116). This point is also made by Goozner (2004) who suggests, "Even when a genetic flaw causes disease, it doesn't automatically mean that it can be treated by replacing the defective or missing protein with its biotechnologically created equivalent. Cystic fibrosis is the classic example" (p. 30).
The treatment protocols that are currently in use are therefore designed to address the immediate symptoms of the condition, which in many cases also require some truly aggressive therapy. For example, according to Schubert and Murphy, "Those who are pancreatic insufficient rely on the frequent ingestion of enzyme supplements (often as many as 40 pills per day) to aid digestion and reduce stomach cramping, the use of dietary supplements to aid in weight gain, and, for some, the increased use of supplemental feeding tubes" (Schubert & Murphy, p. 36). The Mayo Clinic reports that still other current treatments for cystic fibrosis include the use of antibiotics to control infections, mucus-thinning drugs and bronchodilators to make clearing of the lungs easier, bronchial airway drainage, and analgesics (Treatments and drugs, 2008).
According to the clinicians at the Mayo Clinic, since the genetic mutation that causes the disease was identified in 1989, researchers have been seeking to find ways to insert copies of the normal gene into cells of the respiratory tract but there have been some profound constraints involved. As these researchers emphasize, "The challenge has been to find a reliable way to deliver the normal genetic material to affected cells that line the airways. Several methods have been developed as delivery systems, including using modified viruses, fat capsules (liposomes) and synthetic vectors. Clinical trials are under way to test the effectiveness of these delivery systems" (Treatments and drugs, p. 3). Likewise, Reid points out that, "Although scientists have made considerable progress, early detection and treatments for cystic fibrosis does not always guarantee the patient will live a long normal life. However, researchers are constantly searching for new and improved methods to complement or replace current therapies in an attempt to at least improve the patient's quality of life" (p. 28). According to Drotar, "Major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease have been made over the past two decades, significantly increasing life expectancy to a median age of 32. However, reduction in the mortality of CF patients has been based...
383). Not surprisingly, a number of researchers cite a low adherence rate for compliance with these aggressive therapies by many CF patients (Drotar).
The research showed that treatment for cystic fibrosis continues to evolve, but remains largely restricted to frequently aggressive therapies designed to mitigate the effects of CF on the various bodily organs its affects, including the lungs, heart and pancreas. Because cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease, researchers have increasingly sought gene-replacement therapies that can cure rather than treat the disease. Unfortunately, the research was also consistent in emphasizing that such a cure remains a distant goal that is perhaps decades away. In the meantime, clinicians recommend a multidisciplinary approach that embraces a multifaceted treatment protocol for the wide range of symptoms that are typically associated with the disease, and these techniques have provided many CF sufferers with a longer and better life. The cumulative effects of cystic fibrosis, though, tend to make such symptomatic treatments less effective over time, and opportunistic infections remain the primary cause of premature death among this population. While the race for a cure continues, though, the enormously debilitating effects of cystic fibrosis on the individual as well as the other family members involved means that the incidence of CF is not restricted to CF patients alone, but rather extends to those around them as well in ways that can adversely affect the quality of life for all concerned. Therefore, it just makes good sense to extend future research directions into how family members can provide the levels of support needed for CF sufferers while protecting themselves from the burnout that is typically associated with the provision of such demanding day-to-day healthcare needs for others.
Drotar, D. (2000). Promoting adherence to medical treatment in chronic childhood illness: Concepts, methods, and interventions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Goozner, M. (2004). The $800 million pill: The truth behind the cost of new drugs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Levinson, R. & Reiss, M.J. (2003). Key issues in bioethics: A guide for teachers. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Reid, C.D. (1996, October). Probing the pancreas. FDA Consumer, 30(8), 27-28.
Schubert, J.D. & Murphy, M. (2005). The struggle to breathe:…
Cff.org/will each be the source of information and professional peer reviewed articles will be cited from these sources and identified by source as they cited. There is a wealth of available information, data and studies on CF. What it all means to the patients who suffer from this debilitating and life-threatening disease will be understood as this essay proceeds. Chapter One Diagnosis and the Anatomy and Physiology of a Life Threatening Disease: Cystic
This in turn leads to cytoplasmic water retention and the buildup of viscous mucus in the lungs and other areas of the body. This is particularly problematic for the lungs because the thick mucus impairs clearance of invasive particles and infectious agents to maintain a sterile environment. Microbial contamination of airway surfaces triggers an inflammatory response, including a massive invasion by neutrophils (Rodrigues et al., 2008). As the neutrophils react
cystic fibrosis. There are eleven references used for this paper. There are a number of fatal diseases which a person can be born with in the world today. One of the most debilitating is Cystic Fibrosis. It is important to examine its history, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, treatments and prognosis in order to gain a better understanding of this disease. Cystic fibrosis is a "recessive disorder common among Caucasians. Although the disease
cystic fibrosis. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey about cystic fibrosis and its causes, treatments and future. The writer outlines many aspects of the disease including the enzyme treatments that are currently being studied. There were five sources used to complete this paper. The medical community has made many amazing discoveries in the last few decades. People are living longer than ever before and the quality of
healthy individual is infected with a bacteria or virus, the body identifies the virus as an invader, and therefore produces the antibodies, which is the human body's immune system, to destroy the virus to assist the person to recover and become healthy. Meanwhile, vaccination is the process of stimulating the active immune system to fight disease in the body, and vaccine will boost the body active immunity to fight
Respiratory Infections Respiratory Conditions Respiratory tract infections are highly infectious diseases that involve the respiratory tract. They are divided into upper (URTI or URI) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI or LRI). LRIs include pneumonia, bronchitis and influenza, and they tend to affect patients more seriously that URIs which include the common cold, tonsillitis, sinusitis and laryngitis. This research dwells on four respiratory infections which are bronchitis, bronchial asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm and