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Cystic fibrosis is a disease that can be passed down from one generation to the other. It affects secretary glands that produce mucus and sweat. The disease results after the fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFT) gene that is found on chromosome 7 has undergone some sort of mutation. Mutation on chromosome 7 alters the production and function of CFT glycoprotein (Scott, 2013). Studies have identified more than 1600 variations of CFT mutations. Significant numbers of cystic fibrosis patients have amino acid 508 defects. The amino acid 508 mutation basically occurs when CFT protein is missing 3 base pairs at position 508 on CFT protein sequence which codes for phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is essential in nutrition. There are other mutations that mainly occur in non-white populations (Scott, 2013). The CFT mutations interfere with how sodium and chloride is transported on the apical surface level of exocrine gland epithelial…
Gould, B.E. (2002). Pathophysiology for the Health Professions.
Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Jones, A.M. & Helm, J.M. (2009). Emerging treatments in cystic fibrosis.
Drugs. 69(14), 1903-1910.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is genetically inherited through a defective gene, which results in the body producing "abnormally thick and sticky fluid, called mucus. This mucus builds up in the breathing passages of the lungs and in the pancreas, the organ that helps to break down and absorb food." (PubMed Health, 2011)
Reports state that millions of Americans carry the defective Cystic Fibrosis gene however; most do not have any symptoms since the person with Cystic Fibrosis "must inherit two defective CF genes, one from each parent. An estimated 1 in 29 Caucasian-Americans have the CF gene. The disease is the most common, deadly, inherited disorder affecting Caucasians in the United States. It's more common among those of Northern or Central European descent." (PubMed Health, 2011)
The majority of children with Cystic Fibrosis are diagnosed by the time that they are two years of age however, a small percentage are not…
Assael, BM, et al. (2002) Epidemiology and Survival Analysis of Cystic Fibrosis in an Area of Intense Neonatal Screening Over 30 Years. American Journal of Epidemiology. 156 (5): 397-401. Retrieved from: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/156/5/397.full
Cystic Fibrosis (2011) PubMed Health. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. 1 May 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001167/
Grossman, S and Grossman, LC (2012) Pathophysiology of Cystic Fibrosis Implications for Critical Care Nurses. Pulmonary Care. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. 12 Mar 2012. Retrieved from: http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/25/4/46.full.pdf
Pathophysiology of Cystic Fibrosis (2012) Easy Pediatrics. Retrieved from: http://easypediatrics.com/pathophysiology-of-cystic-fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis: The Facts is a comprehensive, informative, and well-written book about the disease and its treatments. Ann Harris and Maurice Super address the book to a general audience, making the book extremely accessible to laypeople. Cystic Fibrosis: The Facts is an ideal source for people suffering from cystic fibrosis or for people who have loved ones suffering from the disease. Harris and Super divide the 129-page book into several well-defined chapters. The first chapter addresses the fundamentals of the disease, introducing the audience to the terminology, treatment modalities, and demographics of the disease. The opening pages of the book serve as both summary and introduction. A brief personal account is provided in Chapter 2: Living with Cystic Fibrosis. The author of the account is only 14 years old, adding weight and sentimentality to the story. The following three chapters are dedicated to the technical physiology of cystic fibrosis. While…
" (Karem et al., 1073)
ith an increased focus today on the genetic implications of the condition, enhanced abilities to understand the behaviors of human DNA are opening the door to a more perceptive response to the condition in question. As the text by Davis (1993) indicates, "as mutational analysis and patient data continue to be compiled, patient genotyping should prove useful in both prognosticating and providing a framework for evaluating treatments. Furthermore, whether the heterozygous state of CF mutations predisposes to abnormalities such as chronic bronchial hypersecretion, airway hyperreactivity or infertility can now be more thoroughly addressed." (Davis, 17)
These factors are not just improving our understanding of what may cause cystic fibrosis, but it has also allowed us to pinpoint some strategies for controlling a condition that only 25 years ago, was seen as a pre-adulthood death sentence. As the table included in Appendix A demonstrates, the average…
Davis, P. (1993). Cystic Fibrosis. Informa Healthcare.
Karem, B.; Rommens, J.M.; Buchanan, J.A.; Markiewicz, D.; Cox, T.K.; Chakravarti, A.; Cuchwald, M. & Tsui, L.C. (1989). Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: genetic analysis. Science, 245(4922), 1073-1080.
Medline Plus (MP). (2008). Cystic Fibrosis. National Institutes of Health. Online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cysticfibrosis.html
cff.org/will each be the source of information and professional peer reviewed articles will be cited from these sources and identified by source as they cited.
There is a wealth of available information, data and studies on CF. What it all means to the patients who suffer from this debilitating and life-threatening disease will be understood as this essay proceeds.
Diagnosis and the Anatomy and Physiology of a Life Threatening Disease: Cystic Fibrosis child is born in the UK and, since 2007 are tested for CF in this country where cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited life-threatening disease prevalent amongst Caucasians who at a ratio of 1 in 25 people carry the faulty gene that causes CF (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2008, available at: (http://www.cftrust.org.uk/aboutcf/whatiscf/).
While the UK's Cystic Fibrosis Trust cites the average life expectancy of a person with CF as 31; information on the site also says…
Avise, J.C. (2004). The Hope, Hype & Reality of Genetic Engineering: Remarkable Stories from Agriculture, Industry, Medicine, and the Environment / . New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102655542
Baird, S.L. (2007). Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options? The Forces Pushing Humanity towards Attempts at Self-Modification, through Biological and Technological Advances, Are Powerful, Seductive Ones That We Will Be Hard-Pressed to Resist. The Technology Teacher, 66(7), 12+. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020442902
Chris Bennett and Daniel Peckham. August 2002. The genetics of cystic fibrosis [online]. Leeds University Teaching Hospitals, Leeds, UK. Available at http://www.cysticfibrosismedicine.com www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=1000455
However, treatments can be used to reduce, if not nearly completely diminish, symptoms and minimize any other complications. Here are the conditional means:
Therapy: People with cystic fibrosis need a way to physically remove thick mucus from their lungs. This is often done by manually clapping with cupped hands on the front and back of the chest -- a procedure that's best performed with the person's head over the edge of the bed so that gravity helps clear the secretions.
Mucus-thinning drugs: make it easier to cough up the mucus; prescriptive or non-prescriptive drugs, which are used to lessen or reduce the stiffness of mucus, ameliorate lung function.
Medications: Antibiotics are prescribed to treat and prevent any lung infections. They may be swallowed in pill form, inhaled in a mist or delivered intravenously.
Bronchodilators: albuterol is applied through an inhaler or a nebulizer; this relaxes the muscles around the bronchial…
116). This point is also made by Goozner (2004) who suggests, "Even when a genetic flaw causes disease, it doesn't automatically mean that it can be treated by replacing the defective or missing protein with its biotechnologically created equivalent. Cystic fibrosis is the classic example" (p. 30).
The treatment protocols that are currently in use are therefore designed to address the immediate symptoms of the condition, which in many cases also require some truly aggressive therapy. For example, according to Schubert and Murphy, "Those who are pancreatic insufficient rely on the frequent ingestion of enzyme supplements (often as many as 40 pills per day) to aid digestion and reduce stomach cramping, the use of dietary supplements to aid in weight gain, and, for some, the increased use of supplemental feeding tubes" (Schubert & Murphy, p. 36). The Mayo Clinic reports that still other current treatments for cystic fibrosis include the…
Drotar, D. (2000). Promoting adherence to medical treatment in chronic childhood illness: Concepts, methods, and interventions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Goozner, M. (2004). The $800 million pill: The truth behind the cost of new drugs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Levinson, R. & Reiss, M.J. (2003). Key issues in bioethics: A guide for teachers. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Reid, C.D. (1996, October). Probing the pancreas. FDA Consumer, 30(8), 27-28.
This in turn leads to cytoplasmic water retention and the buildup of viscous mucus in the lungs and other areas of the body. This is particularly problematic for the lungs because the thick mucus impairs clearance of invasive particles and infectious agents to maintain a sterile environment.
Microbial contamination of airway surfaces triggers an inflammatory response, including a massive invasion by neutrophils (odrigues et al., 2008). As the neutrophils react to bacterial contamination of the lung tissue they generate considerable amounts of cellular debris that increases the viscosity of the mucous, primarily by the deposition of genomic DNA and elastase proteins. The result of this process is chronic microbial lung infection, chronic immune-mediated inflammation, and progressive tissue damage. Because cystic fibrosis lung disease is so severe the life expectancy used to be late teens or early adulthood, but the development of more effective methods for disease management has almost doubled…
Conese, Massimo, Ascenzioni, Fiorentina, Boyd, a. Christopher, Coutelle De Fino, Charles, de Smedt, Stefaan, Rejman, Joanna et al. (2011). Gene and cell therapy of cystic fibrosis: From bench to bedside. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, 10, S114-S128.
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. (n.d.). About Cystic Fibrosis: What you need to know. CFF.org. Retrieved 26 Feb. 2012 from http://www.cff.org/AboutCF/ .
Li, Chunying and Naren, Anjaparavanda P. (2005). Macromolecular complexes of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulatory and its interacting partners. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 108, 208-223.
Rodrigues, Roberta, Gabetta, Carmen S., Pedro, Karla P., Valdetaro, Fabio, Fernandes, Maria I.M., Magalhaes, Patricia K.R. et al. (2008). Cystic fibrosis and neonatal screening. Cadernos Saude Publica, 24, s475-484.
cystic fibrosis. There are eleven references used for this paper.
There are a number of fatal diseases which a person can be born with in the world today. One of the most debilitating is Cystic Fibrosis. It is important to examine its history, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, treatments and prognosis in order to gain a better understanding of this disease.
Cystic fibrosis is a "recessive disorder common among Caucasians. Although the disease was known in the 1930's, it was only in the late 1980's that the molecular mechanisms about its development were established (Tsui)." In the United States, "one in 2500 people in the general population is born with cystic fibrosis (http://www.phd.msu.edu/DNA/cf_fam.pdf)."
Cystic fibrosis is sometimes referred to as '65 roses.' This nickname "came from a little boy who overheard his mom talking about the condition on the phone. He thought that each time his mom said 'cystic fibrosis,' she was…
Family Guide to Cystic Fibrosis. (accessed 14 July 2004). http://www.phd.msu.edu/DNA/cf_fam.pdf ).
Andolsek, Kathryn M. A review of approaches to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. American Family Physician. (1997): 01 June.
Chromosomal Patterns of Inheritance. (accessed 14 July 2004). http://med.usd.edu/som/genetics/curriculum/1DCHROM2.htm).
Cystic Fibrosis. (accessed 14 July 2004). http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/digestive/cystic_fibrosis.html ).
cystic fibrosis. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey about cystic fibrosis and its causes, treatments and future. The writer outlines many aspects of the disease including the enzyme treatments that are currently being studied. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The medical community has made many amazing discoveries in the last few decades. People are living longer than ever before and the quality of their life has improved along with the quantity. There are many disorders and diseases that are now considered curable or manageable that were once considered fatal. Cystic Fibrosis is a disease however that has baffled the medical community for many years (Santis,2000). Locating its cause, discovering a cure and other pertinent goals have been targeted by research around the world with little success. In recent years however the genetic link and mapping of cystic fibrosis has been pursued with a…
Plogman, Danielle (2001). U. Iowa licenses gene therapy technique., University Wire, 02-02-2001.
Author not available, (2001).Novel Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis Enters Clinical Trials At Stanford., Business Wire, 03-12-2001.
Cooke, Robert (1993) A Deadly Gene's Big Surprise With hundreds of mutations, the cystic fibrosis gene may cause a variety of ills., Newsday, 08-17-1993, pp 57.
Ricks, Delthia (!997) Living Long With Cystic Fibrosis / Doctors find cases among middle- aged., Newsday, 09-29-1997, pp A19.
Cystic Fibrosis Impact on Lungs
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic and possible genetically inherited disease that affects lungs. It is characterized by buildup of thick and stick mucus that is had to cough out of the lungs. With the accumulation of the thick and sticky mucus, it can result to difficulty in breathing and can lead to other complications including lung infections, liver disease, and diabetes[endnoteRef:1]. CF has also been shown to cause digestive problems and ultimately malnutrition through interference with pancreatic functioning and preventing enzymes which are involved in the breaking down of food. In male, the thick mucus has also been attributed to infertility by blocking the vas deferens. This paper is a detailed presentation on CF and covers diagnosis, treatment, the point at which lung transplant is needed, and how medicine has changed over the years to adapt to children. [1: Cystic fibrosis. U.S. National…
Health - Nursing
Cystic fibrosis is a serious disorder that causes severe lung harm and nutritional deficits. An inherited condition, cystic fibrosis affects the cells that manufacture mucus, sweat and digestive juices. Usually, these secretions are thin and slippery, but in cystic fibrosis patients, a defective gene causes the secretions to become thick and sticky. ather than performing as a lubricant, the secretions stop up tubes, ducts and passageways, particularly in the pancreas and lungs. Cystic fibrosis occurs regularly in white people of northern European ancestry, happening in about one out of three thousand live births. Formerly the majority of people with cystic fibrosis died in their teens. Enhanced screening and treatments currently permit a lot of people with cystic fibrosis to live into their fifties or even longer (Cystic fibrosis, 2011).
A defect in the CFT gene causes cystic fibrosis. This gene produces a protein that manages…
Cystic fibrosis. (2011). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cystic-fibrosis/DS00287
Cystic Fibrosis. (2011). Medicine Net. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/cystic_fibrosis/article.htm
Cystic Fibrosis is an inherited disorder which affects the secreting abilities of various glands in the body. These glands are the ones that are considered with both mucus and sweat made in the made. This disease presents with many different symptoms as it affects the lungs, intestines, liver, pancreas, sinuses and the genitals. This paper will go on to talk about the basic etiology of Cystic fibrosis. After the discussing the reasons why this disease happens, it will discuss the signs and symptoms that appear when a person is affected with it. Furthermore, there will be a section on the diagnosis and the proper detection of cystic fibrosis. Lastly, the paper will discuss the different medical treatments that are now present for the disease.
The worldwide incidence of the disease varies from 1 per 377 live births in some parts of England to one per 90,000 live births in Asian-American…
Farrell, Philip M. et al. 'Guidelines For Diagnosis Of Cystic Fibrosis In Newborns Through Older Adults: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Report'. The Journal of pediatrics 153.2 (2008): 4 -- 14. Print.
FitzSimmons, Stacey C. 'The Changing Epidemiology Of Cystic Fibrosis'. The Journal of pediatrics 122.1 (1993): 1 -- 9. Print.
Gibson, Lewis E, and Robert E. Cooke. 'A Test For Concentration Of Electrolytes In Sweat In Cystic Fibrosis Of The Pancreas Utilizing Pilocarpine By Iontophoresis'. Pediatrics 23.3 (1959): 545 -- 549. Print.
McAlveney, N.G, R, C Hubbard, and P. Brrier. 'Aerosol ?1 -Antitrypsin Treatment For Cystic Fibrosis'. The Lancet 337.8738 (1991): 392-394. Print.
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition with a primary symptom of excessive mucous production and resulting lung infections. It is “the most common fatal hereditary lung disease,” (Mall & Hartl, 2014, p. 1042). Symptoms and severity of the disease varies, but all cases are inherited. On the genetic level, cystic fibrosis is an “autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),” (Stoltz, Meyerholtz & Welsh, 2015, p. 351). There is no cure for cystic fibrosis, which can be deadly, but treatments for the disease have become more advanced, less invasive, and more effective.
Etiology and Risk Factors
Because cystic fibrosis is congenital, disease etiology is genetic. The disease is most prevalent among Caucasians of Western European ancestry. Cystic fibrosis is known as a Mendelian condition, a disease that is actually caused by only one single gene dysfunction or mutation (Cutting,…
Cutting, G.R. (2015). Cystic fibrosis genetics: from molecular understanding to clinical application. Nature Reviews Genetics 16: 45-56.
Mall, M. A. & Hartl, D. (2014). CFTR: cystic fibrosis and beyond. European Respiratory Journal 2014(44): 1042-1054.
Stoltz, D.A., Meyerholtz, D.K. & Welsh, M.J. (2015). Origins of cystic fibrosis lung disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 372(4): 351-362.
Treatment History Of Cystic Fibrosis
The field of pediatric nursing is a particularly large one in which its members may find themselves having to counsel both young patients and their families suffering from a myriad of diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF), in particular, is a debilitating disease that strikes many young people. In the first years following its discovery, many children could not expect to make it to their teen years. Today, with advances in the management and care of this disease, patients are living into their 40s. It is even possible that there will one day be a cure.
This paper will look at CF from a historical perspective. The timeline of its discovery and research will be briefly presented, as will a few of the significant "milestones" in the history of the treatment of CF and what these mean for people battling this disease.
References to cystic fibrosis were…
Author not available. (1994). Genetic Therapy Possible Cure for Several Diseases. Morning Edition (NPR).
Baroni, M.A., Anderson, Y.E., and Mischler, E. (1997). Cystic fibrosis newborn screening: Impact of early screening results on parenting stress. Pediatric Nursing. 23, 143(9).
Hopkin, Karen. (1998). Understanding Cystic Fibrosis. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Orenstein, David M. (1997). Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Patient and Family. 2nd ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.
P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…
Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .
How variations arise within a phenotype?
Phenotype is the specific characteristics that are displayed by the organism. Phenotypic variation is a prerequisite for evolution due to natural selection, thus without the former, there is no latter. Qualitative traits are traits that show a difference between phenotypes like skin color, sex, and eye color. However, such descriptions are controlled by a small number of genes so environmental influence on these traits is low since it involves the genetics of individuals. Quantitative traits are traits that exhibit a continuous range from one phenotype to another. Therefore, there is no difference between phenotypes and are usually influenced by several gene pairs while the environment has a significant influence on the trait. This type of trait involves the genetics of populations. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce phenotypes that blend into each other. Phenotypic variance or VP is…
Bellevue College Science Division (2011) Mutation and Genetic Diseases, [online] Available at: http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/Biology211/lectures/pdfs/GeneticDisease211.pdf [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Biology 346-Evolution (2011) Chapter 13-Evolution of Phenotypic Traits, [online] Available at: www.cbu.edu/~esalgado/BIOL346/ch13.doc [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Chicago Center for Jewish Genetic Disorders (2008) Intro to Genetics, [online] Available at: http://www.jewishgenetics.org/?q=content/intro-genetics [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
Grimmel College (2011) Lab 2 -- Sources of Phenotypic Variation, [online] Available at: http://web.grinnell.edu/individuals/brownj/edu/136_lab2.html [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
this is, of course, never the case, anti-stem cell research activists
affiliate this issue as a slippery slope with the abortion issue.
However, to my perspective, this is an incredibly inhumane
politicization of a prospect which could save many lives and reduce much
suffering. Obstruction to advancement in this field are short-sighted and
cruel. The condition of cystic fibrosis is a good example of a condition
where the effective use of embryonic stem cell research would be considered
a means to reducing much pain in its sufferers. Here, the dysfunction of
the secretory glands creates excessive mucous production and can result in
life-shortening respiratory and developmental issues. If embryonic stem
cells are differentiated and transplanted to produce healthy, functional
secretory glands in the sufferer, this serious and distressful condition
could be diminished in presence.
This denotes the potentially broad-based benefits to pushing forward
with research, in spite of the…
Active Euthanasia With Parental Consent
This case provides an example of a situation in which active euthanasia was conducted with the consent of parents. There are three agents in this case among these three; the most important is the patient. The patient was a small girl named Andrea and her age was only nineteen years. Apart from her, the other two important agents in the case were the parents of Andrea and the physicians. The main fact of the case was the severe illness of the girl and the reaction of her parents at this disease. It was mentioned in the case that Andrea was severely suffering from cystic fibrosis when she was only thirteen months old, this disease is progressive. Not only is this but patients suffering from this disease has an average life span of thirty years.
Due to this dangerous disease, Andrea was admitted in…
Dworkin, G., Frey, R.G., & Bok, S. (1998). Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hamel, R.P. (1991). Choosing death: active euthanasia, religion, and the public debate. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International.
McCarrick, P.M. (1992). Active euthanasia and assisted suicide. Newyork: Kennedy Institute of Ethics.
Morgan, J. (1996). An Easeful Death?: Perspectives on Death, Dying and Euthanasia. Leichhardt: Federation Press.
The planning systems are more oriented towards a growth strategy that can scale from just a few locations being opened to several in a given financial period. This strategy of planning based on regional expansion, where stores have been more branding, marketing (Berman, 2010) was also seen throughout the information obtained about their planned sale (MacFadyen, 2010) (Marcial, 2009). The information produced from these sources, all gained through academic search engines, was excellent. The Business Source Complete database and Academic Search Premier database delivered excellent results. After looking for peer-reviewed articles featuring KPC, it was possible to find an abundance of information o n their planned sale of the company.
Daily ecord Staff. (2006, October 14). California Pizza Kitchen to donate 100% of Oct. 30 sales to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. The Daily ecord, p. 1.
Marcial, G. (2009). Marcial: Pros Turn Cold on California Pizza. BusinessWeek Online, 4. etrieved…
JOSEPH ASCENZI. (2007, May 28). REAL ESTATE & RETAIL / / Indian Wells mixed-use project lands tenants. The Business Press, p. 4.
Dennis K. Berman. (2010, April 10). California Pizza Chain Is Said to Be on the Block. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1
Daily Record Staff. (2006, October 14). California Pizza Kitchen to donate 100% of Oct. 30 sales to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. The Daily Record, p. 1.
MacFadyen, K. (2010). California Pizza Kitchen Seeks Takeout. Mergers & Acquisitions Report, 23(16), 22. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…
Alberts, Bruce. 2002. Molecular biology of the cell, 4th ed. New York: Garland Science.
Genetic Science Learning Center. 2004. Genetic Disorder Corner. University of Utah. 07 May 2004. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/
McCarrick, Pat Milmoe. 1993.Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening. Scope Note 22. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, 1993. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (KIEJ), Reprinted September 1993, 17 p. (Last updated February 2002). 07 May 2004. http://www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/scopenotes/sn22.html
Miller, Kelly. 1999. Genetic Screening. Phil McClean, Professor, Ph.D. Colorado State University, PLSC 431/631 - Intermediate Genetics. 07 May 2004. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/mcclean/plsc431/students99/miller.htm. The mundane by excellent cinematography and an effective cast.
Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.
On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…
Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
Boston: Little Brown, 2002
Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.
Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.
Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).
From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…
Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group
Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.
Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association
Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
Chronic Sorrow Theory
The term 'chronic sorrow' may be described as sadness of a persistent, periodically severe, increasing, and lasting nature. This condition may be triggered in a person because of ongoing loss, arising from personal chronic disease, a loved one's illness, or personal disability (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Olshansky (1962) first put forward the "chronic sorrow" concept when working with children suffering from physical or mental disabilities and members of their family (parents, siblings, etc.). The researcher noted that these children' parents exhibited a persistent psychological response to their experience of being the parents of a physically or mentally disabled child (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). Through inductive reasoning, the chronic sorrow theory -- a middle range model -- was developed, which was corroborated using both qualitative research and literature review. (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 98)
The chronic sorrow theory helps create a framework to comprehend individuals' reactions to…
Azar, R. & Solomon, C. R. (2001). Coping Strategies of Parents Facing Child Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Paediatric Nursing, 16(6), 418-428. doi:10.1053/jpdn.2001.27878 http://www.mta.ca/pshl/docs/copingstrategiesparents.pdf
Cousino, M. K. & Hazen, R. A. (2013). Parenting Stress among Caregivers of Children with Chronic Illness: A Systematic Review. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jst049. http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/10/jpepsy.jst049.full
Eakes, G., Burke, M. L. & Hainsworth, M. A. (1998). Middle-Range theory of Chronic Sorrow. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), pp. 179(6). http://www.psychodyssey.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Middle-range-theory-of-chronic-sorrow.pdf
Isaksson, A-K. (2007). Chronic Sorrow and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Orebro Studies in Caring Sciences 12. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:137348/FULLTEXT01.pdf&sa=U&ei=mRpOU-_jNoHdtAaX_IHADQ&ved=0CEIQFjAH&usg=AFQjCNEOnPREJrlQluN534bq57kX56S8oQ
A good example of this can be seen with popular Chinese talk show host Yang Lang donating $72 million, to start his own foundation to: help support and develop the health care system. This is important, because it shows how both international and domestic-based non-profits are addressing these underlying problems facing the health care sector. (Dobryzski, 2010)
Clearly, the biggest challenges facing the health care systems in the United States and China are vastly different. Yet, they are also wrestling with similar problems, as they face the issue of increasing numbers in the elderly population. In the case of the United States, this is challenging because there are a variety of disadvantages that must be addressed to include: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for…
Advanced Practice Nurses. (2010). Bukisa. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/352958_advanced-practice-nurses-a-global-role
Health Systems. (n.d.). WHO. Retrieved from: gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/.../Conceptual%20frameworks. Ppt Health Care in China. (2006). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-05.ibm.com/de/healthcare/downloads/healthcare_china.pdf
More About RN's. (2011). ANA. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/especiallyforyou/studentnurses/rnsapns.aspx
Opportunities in the Health Care Sector. (2006). Grail Research. Retrieved from: http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Opportunities_in_the_China_Healthcare_Sector.pdf
Grants for science education are provided to schools and individuals, with the objective of helping to inspire careers in science. ("About HHMI," 2010) When you put these different elements tougher, this shows how HHMI is involved in medical research funding from: working directly with researchers to providing funding on a host of projects and initiatives. This is important, because it allows the nonprofit to fund a number of different research studies, while giving scientists the flexibility to effectively conduct their projects. As a result, this has helped HHMI to support a number of different medical breakthroughs to include: making significant progress in spinal cord injuries, HIV / AIDS research and medication that can be used to effectively treat leukemia. At the same time, the organization is focused on identifying the genes that are responsible for: cystic fibrosis, colon cancer and muscular dystrophy. (Leung, 2004)
The Impact of how HHMI's: Mission,…
About HHMI. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from: http://www.hhmi.org/about/
Developing New Knowledge. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from:
This is significant, because it shows how the funding and research provided by HHMI is establishing, scientific breakthroughs that are having a profound impact on the lives of millions of people. Evidence of this can seen with the fact that institute is funding 330 investigators in the United States alone (to include seven Nobel Prize winners). At the same time, they are funding research projects in a number of countries around the world such as: the former Soviet Union and South Africa just to name a few. This is important, because it shows how the fortune of Howard Hughes is being used, to benefit millions of people (who are seeking cures for a variety of diseases). (Leung, 2004)
Discuss some of the benefits and pitfalls of planning?
The benefits of planning are: you can be able to identify changes coming early and it helps you to have more flexibility. These…
Developing New Knowledge. (2010). HHMI. Retrieved from: http://www.hhmi.org/about/ origins.html
Leung, R. (2004). Howard Hughes. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/11/21/60minutes/main584945.shtml
This will give her a good idea of the level of understanding the patient has and then she can tailor her teachings to fit the patient's level of understanding.
It is also a good idea for the nurse to give the patient as much printed information on the topic as she can because the patient can always use these materials as a reference in case the nurse is not readily available. If he teaching is about following a menu plan that will assist the patient in a speedy recovery, the nurse can have the patient keep a food journal of what he ate for a week or so and they can go over it together to determine what is working and what isn't. The same goes for the patient needing to be educated on any type of physical activities he must perform in order to improve and maintain his health.…
Baker, Lois K. And Denyes, Mary J. (2008). Predictors of self-care in adolescents with cystic fibrosis: A test of Orem's theories of self-care and self-care deficit. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 23(1), 37-48.
Cleary, Michelle and Freeman, Adele. (2006). Enhancing nurse care partnerships: A self-
directed learning approach. Nurse Education in Practice, 6, 224-231.
Griswold-Pierce, Anne and Smith, Jennifer A. (2008). The ethics curriculum for doctor of nursing practice programs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(5), 270-274.
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).
Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…
"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the need to assure that Sarah 'keeps up' with her studies and that reasonable peer-appropriate learning goals may need to be met with the assistance of additional support in some instances.
Although not directly applicable to Sarah, immunizations with live viruses, including chickenpox, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), and oral polio vaccines are not advised for children with lupus (Lupus, 2009, Children's Hospital of Boston). Sarah's parents may need to watch for is the possibility of symptoms in her sibling: "a form of lupus may occur at some point in about one out of twenty people whose siblings have lupus" and they may need to take this into consideration when contemplating a vaccination program if they ever have another child (Lehman 2002). Sarah's…
Lehman, Thomas J.A. (2002, Fall). Early diagnosis of SLE in childhood. Lupus News.
22.3. Retrieved June 29, 2009 at http://www.lupus.org/education/topics/early.html
Levy, Deborah, Stacy P. Ardoin, Laura E. Schanberg (2009). Neurocognitive
impairment in children and adolescents with SLE: Cognitive development in healthy children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol CME. 5(2)
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…
I do not believe that wearing glasses or make-up is wrong, even though this is an enhancement of the human body by improving one's life by being able to see, or covering blemishes and unsightly birthmarks that might make an individual self-conscious. Is selecting the best sperm donor really so much different than a man or a woman basing his or her choice of a mate upon that individual's appearance, intelligence, and lack of unpleasant 'skeletons' in the genetic closet? Svaulescu's idea that one has a moral obligation to screen for genetic defects or to personally improve the human race through reproduction makes one queasy, but the idea of leaving everything up to nature, in theory, would mean an end of folic acid for pregnant women or even birth control.
But really, the ultimate argument for allowing patients to attempt to engineer their offspring by selecting 'better sperm' may be…
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.
Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.
Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).
Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:
Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.
The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).
This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…
Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)
Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York
Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
WHERE THE UCK STOPS
This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…
CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical
Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf
Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107
# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
Bioecological Systems Framework Model: Evaluation
Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Framework model views a child's development as taking place within the different environmental layers of his or her environment. The child's biology is the primary or core layer of the environment and interacts with the immediate family/community environment, and the greater social world. The biology is the foundational aspect of the model, given the extent to which biology can impact an individual's entire existence. For example, someone with an inherited genetic disorder such as Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, or Downs Syndrome will have a profoundly different life than a child without such an illness. A lack of access to healthy food and water, immunizations, or exposure to harmful substances within the womb or during development can also impact human biology and limit the individual's healthy physical and mental development. A child who does not have healthy food may develop a weight problem,…
Paquette, Dede & John Ryan. (2001). Bioecological Systems Framework Model.
Retrieved April 3, 2011 at http://pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf
Dermatology- The dermatology department deals mostly with skin related illnesses. The most common issues within this department pertain to skin, scalp, hair and nails. Many of our clients are female with more cosmetic needs. Many would like to retain their youthful appearance and believe minor surgery is the best solution. As such, our departments offer many cosmetic treatments including hair removal, hair transplants, laser therapy and tattoo removal. This past fiscal year has been quite difficult as many of our affluent clients have postponed treatment due to economic concerns with the U.S. We believe this trend to be transitory in nature, with a steady increase in treatments to occur in early 2012.
Oncology- The oncology department pertains mostly to cancer, its detection and diagnosis. The most common diseases in this department are various forms of cancer with the most common being breast cancer. We have recently overhauled our…
Web Health Care
Located in Wichita, Kansas, Via Christi Health is the agency that serves the eponymous region through the site via-christi.org. Via Christi provides care through hospitals, outpatient centers, senior communities, and in-home care for individuals in Kansas. The services the agency provides a VCMA directory, which encompasses a search for physicians through Via Christi Medical Associates and the Via Christi Clinic, along with the Via Christi Hospitals. Via Christi Medical Associates is a group of fifty family practitioners, while Via Christi Clinics offer family care and immediate care. The thirteen clinics have been in place since 1948, 160 hired physicians, and encompassed 40 specialties. Via Christi agency offers a directory and location of special centers, which includes burn center, cancer care, cardiac care, and cystic fibrosis. As well, there's epileptology, neurosciences, obstetrics and gynecology, and occupational health services. Moreover, individuals are able to look up care for pediatric…
Via Christi Hospitals: VCFM Residency. (n.d.). VCFM Residency. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.vcfm.net/details/via-christi/
HMR Clinic Program Weight Loss Surgery Weight Loss Class Corporate Wellness HMR at Home Meal Replacements ~ Via Christi Weight Management Wichita Kansas. (n.d.). HMR Clinic Program Weight Loss Surgery Weight Loss Class Corporate Wellness HMR at Home Meal Replacements ~ Via Christi Weight Management Wichita Kansas. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.viachristiweightmanagement.com/
Via Christi Clinic - Multi-practice medical care in Wichita, KS . (n.d.). Via Christi Clinic - Multi-practice medical care in Wichita, KS . Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.viachristiclinic.com/
Via Christi to open cancer center | Wichita Eagle. (n.d.). Local and breaking news for Wichita and Kansas | The Wichita Eagle and kansas.com. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.kansas.com/2011/06/24/1906153/via-christi-to-open-cancer-center.html
DIETETIC Management PACTICES: Creativity
Sara Parker is a manager at a camp for children overcoming cystic fibrosis. She manages a staff of 20 seasonal employees during the summer for a period of approximately four months. ecently, the camp has realized a shortage in qualified staff capable of working providing nutritional guidelines and creative menu plans for children who suffer from CS. The regional manager of program has told Sara that without an adequate staff, more pressure will be placed on the counselors that are currently working with the organization to develop creative ways to incorporate a healthy diet and encourage students to eat more fiber and energy dense foods, which studies show may help children with CF (Gavin, 2002).
The additional work load would require that current staff members work directly with students to create a new menu plan that was easily followed, and overtime hours will be required. In…
Duff, A.J. (2002). "Psychological Components of Eating Difficulties in Young Children
with CF: A Case Study." St. James Department of Clinical & Health Psychology, Available: http://www.shsweb.co.uk/cf/09.html
Gavin, J. (2002). "A low fiber intake -- detrimental or consequential?" Southampton
University Hospital. Available: http://www.shsweb.co.uk/cf.02.html
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…
Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.metisnation.org/metisVOYAGEUR/MVcurrent/disease.html
Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00049280.html
IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.ibac.org.nz/booklet/basics.html
CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004 http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/cmgs/genefreq.htm
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…
Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num
This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html
Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html
Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
Management of Immunocompromised Patients
In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.
Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.
One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…
Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328
Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
It might also involve taking a simple approach to save cash rather than initiating appropriate strategies to increase profits, this is unjust. Increasing premiums despite increasing profit margins at the expense of more uninsured people, as they cannot afford the rise is unjust. Injured patients who are loaded with the expenses of avoidable damage or compelled to sue indeed, when there is no carelessness is unjustifiable to both physicians and patients.
Integrity is the acting and speaking in congruence with professional values and ethics. Integrity is founded on the principle of honesty. It demands totality of actions and words. It partially adheres to a client's core values indicating a compromise of integrity. However, complete integrity is ideal. Health insurance managers tend to fall short of acting with integrity in their daily relationships with insurance applicants. Nevertheless, part of their integrity requires that they do fall short and constantly seek…
Cassens, B.J. (2012). Preventive medicine and public health. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
Dziegielewski, S.F. (2009). The changing face of health care social work: Professional practice in managed behavioral health care. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Ebersole, P. (2008). Toward healthy aging: Human needs & nursing response. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby/Elsevier.
Holland, N. & June H. (2010). Multiple Sclerosis: A Self-Care Guide to Wellness. New York: Demos
Edward and Susan: My Sister's Keeper ethical dilemma
The film My Sister's Keeper is an emotionally wrought dramatization of what is a very real medical conundrum for some parents today, given advances in medical technology. The drama revolves around the question of the creation of a 'savior sibling,' genetically designed from birth to help her existing sibling survive (My Sister's Keeper: Science Background Talk, n.d., SCU). In the parallel case of Edward and Susan, a couple with a daughter with Acute Childhood Lymphoid Leukemia, many of the objections that people have raised to IV will not likely be persuasive to them: they have already used the technology to have their first child. Additionally, the sibling would be a wanted child, given the couple had always wanted a bigger family, but had held off because of fears of passing on a genetic disorder. The main ethical question for the…
Marcotty, Jacqueline. (2010) 'Savior sibling' raises a decade of questions. The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.com/html/health/2013019779_saviorsibling29.html
My Sister's Keeper: Science Background Talk. (n.d.). SCU. Retrieved:
In-vitro fertilization. (2013). Arizona Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
The pancreas is an important source of digestive enzymes and fluids, and plays a critical role in regulating blood sugar levels through the production of insulin and glucagon (NDDIC, 2012). Should the pancreas become inflamed there is the risk that the digestive enzymes will become activated within the pancreas, resulting in self-digestion. This disease is known as pancreatitis and even mild cases require hospitalization. This essay will review what is known about pancreatitis in the United States and the clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.
Pancreatitis Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and Etiology
The digestive enzymes produced by a healthy pancreas are secreted into the small intestine as zymogens, which are enzymes that have their catalytic domain blocked by a peptide group (Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, 2002). The intestinal brush border cells secrete enteropeptidase, which removes the peptide blocking the catalytic domain of trypsin. Trypsin then activates the digestive enzymes secreted by…
Amerine, Emmie. (2007). Get optimum outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Nurse Practitioner, 32(6), 44-48.
Andris, Abby. (2010). Pancreatitis: Understanding the disease and implications for care. AACN Advanced Critical Care, 21(2), 195-204.
Banks, Peter A. And Freeman, Martin L. (2006). Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 101, 2379-2400.
Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., and Stryer, L. (2002). Biochemistry, 5th Edition. New York, NY W.H. Freeman. Retrieved 18 Feb. 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books / NBK22589/.
Leading hange for Patient and Service Improvement Module
about service quality: Service quality concept in the current literature
The developed countries have given a significant importance to the service sector of the country. With every passing day the segment of employment is growing and increasing very rapidly. This ultimately gives the members of the society a life with high quality and setting high standards for the members to a live a good life. Service sector contributes as a major portion of the country and without it other sectors cannot also develop. It also faces competition with global world as the world has become global all the way. The main point of this competition is to bring free circulation of the services and products. Getting confidence of the consumers is an essential part and while facing competition they need to provide the best services in order to sustain in the market.…
Consultant dieticians are employed under an agreement with health related establishments or work privately. They execute dietary checks on their patients and propose diet related solutions to issues like being overweight and fat cutback. Some give their time to welfare organizations, sports groups, superstores, and such food related dealings. They may confer with food managers, supplying the skill necessary to carry out hygienic conditions, safety protocols, diet programs, and financial issues.
In the next few pages we will discuss the drivers aforementioned in detail and how they help in attaining viability, acceptability, feasibility and desirability of the change in home healthcare services.
In order to estimate the home healthcare working excellence, diet facilities must be looked on a continuous basis (Babakus & Mangold, 1992; Devebakan, 2005; Lee et al., 2000), including semblance of hospital and hygiene (Lee & Yom, 2007). Most important thing for the home healthcare and dietary staff is that they must be serviceable and comfortable. The overall environment must be organized in a way that provides freedom from anxiety to the patient. There must be proper supply of devices and dietary supplements in hospitals as
Stratford High graduate (1991), Houston Texas, I gained my first exposure to the importance of applying management principles in High School, when I owned and operated a Yard Service. The experience was invaluable since it taught me the art of customer acquisition and retention and how a customer centric approach was key to success in business. During the same time, I also served as a Lifeguard at some of the neighbourhood pools, which gave me my first insights into inter-personal skills, facing as I did situations where I had to persuade and counsel some of the more dare devil kids.
I was also privileged in that I had the advantage of learning the value of academic studies from my mother who was a Junior High Science and Tech teacher, while being able to reflect on the challenges of experiential situations through my father who worked as a Petroleum Engineer for…
Genetic Link of Alcoholism
Introduction great deal of attention and research has recently been concentrated on the genetic link of alcoholism and on the possibility of accounting genetically for drunken behavior. Early studies found reliable genetic transmission of alcoholism. Much of this research focused on the offspring of alcoholics and on the biochemical or neurological abnormalities they inherit that possibly lead to pathological drinking. Other studies focused on a gestalt of personality traits (concentrating on impulsiveness and antisocial activity) that can end in alcoholism.
According to Holden (1985, p. 38), "A decade ago such a theory (of inherited antisocial personality and alcoholism) would have been dismissed as out of hand." Today, this viewpoint has gained broad acceptance amongst psychologists. New research has created more detailed deterministic models of alcoholism based on biological concepts models, which have had a significant impact on the thinking of both public and clinical workers.
Goodwin, D (1991). The genetics of alcoholism. In McHugh, PR & McKusick, VA (Eds.) Genes, Brain and Behavior. New York: Raven Press Ltd.
Holden, C. (1985), Genes, personality and alcoholism. Psychol. Today 19 (No. 1): 38-39, 42-44.
Murray, Robin M. And Stabenau, James R. (1982). Genetic Factors in Alcoholism Predisposition. Encyclopedic Handbook of Aloholism. New York: Gardner Press Inc.: 135-143.
O'Connor, Sean. (2002). Self-reported subjective perception of intoxication reflects family history of alcoholism when breath alcohol levels are constant. Alcohol Clinic Review.
Euthanasia: The Right to Die, the Right to Life -- a Continuing Controversy
The idea of willing terminating an individual's life, even according to his or her consent, remains one of the most controversial "rights" in today's contemporary debate over where the state's ability to intrude upon the individual body begins. As Ronald Dworkin notes in his article, "Sex, Death, and the Courts," it is true that "millions of people think that doctors are murderers if they help patients, even those dying slowly in great pain, to kill themselves." Yet, the American Medical Association confirmed its longstanding opposition to euthanasia, "and most states have made assisting suicide a crime." (Dworkin, 1996) Individuals claim that the state has no right to poke its nose into what they do, behind closed curtains. Yet euthanasia often requires a physician's assistance. Moreover, in legal cases that involve the hospital, the courts are forced the…
Dworkin, Ronald. "Sex, Death and The Courts." The New York Review of Books. August 8, 1996. Retrieved from the Web at http://www.nybooks.com/authors/90
Dworkin, Ronald. "Assisted Suicide: The Philosopher's Brief." The New York Review of Books. March 27, 1997. Retrieved from the Web at
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.
Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
client, whose name is Kate and is the main character in the 2013 film Smashed, displays compulsive behavior and a marked addiction towards alcohol and the classic symptoms of alcoholism in the scene in which she parks her car before going to teach elementary school. This scene takes place early one in the film, and indicates the sort of behavior that will characterize Kate's descent into alcoholism. Despite the fact that she is late for work because she is hung over, she still cannot refrain from consuming more alcohol -- in the form of whiskey, straight. This scene indicates that not only is Kate psychologically addicted to this substance, but it is also affecting her ability to engage in normal activities (such as work). Drinking hard liquor prior to beginning a work day in which one will be grooming the future of young children is extremely dysfunctional behavior. So is…
Beseler, C.L., Aharanovich, E., Keyes, K.M., Hasin, D.S. (2008). Adult transition from at-risk drinking to alcholo dependence: the relationship of family history and drinking motives. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 32(4), 607-616. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/~dsh2/pdf/AtRiskDrinking.pdf
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.(2003). The genetics of alcoholism. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa60.htm
Saunders, L.L, Krause, J.S. (2011). Psychological factors affecting alcohol use after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 49(5): 637-642. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090503/
Nursing and Genetics
As noted by Lea (et al.) "Obtaining a family history is an established and familiar screening activity used by nurses and other healthcare providers across many healthcare settings" (Lea 2010:4). However, the increased commonality of doing a genetic profile on patients has made gathering such a family history far more revelatory than ever before. Nurses must gain a better understanding of how genetics affects patient health in a very specific fashion to be effective healthcare providers in the future. Nurses are "ideally situated" to inform patients about what genetic information means, given the patient-centered focus of the profession (Lea 2011: 3). Nurses must understand the implications of genetic testing to comprehend the extent to which a disease is likely to manifest itself in a patient. Patients must be able to realistically evaluate the threats they face.
At present, "genetic tests are offered to those suspected of having…
Conley, Y. & Tinkle, M. (2006). The future of genomic nursing research. Journal of Nursing
Scholarship, 38: 213-218
Lea, DH (et al. 2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43:1, 3 -- 12.
Lea, DH (2006). U.S. genetics nurses in advanced practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship,
History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care
Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human population.it is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…
Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics-movement-and-irbs-724
Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://galton.org/essays/1900-1911/galton-1904-am-journ-soc-eugenics-scope-aims.htm
Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BEugenics72Bergman73Potter77.htm
nurse in one of the local hospitals in Louisiana, I have noticed that many children are hospitalized with various health issues like ear infections, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, rhinitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and sore throats. These medical issues have become common among students in the region without a clear understanding of the major contributing factors. In attempts to identify the main factors resulting in the illnesses, I have conducted state-wide analysis of the problem. The analysis has indicated that most of these children are exposed to secondhand smoke, which has enhanced the rates of these diseases. Children in this state are increasingly exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke in various environments. It is reported that over 294,000 children below 18 years and 91,000 children below 5 years regularly share breathing space with smokers in their own homes throughout Louisiana.
The scope of this issue contributes to the need to establish measures that will…
"Arizona." (n.d.). Protect Local Control: Ensuring Community Rights to Pass Smokefree
Ordinances. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.protectlocalcontrol.org/state.php?sid=3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, April 25). 25 States and DC are Smoke-Free.
Retrieved from Office of the Associate Director for Communication website: http://www.cdc.gov /features/Smoke-FreeLaws/
Define the term Teratology
Teratology refers to the study of abnormal fetal growth. Teratogenic prenatal exposures arise from: infectious agents, chemical and drug agents, metabolic or maternal causes (such as phenylketonuria and diabetes), and physical agents (such as heat, ionizing radiation, and mechanical factors) (Jelinek, 2005). Inbred abnormalities occur commonly, with 2-3% babies, both live and stillborn, as well as aborted fetuses having structural abnormalities. Furthermore, about 10% of infants have internal functional deficits or anomalies which might not be perceptible at birth, and may only surface later on in life. Congenital abnormalities can be categorized into: (1) Malformations, which denote changes in normal growth transpiring from an inherent development-process abnormality; (2) Deformations, which arise due to an irregular mechanical force upon a fetus which is otherwise normal (e.g., clubfoot in an environment of oligohydramnios); and (3) Disruptions, occurring because of disturbance in normal process of growth (for instance,…
Adam, M.P., Polifka, J.E. & Friedman, J.M. (2011). Evolving knowledge of the teratogenicity of medications in human pregnancy. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 157C:175.
Finnell, R.H. (1999). Teratology: General considerations and principles. J Allergy ClinImmunol.Vol. 103, No. 2. S337-s342
Jelinek, R. (2005). The Contribution of New Findings and Ideas to the Old Principles of Teratology. Reproductive Toxicology 20: 295-300.
Jones, K.L. (August 17, 2005). Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, Sixth edition Saunders.
hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.
Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…
Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British
Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com .
Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.
Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au .