distaste into pieces of literature. While making his argument, Thompson delves heavily into the possible psychological profile of the author and his break with Godwinism. By doing this however, Thompson makes a critical mistake which all literary scholars and critics are meant to watch out for: that is confusing the narrator of the literature with the author himself.
Remarkably, Thompson determines that the change in Wordsworth's writings came at a time when he stopped writing towards an ideal and instead directed his writings at a real person. He writes, "It signaled also -- a central theme of…
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.
Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
Notably, as a reform-minded Catholic himself, he argues that the Virgin Mary is the first to reach the shore safely, with her baby in tow, and that the Pope is the first to die, following his riches into the sea. His goal of speaking to reform-minded Catholics is achieved through a witty dialog format. This colloquy establishes a metaphorical description of the reform in the Church. While it is difficult to follow for the lay person or the student of history without in-depth knowledge of the Church and the Reformation, it serves its function by bringing history to light in a dramatic and surprising new way.
Zola's Germinal, and the relevant passages which describe the workers' strike presents a grim and realistic view of the state of workers in relation to the owning classes during a coalminer strike in northern France in the mid-1800s. The description of the workers' living…
Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form
The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…
13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: http://www.ushistory.org/us/13h.asp
Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=8A-PwV_3zkcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=culture&f=false
Expectations Change That Led evolution
Compare Contrast Expectations Change Led evolution 1917/Civil War ealities
How the ideological changes that accompanied the revolution shaped the arts/culture of ussia/USS
The social and economic systems experienced tremendous transitions occasioning to stress among the populations of ussia. The great reforms formed a cautious path to modernization and reform. Through emancipation, peasants were allowed to own pieces of land and had the personal freedom to share their pieces of land. However, these peasants were not happy with the settlement programs based on emancipation because they held the belief that they were legal owners of the land. This claim became a major source of discontent leading to the 1917 peasant revolution (Sampson & Marienhoff, 2008).
ussia experienced a turning point at the onset of 1917; the nation was prepared for revolution and indeed, they saw the first revolution, which brought rapid changes and increased social opportunities.…
Rossman, V. (2010). Russian intellectual antisemitism in the post-Communist era. Lincoln, Neb:
Sampson, R.J., & Marienhoff, I. (2008). The American economy: Analysis, issues, principles.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin
University of Pittsburgh., & American Political Science Association. (2005). United States political science documents. Pittsburgh: University Center for International Studies,
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
Enlightenment on the French evolution
evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.
Introduction to the French evolution
When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…
Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000). http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html.
Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke
University Press, 1991.
Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.utm.edu/ressearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm.
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…
Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.
Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.
Hooke, Robert. Micrographia. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.
Konnert, Mark. Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious Warfare, 1559-1715. North York, on: Higher Education University of Toronto Press, 2006. Print.
371). In addition, the cultural strain can result to conflicts like for instance when the fundamentalists denies the proposition to abandon their traditions (Allan, 2005, p. 367), where the strain as an agitation of a cultural anticipation in a system, as it tries to disturb the equilibrium of the system.
Considering a society characterized by different individuals that have varied backgrounds and understanding, shaped by different surroundings, and having understanding that there exists no perfect society, this society from the continuing challenges is experiencing cultural strain, as there exists differences in opinions from the structural constituents of the system thus an abrupt need for social modification. This is from the mechanical solidarity resulting from valued traditional practices as well as values and beliefs, and on the other part organic solidarity where there are differences on individual demands concerning their tasks. From a Parson's approach, this rapid need for change then…
Allan, K. (2005). Explorations in classical theory: Seeing the social world. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Pine Forge Press.
Hartnell. (n.d.). Sociological theories: the anomie strain theory, society is underachiever.
Hartlnell.edu. Retrieved from www.hartnell.edu/faculty/lbertomen/.../Sociological%20TheoriesI.ppt
Era of the American Revolution, 1760-1791, by Richard D. Brown. Specifically it will use only pages 47-59 & 79-87 to answer the following question: Did a separate Colonial identity emerge in the decades before the American Revolution?
Ultimately, a separate Colonial identity was emerging as soon as the first settlers touched land in America in the 1600s. The colony was formed with dissidents who left England because of religious persecution, and they were far enough away from the mother country to form their own working political relationships. As essayist Greene notes, the relationship between England and America was "in many respects an uneasy connection" (Greene 48). By the 1760s, we had developed our own judicial system, our own educational system, and our own political institutions, such as the assembly, which actually worked better than their English counterparts did. The colonists were also productive and successful. Many who had…
Anderson, Fred. "Friction Between Colonial Troops and British Regulars." Major Problems in the Era of the American Revolution, 1760-1791. Richard D. Brown, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. pp. 79-87.
Greene, Jack P. "The Preconditions of the American Revolution." Major Problems in the Era of the American Revolution, 1760-1791. Richard D. Brown, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. pp. 47-59.
Against the party supported by the Committee of Union and Progress, devoted to centralization, Ottomanization, and destruction of special privileges for national, religious, or foreign interests, was the liberal party, in touch with Greek, Armenian, Bulgarian, Arab, and Albanian nationalists, suspected of alliance with the Sultan and reaction. Kiamil Pasha, found his support here and was forced to resign (Maloy, et al. 2006). Himil Pasha was less strongly English (Maloy, et al. 2006). As the revolution became more military, those who remembered Paris played less part (Maloy, et al. 2006). The Adana massacres and the failure to adequately punish those responsible, caused a corresponding coolness of the English and French toward the Young Turk (Maloy, et al. 2006). The growing power of Enver Pasha, the "hero of the revolution," was also thrown toward Germany (Maloy, et al. 2006). In spite of all this, it is probable that at the beginning…
The Turkish Revolution of 1908-9.
Source: Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914. Prepared for the National Board for Historical Service. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1918.
The Revolution of 1908 in Turkey (Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia, No 58) (Hardcover) by Aykut Kansu (Author)
Brill Academic Publishers (April 1997)
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…
Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. irthebest.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html
Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Irish.jsp
"Industrial revolution: The industrial revolution in Great Britain." (2006) The Columbia electronic encyclopedia. Pearson Education Publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858818.html
Kreis, S. (2001). The origins of the industrial revolution in England. The history guide. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Industrial evolution: esult of an Agricultural evolution?
The Industrial evolution which began in Great Britain in the eighteenth century, and still continues in certain parts of the world, is considered by some historians to be the most significant transformation in the economic environment of human civilization after the Neolithic evolution. There are a number of reasons that triggered and sustained the transformation of an agriculture-based economy to an industrial-based economy, but perhaps the most significant was the occurrence of an 'Agriculture evolution' in Britain in the century following 1750. In this essay, I shall discuss why this was so, besides describing the following:
The causes and outcome of the Agricultural evolution
Features of the Industrial evolution
The Social Consequences of the Industrial evolution
Karl Marx and Emile Durkhiem's theories about the Industrial evolution
How an Agricultural evolution in Britain triggered the Industrial evolution?
Most historians are in agreement that the…
Ashton, T.S. (1997). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Four Field System." (2004) Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/003f.html
Jones, R.A. (1986) Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. (1894) "The Communist Manifesto." The Project Gutenberg Etext. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext93/manif12.txt
Industrial evolution - a curse to the Europeans
The industrial revolution has changed the face of the earth and has completely transformed the lifestyle of people. The development in the society, brought by means of several new inventions, has brought number of benefits to a common man. The benefit and rewards of Industrial revolution were not limited to England or the United States, who are the pioneers of the Industrial revolution, but it has spread all around the world with the span of time. The advancement in technology brought by the Industrial evolution facilitated the development of innovative and efficient ways of producing goods, manufacturing services and creating new methods of transportation. As a result of these developments the function of the market system transformed completely, hence changing the way people perceived their standing in the society and change their requirements and needs with respect to their basic necessities. egardless…
F.C. Dietz: The Industrial Revolution: (1927, reprinted. 1973)
T.S. Ashton: The Industrial Revolution (1948)
J.W. Osborne: The Silent Revolution: The Industrial Revolution in England as a Source of Cultural Change (1970)
McCloskey, Robert Green: American Conservatism In The Age Of Enterprise1865-
Consequences of the Industrial Revolution on English Society
The ninety years between 1760 and 1850, commonly regarded as the "First Generation" of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, were to bring about sweeping changes: technological, economic, philosophical and social. Previously, technology was low. Manufactured goods were produced by hand, often in the home or in small workshops, by skilled artisans who generally specialized in making one type of goods or one component of an item. The economy was dominated by agriculture, and the majority of the population was rural. ealthy families who owned the land rented it to tenant farmers; these tenants, while mostly illiterate, had the opportunity to grow their own food and live in somewhat appealing and healthful surroundings. They were almost a cashless society, paying their rents and buying goods largely through their produce and exchange of labor. Their diversions often centered around fairs and saints' days, and…
Chadwick, Edwin. "Report from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain." London, 1842, pp. 369-372. http://22.214.171.124/victorian/history/chadwick2.html
Gaskell, P. The Manufacturing Population of England. London, 1833 http://126.96.36.199/victorian/history/workers2.html
Hartwell, R.M. "History and Ideology," Modern Age, Vol. 18, No. 4, Fall, 1974.
Hartwell, R.M. The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth. London: Methuen and Company, 1971.
Latin American Revolution: New Tactical Approach
The transition in how revolution occurs in Latin America can be explained by a growing awareness of the inefficiency of modern bureaucracy and/or government. In the past, revolution has occurred primarily through the overthrow of one government and the establishment of another. Today, however, revolution is more cultural—it is rooted more in the living of lives and less in the dynamic of governmental oversight. As Holloway states, “We are flies caught in a spider’s web…We can only try to emancipate ourselves, to move outwards, negatively, critically, from where we are” (Holloway 5). What this means is that it is useless to attempt to act as the spider acts—which is what replacing one government with another essentially signifies in the modern age. The web is what needs to be avoided—and so revolution is now centered on escaping the web—the web of politics, the web of…
Iranian Cinema After the evolution
An introduction to Iran:
Iran or Persia as it was previously known was founded more than 4,000 years ago and is thus one of the oldest surviving nations of the world. Iran had been primarily ruled by series of dynasties including such illustrious families as the Achaemenids (500-330 B.C.), the Sassanians (A.D. 226-650), and the Safavides (1500-1722). Iranian dynasties have been synonymous with victories and land acquisition but at the present Iran has s 1,648,195 square kilometers of Middle Eastern territory under its command. It is situated close to former ussia and two former Soviet republics (Azerbaijan and Tajikistan) are its close neighbors. Some other prominent neighbors include the Caspian Sea in the north, Turkey and Iraq in the west, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. And in the south it has the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman as its neighbors. The…
1. Akrami J. ( 1987). "Persian cinema and politics in Iran." In J. DH Downing (Ed.), Film and politics in the Third World . New York: Praeger.
2. Akrami J. (1990). "Feature film in Persia." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.
3. Asadi A. & Mehrdad H. (1975). Nagsheh rasaneh-ha dar poshtibani toseaeh farhanghi [The role of media in support of cultural development]. Tehran: Iran Communication and Development Institute.
4. Gaffary F. (1990). "History of cinema in Iran." In Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.
Nash's wok may have contibuted to the wide eading ou moden texts include, athe than the evisionist vesion which paaphases down to 'the Noth had to accept slavey against its will because the South would have balked fom the new epublic.' Ou selection of texts, paticulaly the pimay mateial, conside this dynamic with moe balance than in the centuy and a half pio to Nash, if his histoiogaphy is tue. Nash applauds DuBois paticulaly as one of the fist to contovet such mythologization (p. 72), and we have ead some of his pimay woks. Nash suppots and expands upon DuBois and the othe eadings; what Nash does contadict is the assetion that "We hold these tuths self evident," and poves the authos of those wods had thei finges cossed when they signed at the bottom of that page.
What I took most fom Race and Revolution was a wide undestanding…
references, is the inherited wisdom I mostly encountered in public education. Nash's version that the North bore equal responsibility, and that this aggregate responsibility was caused by individuals who constituted and perpetuated abstract institutions forming the new nation, helps balance the Southern separatist explanation as perhaps history as revised by the victors (p. 3). This is a valuable perspective for all who would understand a national identity where slavery and then segregation comprise seven-eighths of our history rather than the nominal equality only one generation has experienced for an entire lifetime so far.
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…
Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
China Cultural Syncretism
eligious Separation Within China's Lack of Cultural Syncretism
Interestingly enough, several of the political factions and domestic wars that have typified the vast majority of China's extensive history can be traced, in large measure, to the country's cultural roots and its ability (or lack thereof) to rectify its inherent cultural tendencies with those of other nations and the surrounding world at large. In particular, the cultural, philosophical and political mandates and manifestos of Europe and Japan can be directly attributed to the political state of China today, particularly when one considers the division between the communist People's epublic of China (which primarily occupies the mainland) and its progressively left-wing agenda, and the right-wing tendencies of the epublic of China which has occupied Taiwan and its surrounding islands for more than the past 60 years. The speculative historian could make an excellent argument that this division in hegemony…
Khan, N. (2011). "History of China." Retrieved from http://travelinghost.wordpress.com/2011/05/02/history-of-china/
Caswell, T. (2003). "China." Retrieved from http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialism/china.cfm
Christine S. Austin, Y. Stephanie, C. (2011). "Story of Imperialism: China. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/bubble105/story-of-imperialism-china
Hore, C. (2009). "When China Threw Off Imperialism" Retrieved from http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=10980
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
..crucial to Chinese calendrical calculation and astrological divination" (21). In principle, because the legitimacy of the emperor depended upon the harmony of the heavens, it was important that such early clocks be accurate, but they were not important in the way that a esterner today would think of the importance of time, in terms of making or synchronizing a critical appointment with other people.
The estern clock succeeded because it could be miniaturized and personalized, and because there was a greater practical and cultural need for clocks in the est. hen missionaries later came to China one of the few things the Chinese approved of from the foreigner's culture was their mechanized clocks. One of the reasons that the Jesuits had such sophisticated clocks was their faith's great need for determining accurate daily time, as long ago in monasteries, there were fixed times for prayers. Europe's embrace of the clock…
Landes, David. Clocks: Revolution in Time. New York: Belknap Press, 2000.
Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.
Statement of Thesis
The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.
Mesopotamia & Egypt
What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…
Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm
Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/indus_valley.htm