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Monitoring the type of DDoS attack, the frequency of the attack, duration of attack, and the aggressiveness of the attack all provide clues as to whom may be instituting the attack. The packet stream can be disrupted by the victim by 'pretending' to go offline to the protocol receiving the bandwidth from that particular attack. The rerouting of using available bandwidth to other protocols via an alternative port can remove the ramifications of the attack.
Applying the aforementioned framework within the cloud environment offers an unprecedented level of security enabling the transmission and storage of information in an environment where DDoS is actively monitored and attacks are recognizable. The strategy of using the cloud ostensibly removes the bottleneck constriction due to the lack of physical infrastructure such as a server that purports a chokepoint should an attacker stream an abundance of packet information to the target server.
According to Koutepas,…
Attacks test firms' internet defenses; inside PayPal's war room, engineers face chess match with WikiLeaks-inspired hackers. (2010, Wall Street Journal (Online), pp. n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/816948344?accountid=13044
Connolly, P.J. (2001). Fight DDoS attacks with intelligence. InfoWorld, 23(39), 58. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/194345351?accountid=13044
Fonseca, B. (2001). Warning: DDoS attacks on the rise. InfoWorld, 23(22), 49. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/194357031?accountid=13044
Gezelter, R. (2000). Stopping spoofed packets can cut down DDoS attacks. Network World, 17(33), 53. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215970452?accountid=13044
Detecting, Preventing or Mitigating Distributed Dos (DDOS) Attacks
The Internet continues to be a critical subject due to the increasing attacks based on the major universal communication infrastructures. This study identifies the one detection and two mitigation approaches in developing content to show that DDoS are becoming common in daily business operations.
ationale for selecting the papers
The first research paper I selected is titled "Mitigating Dos Attacks Using Performance Model-Driven Adaptive Algorithms" by Barna and others. The article is recent and goes in length in elucidating the most invaluable method of mitigating DDoS. I also selected this article because it goes in lengths showing how DDoS affects the operations of an organization warranting the adoption of succinct measures in case of an attack.
I also selected an article by ahmani, Sahli, and Kamoun, titled "Distributed Denial-Of-Service Attack Detection Scheme-Based Joint-Entropy" as it elucidates clearly the best way of detecting…
Barna, C., Shtern, M., Smit, M., Tzerpos, V., and Litoiu, M. (2014). Mitigating Dos Attacks Using Performance Model-Driven Adaptive Algorithms. ACM Trans. Auton. Adapt. Syst. 9, 1: 1-26
Carl, G., Kesidis, G., Brooks, R.R. & Rai, S. (2006). Denial-of-Service Attack-Detection Techniques. IEEE Internet Computing. Vol. 10(1): 82-89
Rahmani, H., Sahli, N., & Kamoun, F., (2012). Distributed Denial-Of-Service Attack Detection Scheme-Based Joint-Entropy. Security Comm. Networks; 5:1049 -- 1061
Tripathi, S., Gupta, B., Mishra, A., & Veluru, S., (2013). Hadoop-Based Defense Solution To Handle Distributed Denial Of Service (DDoS) Attacks. Journal of Information Security, 4, 150-164.
Auditing, Monitoring, and Detecting of Dos or DDoS Attacks
A Dos (denial of service attack) is an attempt to make network or machine resources non-available to legitimate users. Attackers use the Dos to accomplish their goals by flooding the target resources or machines with the superfluous requests or useless packets to overload the systems and prevent users to fulfill their legitimate requests. When Dos originates from a single network or host node, it is termed a Dos attack, however, a distributed Dos is a more serious attack that attempts to consume computer resources to prevent the system from providing services. A DDoS occurs when there are multiple sources of attacks and often come from thousands of unique IP addresses. However, the rates of the DDoS have increased in the last few years, and criminals target high profile servers such as credit card payment gateways, banks other big corporations to achieve…
Black, P.E. Fong, E. Okun, V. et al.(2007). Software Assurance Tools: Web Application Security Scanner Functional Specification Version 1.0. NIST. Special Publication 500-269.
Chang, J. Venkatasubramanian, K.K. West A.G.et al. (2013). Analyzing and Defending Against Web-based Malware. ACM Computing Survey. 14(9) No 4.
Disterer, G. Alles, A. & Hervatin, A. (2008). Chapter XXXI Denial-of-Service (Dos) Attacks: Prevention, Intrusion Detection, and Mitigation. IRMA-International.org.
Han, D., Shen, W., Duong, T.Q., et al. (2014). A proposed security scheme against Denial of Service attacks in cluster-based wireless sensor networks. Security Comm. Networks. 7:2542 -- 2554
Denial-of-Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks concentrate on rendering any resource (i.e., site, server, or application) inaccessible for whichever function it was created for. There are numerous means for making services inaccessible to their legitimate customers, including manipulation of network packets, resource handling, programming, or logical vulnerabilities. When services receive several requests, they may become unavailable for legitimate customers. Likewise, services can also stop due to exploitation of programming vulnerability, or how the service manages the resources it utilizes. The attacker may, at times, inject and effect arbitrary code when carrying out DoS attacks for accessing key data or executing server commands. DoS attacks considerably damage the service quality, negatively affecting legitimate customers experience. They give rise to significant delays in response, service disruptions, and huge losses, thereby directly affecting the availability of service (OWASP, 2015). This form of cyber-attack attempts to make a certain target service inaccessible for…
Oesterling, C. (2015, October 18). Denial of Service Attacks: Definition & Prevention. Retrieved from JavaPie: https://javapipe.com/denial-of-service-attack
OWASP. (2015, Febuary 2). Denial of Service. Retrieved from The Open Web Application Security Project: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Denial_of_Service
Patrikakis, C., Masikos, M., & Zouraraki, O. (2004). Distributed Denial of Service Attacks. The Internet Protocol Journal, 7(4).
Detecting, Preventing and Mitigating Dos or DDOS Attacks
Detecting, Preventing and mitigating DoS or distributed Dos Attacks
Distributed Denial of Services is constantly evolving from small megabits to massive megabits of data. Many Internet Service providers lack the capacity and the ability to mitigate this problem. Most of these attacks are run from one master station that takes control of millions or many stations and use them as Zombies to launch the attack. This paper uses ideas from peer-reviewed articles to summarize aspects related to detection, prevention, and mitigation of DoS attacks.
ationale of selecting the papers
The first research paper selected by Kompella, Singh, and Varghese (2007)is titled "On Scallable Attack Detection in the network" from IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking Journal. I selected this research paper because it showed a significant research on the current issue of denial of service. The research paper also contains knowledge that captures researcher's…
Chen, R., Park, J.-m., & Marchany, R. (May 2007). A Divide-and-Conquer Strategy for Thwarting Distributed Denial- of - Service Attacks. IEEE Transanctions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, VOL. 18 NO. 5. 577-588
Francois, J., Aib, I., & Boutaba, R. (DECEMBER 2012). FireCol: A Collaborative Protection Network for the Detection of Flooding DDoS Attacks. IEEE / ACM Transactions On Networking, VOL. 20, NO. 6. 1828-1841
Khattab, S., Melhem, R., Mosse, D., & Znati, T. (2006). HoneyPot back-propagation for mitigating Spoofing distributed Denial-of-Service attacks. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 1152-1164.
Kompella, R.R., Singh, S., & Varghese, G. (Feb 2007). On Scalable Attack Detection in the Network. IEEE/ACM Transanctions on Networking, Vol. 15, No. 1, Vol.15, No. 1. 14-25
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…
Burd, Steffani a. (2006) Impact of Information Security in Academic Institutions on Public Safety and Security: Assessing the Impact and Developing Solutions for Policy and Practice. Final Report." NCJ 215953, United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Oct 2006.
Muntenu, Adrian (2004) Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma
Full text PDF: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/215953.pdfMunteanu , Adrian (2004) the Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma. Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions.
Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007
2007 Estonian Cyber-war
This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the ussian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).
More than 340,000 ethnic ussians reside in Estonia which means that the ussians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and ussia share an extensive history of…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_ Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf
Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf
Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Taliharm, A. (n.d.). Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.ccdcoe.org/articles/2011/Czosseck_Ottis_Taliharm_Estonia_After_the_2007_Cyber_Attacks.PDF
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, IV (2), 49-60. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=jss
Social Engineering as it Applies to Information Systems Security
The research takes into account several aspects that better create an overview of the term and the impact it has on security systems. In this sense, the first part of the analysis reviews the concept of social engineering and the aspects it entails. Secondly, it provides a series of cases that were influenced by social engineering and the effects each had on the wider picture of information security. Thirdly, the research looks at what policies are set in place to avoid this type of practice and how has the information security society responded to the threat posed by social engineering. Finally, possible solutions to the issues social engineering raises are also presented in the context of the increased technological environment in which business is conducted in the world we live in today.
General aspects on social engineering
A non-academic definition of…
Allen, Malcolm. "Social Engineering: A Means To Violate A Computer System," SANS Institute, 2006, available online at https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/engineering/social-engineering-means-violate-computer-system-529
Dimension Research. "The Risk Of Social Engineering On Information Security:
A Survey Of It Professionals" in Dimension Research, Sept. 2011, available online at http://www.checkpoint.com/press/downloads/social-engineering-survey.pdf
Honan, Mat. "How Apple and Amazon Security Flaws Led to My Epic Hacking" in Wired. 8 June 2012, available at http://www.wired.com/2012/08/apple-amazon-mat-honan-hacking/
Cloud Computing Security Pros & Cons
Over the last ten years, cloud computing has rapidly grown and it is expected to grow even further as more businesses move online. When cloud computing was first conceived, many skeptics dismissed it as being just another tech fad that will quickly disappear. However, over the last three years cloud computing has truly changed the way we think about IT nowadays. The Cloud has significantly reduced the cost of doing business and has allowed businesses to focus on their core activities and not IT related issues (Krutz & Vines, 2010; Ali, Khan &Vasilakos, 2015). These reasons and many other which we will highlight in this essay show that Cloud computing is here to stay. However, like any other technology, cloud computing has also been associated with a few challenges and inefficiencies. This paper will look at the pros and cons of cloud computing. In…
Ali, M., Khan, S. U., &Vasilakos, A. V. (2015). Security in cloud computing: Opportunities and challenges. Information Sciences, 305, 357-383.
Krutz, R. L., & Vines, R. D. (2010). Cloud security: A comprehensive guide to secure cloud computing. Wiley Publishing.
Nedelcu, B., Stefanet, M. E., Tamasescu, I. F., Tintoiu, S. E., & Vezeanu, A. (2015). Cloud
Computing and its Challenges and Benefits in the Bank System. Database Systems Journal, 6(1), 44-58.
(%) Cross Site Scripting (XSS) errors -- by far the most common strategy hackers use to gain access to the source code of websites and the databases supporting them is to use a technique called cross-site scripting (Brodkin, 2007). Actively monitoring the percentage of XSS errors over time can determine patterns of when hackers attempt to gain access to a website's source code, database links, pricing and e-commerce systems. This is one of the most often used metrics in security dashboards used for monitoring Web-based applications and multisite installations.
(%) Incidence and Trending of Buffer Overflow Injection Flaws -- This is most commonly associated with attempts to gain access to SQL databases supporting a website by forcing a buffer overflow condition (Brodkin, 2007). This is one of the most effective hacking strategies there are as it forces a system to fail and allow access.
(%) Authentication Soft and Hard Errors…
Brodkin, J.. (2007, October). The top 10 reasons Web sites get hacked. Network World, 24(39), 1,16-17,20.
Su, M., Yu, G., & Lin, C.. (2009). A real-time network intrusion detection system for large-scale attacks based on an incremental mining approach. Computers & Security, 28(5), 301.
Xiong, K., & Perros, H. (2008). Trustworthy Web services provisioning for differentiated customer services. Telecommunication Systems, 39(3-4), 171-185.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
cloud computing will be discussed to show that the good outweighs the bad. Furthermore, it will be further discussed that the government is looking into using cloud computing because it will cut IT cost down and increase capabilities despite the fact people are concerned with security issues that this may bring to the public.
In completing a dissertation, it is very hard to go through the challenges that it requires. From the start and until this moment, I had gone through many challenging stages. The challenges that I faced were deciding the topic, reading various journals and articles, narrowing down focus within a large area, getting information on cloud computing, which all required time and effort. Despite the strong tasks that I faced, I finally made it and the 'final product' is about to be released. I feel extremely happy to have this chance to learn through the process since…
2009. Benefits, risks and recommendations for information security. Internet document.
2010. Cloud Computing Security. Viewed 30 April 2010. http://www.computer.org/portal/web/computingnow/spcfp6
2010. Cloud Computing: IT's role in governance. Viewed 30 April 2010. http://blog.bluelock.com/blog/benefits-of-cloud-computing
How the threats are detected
Ever since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, businesses have had to critically rethink on the level of adequacy of their disaster recovery arrangements in relation to their business continuity plans as noted by Lam (2002,p.19). The September 11, 2001 tragedy effectively highlighted the importance for organizations to continue with their commercial operations even under the most exceptional of circumstance. My business which has a considerable e-commerce operation is particularly vulnerable to the IT related threats. It is therefore crucial that these threats be identified and eliminated or mitigated before they result to loss of revenue.
In my business, I face several threats. However, the ones that I consider most dominant are technology threats and information threats. These threats can cause a major disruption to the to business continuity planning (BCP) cycle. Technology threats include natural disasters like fire and flooding,…
Lam, W (2002).Ensuring Business Continuity. IT Pro. Available online at http://paul-hadrien.info/backup/LSE/IS%20490/Ensuring%20Business%20continuity.pdf Accessed on 3/5/2012
Snedaker, S (2007). The Best Damn IT Security Management Book Period. Syngress
Business Impact Analysis
The heart of any major business, beyond its human capital, is usually its technological resources and status. A business that relies on internet access and an arsenal of computer hardware and software must collect and harness the necessary knowledge, people and tools to manage this technology in an efficient yet effective way. Doing otherwise can expose trade secrets and customer data. Loss of productivity can also be exceedingly damaging.
Mission Critical Functions
As it relates to technology, there are three major functions that are mission critical. The first, and most important, is the network itself. If the network goes down, any networking and Internet functions will grind to a halt. Having such a happenstance drag on for a considerable amount of time can cause massive amounts of damage in terms of client deliverables not being provided and necessary administration work not getting done. It is true that…
Give IT employees what they need to thrive, research finds. (2009, August 03). Newswise.
Retrieved from http://www.newswise.com/articles/give-information-technology-employees-what-they-need-to-thrive-research-finds
Schmidt, M.S. (2012, March 13). New interest in hacking as threat to security. New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2012/03/14/us/new-interest-in-hacking-as-threat-to-us-security.html
Cyber terrorism is the process of using disruptive, electronic activities to disrupt or destroy computers or computer networks with the aim of causing further damage or fear. Cyber terrorism is therefore a very great threat to information as it can lead to the leaking, damage or loss of very critical information by countries. In any case, cyber terrorism is facilitated through hacking and other activities aimed at affecting information across the world Verton, 2003.
Therefore as a threat, cyber terrorism involves terrorists using information technology in order to further their evil causes. The present technological world offers terrorists the opportunity to use information technology to make electronic threats through hackings, introduction of viruses defacing websites and Denial-of-service attacks.
Evolution of cyber terrorism
The evolution of cyber terrorism has basically grown in tandem with the developments realized in information technology. The initial threats began in the 1980s and continue as terrorists…
Alexander, Y., & Swetnam, M.S. (2001). Cyber terrorism and information warfare: threats and responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational.
Elmusharaf, M.M. n. d. (2012). Cyber Terrorism: The new kind of Terrorism. Computer Crime Research Center - Daily news about computer crime, internet fraud and cyber terrorism. Retrieved May 29, 2012, from http://www.crime-research.org/articles/Cyber_Terrorism_new_kind_Terrorism
Taylor, R.W. (2006). Digital crime and digital terrorism. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Verton, D. (2003). Black Ice: the Invisible Threat of Cyber-Terrorism. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Vulnerable Areas of Industrial Security Operations:
Industrial security has become one of the most important aspects in the business world because of the need to protect the business' assets and enhance productivity. The need for industrial security is also fueled by the growth of the industrial sector that is constantly changing. The backbone of the every industrial environment or sector is security because of the vulnerable areas within these sectors. Some of the threats that a business is likely to face in industrial operations include sabotage, espionage, competition, utility industry security issues, and transportation challenges.
The banking sector is one of the industries that are likely to experience several vulnerabilities in the operations of the banks. As one of the major players in the American banking industry, Bank of America has some vulnerable areas. First, the financial institution is likely to experience espionage, which involves technical means and attempts by…
McGlasson, L. (2011, January 3). Top 9 Security Threats of 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from http://www.bankinfosecurity.com/top-9-security-threats-2011-a-3228/op-1
Strohm, C. & Engleman, E. (2012, September 28). Cyber Attacks on U.S. Banks Expose
Vulnerabilities. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-09-27/cyber-attacks-on-u-dot-s-dot-banks-expose-computer-vulnerability
Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)
How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?
The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…
McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).
Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.
Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.
Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.
Intrusion detection is the method of keeping track of the events taking place inside a computer or perhaps a network and then examining them to get indications of potential situations, that are transgressions or impending dangers of breach of IT security procedures, appropriate usage guidelines, or standardized security strategies. Intrusion prevention is the method of carrying out intrusion detection as well as trying to stop recognized potential situations. Intrusion detection as well as prevention systems (IDPS) happen to be mainly centered on determining potential situations, writing down details about them, trying to end all of them, as well as reporting these to security managers. Additionally, businesses make use of IDPSs for various other objectives, like identifying issues with security guidelines, documenting current risks, as well as stopping people from breaking safety guidelines. IDPSs have grown to be an essential accessory for the security system involving just about any…
Allen, J., Christie, A., Fithen, W., McHugh, J. And Pickel, J. (2000). State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies. Pittsburg, PA: Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, January.
Base, R. And Mell, P. (2001). SP 800-31, Intrusion Detection Systems. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Kent, K. And Mell, P. (2006). SP 800-94, Guide to Intrusion Detection and Prevention (IDP) Systems (DRAFT). Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Kent, K. And Warnock, M. (2004). Intrusion Detection Tools Report, 4th Edition. Herndon, VA: Information Assurance Technology Analysis Center (IATAC).
arfare & Terrorism
The proliferation of cyberattacks -- aptly referred to as cyberterrorism -- carried out by criminal miscreants with grudges, shadowy techies with political motives, and other anti-social individuals, represent the new digital wars that threatened personal and state security worldwide. This is not a problem that will go away any time soon, and cyber security officials it seems will always be one or two steps behind the offenders causing the digital carnage. The cyberattacks that are reviewed in this paper include: Russia's denial-of-service attacks on Estonia in 2007 and Georgia in 2008, and the cyberattacks against U.S. State Department computers in 2006. Denial of service refers to strategies that "…block access of legitimate users" through the "…relentless transmission of irrelevant information" -- called "flood attacks" -- which restrains computer servers (Richards, 2010).
Russia's cyberterrorism against Estonia -- 2007
An article in the International Affairs Review indicates that the…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defense
Review, 11(1), 4-40.
Associated Press. (2006). Computer Hackers Attack State Department. The New York Times.
Retrieved January 19, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Corporate fraud as a dishonest activity for organizations that is considered as white collar crime has serious legal implications. Though it can be difficult to detect and catch, it is important to prevent it by creating effective and efficient policies for the organizations that ensure an efficient system of checks and balances exists in the organization for its physical and fiscal security. Whenever fraud happens in a company or organization, it often takes the form of hiding sources of revenue, overstating expenses or growth, or disguising payments made to individuals in the company. Often, fraudulent activities within the organization are complex in nature and have a gross impact on the financial nature of the organization. It is usually perpetrated by the company management and other employees are often unaware of these fraudulent activities (Mele, 2005).
Corporate fraud, as difficult as it is to prevent, often has a ripple effect whereby…
Bertrand, V. (2009). Organizational Isomorphism and Corruption: An Empirical Research in Russia. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(1), 59-76.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2014). Rooting out health care fraud is central to the well-being of both our citizens and the overall economy. Retrieved April, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/white_collar/health-care-fraud
Mele, D. (2005). Ethical Education in Accounting: Integrating Rules, Values and Virtues. Journal of Business Ethics, 57(1), 97-109.
Panda, J.K. (2006). Accounting & Finance For Management. New Delhi: Sarup Book Publishers Pvt. Limited.
Privacy and security is a major concern for any person in the technological era that we are living in today. Everything today is revolving around technology in some aspect. Our academic career, professional life and even personal lives are affected by technology. Because of social media, people are likely to put very personal details and images on the World Wide Web. When people are not reluctant about uploading their personal information online, they also wouldn't have any problem uploading their financial and company relations.
Social media websites like LinkedIn, Facebook and twitter is affecting the way people interact with each other on the global scale. They are also affecting the way company's brand, advertise and even distribute their products (Edosomwan et.al, 2011) It has been stated that majority of the companies and corporations are receptive to online collaboration tools and social media. Nonetheless, when it comes to information technology, there…
Colombe, J., & Stephens, G. (2004). Statistical profiling and visualization for detection of malicious insider attacks on computer networks, 138 -- 142.
Cloudsecurityalliance.org. (2011). Top threats to cloud computing: cloud security alliance. [online] Retrieved from: https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/top-threats [Accessed: 10 Aug 2014].
Edosomwan, S., Prakasan, S., Kouame, D., Watson, J., & Seymour, T. (2011). The history of social media and its impact on business. Journal Of Applied Management And Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 79 -- 91.
Ho, P., Tapolcai, J., & Mouftah, H. (2004). On achieving optimal survivable routing for shared protection in survivable next-generation internet. Reliability, IEEE Transactions On, 53(2), 216 -- 225.
Chef Delivery is a continuous and unified delivery service that provides enterprise DevOps teams with a new workflow framework in which they can better manage the continuous delivery of their infrastructure. In sum, Chef Delivery automates changes to infrastructure, runtime environments and applications, but it provides a useful framework in which automated testing and continuous integration and delivery can be achieved. In addition, Chef Delivery provides software developers with relevant metrics, permissions management and a comprehensive change history for their code.
The system is built for infrastructure, containers, and applications and is geared toward Fortune 2000 companies and is intended to help IT teams become a ?high-velocity development engine."
Chef Delivery further extends Chef Inc. into the DevOps market and automates changes to runtime environments, applications, and infrastructure. In addition Chef Delivery offers a framework for automated testing and continuous integration and delivery with tools such as Jenkins
Chef analytics. (2015). Chef Documents. Retrieved from https://docs.chef.io/analytics.html.
Chef development kit. (2015). Chef Software, Inc. Retrieved from https://downloads. chef.io/chef-dk/.
Chef-solo. (2015). Chef Documents. Retrieved from https://docs.chef.io/chef_solo.html .
Choose your installation. (2015). Chef Software, Inc. Retrieved from https://www.chef.io/chef / choose-your-version/.
Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions
The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).
In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This…
Cordle, I. P. (2014, August 7). TotalBank responds to computer security breach, Miami Herald. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/article1978822.html Comment by dkamari: are all of these cited in your paper? If not, do not list them.
Mossburg, E. (2015). A Deeper Look at the Financial Impact of Cyber Attacks. Financial Executive, 31(3), 77-80. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/
Crossman, P. (2015, March 5). Is Apple Pay a Fraud Magnet? Only If Banks Drop the Ball. Retrieved from American Banker: http://www.americanbanker.com/news/bank-technology/is-apple-pay-a-fraud-magnet-only-if-banks-drop-the-ball-107312
Dean, B. (2015, March 4). Why companies have little incentive to invest in cybersecurity. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/why-companies-have-little-incentive-to-invest-in-cybersecurity-37570
Kris Corporation's parent domain (kris.local) and child domain (corp.kris.local) for the organization's AD infrastructure are running on Server 2008. The following are concerns related to AD: (1) Kris Corporation is concerned about running multiple domains, and (2) automobile manufacturers are asking Kris Corporation to use a single identity to procure orders in real time. The company has five locations in Atlanta (GA), Baltimore (MD), Chicago (IL), Seattle (WA) and San Diego (CA). The manufacturing plants are in Atlanta and Seattle. Disaster recovery is a big concern. Physical space for servers is an issue at the Atlanta location. Most of the IT staff is in Atlanta, which is the company's headquarters, but other locations have significant IT personnel as well. Business personnel are similarly distributed across the company's locations. Since all locations are independently connected to the internet, file sharing is difficult among sites.
Kris Corporation needs to migrate from…
Combee, B. (2001). Palm OS web application developer's guide: Developing and delivering PQAs with Web clipping. Rockland, Mass: Syngress.
Desmond, B. (2013). Active directory: Designing, deploying, and running Active Directory. Farnham: O'Reilly.
Edwards, J., Bramante, R., & Martin, A. (2006). Nortel guide to VPN routing for security and Voip. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub.
Finn, A., Lownds, P., Luescher, M., & Flynn, D. (2013). Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V Installation and Configuration Guide. New York: Wiley.
Abstract - With regard to security, the major issue is that most mobile devices are targets that are in line to face attacks. Mobile devices face a range of threats that capitalize on several susceptibilities usually obtained in such devices. Lack of encryptions is a major threat to security of mobile device networks. Information such as text messages and electronic messages that are sent using a mobile device are more often than not unencrypted. Furthermore, numerous mobile device applications lack such encryptions over the networks for transmission and reception and therefore simplify the process of data interception. Malware is an additional problem regarding mobile device networks. It is simple for mobile device users to download malware through games and security patches and also through online advertisements. Consequently, this makes it significantly easy for data interception owing to spyware and Trojans. The lack of security software is also a major issue.…
The five-factor model is a classification system of personality traits organized in five broad dimensions i.e. openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The model was derived from factor analytic studies of a large number of existing measures on personality traits, and has been established as generalizable across cultures (McCrae & Costa, 1997; McCrae & Costa, 1999; McCrae & John, 1992).
The leadership should reflect extra-version; this dimension represents the leader to be optimistic, assertive, and sociable. The leader should serve as intervening means of transmission, expression, or communication. Extraverted leaders are capable of exercising their influence in an assertive manner to communicate in an effective method.
The leadership requires the individuals to be disciplined, organized, and persistent. The leader should watch over or guard against carelessness, laziness and inefficiency. Conscientious leaders are consistently methodical, responsible, and thorough in their decision-making and activities.
Sean P. Nubert. 2006. The five Factor Model of Personality in the Workplace.
Jack Welsh. 2005. Five Questions to Ask.
Herb Kelleher. 2003. Words of Wisdom to Graduates
Judge, T.A., Martocchio, J.J., & Thoresen, C.J. (1997). Five-factor model of personality and employee absence. Journal of Applied Psychology.
However, nothing can be done until the malware actually occurs. With all the different viruses, worms and Trojans, how can security managers possibly predict what malware will occur next? In contrast, a behavioral rule defines legitimate activity in a system. Any activity not matching the profile will cause the security product to be triggered. As rules are not specific to a particular type of attack, they can block malicious behavior without having to recognize the precise attack used. Thus, there is additional protection against new attacks as they emerge. It is to effectively prevent any unauthorized applications, including malicious code and Trojans. or, it could protect a webserver by making it impossible for anyone to access the webserver to change the files and limiting the risk of a hack (Franklin, 2002).
However, the dilemma comes how many rules should the system have? The security manager must decide between an effective…
Bowyer, K.W. (2003). "Living responsibly in a computerized world." Ethics and Computing. New York: IEEE press.
Control Guard. http://www.controlguard.com/index.asp
Franklin, I. (November 26, 2002) "Entercept Security Technologies: Rules or signatures?
The best method of prevention." Toolbox. Retrieved from website September 16,