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" The differences between Darwin and Lamarck's theories primarily stem from the second category, under content, dealing with how "organisms progress from 'lower' to 'higher' forms'" (Firenze 1997).
The key difference between Lamarck's and Darwin's ideas occurs when a variation appears concerning this progression from lower to higher. Lamarck's position is that acquired characteristics arise after the environment changes. That is, a change in the environment will lead to a change in the organism. But Darwin, on the other hand, believed that variations are present in a population before the environment changes. Lamarck saw evolution in terms of individuals, but Darwin realized that populations are important. Darwin stated that random differences between individuals affect fitness, and that more fit individuals tend to survive and reproduce. In contrast, Lamarck theorized that organisms become more fit in response to their environment. Although abandoned over 150 years ago, Jean Baptiste de Lamarck's theory…… [Read More]
Darwin and Kant
British physicist Charles Darwin's On the Origin of the Species was published in 1859 to widespread and heated discourse. hile the text offers a wide range of ideas on the biological advancement of our species as well as the general development of the ecologies of the world, it is almost certainly its exploration of the concept of Natural Selection that would lend the text importance not just scientifically and intellectually but indeed to our sociological advancement as well. This joins Darwin's work into a conversation sparked some 70 years prior by German philosopher Immanuel Kant with the equally controversial Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose. The discussion here considers their respective implications to the human condition.
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection:
Natural Selection presumes that all creatures are biologically driven to evolve toward the means to survive their respective environments. This notion…… [Read More]
Darwin's Children: Book Review
Bear, Greg. Darwin's Children. New York: Del Rey, 2003.
No, it's not a story of the children of the famous 19th century British naturalist and author of The Origin of Species. Rather, Darwin's Children is a sequel to science fiction author Greg Bear's previous novel, Darwin's Radio and expands upon some of the political and sociological issues raised by this master of high-quality sociological science fiction. This particular instillation in Bear's saga chronicles the results of human evolution, but in the far future rather than in the natural world of the past.
According to author Bear, the next stage of human evolution has arrived with the birth of a new form of human being, a generation of virus children, children whom are hypersensitive to stimulus and have strange, marked faces that immediately give them away as other and alien, even to their own parents. This specific…… [Read More]
Darwin's Theory And Arguments
The existence of life on earth, the multitude of life forms, and the variations within each have intrigued man since times immemorial. The explanations ended where they were supposed to begin, 'The Origin'. When the religions took over the philosophical mindsets of the masses, they sought to offer the origin through divinity and supernaturalism. The various scientific and logical theologies until such time had tried and failed to capture the enormity of the creation into natural laws even in isolated parts. The various branches of thoughts tried to accumulate and present proofs that supported their explanations but found little resonance in those times. The firm grip of eligion on masses was a vehicle on which the Genesis rode and it was accepted as a rule that the divine power breathed life into living beings of each species and man. It was a conviction that was accepted…… [Read More]
Darwinism and militarism. Darwin' ideas will first be discussed, and the implications of Darwin's theories on society will then be discussed, particularly in terms of the development of eugenics, which was so influential on Hitler and his political and social aims. The paper will then look at how Hitler used his understanding of Darwinism, and how this in turn led to increasing militarism in the world.
Darwin set out on a worldwide voyage of discovery, with ideas about the development of life on earth in his head, and an inquisitive nature; the study of the specimens from the voyage of the eagle convinced Darwin that modern species had evolved from a few earlier ones (Coyne, 2003). Years later, after much deliberation, he documented the evidence and first presented his theories on evolution to a meeting of scientists in 1858 (Coyne, 2003); the work presented in this meeting was jointly presented…… [Read More]
Secondly Bethell argues against the propensity of Darwin and his contemporaries to summarily compare natural processes with the artificial selection used by breeders. This, according to the author, appears to be the result of a cultural paradigm of "industrial capitalism," which saw all change as inherently progressive.
Gould opens his first argument by admitting that Bethell's theory correlate well with current technical writings on natural selection. Indeed, many of these focus on the numbers of survivors rather than their differentiation. Gould however continues to state that nature is hardly submissive to computer manipulation, and that while the superiority of a certain animal may be expressed as differential survival, it is not defined by it. Survival is then a result of fitness rather than its definition.
Gould's second argument relates to the environment in which survival takes place. Fitness for survival then is also a response to changing environments. The greater…… [Read More]
This, of all Darwin's contributions, was the most significant, Mayr reports. "The Living world," he says, "can [now] be explained without recourse to supernaturalism." An underlying implication of this situation was a kind of democratization of natural science -- a distribution of scientific knowledge that could be tested, verified, and explained by unscientific people. At the end of the article, Mayr asserts that "almost every component in modern man's belief system is somehow affected by Darwinian principals."
While Mayr's article offered a well-rounded review of Darwin's most important contributions to natural science, it was not without its pitfalls. The most notable pitfall was that it didn't seem to reach out to 'the other side.' It felt similar to a press release for Darwinism -- a "puff-piece." This is illustrated by Mayr's language: "No educated person any longer questions the validity of the so-called theory of evolution." Indeed if Mayr wrote…… [Read More]
Marx, Darwin, Heraclitus, And Parmenides
Charles Darwin and Karl Marx were separated geographically and sociologically. These two individuals had much in common in their youth. They were both born to wealthy European families and were thus privileged with the chance to receive a good education without having to worry about supporting their family or the fear of survival. Despite the comfort into which they were born, both men sought out ways to increase their own understanding of the world and to share that understanding with the rest of humanity. In so doing, both men changed the world by exposing unknown facts and exploring unrealized realities. One man was primarily a scientist who became embroiled in controversial philosophy because of his scientific observations. The other man held equally controversial views, but based on a study of humanity and human interaction rather than scientific inquiry. Both men hypothesized about the world in…… [Read More]
Gould vs. Bethell
DAWIN'S UNTIMELY BUIAL
Stephen Jay Gould, "Darwin's Untimely Burial," Natural History 85 (Oct. 1976): 24-30. ]
Ever since Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution, individuals involved with science and religion have tried to negate his thesis. Some scholars, such as British philosopher Tom Bethell, have seen "something very, very wrong with this idea," and hoped to contain it to the sphere of biology and ban its spread into cosmology, psychology, the arts, ethics and religion. Others, such as scientist Jay Gould, recognize Darwin as one of the most brilliant people in history. In the essay, "Darwin's Untimely Burial," Gould refutes Bethell and claims (paraphrasing Mark Twain) "Despite reports to the contrary, the theory of natural selection remains very much alive." Bethell finds Darwinian theory rotten to the core while Gould finds a pearl of great price at the center.
Bethell says he does not support Darwin's…… [Read More]
Darwin Meeting Timer Model No.1 -- User's Manual
You have taken a step toward maximizing effectiveness and time efficiency for you and your organization through the purchase of the Darwin Meeting Timer Model No.1. Never before have meetings progressed at a better pace and achieved more optimal results. Enclosed is information to ensure that you and your organization receive the most benefit from the use of your Darwin Meeting Timer.
Details: Small rectangular button located on the top left side of the Darwin Meeting Timer.
Function: Commences the timing function of the device.
Usage: Depress the start button one time at the start of a meeting in order to commence the timing function.
Details: Small rectangular button located in the middle on the top of the Darwin Meeting Timer.
Function: Ends the timing function of…… [Read More]
Darwin's Finches And Natural Selection
Polymorphism pertains to the existence of two distinctly different groups of a species that still belong to the same species. Alleles for these organisms over time are governed by the theory of natural selection, and over this time the genetic differences between groups in different environments soon become apparent, as in the case of industrial melanism." (Biology Online, 2000) Darwin's finches are an excellent examples of such polymorphism, "of the way in which species' gene pools have adapted in order for long-term survival via their offspring." (Biology Online, 2000)
The finches Darwin studied were a species of small Galapagos finches and were only found on the Galapagos Islands. They were geographically isolated and without competition from similar species but these finches developed distinctive anatomy. Darwin noted how finches in some areas had completely different shaped beaks than other finches. Even though all were of the…… [Read More]
The purpose of this work is to explore the "Theory of Evolution" as set forth by Darwin and to further explore what is termed as "natural selection" as well as that of "artificial selection." This paper will further examine Darwin's Theory as to the workings of evolution as well as exploring exactly how natural selection works to produce evolution.
Finally, the role of individual genetic variations in relation to evolution and natural selection will be researched. The evolving of traits in species will also be examined as well as the applicable use of those theories.
Having first traveled throughout the world, on a ship, exploring both land and water, in the role of a "Naturalist," and having observed the wonders of the Andes and witnessed the result of Chilean earthquakes, crossed hundreds of miles, trekking through unknown regions, Charles Darwin, returned to England.
Darwin continued to study and…… [Read More]
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…… [Read More]
Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":
The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…… [Read More]
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…… [Read More]
Darwin Comes of Age
o understand Robert Wright, it is first necessary to define evolutionary psychology, which is the foundation of Wright's theory. Evolutionary psychology contends that most, if not all, of human behavior can be understood by the interests of internal psychological mechanisms. hese internal mechanisms are adaptations, or products of natural selection that helped human ancestors survive and reproduce. Evolutionary psychology looks at the challenges early humans faced in their hunter-gatherer environments and the problem-solving they went through to meet those challenges. Based on these problem-solving adaptations, it then establishes the common roots of ancestral behavior and, especially related to Wright's book, how these common behavioral roots are observed and acted upon today. Human behavior, just like physical traits, has passed on from generation to the next. In their brains humans have specific knowledge that helps them adapt to the environment. he brain is subject to natural selection…… [Read More]
Likewise the native' darker skin which shields them against the sun reveals them, in Darwin's eyes, as closer to nature. The fact that they speak a different language that is not of the Indo-European family like Darwin's English, or Romantic (presumably, he would not look down upon them if they spoke French rather than their native tongue) likewise is unscientifically judged upon the basis that Darwin finds it unpleasant to listen to. Strikingly, even though some of these natives have already picked up a few words of English and can mimic the body language of the crew, showing what might be called a quick linguistic intelligence, Darwin sniffs that all savages are good mimics, and complains about the difficulty of getting black and white answers from individuals who have shown remarkable efforts in rapid language acquisition!
In his account of the Beagle's voyage to the Straight of Magellan, he…… [Read More]
While this is a future that is heralded by some as the next logical step in our own evolution -- why let it occur haphazardly and slowly if it can be accomplished through careful planning and design? -- others see this stance as full of dangerous hubris, and an insistence that humanity knows best despite the fact that it has shown itself time and time again willing to grossly misuse available technologies to detrimental ends. The synthetic creation of other "persons" and even the alteration of existing human beings is fraught with many ethical considerations, not the least of which is the fact that we simply don't know what we don't know -- the effects of such synthesis are likely to be surprising and unexpected, despite the best of intentions and the most careful planning.
This is no surprise to you, of course; you played your hand very close to…… [Read More]
The first and most serious is that any type of modification will produce a certain type of outcome. While it is true in the most general sense that helpful modifications are more likely to be retained, it is imperative to keep in mind that significant mutations to an organism are typically fatal, and that most genetic mutations that yield living organisms either cannot produce viable offspring or have an insignificant or slightly negative effect. Hence, pure quantity of variance within a species is meaningless, and the big decisions fall to fate: is species X capable of adapting to cataclysmic event Y? While the ability to adapt to diverse conditions is helpful, no significant change will occur in a species without significant pressure.
The reason is that only mild, phenotypic variation can take place in a large, breeding population. Significant alterations, as previously noted, are typically fatal or incidental. Even if…… [Read More]
agreement between William Harris and John Calvert's article "Intelligent Design: The Scientific Alternative to Evolution," Richard Dawkins' article "The Blind Watchmaker" and Philip Kitcher's article "Believing Where We Cannot Prove," it is that there is no consensus opinion regarding the answers to the questions of where do people come from or how did they get here. As such, answers to these questions are largely left up to the individual and his or her belief, which is generally associated with a finite number of viewpoints on this issue. Personally, it makes the most sense to this author that people are the result of a divine creation on the part of a powerful divinity. The emphasis that certain authors, philosophers and scientists place on who that divinity is and what specific form of such a creation took place to result in mankind is not important, and the fact in the previous sentence…… [Read More]
For example, the species on a single continent are more likely to be similar to one another, even if they live in vastly different environmental conditions, than species from two different continents. Darwin drew heavily upon his experience on the Beagle to suggest that ability to engage in migration was an important component of natural selection. Darwin drew upon examples of islands to help explain his ideas, using examples from his time on the Beagle. For example, he theorized that animals develop to fit certain ecological niches, and that animals of different types might fill those niches in different areas.
After discussing how geography has impacted biology, Darwin moves on to a discussion of how species are classified. He acknowledges that the science behind these classifications is imperfect, as it is based on resemblance. He states his belief that animals with similar traits share a common ancestor. In this way,…… [Read More]
He purported the theory that strength is the only acceptable or even desired quality in a human being and weakness in any form was a great failing, good will survive, and bad will fail. Ultimately, goodness will be replaced by strength; humility will be replaced by pride, the very basis of survival will be threatened by equality and the principle of democracy and power will replace justice in all aspects, and power will eventually be the judge of the destiny of humankind. The Church and religious heads of the time vehemently opposed these theories since they felt that this meant that human kind would be subjected to the theory of the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak become exterminated by the strong. (it's a Matter of life or Death)
Nietzsche's thoughts, though for the most part forgotten, do stay alive in 'Philosophical Investigations' by Wittgenstein, where Nietzsche's 'Theory of…… [Read More]
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…… [Read More]
Although this theory totally impacted the world, Darwin's second book the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) began a major debate, especially between religion and science. As he stated in the conclusion of his book, "The main conclusion here arrived at, and now held by many naturalists who are well competent to form a sound judgment is that man is descended from some less highly organized form."
He even theorized that intelligence and emotion could develop through natural selection.
However, he also stressed the difference between humans and lower animals. Man has a conscience and moral sense. In Chapter 4 he states: "any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or nearly as well developed, as in man."
In many…… [Read More]
Darwinists Must Be Crazy
Imagine the possibilities of learning about Charles Darwin, and studying many forms that exist, such as social, economic and political. However, does this apply to every situation based off his theory? Is survival of the fittest applicable in statistics? How about natural selection? One will investigate further the theory of evolution by discussing probability and many other factors involved.
Every person who believes in evolution thinks that the earth is four billion years old sometimes more or less depending on his or her viewpoint. In order for anything to appear true, species and the origin of everything has to go from simple to complex organisms. Charles Darwin mentions that all life came out of former existence (Darwin, 2003). Is this really true, though?
Instead of using five billion years, let us use 13 billion instead. One can assume that all of these days were good. Furthermore,…… [Read More]
Invisible Century: Einstein, Freud and the Search for Hidden Universes," Richard Panek argues that both Einstein and Freud cut across the barriers of science in their time and, through scrupulous observation not only did they produce a revolution in their respective fields of research but, most importantly, they prompted a "revolution in thought" by using as instruments of research not so much mathematical formulas, but more, the tool of imagination which conjures a new, different world for the XX st century.
The notion of the "invisible century" expresses just that. It is not necessary an era of invisible technologies, but one in which questions are answered by triggering flows of speculations based on information or facts which cannot be physically proven yet there is no doubt about their validity. The term "invisible century" points to a historical environment in which one can answer questions such as "what are dreams," "what…… [Read More]
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…… [Read More]
Such an ascription "both distorts the substance of his thought and grossly exaggerates his actual influence on the politics of his country."
He exerted "little influence" on American politics, Trask continues, though Sumner "praised modern capitalism," believed that the doctrine of "laissez faire is just as applicable to society as it is to the economy," for, "the social order," Trask explains, "like the economy, is government by its own laws and logic of development."
Trask spends a good deal of his article insisting that Sumner's views are more like today's Libertarian views ("society does not need any care of supervision...society [just needs to be] freed from these meddlers..." e.g., big government, Trask paraphrases) than they are in the genre of Social Darwinism.
There may be some degree of truth to what Trask (by the very fact that he is writing in the Journal of Libertarian Studies he becomes in effect…… [Read More]
Leahey's approach is similar to Robinson's in that it allows Freud to be part of a systematic line, but different in that Leahey sees the process as a combination of far more players.
3. Can you think of any other psychologist from 100 years ago who is still as well-known today? What do you think are some of the important contributions of Freud? Why do you think psychologists are not so impressed with these contributions?
Often, it seems as if it is pioneers who are well-remembered in the sciences, or at least those who engender radical or controversial theories. Freud, as founder of the psychoanalytic school and theories of the unconscious mind was, of course, thrown into popularity with his work on sexual desire as a primary motivator of humans. Since Victorian society was so repressed, Freud's ideas resonated more precisely because of that repression. Additionally, Freud was at the…… [Read More]
Bacon's work is less centered on the individual himself as the center of reality and of the mechanism of understanding reality. His rational explanation of the world focuses on nature. His preface of Novum Organum gives some interesting details about his perception of the Nature as the common denominator of understanding reality, the basic premise and concept of all subsequent understanding. Similar to the understanding of Nietzsche and Darwin related solely on the individual, Nature is also very difficult to pinpoint, shouldn't be dogmatized through its unpredictability and capacity to remain a differentiated entity.
Bacon proposes a method that includes "determining certain degrees of certainty" and, a definite element of rationality, using the mind as the main instrument of identifying and understanding the reality surrounding us, although the senses are also something that should be taken into consideration into the equation of understanding reality. Thus, through Nature, using his mind…… [Read More]
Ideas worth Spreading
Nina Jablonski breaks the illusion of skin color (TED2009, 2009)
Nina Joblonski opens by commenting on Darwin's pigmentation and his upbringing. She further speaks of his voyage on the Beagle and his interest in the pigmentation of humans. Darwin did not believe that there was any correlation to skin pigmentation and climate. However, Joblonski points out that if Darwin had access to NASA satellites that he may have come to a different conclusion. One of NASA's satellites has capabilities to monitor the Earth's radiation close to the surface. As a result, researchers today have been able to study skin pigmentation and the exposure to solar radiation and find that there is a perfect gradient and strong correlation between the two.
Therefore, skin color is a product of evolutionary forces as human adapted to their environments and their skin adapt to the levels of radiation that…… [Read More]
morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.
Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.
One of the first steps…… [Read More]
East Asia, 1800-1912
Even with the fact that it would be absurd to claim that Charles Darwin is responsible for the spread of Imperialism, it would only be safe to say that he played an important role in making particular influential bodies in feeling justified as they were conquering other peoples and imposing their power in these areas. orld powers such as the British Empire and Spain were inspired to look at the world as an environment consisting out of communities who were superior and communities who were inferior. As a consequence, it seemed that only those who were superior were worthy to survive while others needed to make place for evolution.
The fact that the British Empire was one of the greatest powers in the world during the nineteenth century and that Darwin issued a series of theories during the period enabled the English to look at life from…… [Read More]
loodlines and Racism.
Discuss Spriro, Defending the Master Race
The book Defending the Master Race by Madison Grant viewed history through an entirely racial lens. Rather than conceptualizing history as a series of clashes between different civilizations or class struggles, Grant characterized history as a series of divisive exchanges between persons of different 'racial' status. What is so interesting from a modern perspective is that many of the 'races' perceived by the author, such as the Macedonian race or the Gothic race, do not exist within our current conception of what defines 'race.' This highlights how, rather than being a static construction that exists outside history, race is a culturally-constructed notion.
Grant even speaks of the 'American race,' which he sees as fundamentally Nordic. This notion is particularly odd, given that America is such a diverse country. America is a nation of immigrants, with the exception of the indigenous tribes…… [Read More]
and, through the scientific study of modern, cognitive science, the idea that 'I' am doing the thinking in a way that is separate from my body and that this can be rationally deducted, simply by thinking and without scientific experimentation would be confounded.
However, those using empiricism as their main philosophical view of the world have also been able to twist the empiricism to use science's supposed rationalism and objectivity to justify tyranny of 'the best,' as in the case of eugenics, and the notion of 'survival of the fittest,' which suggests that the 'best' (morally, racially, and ethically) thrive and should be allowed to triumph over the 'weak.' In reality, Darwin's actual theory merely supports the idea that those best suited to an environment survive, not that survivors are innately better or superior creatures (a mutated moth that can blend in with a coal-blackened environment is not 'better' than…… [Read More]
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…… [Read More]
revolutionary thinkers held widely disparate viewpoints regarding war. Charles Darwin's viewpoint was based on the assumption that war was a manifestation of humans' "struggle for existence." In his book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1882) Darwin explained that natural selection was behind the development of certain human social qualities, namely sympathy, courage, and fidelity. Thus in a fight between two primitive human tribes, the tribe that had the most sympathetic, courageous, and secure warriors was most likely to succeed. ar was thus seen as being essential towards the diffusion of such noble qualities throughout the world.
Karl Marx's view towards war was that it was an essential aspect of the Communist revolution. In the Communist Manifesto (1848) he laid out the steps that would lead towards this revolution. The first step was that an inevitable "class struggle" would occur between workers and capitalists. This would…… [Read More]
"On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" is a paper written in 1855 by the pioneering evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel allace. The article outlines a theory of evolution that predates Darwin's Origin of Species. In fact, allace's paper predated a letter that he wrote to Charles Darwin and which was a source of inspiration for the latter's work. allace wrote "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" in Sarawak, Borneo, but inside the article mentions the Galapagos Islands, where Darwin developed his theories. Islands may evolve peculiar variations of species due to their geographic isolation from continental masses. allace was well travelled and mentions a number of different geographic zones that are relevant to his research on biological evolution including zones in the Americas, Europe, and also Asia.
"On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" discusses the…… [Read More]
The Argument- The theory of evolution was developed out of the work of 19th century botanist and explorer, Charles Darwin and his book On the Origin of Species. Essentially, it is a scientific theory that postulates that organisms change over time based on pressures from the environment that cause genetic mutations within the organism. Over time, these changes are more adapted to a specific environment, more of that organism live longer and reproduce more, thus causing those traits to become even more entrenched in the population. Life then, is part of a gigantic tree in which primitive organisms, over millions and millions of years, evolved into higher beings due to the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits (common or rare) and natural selection (which traits aid survival) (Understanding Evolution).
Creation Science is a branch of creationism that has resurfaced in American education after several Supreme Court decisions defined…… [Read More]
Over time, these small changes add up to evolution.
In short, evolution can be seen as a measure of how suitable given traits of an individual are to the survival of their genetic material. Genes more suited to survival remain while those less do not. Chance events can cause changes in evolutionarily advantageous traits, and can also cause bottlenecks by severely limiting resources, meaning that only a small number of species with given genetic traits will survive to pass on their genes to the next generation. How this all applies to the current economic situation might not be immediately observable, but it is actually a relatively straightforward and even simple application.
There was not exactly a chance event that caused the financial crisis, but the failure of mortgage-backed securities was certainly unplanned, and its effects largely unpredictable. In essence, this failure caused a sever drop in the level of available…… [Read More]
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'
The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…… [Read More]
Polygenism, which posits that humans stem from a diversity of races and, therefore, have distinctions, is the converse of monogenism that posits that all of humanity is from one undifferentiated origin.
Whilst it is true that we each have our distinct cultural background and that these cultural backgrounds can be, occasionally, hugely different in values, practices, ways of thinking, opening, beliefs and so forth, monogenism, such as Christianity, nonetheless believes that we descend from one single set of parents i.e. Adam and Eve and have all been created by God. Banton sees 'race as descent' as the differences between races that could have likely occurred through moral (i.e. social / cultural) or physical (i.e. genetic or behavioral) causes. These differences exist. Monogenists believe that men came from the same source and had acquired these differences later due to environmental and correlated changes, whilst polygenists believe that men were different to…… [Read More]
Billy Bob bought 100 shares of Stock in Ben's Barbeque, Inc. For $37.50 per share. He sold them in January, 2004 for a total of $9,715.02. What is Billy Bob's annual rate of return?
Since Billy Bob held the investment for 54 years, the annual rate of return is best calculated using the compound rate of return formula:
(Future Value / Present Value) ^ (1 / n) -- 1, where n = number of years.
Filling the data into the above formula:
Billy Bob's return on his investment in Ben's Barbeque is 1.78% per year.
Yellow Fruit Company's bonds are currently selling for $1,157.75 per $1,000 par-value bond. The bonds have a 10% coupon rate and will mature in 10 years. What is the approximate yield to maturity of the bonds?
Using the following formula:
c (1 + r)-1 + c (1 + r)-2 + . . . +…… [Read More]
Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…… [Read More]
Maldive Shark, by Herman Melville. Specifically, it will contain answers to the following questions: How do the shark and pilot fish define the organization of nature? What influence might Darwin have had on such a view? Also, explain the "friendship" between the creatures. If beauty exists, what is it for? What is the benefit of life?
THE MALDIVE SHARK
The shark and the pilot fish work in tandem. The shark leaves the pilot fish alone, because the pilot fish leads the shark to prey, and the pilot fish lives near the shark in safety because it knows the shark will not harm it. This could be called a form of "team work," and Darwin would see it as such, and part of nature's plan in the natural selection process, which illustrates "survival of the fittest." The pilot fish adapted to survive by helping the shark. In nature, many plants and…… [Read More]
socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:
An analyss of eco-toursm development
An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal
An evaluaton of the projects feasblty
An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm
Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.
Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…… [Read More]
" Turkle claims that "our fragile planet needs our action in the real," which is exactly what the little girl was trying to point out. Her appreciating the animatronic animals more than the real ones is a product of technology saturation.
Technology has become an annoyance: we all experience the "sense of encroachment of the device" on our personal time and it is difficult to cut ourselves off from the world. Yet technology is a blessing. Turkle points out that the shy and inhibited are hiding behind their virtual selves. Indeed they are: to their advantage. Many readers would agree that technology has allowed the shy and socially awkward to engage socially with others without having to sweat or take anxiety medication.
Being constantly connected with the world is a choice we make. Technology is not deadening us to the world, as Turkle implies. Quite the opposite: technology is enhancing…… [Read More]
But this sense of a death of nationalism, or one's personal belief is different than Nietzsche's statement because no ideology has kind of hold Christianity did upon the world when Nietzsche wrote in 19th century Europe.
Do you think we reached a point where we no longer need God?
On one hand, it is possible to see humanity's ability to engage in scientific discovery as proof of the glory of rationality as opposed to following the 'herd' of faith. But science can also confirm that human beings are not very important in the grand scheme of things, unlike most religions which are concerned with human choice and fate. Darwin's discovery that humans are descendents of primates, Mendel's realization that a great deal of our behavior is determined by our genes, even the discovery that the universe does not revolve around the earth shows us that much of our…… [Read More]
The parents, teachers, and other adults express their id desires on South Park too. The core human instincts that Freud discussed in his theories, such as instinctual aggression, become common motifs on South Park. elated to the aggression instinct, Freud's theory of the death wish is also present on almost every episode of the show. Until recent years of the production, the character Kenny was killed in every show. The creators of South Park have honed in on the instinctual desire for aggression in the human species, depicting violence in comedic but intense ways. The depiction of violence on South Park would seem to suggest that Freud was correct in his assumption that aggression pervades human nature. Many of the characters on the show throw tantrums, kill each other, and in general express their aggression. The huge following that the show enjoys also illustrates that Freud might not have been…… [Read More]
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…… [Read More]
African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports
Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern orld).
Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to…… [Read More]
FACIAL EXPESSION & EMOTION
From the perspective of many psychologists, there is no set formal definition for emotion. We know that emotion is universal insofar as all humans experience and express emotion. There have been many studies, specifically over the past several decades that demonstrate that some emotions are expressed universally across time and culture. Just because there is not a universal definition for emotion, does not mean that there are not working definitions of what is emotion is, as a means to do the job in the meantime, until the global psychological field comes to a more overall agreement. On a very basic level, emotion is an affective change from a person's previous emotional state as a result of a huge spectrum of stimuli. There are a number of physical representations of emotion in the human body. Emotion occurs on a neurological level. Emotions show up in parts…… [Read More]
Men: First Class deals with a plethora of socio-political issues that ultimately pertain to the concept of freedom. The basis for the plot of the movie is the Cuban Missile Crisis and the role that an unknown, manipulative power of mutants played in almost staging -- and narrowly averting -- a nuclear war in the early part of the 1960s. hat is of particular interest about this aspect of the film was that the historical epoch rendered within it was a turbulent time for African-Americans, who sought Civil Rights throughout the United States during the years prior to and after those depicted in the movie. Although none of this history manages to infiltrate the plot of the film, it is still noteworthy to analyze the way African-American characters are utilized within this movie in a context that is decidedly removed from the greater social struggles that characterized their race…… [Read More]
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…… [Read More]
By coming into contact with nature cultures such as the Native American tribes, religions in the Western world were no longer the same. eligious fundamentalism became the basis for many of the often violent interactions between the different cultures, religions, and ways of life. This was the basis for later violence against all who did not agree with the religious norm, for example in events such as the Salem Witch Trials.
Today, this same fundamentalism insists that every word in the Bible or other religious documents should be taken literally. According to this view, the story of creation simply could not agree with Darwinism. The long American history of using religion as a basis for many actions, both good an bad, plays an important role in this.
However, it is also true that there is an increasing trend within Christianity to return to the earlier point-of-view, accepting both Darwinism and…… [Read More]
hile the winner gets a huge amount of money for supposedly being the strongest human, in fact, the strongest human is merely the one that uses the greatest amount of self-centered cunning and brute strength. If one is going to define humanity, especially in the post-Darwinian age, then it would seem that humanity, to be set apart, would depend on altruistic feelings and use of intelligence rather than selfish feelings and use of brute force alone. In this respect, there is little to separate the producers of TV reality shows from Dr. Moreau, and, by extension, little to separate the participants from the man-beasts. hile it is certainly a cynical viewpoint, it would seem that those who participate in the reality shows might be assumed to be as dimly aware of their condition as the man-beasts after their reversion to the more animal state.
Graff compares Dr. Moreau to Mary…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, an argument from common sense can be made based on our own observational context. For example, neurologically speaking, there is a wealth of evidence to illustrate that genes have an immense impact on the final structure of the brain, and thus on behavior. Schizophrenia is an obvious example of this.
Logically, though, there is also abundant support for Dawkins' thesis. oughly, an argument can be shown to be logically viable if its conclusions can be reasonably drawn from its suppositions based on the available evidence. This is abundantly the case in the Selfish Gene, wherein Dawkins (1976) draws on all the existing evidence on evolutionary theory and the development of life, including the mechanism of natural selection (p. 48) and DNA as the molecule of choice for genetic propagation (pp. 22-23). The evidence that Dawkins provides is, quite simply, sufficient to support his argument that the gene should be…… [Read More]
Minimizing Poverty Is a Government Initiative
The Progressive Era
Poverty reduction has remained a central debate in periodical democratic societies. Schemes have been established to enable citizens to be economically viable either at paid-employment or self-employment level. Activists, philosophers, and politicians have suggested technical, liberal, and legal approaches towards poverty eradication. In fact, most of the debate in relation to the field of poverty examines whether poverty is a natural phenomenon associated with human beings. As this report will identify, fighting poverty is a double-edged sword since, after all, poverty is not the only member of the league. Close players include capitalism and politics. The commencing research proves that reducing poverty is a sequential process that requires considerate participation from all stakeholders. The research will principally cite Darwin's Social Darwinism theory, the 1933-1936 national initiative New Deal and Johnson Lyndon Economic Opportunity Act.
Social Darwinism vs. Progressivism
There are…… [Read More]