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A Summay of the Seven Most Theatening Scams of ou Geneation
Cybecime is a seious theat to continued use and eliance on the intenet. Fom bank accounts, to e-mail addesses and a myiad of passwod, if one is not caeful, identity theft, account beak-in, and othe such cybecimes can happen vey quickly, and with incedibly negative epecussions. This pape will aim to summaize the study "The Seven Scam Types: Mapping the Teain of Cybecime" by Ambe Stabek, Paul Wattes and Robet Layton at the Intenet Commece Secuity Laboatoy, and will also descibe the pupose of the study, its intended audience, and the vaious details given fo the eade, as well as tems and efeences.
Pupose of the Study
The pape's abstact stats by stating that the theat of cybecime is a gowing dange in today's economy. This is a stong statement, and claifies the…
references, ranging from 1998 and 2010, so most of them are relatively recent. They are, furthermore, all topical, and among them there are some efforts to other studies, and the entities mentioned in the introductions above, i.e. The Australian Bureau of Statistic and the Australian Centre for Policing Research. However, authors also reference themselves, in A., Stabek, S., Brown, and P., Watters, "The case for a consistent cyberscam classification Framework," in First Cybercrime and Trustworthy Computing Workshop, 2009, further cements the authors' authority.
Cybercrime is certainly one of the most serious modern threats in today's world and the paper referenced throughout the paragraphs above only proves this, and does so in a very organized, well-documented way. Thus, by offering a clear strategy and organizational structure, "The Seven Scam Types: Mapping the Terrain of Cybercrime" by Amber Stabek, Paul Watters and Robert Layton at the Internet Commerce Security Laboratory successfully achieves its purpose of introducing a strategy in order to standardize scam incidents.
Malicious activities like identity theft, harassment and phishing activities are conducted by the cyber criminals by making use of the anonymous context of the cyber world to their advantage. Phishing scams are conducted in such a manner by the scammers that websites are created by them and emails are sent out in order to trick the account holders into revealing sensitive information like passwords and account numbers. These crimes are usually solved by the investigators in such a manner that they back trap the IP addresses on the basis of the data which is present in the header of these anonymous emails. Although, at times the information which is gathered from the IP address isn't enough to identify the culprit in case that the information is sent from a proxy server or if the computer used to send the email has more than one user (Fouss et al.,…
Abbasi, A. And Chen, H. (2009). A comparison of tools for detecting fake websites, IEEE Computer, 42 (10), pp. 78 -- 86
Abbasi, A., Zhang, Z., Zimbra, D., Chen, H. And Nunamaker, J.F. Jr. (2010). Detecting fake websites: the contribution of statistical learning theory, MIS Quarterly, 34 (3), pp. 435 -- 461.
Fouss, F. Achbany, Y. And Saerens, M. (2010). A probabilistic reputation model based on transaction ratings. Information Sciences, 180 (11), pp. 2095 -- 2123.
Hu, Q., An, S. And Yu, D. (2010). Soft fuzzy rough sets for robust feature evaluation and selection. Information Sciences, 180 (22), pp. 4384 -- 4400
Most of these systems should be programmed to prompt for username and password in order grant access.
This is therefore a way of providing verification to the user. The passwords should be changed regularly in order to make the system more secure. The password should comprise of very hard-
to- guess alpha numeric characters
Organizational techniques of prevention
In order to combat cyber crime, various governments and organizations should come up with special departments and units that target cybercrime. An example would be the setting up of Cybercrime Prevention and Fighting Center by the Taiwanese government so as to tackle cyber crime (Chung et al., 2004). Special cyber crime prevention units should be set up by various governments in order to deal with the menace. Organizations must take various necessary to protect their interests. The initial step is to understand the seriousness of the threats caused by cyber crimes to…
Chung, W., Chen, H., Chang, W., & Chou, S. (2006). Fighting cybercrime: A
review and the Taiwan experience, Decision Support Systems, 41 (3),
Cobbs, RW (2003). Cyber Security: The Status of Information Security and the Effects of the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) at NASA
In this scenario, "if a bad guy wants to take over an account, he'll have someone else speak in a different language in a different location, and that's all they do. Their expertise is calling financial institutions for social engineering" (Piazza 2006). According to Piazza (2006), cybercrime consists of any crime a person commits by using a computer or computer technology. He classifies various types of cybercrime into four primary categories, which include:
unauthorized access to computer programs and files, unauthorized disruption, theft of identity, and carrying out of traditional offenses, such as distribution of child pornography, using a computer (Piazza 2006).
Ditzion, Geddes and Rhodes (2003) contend that due to the myriad of diverse computer related offenses, nothing less than the definition by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) would suffice. The DOJ generally defines computer crime as "any violations of criminal law that involve a knowledge of computer…
Bartlett, John, comp. Familiar Quotations, 10th ed, rev. And enl. By Nathan Haskell Dole. Boston: Little, Brown, 1919; Bartleby.com, 2000.
A www.bartleby.com/100/.Available from: http://www.lib.flinders.edu.au/services/infolit/nureference.pdf[08 March 2008].
Brenner, Susan W. "At Light Speed" Attribution and Response to Cybercrime/terrorism/warfare." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 97.2 (2007): 379+. Questia. Available from: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021769883 [08 March 2008].
Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section United States Department of Justice 2008. Available from: http://www.cybercrime.gov/reporting.htm [08 March 2008].
Cyber Crime Task Force
"Are computer vulnerabilities growing faster than measures to reduce them? Carelessness in protecting oneself, tolerance of bug-filled software, vendors selling inadequately tested products, or the unappreciated complexity of network connectivity has led to…abuse…" (Lukasik, 2011).
The evidence is overwhelming that cyber crimes are not only increasing each year, but the sophistication of the attacks is greater each year and the impacts of attacks are more severe each year as well. hile cyber criminals' activities are taking a greater toll around the world -- and in St. Louis -- there is a great need to organize a Cyber Crime Task Force that incorporates appropriate private and public agencies, including law enforcement, the FBI, the U.S. Attorney's Office in St. Louis, and other relevant organizations. Thesis: Cyber crimes are happening at a faster rate than ever before and the attacks are taking a greater impact each year. Unless…
Bhaskar, R. (2006). State and Local Law Enforcement is not Ready for a Cyber Katrina.
Communications of the ACM, 49(2), 81-83.
Buck, C. (2014). Credit Cards to get security chip upgrade. The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved
February 10, 2014, from http://www.sacbee.com.
Part of the problem is that America's national crime reporting systems, such as the National Incident-Based Crime eporting System and the Uniform Crime eport Program managed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in cooperation with thousands of U.S. law enforcement agencies, do not specifically identify or distinguish between many forms of online crimes. Nor do they effectively distinguish between traditional in-person forms of crime that are substantially facilitated by online activities of offenders.
Victimization surveys also generally do not ask questions about specific computing and telecommunication technologies involved in crimes that have been committed, though this is beginning to change. Since 2001, the U.S. Department of Justice has conducted specific studies of cybercrime against business and identity theft. esults of this research suggest that millions of businesses and households are affected by online crimes each year. For example, of 7,818 businesses surveyed in National Computer Security Survey by the…
Amber Stabek, Paul Watters and Robert Layton, (2010). The Seven Scam Types: Mapping the Terrain of Cybercrime. Internet Commerce Security Laboratory, University of Ballarat, Mt Helen, Australia.
McQuade, S.C. (2006). Understanding and managing cybercrime. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
McQuade, S.C. (2009). The Seven Scam Types: Mapping the Terrain of Cybercrime. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
McQuade, S.C., & Sampat, N.M. (2008). RIT survey of internet and at-risk behaviors. Rochester, NY: Rochester Institute of Technology.
These "stepping stone" computes can be located anywhee in the physical wold because eal-space is ielevant to activity in cybespace (Benne, 379)." The use of stepping stones can make it difficult fo law enfocement to find whee an attack actually oiginated.
As was peviously mentioned in this discussion, Hackes ae often used by companies to develop stonge secuity. Hackes often pefect thei techniques at conventions that also featue hacking competitions. The competitions ae usually sponsoed by lage oganizations and challenge the Hackes to see if they can beak the companies pogamming codes o hack into thei systems. Accoding to an aticle found in the Yale Law Jounal
The contests ae popula among hackes. One contest...logged almost 20,000 attacks. The companies caefully tailo thei competitions to the paticipants' motivations. Moe than a passing fad, competitions ae inceasingly pevalent, and some of them ae annual affais. Companies continue to put contests to…
references and Deter Computer Crime." Yale Law Journal 112.6 (2003): 1577+.
Yang, Debra Wong, and Brian M. Hoffstadt. "Countering the Cyber-Crime Threat." American Criminal Law Review 43.2 (2006): 201+.
Since the late 1980s, the Council has addressed the growing international concern over computer-related crimes. In 1997, it established a Committee of Experts on Crime in Cyberspace (PC-CY) to begin drafting a binding Convention to facilitate international cooperation in the investigation and prosecution of computer crimes. The United States actively participated in both the drafting and plenary sessions (Chawki).
The Convention stipulates actions targeted at national and inter-governmental levels, directed to prevent unlawful infringement of computer system functions. It divides cybercrime into: hacking of computer systems, fraud, forbidden content (racist websites and child porn content) and breaking copyright laws. The Convention has been signed by 32 European and non-European States and ratified by nine. However, the Convention on Cybercrime is, so far, the only internationally binding legal basis for strengthened cooperation worldwide.
At the Eleventh United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in Bangkok on April 26, 2005,…
Chawki, Mohamed. Critical Look at the Regulation of Cybercrime. 2005. Retrieved April 26, 2005. http://www.iehei.org/bibliotheque/CriticalLookattheRegulationofCybercrime.doc
Denning, Dorothy. Cyberterrorism. Testimony before the Special Oversight Panel on Terrorism Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives.
May 23, 2000. Retrieved April 26, 2005. http://www.cs.georgetown.edu/~denning/infosec/cyberterror.html
Goldstein, Emmanuel. "Hackers in Jail," 2600 Magazine, 6.1, Spring 1989, np.
Cybercrime is a term that is used to refer to criminal activities involving the use of computers or computer networks as tools, target, or places of criminal offenses. This type of crime incorporates electronic cracking, denial of service attacks, and traditional offenses where computers and computer networks are used for conducting illegal and illicit activities. Throughout the world, cybercrime has been reported as amongst the most significant and widely used revenue sectors for global organized crime. This type of criminal activity is primarily divided into two main sides i.e. The generation side and the victimization side. In the context of national security, cybercrime involves traditional espionage, hacktivism, and/or information warfare and related activities.
In the past 10 years, cybercrime has emerged as a serious security threat across the globe because of its nature and the environment in which it's conducted. The predominance of this type of crime has resulted in…
"Cyber Crime: A Clear and Present Danger -- Combating the Fastest Growing Cyber Security
Threat." (2010, January 25). Deloitte Development. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedStates/Local%20Assets/Documents/AERS/us_aers_Deloitte%20Cyber%20Crime%20POV%20Jan252010.pdf
"Cyber Crime Strategy." (2010, March). Home Office. Retrieved from Office of Public Sector
Information -- UK Government website: http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm78/7842/7842.pdf
Cybercrime has become a serious problem in the world we live in. The abundance of personal computers that are readily available at relatively low prices has spawned the growth in Cybercrime all over the globe. As a result, law enforcement agencies have developed cybercrime forensics which is designed to track down those that are responsible for cyber crimes. The purpose of this discussion is to analyze this subject and discuss the consequences and effects through evidence and reason. Let us begin our discussion with a description of cybercrime and cybercrime forensics.
Cybercrime and Cybercrime forensics
Cybercrime involves a plethora of crimes including everything from the creation and spreading of worms and viruses to identity theft. According to the Department of Justice cybercrime is defined as "any violations of criminal law that involve a knowledge of computer technology for their perpetration, investigation, or prosecution (Ditzion, et al.)." More specifically cybercrimes that…
Crump, Catherine. "Data Retention: Privacy, Anonymity, and Accountability Online." Stanford Law Review 56.1 (2003): 191+.
Ditzion, Robert, Elizabeth Geddes, and Mary Rhodes. "Computer Crimes." American Criminal Law Review 40.2 (2003): 285+.
Jacobson, Heather, and Rebecca Green. "Computer Crimes." American Criminal Law Review 39.2 (2002): 273+. Questia.
Kruse W., Heiser, J. What Exactly Is Computer Forensics?. 11 September 2005 http://www.developer.com/java/other/article.php/3308361
Cyber Crime: Threats and Preventive Measures / Cyber Crime: A ising Problem
Methods Used to Commit Cyber Crime
Methods Used to prevent Cyber Crime
The area of cybercrime is growing rapidly. An increasing number of criminal-minded individuals are taking advantage of the unrecognizability, speed, and convenience offered by the Internet, for perpetrating a variety of crimes, which know no bounds, either virtual or physical, causing grave harm and posing very real risks to victims across the globe. New cybercrime trends crop up every now and again, costing the world economy several billion dollars. Earlier, cybercrime was largely perpetrated by small groups or individuals. Of late, however, the world is witnessing extremely advanced cybercriminal networks that combine real-time efforts of individuals from all over the world to perpetrate web-based offenses on an extraordinary scale (Sundaram & Umarhathab, 2011).
Methods Used to Commit Cyber Crime
Criminal groups increasingly resort to the World…
Interpol. (2015). Connecting Police for a Safer World. Retrieved from http://www.interpol.int / on 8th December, 2015.
Norton. (2015). Online Fraud: Phishing. Retrieved from http://in.norton.com/cybercrime-phishingcom/cybercrime-phishing on 8th December, 2015.
Reyes, A., Brittson, R., Shea, K.O., & Steele, J. (2011). Cyber Crime Investigations: Bridging the Gaps between Security Professionals, Law Enforcement, and Prosecutors. USA: Syngress.
Schuette, B. (2015). Consumer Alert. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/ag/0,4534,7-164-17337-252538 --, 00.html on 8th December, 2015.
Think of a bank o motgage company who is hacked, and the amount of pesonal data that can be downloaded and used elsewhee ("Cybe Investigations"). In addition, many hackes come into govenmental o business computes and cash those seves, place viuses, bots, Tojans, email bombs, etc. -- o mine the data o manipulate the data -- whee fo competitive advantage o simply "as a pank," this is all pat of this gene of seious Cybecime (Wall, 2007).
Because of this plethoa of cybecime, Fedeal, State, and Local agencies continue to ty to cutail the effots of these ciminals. Pivate copoations continually change thei softwae and secuity potocol, but it is taking a geat deal moe complex codes to keep Cybeciminals out (Moeau, 2006). Most States, in fact, have thei own Cybecime units, most especially (at the State and Local level) to act in a moe tactical manne. Because of the…
Cain. M. (2003), "Managing Technology," cited in:
Carvajal, Doreen, (4/6/08), "The Evolution of CyberCrime, Inc.," International
Cybercrime has been a hot button topic in recent years. A crime involving digital services or computers, cybercrimes typically is when someone targets a computer for a crime, uses a computer as a tool for a crime, or has computer containing evidence of a crime. Since the rise of information technology, cybercrime has become taken center stage as a shift in criminal activity means more criminals doing business online and using computers or attacking computers as a result of it. Criminal investigators and law enforcement have thus begun efforts to control prevent and investigate cyber activities to avoid major problems for the Government, agencies, organizations, and individuals. As one article put it, it is a battleground. "The digital world has become a battleground for the forces of good and evil. There is an ever increasing awareness that the digital world provides an unlimited opportunity to further one's goals"…
Dez-elan, T. & Vobic, I. (2016). (R)evolutionizing political communications through social media. IGI Global.
Doerner, W. & Lab, S. (2014). Victimology (7th ed., p. 15). Routledge.
Dunn Cavelty, M. (2014). Breaking the Cyber-Security Dilemma: Aligning Security Needs and Removing Vulnerabilities. Sci Eng Ethics, 20(3), 701-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11948-014-9551-y
Gedikli, M. (2014). Improvements of cyberspace and effects to the battlefield.Cyber Sensing 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2053356
Contemporary Cyber-warfare Cases Studies
In 2011, the Center for Strategic and International Studies published Significant Cyber Incidents Since 2006 (Lewis, 2011) as part of its Cyber and Internet Policy, Technology and Public Policy Program. Among the incidents detailed in that report, referenced by their year of occurrence:
After officials in former-Soviet Estonia removed a World War II memorial from its capital city of Tallinn in the Spring of 2007, a large-scale cyber-attack disabled the websites and computer networks of Estonia's government offices, the office of the president, the Estonian Parliament, police facilities, news organizations, two of Estonia's largest financial institutions.
United States Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, confirmed has his unclassified email account had been successfully hacked. Subsequent investigation identified that attack as having originated directly from the People's Liberation Army in China.
As German Chancellor, Angela Merkel visits China, German, French, and ritish government computer systems suffer a…
Baker, W., Hylender, C., and Valentine, J. (2008) Verizon Business Data Breach
Investigation Report. Accessed 29 October 2011 from:
Dyer, C., McCoy, R., Rodriguez, J., and Van Duyn, D. "Countering Violent Islamic
cybercrime and cyberterrorism? How should we respond to these if we detect them?
Although 'cybercrime' and 'cyberterrorism' have had flexible definitions in common legal and corporate parlance, perhaps the best way to define these 'cyber' criminal and security issues are to focus on the fact that 'cyber' refers to anything taking place in the world of cyber, or virtual rather than physical space. Cybercrime is thus using a computer and cyberspace specifically as a tool to commit a crime, a crime that could not otherwise be committed without a computer. For instance, merely stealing a computer is not a cybercrime, for the stealing of tangible goods is something that has always existed. Nor is using a computer to type up and print out false receipts with a word-processing program, as if that computer was a typewriter. However, hacking into an online system to access credit card numbers and other criminally…
Cybercrime: The Internet as Crime Scene." (2004) Retrieved on June 26, 2004 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/315/315lect12.htm
Newman, Robert C. (2003). Enterprise Security. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Krasavin, Serge. (2004) "What is Cyberterrorism?" Computer Crime Research Center. (CCRC). Retrieved on June 26, 2004 at http://crime-research.org/library/Cyber-terrorism.htm
cybercrime and the ways we can guard against them in the workplace.
Because the inherent nature of the Internet is stateless and borderless, it is an ideal 'location' to facilitate already-illegal operations. "Telecommunications equipment being used to facilitate organised drug trafficking, gambling, prostitution, money laundering, child pornography and trade in weapons "and the general dissemination of offensive materials (Grabosky & Smith 1998). Likewise, identity theft has always occurred but it is rendered much easier by the Internet through techniques such as phishing and spoofing. While piracy and copyright infringement also existed pre-Internet, the Internet has made copies much more easily available and of higher quality. "Digital technology permits perfect reproduction and easy dissemination of print, graphics, sound, and multimedia combinations. The temptation to reproduce copyrighted material for personal use, for sale at a lower price, or indeed, for free distribution, has proven irresistible to many" (Grabosky & Smith 1998). Criminals…
Grabosky, P. & Smith, R. (1998). Crime in the digital age. Sydney: Federation Press, 1998.
Hayman, K, Miora, M., & Forbes, A. (2010). Is cybercrime a threat to your business? PC World.
The available and accessible features of 21st century make it hard for any individual to think about a life without technology. In real, the world has crossed several stages and eras devoid of the cyber world. Despite this truth, imagining life without technology is a difficult task today. This is because communication between countries of the two opposite poles has now become easy; it's merely like being in touch with the next door neighbor. The cyber world and the age of technology revolve around the idea of connecting with the world, inventions and scientific advancement. Although, a life without technology would be a nightmare because of the benefits it has brought to the world, the negative consequences attached with it actually make life more difficult.
The cyber world is an example of the technological progress. It is all about the virtual world where at many places, computer have…
Britt, P. (2005). No Phishing Allowed. Information Today. Retrieved on 6th July, 2011 from ProQuest database.
Carnes, P.J. (2003). "The anatomy of arousal: Three Internet portals." Sexual and Relationship Therapy. Vol. 18, No. 3.
Clark E. (2010). Cyber Law in Australia. Kluwer Law International.
Garrett, J. (2005). Best practices for card fraud prevention. Credit Union Magazine. Retrieved on 6th July, 2011 from ProQuest database.
Americans have always been worried about crime, and a recent poll cited crime as the single most pressing concern that Americans have, even above issues that likely affect their quality of life more, such as education and the state of the economy. Concern about crime is often generalized -- people do not necessarily express any one specific crime type that worries them more than others (Saad, 2014). One reason for this might be that different types of crime have different impacts on people's lives. A person might rightly fear murder above all other crimes because, while rates are usually low, the outcome is the most severe. However, crimes with high rates, such as burglary or vehicle theft, have high rates. They might have near zero impact on overall quality of life, but if people feel that they have a high likelihood of being a victim, then they might feel…
Saad, L. (2014). Crime tops list of Americans' local concerns. Gallup Retrieved March 5, 2016 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/2800/crime-tops-list-americans-local-concerns.aspx
Riffkin, R. (2014) Hacking tops list of crimes that Americans worry most about. Gallup. Retrieved March 5, 2016 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/178856/hacking-tops-list-crimes-americans-worry.aspx
It is important to note that today, unlike was the case a couple of years ago, technology has made it easy for businesses to compete more efficiently, reduce costs associated with doing business, and address the needs of customers in a more effective manner. However, the same technology has brought with itself some unique challenges. This is particularly the case with regard to increased instances of cyber crime.
Cyber crime and its Impact on Businesses and Consumers
Cyber crime, according to Thomas and Loader (as cited in eyes, Brittson, O'Shea, and Steele, 2011, p. 28), constitutes of all those "…computer-mediated activities which are either illegal or considered illicit by certain parties and which can be conducted through global electronic networks." The examples of cyber crime offered by the authors in this case include, but they are not limited to, software piracy, industrial espionage, network break-ins, etc. As the…
ESET Staff Writer. (2014). California Company Sues Bank Over Cybercrime, Wins $350,000 Settlement. Retrieved from http://www.welivesecurity.com/2014/06/20/california-company-sues-bank-cybercrime-wins-350000-settlement/
Newtek Contributor. (2013). How to Prevent Cyber Crime. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com /sites/thesba/2013/08/28/how-to-prevent-cyber-crime/
Reyes, A., Brittson, B., O'Shea, K. & Steele, J. (2011). Cyber Crime Investigations: Bridging the Gaps between Security Professionals, Law Enforcement, and Prosecutors. New York, NY: Syngress.
Snow, G.M. (2011). Testimony: Statement Before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov /news/testimony/cybersecurity-responding-to-the-threat-of-cyber-crime-and-terrorism
Cyber crime is pernicious and can only be stopped through a widespread and diverse campaign involving primarily prevention. Moreover, cyber crime can only be prevented and stopped by better understanding the types of cyber crimes, and differentiating between them. For individuals and businesses, preventing cyber crimes entails a variety of common sense activities and tools including overall education and awareness that includes ongoing updates about how to secure sensitive data and prevent problems. Some cyber crimes are actually traditional crimes carried out in the digital landscape, ranging from child pornography to human, drug, and weapons trafficking. Other cyber crimes present clear threats to national security, such as hacking of banking or utilities management systems. Each type of cyber crime needs to be dealt with individually, with a broad overall approach that empowers individuals and businesses against would-be criminals.
The nature of cyber crime is de-centralized and geographically independent. Therefore, task…
Broadhurst, R. (2006). Developments in the global law enforcement of cyber-crime. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 29(3): 408-433.
Nykodym, N., Taylor, R. & Vilela, J. (2005). Criminal profiling and insider cyber crime. Digital Investigation 2(4): 261-267.
United States Department of Homeland Security (2015). Combating cyber crime. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/topic/combating-cyber-crime
Why must we include these 5 variables into our research design? Provide at least two sources to support your answer/variable selection.
A lack of tight security implementation makes a system vulnerable to viruses and other malware attacks. This can result in failure of the system, and also an even more widespread computer failure, as viruses are spread from user to user. Security encroachments are also serious matters when users entrust personal information to a company or the government, such as Social Security and credit card numbers and credit card data. Encryption of sensitive data; limits to entry by unauthorized users; regular maintenance (ensuring users are forced to use very secure passwords and to change them regularly); keeping track of regular patterns of use so unusual activity can be spotted by the system; and periodic 'test runs' of attacks are all essential for a high-functioning secure system (McNamara 2011). Significant vulnerabilities…
Hoover, Tim. (2010, December 14). Colorado's state computer systems fail hacker test. The Denver Post. Retrieved February 24, 2011
McNamara, Carter. (2011). Basic computer system security. Management Help.
Retrieved February 24, 2011
Terence Watkins' "The Seven Scam Types: Mapping the Terrain of Cyber Crime: A Literature Review." This literature review is much more in-depth in that it connects each piece of literature wile giving relevancy to lie to the arguments contained. The author of this review was able to use his own insight to create a picture of the cyber crime taking place without jumping to subjective moral or ethical conclusions or judgments. This is one of the paper's strengths, which also helps the paper flow smoothly and keep the reader's attention. The paper is also structured very logically and flows well given that the author was able to create a very clear and concise argument structure based upon facts and readings. This also helps the paper's main arguments by creating a logical, believable, and trustworthy framework to the connections and arguments the writer poses.
One of the weak points of this…
Cybercrime, Cybercriminals, And Cybercops
Cybercrime has long been perceived to represent new crimes arising from the emergence of technological advancement, but an examination of the history of cybercrime reveal that its roots are as ancient as the crimes of fraud, harassment, and malicious property damage. The history of cybercrime is reviewed briefly here, as are the challenges faced by law enforcement efforts to curb cybercrime. Some gains have been realized, such as stemming the losses incurred from identity theft, but the virtual landscape changes so rapidly that new threats and criminal tactics are constantly emerging.
Cybercrime, Cybercriminals, and Cybercops
Cybercrime is formally defined by the Canadian Police College as illegal activity which depends materially on the use of computers to commit crimes or when computers are the object of the crime (Kowalski, 2008, p. 5-6). A contemporary example of the use of computers in criminal activity would be hacking…
Hesseldahl, Arik. (2010, Oct. 14). How bad guys worm their way into factories. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 3 Dec. 2011 from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/oct2010/tc20101013_236876.htm
James, Randy. (2009, June 1). A brief history of cybercrime. New York Times. Retrieved 3 Dec. 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1902073,00.html
Kabay, M.E. (2008). A Brief History of Computer Crime: An Introduction for Students. Retrieved 2 Dec. 2011 from www.mekabay.com/overviews/history.pdf
Kowalski, Melanie (2002). Cyber-Crime: Issues, data sources, and feasibility of collecting police-reported statistics. Cat. 85-558-XIE. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Minister of Industry. Retrieved 3 Dec. 2011 from http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/85-558-X/85-558-XIE2002001.pdf
Cyber crime is an ongoing and growing problem for businesses, for government, and for private individuals throughout the world. This paper identifies the kinds of cyber crime that are threatening computer users, notably businesses. It also proposes strategies that businesses can embrace that will (in many cases) prevent the intrusion of cyber criminals into servers and hard drives.
hat particular cyber crimes do businesses / individuals need to be wary of?
An article in the peer-reviewed journal Performance Improvement (Nykodym, et al., 2010) points out -- using FBI data from 2005 -- that computer crimes cost American organizations an estimated $67.2 billion every year. Not all cyber crimes are committed against businesses in order to steal passwords and intrude into servers to re-route financial information or actually seize funds from companies. In fact an FBI update in 2012 reports that the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) has received 290,000 complaints…
FBI. (2012). Internet Crime 2012 / IC3 Releases Annual Report. Retrieved June 28, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov .
Latamore, Bert. (2010). Cyber Threat Growing More Focused and More Sophisticated. Seybold Report: Analyzing Publishing Technologies, 19(1), 11-14.
Nykodym, N., Kahle-Piasecki, L., and Marsillac, E.L. (2010). The Managers Guide to Understanding, Detecting, and Thwarting Computer Crime: An International Performance
Issue. Performance Improvement, 49(5), 42-47.
Currently, the internet has become a significant infrastructure, which has brought new degrees of productivity, convenience, and effectiveness for the private and public firms. The many incidents of internet attacks reflect the vulnerability of the information systems, the severity of malicious programs and the offensive nature of technology. Similarly, either attackers can hide their identity, through disabling logging facilities or altering event logs, which makes them go undetected. On the other hand, some programs have the capability of disabling anti-virus or penetrate firewalls. This has made such security violations to have multi-dimensional impacts on individual internet users, businesses, time, human resources, loss of money, and psychological losses. This, on another hand, shows that the internet and the superior information infrastructure are not short of security violations (Wilson & Kiy, 2014).
Many scholars have given possible reasons the internet is vulnerable to these attacks. The reasons include failure to…
Haller, J. (2010). Best practices for national cyber security: building a national computer security incident management capability. Retrieved from http://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetid=9221
HRSA. (2014). How do I ensure security in our system? Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/healthit/toolbox/HIVAIDSCaretoolbox/SecurityAndPrivacyIssues/howdoiensuresec.html
Indiana University. (2014). Information University technology services. Retrieved from http://kb.iu.edu/data/akln.html
Li, X. (2006). Cyber security as a relative concept. Information and security an international
Cybercrime how to defend against social engineering
There are several attack vectors for cybercriminals, which means that people need to have an equal number or more of ways to defend these attacks. Social engineering is one tactic, and it works in part because the attackers essentially bypass formal defenses such as firewalls or antivirus. Instead, social engineering is “the art of exploiting the human flaws to achieve a malicious objective” (Breda, Barbosa & Morais, 2017). A typical social engineering attack would be a phishing scam, but others would include hackers tricking people into providing information, which is then used against them (Kaspersky, 2020).
Protecting personal information online where social engineering attacks are concerned means training people in how social engineering attacks work, what the attackers need you to do, and how to spot typical scams. This training can often be done with courses, or online, and many security providers offer…
Wide Web, an addition of online users resulted in both good and bad individuals. With increasing data online, the chances of it being misused increased as people got more technologically aware. Since the internet provides people with anonymity and complex ways of broaching personal privacy and data bounds, the legal ramifications had to be considered by regulators. Delineating the boundaries of cyber law became increasingly important in order to protect users online.
What is Cyberspace Law?
The Cyberspace law, also known as the cyber law, is a piece of legislation that regulates transactions and communications over the Internet or over other interconnected devices and technologies. This legislation protects members of the public, particularly internet users from illegal activities by hackers and other persons or entities with ill-intentions (LaMance, 2015). The law regulates several parts of the communications world including:
Freedom of expression
Electronic and mobile commerce…
LaMance, K. (2015). Cyber Law. Retrieved from Legal Match: http://www.legalmatch.com/cyberspace-law-guide.html
Shinder, D. (2011, Jan). What makes cybercrime laws so difficult to enforce. Retrieved from TechRepublic: http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/it-security/what-makes-cybercrime-laws-so-difficult-to-enforce/
The Law Dictionary. (2015). Most Popular Computer Crimes. Retrieved from http://thelawdictionary.org/article/most-popular-computer-crimes/
Cyber Crimes and the FBI
The investigative techniques used by the FBI in the case of Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov were completely legitimate and necessary; moreover, they demonstrated that law enforcement of the United States was prepared to use any means necessary to apprehend these flagrant security risks. "Court papers described the men as kingpins of ussian computer crime who hacked into the networks of at least 40 U.S. companies and then attempted to extort money" (Brunker, 2000). These men were formidable criminals who used the Internet and computers as their weapons of choice to destroy, manipulate and victimize American companies. There's a very strong and very legitimate argument which asserts that the only way to go after such elusive criminals is via the same type of trickery and subterfuge that they engage in themselves. It's very hard to fight fair with criminals who are engaging in the most…
Brunker, M. (2000). Fbi agent charged with hacking. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/3078784/ns/news-internet_underground/t/fbi-agent-charged-hacking/
Jahnke, A. (2005, April 25). A hacker story. Retrieved from http://www.crime-
Koerner, B. (2002, June). From russia with lopht. Retrieved from http://legalaffairs.org/issues/May-June-2002/feature_koerner_mayjun2002.msp
Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime Investigation
HCC Partner is the top healthcare company in the United States, and the management has noticed an intrusion in the systems based on the alerts from their IDS (Intrusion Detection System) logs that causes the management to question the reliability of the system. Analysis of their systems reveals that HCC uses the Snort IDS that is running in Linux system. Moreover, the HCC database administrator has received and downloaded the strange email from the Human Resources Department, which makes the system behaving strangely after they open the attachment.
he objective of this project is to analyze the HCC database server, the network system and other workstations suspected leading to data leakage. he project will investigate whether there is a possibility of evidence of data breach.
A: Plan for Processing the Incident Scene and Potential Crime
he study uses the staircase model for the investigation…
The next step is to develop a documentation of the evidence. The study suggests using the digital camera take the photos of all the evidence. The photo must ensure 360-degree coverage of the scene. The photo must reveal the location of all the seized computer systems. The front, back, and, side by all photos must photograph. However, there is a need for a videotaping of the active screen monitor. The photographs should reveal the position of mice, computer components, cables and other evidence.
Casey, E. (2011). Digital evidence and computer crime: forensic science, computers and the Internet. Waltham: Academic Press.
The fate of Target when it comes to cybercrime is fairly well known. They hit the headlines for all the wrong reasons when their customers' credit card information was exploited during a holiday season in recent years. Given that and given the ominous and ever-present threat of cybercrime, this brief report shall serve as a good guideline to help prevent cybercrime events and damages, or at least mitigate them. The lessons learned from Target's own breach are on full display in this report but there are other real-world lessons, events and principles that should also be considered and remembered.
Invest in Software & Hardware
• Do not go cheap or cut corners on hardware
• Do not go cheap or cut corners on software
• Make sure all software is fully functional and licensed
• Ensure uptime of all systems is as close to 100% as…
BSIMM. (2017). Penetration Testing Types & Remediation. bsimm.com. Retrieved 5 June 2017, from https://www.bsimm.com/framework/deployment/penetration-testing/
Ou, G. (2007). TJX's failure to secure Wi-Fi could cost $1B | ZDNet. ZDNet. Retrieved 5 June 2017, from http://www.zdnet.com/article/tjxs-failure-to-secure-wi-fi-could-cost-1b/
Winter, M. (2014). Home Depot hackers used vendor log-on to steal data, e-mails. USA TODAY. Retrieved 5 June 2017, from https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2014/11/06/home-depot-hackers-stolen-data/18613167/
Therefore, its important that every individual takes step to maintain a good credit history.
How to build a good credit history
Once the importance of credit is understood, the next step is to take measures to build or maintain a good credit score and history. It is not rocket science to have a good credit history. Some amount of restraint and basic financial discipline is all that is required to get a clean credit history.
For starters, one should learn to live within his or her means. Impulse shopping should be avoided at any cost. A better way to buy products is to plan and save for them. This can get the buyer out of credit troubles because the real pinch of money will be realized only when the dues have to be paid. It is also equally important to have good financial planning and disciplined living. All bills have…
There are many different types of cybercrime committed. The general class of cybercrime reflects any crime that occurs over the Internet. These can range from hacking crimes to identity theft, and anybody or any entity that is online can be vulnerable to cybercrime. The list of ten major cybercrimes covers a wide range of crime types and victim types, highlighting the diverse range of criminal activity that falls under the category of cybercrime.
One of the cases identified in the video was that of Max Vision, a hacker who stole credit card information. Max Vision stole over two million credit card numbers, and was sentenced to a record 13-year sentence for this crime in 2010 (Poulsen, 2010). He had sold the stolen numbers to other criminals, and they racked up $86.4 million in fraudulent charges.
Vision was a cyber security consultant in the late 1990s, and was one…
"10 Notorious cyber crimes" (2014). Alltime 10s./YouTube. Retrieved March 17, 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0iaRn2WwPw
Poulsen, K. (2010). Record 13-year sentence for Max Vision. Wired. Retrieved March 17, 2016 from http://www.wired.com/2010/02/max-vision-sentencing/
Technology in Crime
Cyber crime is a growing threat characterized by an increasing sophistication that makes it difficult to take a proactive stance on prevention. For instance, there are people in China whose job it is to obtain competitive information from companies based in the United States. Competitive information can be protected, proprietary data the loss of which can cost companies millions of dollars over the short-term, and even greater amounts over the long-term. The scale of cyber crime impacting businesses ranges from simple pirating of entertainment such as music and movies -- which can certainly be costly when it occurs on a large scale -- to accessing databases that contain credit or personal information protected by law and ordinarily secured by a constellation of cyber strategies and teams of internet security professionals. The cumulative cost of petty cyber crime is astonishingly high -- the cost of organized,…
There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.
It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop…
2011 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. (2011). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/annual_reports/annual_report_full_11.pdf
GAO Critical Infrastructure Protection Commercial Satellite Security Should Be More Fully Addressed. (2002). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://www.gao.gov/assets/240/235485.pdf .
Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1131&context=cm
Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://swfound.org/media/93632/SSI_FullReport_2012.pdf
The organizations are usually run by a core group, which divides the different responsibilities of an operation (e.g. spamming, web design, data collection) among the members. The members run their own outer networks to fulfill those responsibilities -- rarely even having contact with each other online. The decentralized structure of the internet, as well as the high levels of anonymity it provides makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to locate cybercriminal groups. A group could have networks in a myriad of different countries, whilst using servers based in numerous different countries and jurisdictions. Furthermore, many national jurisdictions lack the legislative framework required to properly prosecute online crime." (Collins, 2012)
These insights are illustrating how the lack of self-control is creating a situation where more criminals or organizations are turning to cyber crime. What makes the situation worse; is they can work anonymously and be able to conduct these activities…
Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime. London: Academic.
Collins, a. (2012). Contemporary Security Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gregg, M. (2010). Hacker Techniques, Tools and Incident Handling. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Gryzbowski, K. (2012). An Examination of Cyber Crime and Cyber Crime Research. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Scottsdale.
This seems to be a case of some mischievous young men getting in way over their heads and not realizing how serious the consequences of their actions would be. Early on in the investigation, they were apparently laughing about the incident and enjoying their stint in the media spotlight (Poulsen, 2008). Now that they have been sentenced to serious jail time and are forced to pay major restitution, the seriousness of their crime has undoubtedly begun to sink in.
While there was no new legislation specifically attached to the Comcast incident, crimes such as this demonstrate that computer security is an enormously difficult problem for which no simple solution exists. Obviously there are differences between detecting an intrusion attack and preventing one from occurring in the first place. Preventative measures are obviously more helpful and less complicated, however with new intrusion techniques cropping up all the time, it is…
Comcast Hackers sentenced to prison (2010, September 24) U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/criminal/cybercrime/lewisSent.pdf
Poulsen, K. (2008, May 29) Comcast hijacker say they warned the company first, Wired, Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/05/comcast-hijacke/
Poulsen, K. (2009, November 20) Three charged as Comcast hackers, CNN Tech/Wired. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2009-11-20/tech/comcast.hacking.charge_1_hackers-domain-e-mail?_s=PM:TECH
Cyber-Crime in a New Age of Law Enforcement
ith the new introduction of the online sphere, law enforcement today faces unique challenges those previous generations could never even imagined. The internet allows the ability to create an online presence that has virtually no relevance to the real world character of the user. People can now create an online presence with the ability to construct a range of pseudonymity that was never before possible (Gyorgy, 2002). Therefore the person that you think you are communicating with may be a different person altogether.
Furthermore, people can set up a range of different personalities and have multiple identities online that they can use for a range of malicious activities. For example, it is possible for an elderly man who has perverted tendencies to portray himself as a young school girl on online chat forums. In these arenas there is seldom any verification…
Gyorgy, P. (2002). The Tale of Cookies (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Social Research, 239-245.
Jayakumar, A. (2014, March 13). Target looking into response to cybersecurity breach; retail sales rose in Feb. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/target-looking-into-response-to-cybersecurity-breach-retail-sales-rose-in-feb/2014/03/13/91d16ece-aae8-11e3-af5f-4c56b834c4bf_story.html
TEDGlobal. (2010, July). Julian Assange: Why the world needs WikiLeaks. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_assange_why_the_world_needs_wikileaks.html
TEDGlobal. (2012, July). Michael Anti: Behind the Great Firewall of China. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/michael_anti_behind_the_great_firewall_of_china.html
Intrusion Detection Systems: etail-Based Cybercrime and the Importance of Security Point of Sales Endpoints Systems
etail-based cybercrime and the importance of security Point of Sales Endpoints Systems
The recent technological advances have resulted in increased dependability of network-based technology for everyday usage. Points of sales systems have also evolved, and they are now linked to the company's network, which makes them vulnerable to attacks. The number of attacks leveled against POS endpoints has increased steadily in recent times . This is because they are mostly stand-alone and they are used to capture credit card information. The attackers are mostly interested in customer information for fraud or identity theft purposes. In order for POS systems to verify customer information and process credit cards, they need network connection. The network connection provided is dependent on the store. Large stores connect their POS systems to the internal network in order to simplify administration…
 B. Qawami, B.Z. Talaich, and M.J. Farrell, "Enabling a Merchant's Storefront POS (Point of Sale) System to Accept a Payment Transaction Verified by SMS Messaging with Buyer's Mobile Phone," ed: Google Patents, 2012.
 P. Kabiri and A.A. Ghorbani, "Research on Intrusion Detection and Response: A Survey," IJ Network Security, vol. 1, pp. 84-102, 2005.
 S.R. Snapp, J. Brentano, G.V. Dias, T.L. Goan, T. Grance, L.T. Heberlein, C.-L. Ho, K.N. Levitt, B. Mukherjee, and D.L. Mansur, "A system for distributed intrusion detection," COMPCOM Spring, vol. 91, pp. 170-176, 1991.
 N.B.W. Mlitwa and D. Birch, "The role of intrusion detection systems in electronic information security: From the activity theory perspective," Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9, pp. 296-312, 2011.
Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal Activities
Canadian Policies to Combat Crime and Terrorism
Problems being faced due to Cyber-Crime in Today's World
What is Identity Theft?
How and Why Cyber-Crime Occurs?
Why Cyber-Crime has become an Important Issue?
How elease of Personal Information makes an Individual vulnerable to Identity Theft?
Since time immemorial, crime and criminal activities have been found at an accelerated pace, however, with the penetration of the world into the twenty first century with numerous technological advancements and innovations, these acts have taken a new form. This evidently signifies that crime through cyberspace has become one of the widespread and prevailing activities of the today's fast paced world, where the entire human race is moving towards the industrial and hi-tech progressions at a constant speed. Moreover, the criminal and terrorist activities in a more sophisticated version have become a common aspect of mundane…
Balkin, J.M. (2007). Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment. Edited Version. New York, USA: NYU Press.
Brenner, S.W. (2010). Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace. USA: ABC-CLIO.
Burgess, A., Regehr C., & Roberts, A. (2011). Victimology: Theories and Applications: Theories and Applications. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Clough, J. (2010). Principles of Cybercrime. 1st Edition. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
This will help researchers to have a greater understanding of the problem. (Hughes, 2008, pp. 109-127) (Kumar, 1999, pp. 135 -- 176)
As a result, the five different questions we are asking include:
1. Do you think that cybercrime is a growing problem? Select one choice: strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree.
2. Do you feel that cybercrime is a threat to your community? Select one choice: strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree.
3. Are you taking preventive measures to protect yourself against cybercrime? Select one choice: strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree.
4. Have you ever been the victim of cybercrime or known someone who was? Select one choice: strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree.
5. Do you think that the laws should be strengthened and these kinds of crimes should be monitored more carefully? Select one choice: strongly agree, agree,…
Balkin, J. (2007). Cybercrime. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Gady, F. (2011). Statistics and the Cybercrime Epidemic. EWI.info. Retrieved from: http://www.ewi.info/statistics-and-cyber-crime-epidemic
Hughes, M. (2008). A Research Primer for Technical Communication. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
Kumar, R. (1999). Research Methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
Securing the Electronic Frontier
Consider how cybercrime is defined and how it relates to the issue Internet vulnerabilities.
Cybercrime is any illegal or illicit activity which is mediated by internet usage and which is aimed at accessing, stealing or destroying online data. This may include hacking of government websites, phishing scams, disruption of commercial service sites or penetration of privately held databases containing personal information about private citizens. The presentation given by Hypponen (2011) at a recent TED conference helps to underscore the vulnerabilities to which the Internet exposes us, indicating that both our privacy and our financial security are at risk on the web. Cybercrime presents an ongoing challenge to database hosting services, commercial entities, political organizations and government agencies, all of which must find a balance between creating user-friendly, accessible web experiences and establishing fortified defenses against potential breaches of privacy, security or stability.
2. hat are…
Goel, S. (2011). Cyberwarfare: Connecting the Dots in Cyber Intelligence. Communications of the ACM, 54(8).
Hypponen, M. (2011). Three types of online attack. TED.com. Retrieved on June 16, 2012 at http://www.ted.com/talks/mikko_hypponen_three_types_of_online_attack.html
Spinello, R.A. (2004). Reading in Cyber ethics (2nd ed.). (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. Chapter 5
Spinello, R.A. (2011).Cyberethics - Morality and Law in Cyberspace (4th ed.). (4th Ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. Chapter 6
Foundation and Focus The foundation for the Classical Theory to crime focused less on the criminal and targeted more on securing a rational, fair system for controlling and putting punishments in order. Little concern was given to causes of criminal behaviors. Significant words/definitions related to this theory include:
Classicism - The Enlightenment view of crime that stresses free will and rationality and the corresponding rationality of the justice system....
Free will - According to the classical school, people possess reason. This means that they can calculate the course of action that is in their self-interest. This in turn gives them a degree of freedom....
Just deserts - A justification for punishment which insists that offenders should be punished only as severely as they deserve. It was a reaction against the unfair excesses of rehabilitation and the 'get tough' drive from conservatives during the 1970s." (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer &…
Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: Sociological Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Crime and punishment. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 14, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service:
Cybercrime - High Tech crime." (2006). JISC Legal Information Service. Retrieved 15 July 2006 at http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/cybercrime/cybercrime.htm.
Curious Case of Gary McKinnon
There is much controversy with regard to information in the digital age and Gary Mckinnon's case is especially intriguing when considering this discussion. The Scottish hacker is charged of having hacked into a U.S. database containing information stored on around one hundred computers owned by the U.S. military and by NASA. Mckinnon committed these activities between 2001 and 2002 and faced over ten years of judicial battles against extradition until 2013. In addition to the problematic implications of his crime, the case was even more difficult to address because of the U.K.'s reluctance to extradite the hacker.
hen discussing this case, it is essential to consider the gravity of the situation, taking into account that McKinnon willingly acted against the U.S. military and NASA at the time when he accessed and stole files from the two institutions. Such an act is a direct affront to…
Bassiouni, M.C. (2014). "International Extradition: United States Law and Practice." Oxford University Press.
Curtis, G. (2011). "The Law of Cybercrimes and Their Investigations." CRC Press.
Slack, J., & Semark, M. "Spotlight falls on Starmer: Will Director of Public Prosecutions now order Gary McKinnon to face UK court on hacking charge?." Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218872/Gary-McKinnon-extradition-U.S.-outrage-hacker-wont-American-authorities.html
Wall, D. (2007). "Cybercrime: The Transformation of Crime in the Information Age." Polity.
Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov v. The FBI
There is much controversy with regard to the FBI's involvement in capturing Russian cyber criminals Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov, taking into account the unorthodox method the bureau used. Many are likely to consider that such actions are against principles associated with law enforcement and that the authorities were wrong in taking on such attitudes. However, when considering the contemporary society being a place where the general public unites against crime, it would be safe to say that the FBI acted on behalf of the whole world at the time when it decided to go through with their plan.
Gorshkov and Ivanov were responsible for having performed a series of illegalities like stealing credit card information, deleting important information on the servers of particular U.S. companies, and attempting to persuade some of these respective companies to hire them in exchange of the…
Ghosch, S., & Turrini, E. (2010). "Cybercrimes: A Multidisciplinary Analysis: A Multidisciplinary Analysis." Springer.
Lemieux, F. (2013). "International Police Cooperation: Emerging Issues, Theory and Practice." Routledge.
Purpura, F. (1997). "Criminal Justice: An Introduction." Elsevier.
Schroeder, S. (2012). "The Lure:: The True Story of How the Department of Justice Brought Down Two of the World's Most Dangerous Cyber Criminals." Cengage Learning.
Contending With Cybercrime Issues
Attacks and Malware
There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties involved with a breach, it is sapient to provide a brief overview of the correlation between these three facets of laws. One of the more common means of engaging in identity theft is through the means of cybercrime, in which individuals typically hack into a computerized systems and take personally identifiable information of others and use it for their own illicit purposes. Additionally, such crimes intrinsically invade the privacy of others and intrude upon that privacy by preventing individuals to keep personally identifiable information and other aspects of their lives private.
One of the most salient of the laws relating to these three different aspects of theft in contemporary times is the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003. This…
North Carolina Department of Justice. (2005). Cooper proposes identity theft protection act of 2005. http://www.ncdoj.gov / Retrieved from
The assessment of alert data is spot-on and very straightforward -- an excellent and succinct description of the help they can provide. The concept that a "more powerful program" is simply "more intelligent" is also well-put, and has some interesting implications. For computer programs such as these, knowledge truly is power; the ability to analyze and react to data after its collection is precisely what makes generative tools and alert data so useful and more powerful than other types of data. I'm a little unclear on what you mean about cyber crime, though there are certain implications here that are definitely worth exploring. The idea that enough aggregated data could be collected and analyzed to determine overall trends and procedures in cybercrime with something akin to meta-alert data is very intriguing.
The distinction you draw between alert data/IDS software and other types of network security monitoring programs and…
Essentially, securing the electronic frontier is very critical because of the potential harms that cyber crime and fraud cause to individual, businesses and nations as a whole.
One of the effective strategies that could be employed to secure the electronic frontier is the collaboration of the government with the private and public organizations. Increasing number of governments has implemented method to secure the electronic frontier without success. Since corporate organizations are more equipped to counter IT threats than the government, a collaboration of the government with organizations will be more effective.
Moreover, the international organizations such as the United Nations should also play effective roles in securing electronic frontier. The United Nation should make a law to ensure that all member nations are obliged to secure electronic transfer in their respective nations since lack of cross-border treaties for data sharing is creating havoc to corporate organizations. Essentially, some countries such…
Berkowitz, B. & Hahn, R.W. (2003).Cyber-security: Who's Watching Store? Issue of Science and Technology.
Goel, S. (2011). Cyberwarfare: Connecting the Dots in Cyber Intelligence. Communications of the ACM. 54 (8): 132-140.
Rosenzweig, P. (2012). The International Governance Framework for Cybersecurity. Canada-United States Law Journal.37 (1).
Cyberterrorism, illegal (and legal) espionage, piracy, and cybercrimes differ from their pre-digital counterparts in serious and meaningful ways. For one, the nature of online social interactions diverges from that of face-to-face or even voice-only interactions due to the shields of anonymity. Second, technological prophylactics ranging from encryption to skillful network architecture can add multiple levels of protection to shield perpetrators while exposing the weaknesses in a less advanced consumer public. Third, the rapid advancement of artificially intelligent systems creates new possible realities and problems, as non-human actors become part of increasingly complex systems. Finally, digital media has enabled formal and informal surveillance and other forms of illicit behavior, transforming the relationship between actors and objects in ways that could alter political and social realities. Actor-network theory is an ideal lens and process by which to better understand the complex gamut of cybercrime. Developed initially in the 1980s and solidified…
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
internet and the increased availability of personal computers around the world have increased the vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. In recent years computers have been used by terrorist to distribute information about terrorist attacks. Now many experts fear that terrorist will use computers to carry out an attack on electricity grid or other systems that are crucial to the operation of a nation's infrastructure. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the ways in which cybercrimes occur and the how it applies to the criminal justice system approach to dealing with terrorism. efore we began the literature review let us provide an overview of the methodology used to identify and locate sources of information found in the literature review.
The sources used in the following literature review are from Academic Journals, books, newspapers, government agencies and articles found on the internet. Many of the Journals used are published…
Arquilla J., Ronfeldt D. 2001. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand. Santa Monica, CA.
Boulard G. May 2003. Cyber Terrorism: No Longer Fiction; the Threat of Cyber Terrorism Became Much More Real after Sept. 11. Here's How States Are Trying to Reduce the Risks. State Legislatures. Volume: 29. Issue: 5. Page Number: 22+.
Davis J. 2003. The Global War on Terrorism: Assessing the American Response. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: White House Studies. Volume: 3. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: vii
Ditzion R., Geddes E., Rhodes, M. 2003. Computer Crimes. . American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 40. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 285+.
hat is cyber-crime?
Cybercrime denotes an illegal action committed primarily by deploying technology (or, to be more precise, a computer and internet). America's justice department expands this definition to cover all illegal actions employing computers to store evidence of crime (Tech Target, 2016).
hat is cyber space?
Cyberspace represents a domain characterized by application of electromagnetic spectrum and electronics for storing, altering, and communicating information through networked structures and related physical infrastructures. Basically, one may regard cyberspace as an interlinking of people by means of telecommunication and computers, with no connection with their physical geography (Rouse, 2016).
Problems in prosecuting cyber-crime cases
The internet, when it was first commercialized and made easily accessible and affordable to everyone (earlier, it was accessible only to the government and academicians), was a novel frontier. Akin to the old ild est, the Internet was chiefly unregulated. Lawmakers did not expect it to…
Info Security. (2011). Cybercrime Knows No Borders. Retrieved from http://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/magazine-features/cybercrime-knows-no-borders/
Opposing Views. (n.d.). Examples of Cyber Crime. Retrieved from http://science.opposingviews.com/examples-cyber-crime-1544.html
Rouse, M. (2016, Jan 03). Cyberspace. Retrieved from TechTarget: http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/cyberspace
Shinder, D. (2011). What makes cybercrime laws so difficult to enforce. Retrieved from Tech Republic: http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/it-security/what-makes-cybercrime-laws-so-difficult-to-enforce/
The number of online security breaches is increasing day by day. For instance, with the Sony Playstation data breaches to millions of small breaches; something must be done to protect the online security of citizens as well as our own government (Sony Playstation System Hacking). The question then becomes who is going to do it? Can the American citizens trust the United States government to ensure their security and thereby their very safety? In light of the fact that the Michigan police force has recently been found to use a forensic cell phone reader or Cellebrite upon routine traffic stops, the ACLU has called into question the ethics of seizing such information without probable cause. Are cell phones merely a tracking device as far as the police force is concerned? Does this not violate the Constitutional right we are guaranteed by our government? Most recently a…
Clemmitt, Marcia. "Privacy in Peril." CQ Researcher 17 Nov. 2006: 961-84. Web. 22
Hansen, Brian. "Cyber-Crime." CQ Researcher 12 Apr. 2002: 305-28. Web. 22 May 2011.
Katel, Peter. "Identity Theft." CQ Researcher 10 June 2005: 517-40. Web. 22 May 2011.
American Express and Data Theft isk
In March 2016, American Express admitted that customer data was stolen from the company in 2013 in a letter to the California Attorney General (Condliffe, 2016). As a credit card company, AMEX works with a large number of merchants, and the data breach came on the merchant end and that the affected customers were notified as soon as was possible. However, this incident provides a learning experience, and the key problem now is how Amex can learn from this experience going forward with respect to how it handles such third-party data breaches in the future. This one particular incident is not the problem, but it highlights a broad category of problems -- credit card fraud and cybercrime -- that cost the industry billions of dollars every year. Managing this better than competitors will be a boon to consumer confidence in the American Express…
American Express Form 10K for 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from http://ir.americanexpress.com/Cache/1500081626.PDF?O=PDF&T=&Y=&D=&FID=1500081626&iid=102700
Barker, K., D'Amato, J. & Sheridon, P. (2008). Credit card fraud: Awareness and prevention. Journal of Financial Crime. Vol. 15 (4) 398-410.
Condlifee, J. (2016). American Express admits to theft of customer data three years late.. Gizmodo. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from http://gizmodo.com/american-express-admits-to-theft-of-customer-data-three-1765441909
Papadimitrou, O. (2016). Market share by credit card network. CardHub. Retrieved March 19, 2016 from http://www.cardhub.com/edu/market-share-by-credit-card-network/
A Peer Review of the Reality of Cyberrime Paper
In the Introdution to the Reality of Cyberrime Are (2011) states that "The threat of yberrime is of growing onern in our soiety…" (p. 1). This provides an attention-getting tehnique that is highly effetive. The entire introdution follows suit and lays the foundation for the analysis. The reader has automati buy-in due to the personal nature of how Are relates the topi to the average daily onsumer of digital media. For example, s/he states that "It is our responsibility as a soiety to prepare ourselves by taking the neessary ountermeasures in order to prevent these types of attaks from ourring and unfortunately when they do our, punish those to the fullest extent the law permits" (p. 1) the only suggested improvement for the introdutory paragraph is to work on basi editing. For example, terms like 'full sale" and "law maker" need…
cited in Arce, 2011, paras. 2-4). Most of the methods mentioned are aimed at catching attackers. One system, the Cyberterrorism First Responder is directed towards programmers and helps prevent future cybercrime (p.3). The body of the paper is well organized and demonstrates the writer's command of the researched material. Arce does a very good job of explaining cybercrimes that the audience is probably familiar with, but also those that the audience may not readily think of such as child exploitation, spamming and cyberstalking (p.4). The body of the paper could be improved upon in transitioning from paragraph to paragraph and through some editing for grammatical and APA formatting errors and revision sentences using passive voice.
The conclusion adds to the topic by restating the writer's purpose and by arguing in favor of systems for fighting cybercrime. No suggestions for improvement of the conclusion. It is impressive and powerful as-is.
These kinds of compulsive behaviors are observed on a daily basis. It has been highlighted by the authors that there is an acceptable use policy implicated on the students in academic institutions and on the daily basis, without regarding the restrictions placed by these policies, students work against the policy. According to the policy, computers within the universities can only be used for academic purposes only. The policy has highlighted that computers in an academic environment should not be used for online sharing, downloading, social networking and gaming (Nykodym, Ariss, & Kurtz, 2008, p. 7). But in the campuses and academic institutions, it is seen that the students usually sit in for social networking and gaming. Thereby, from here it can be seen that either the students don't want to follow the policies or they don't want to understand the restrictions placed in the policies.
The authors have highlighted that…
Nykodym, N., Ariss, S., & Kurtz, K. (2008). Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics .
Poulsen, K. (2011). Kingpin: how one hacker took over the billion-dollar cybercrime underground. Crown Publishing Group.
Roberts, K. (2010). Cyber Junkie: Escape the Gaming and Internet Trap. Hazelden Publishing.
Ross, A.J. (2008). How to Hug a Porcupine: Negotiating the Prickly Points of the Tween Years. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Traffic Analysis/Homeland Security
One of the biggest challenges currently faced by the Department of Homeland Security is guaranteeing cybersecurity. Each and every day some type of cyber crime occurs. Such crimes have the potential to affect the country's national security. This paper investigates the significance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security. It will look at the importance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security as well as encrypted traffic and its implications to cyber-security. The manner in which the U.S. has handled cybersecurity over the past twenty years and the methods that the government has used in this time period will be discussed. Encrypted mobile messaging applications will also be discussed. At the end of the discussions, solutions are recommended and a conclusion given.
In the recent past, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) and the DoD (Department of Defense) signed an agreement to enhance the…
Bobby, M. (2010, November 10). Harvard National Security Journal. Harvard National Security Journal -- DoD-DHS Memorandum of Understanding Aims to Improve Cybersecurity Collaboration. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://harvardnsj.org/2010/11/dod-dhs-memorandum-of-understanding-aims-to-improve-cybersecurity-collaboration/
(2012). DHS Can Strengthen Its International Cybersecurity Programs. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIGr_12-112_Aug12.pdf
(2015, May 10). Fox News - Breaking News Updates -- Latest News Headlines -- Photos & News Videos. 'Terrorism has gone viral': U.S. officials, lawmakers warn of growing jihad-inspired attacks -- Fox News. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2015/05/10/mccaul-terrorism-has-gone-viral.html
Harknett, R., & Stever, J. (2015). The Cybersecurity Triad: Government, Private Sector Partners, and the Engaged Cybersecurity Citizen. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 6(1).
Civil penalties, if pursued by an organization such as the IAA, can range from a minimum of $750 per song to thousands of dollars per song. Due to the civil lawsuits filed by the IAA, piracy awareness rose from 35% to 72%. The IAA has since stopped its broad-based end user litigation program [IAA 2010].
The Internet has also facilitated the disturbing trend of cyber-bullying and cyber-harassment. Attempts to curb cyber-harassment may prove difficult as "cyber-bullies" may be anonymous and therefore, difficult to identify. In "Cyber-Bullying in Schools: A esearch for Gender Differences," Qing Li states that school violence is a serious social problem that is persistent and acute during middle school [LI 2006]. Cyber-bullying, as defined by Tanya Beran and Qing Li in "Cyber Harassment: A New Method for an Old Behavior," is defined as "the repeated and intentional use of various forms of technology such as cell-phones, pagers,…
BERAN T., LI Q. 2005 Cyber-Harassment: A Study of a New Method for an Old Behavior
JOURNAL of EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, Calgary, AB, Canada.
CYBERBULLING RESEARCH CENTER 2010 Accessed 3 December 2010
Lifelong Learning Using Technology
Technology has changed the way people learn. These days, the conventional method of learning from books and through teacher's intervention is not the only technique that educational institutions depend to impart knowledge and skills to students. With the emergence of technology, learning from digital resources has been a component of many school curriculums.
Learning is a continuous process. After finishing school, we continuously absorb diverse information, knowledge, and skills from our own experiences, either from our work or simply from our day-to-day life. More especially, because of the different technologies that have been developed, people seem to similarly develop different strategies for lifelong learning. One tool to such is the usability and value of what the Internet can provide. If some decades ago, we have to run to libraries when we need to research information, the convenience of accomplishing such need these days, with the help…
Code of Responsible Computing.
Computer Learning Foundation.
Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Cmmunication.
Social Engineering as it Applies to Information Systems Security
The research takes into account several aspects that better create an overview of the term and the impact it has on security systems. In this sense, the first part of the analysis reviews the concept of social engineering and the aspects it entails. Secondly, it provides a series of cases that were influenced by social engineering and the effects each had on the wider picture of information security. Thirdly, the research looks at what policies are set in place to avoid this type of practice and how has the information security society responded to the threat posed by social engineering. Finally, possible solutions to the issues social engineering raises are also presented in the context of the increased technological environment in which business is conducted in the world we live in today.
General aspects on social engineering
A non-academic definition of…
Allen, Malcolm. "Social Engineering: A Means To Violate A Computer System," SANS Institute, 2006, available online at https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/engineering/social-engineering-means-violate-computer-system-529
Dimension Research. "The Risk Of Social Engineering On Information Security:
A Survey Of It Professionals" in Dimension Research, Sept. 2011, available online at http://www.checkpoint.com/press/downloads/social-engineering-survey.pdf
Honan, Mat. "How Apple and Amazon Security Flaws Led to My Epic Hacking" in Wired. 8 June 2012, available at http://www.wired.com/2012/08/apple-amazon-mat-honan-hacking/