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Decision Making Styles
Leadership is the position of authority in which it is possible to provide guidance or direction through making decisions that will affect other people. There are many methods of decision making, and each individual person has a unique decision making style.
Many different studies have explored the vast and quite possibly infinite numbers of decision making styles that are exhibited by people. One example of such personality studies is the Fielder contingency model, which is a leadership theory that categorized people into relationship-oriented and task-oriented groups. Those who fit into each category are assumed to function best when given tasks that suit their type, and that there is no way that a person of one type can function within the confines of the other. Another leadership model, the path-goal model, was developed by Robert House. House's categories of leadership styles very much focus on the ways in…
Bkonrad, et al. "Situational Leadership Theory." Wikipedia. May 11, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory
Cyrius, et al. "Path-Goal Model." Wikipedia. April 3, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Path-goal_model
Fiedler Contingency Model." Wikipedia. May 30, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiedler_contingency_model
Gscshoyru, et al. "Functional Leadership Model." Wikipedia. May 11, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_leadership_model
Howeve this philosophy has been poved to be wong. Besides a few taits like intuition and sensing, all the leadeship taits involve ou conscious decisions and behavios. A peson can adopt any leadeship and decision making style to be effective and poductive based on the wok envionment and the people he is woking with. Hee ae some ecommendations fo the self-impovement with espect to leadeship and decision making:
The leade should know self and his people. This helps develop a stong bond and educes powe distance.
As a leade, one is ecommended to take suggestions fom his people while making decisions. This will bing followes on the boad and they will suppot the final decision.
The leade should neithe totally ely on the subodinates fo pefoming a task no should he guide them no supevise them closely though activities. Thee should be balanced supevision and autonomy.
It is suggested that…
references: E. Or I, S or N, T or F, and J. Or P. First look at whether your rating for E. is higher than for I. If it is higher, then that is part of your type. Based on the scores in the chart above, pick one of the two letters in the following pairs:
Decision Making Styles
Decision making styles depend on numerous factors such as an individual's personal skills, perceptions, the organizational culture in which he or she operates and more importantly, the overall culture of the country. In general, there are four kinds of styles and they are directive, analytical, conceptual and behavioral. This paper will focus on the right kind of decision making style for each organization that operates in different cultures.
Decision making styles used by the company in China
The current decision-making style used in the company is analytical. In this case, the manager analyzes all possible options and does a thorough research before deciding. They are autocratic in every sense and the leader or manager maintains complete control over all aspects of decision-making. There is little involvement from the co-workers and the leader becomes solely responsible for the consequences of the decision.
This decision-making style has…
Global Situation Creating Conflict
Negotiation and Decision Making Styles Dialogue
German and American cultural communication style differences
Global market situation creating conflict
In many respects, Germany is very similar to the United States in terms of its business practices, at least in comparison to more high-context communication cultures such as Japan and France. Germans place a strong emphasis on 'saying what you mean.' In fact, in contrast to businesspersons from the United States, Germans are often considered more blunt and direct in their style when speaking about business-related issues. However, there are also a number of distinct cultural differences between the two national groups. For example, "Germans are often uneasy with uncertainty, ambiguity and unquantifiable risk. This has become manifest in both social and business spheres. Socially, Germans lean towards conservatism and conformism" (Doing business in Germany, 2013, Kwintessential).
In contrast, Americans tend to view risk in a more approving…
Doing business in Germany. (2013). Export.gov. Retrieved:
Doing business in Germany. (2013). Kwintessential. Retrieved:
In other words, throughout the transition period, Onetech would create efficiencies and would consolidate its position. In the future however, it is recommended that the company moved towards a strategy of diversification, as this would better satisfy customers' needs, attract them and as such create market power for the firm (Markides, 2007).
The decision making process at Onetech
The decision making process at Onetech is quite intricate, revealing both strengths, as well as weaknesses. Decisions are for instance made at the level of the board and are based on the expertise gathered by the various major players in the firm. Still, the decisions are made by the executives, with little emphasis on the input which could be provided by the employees.
In order to better assess the decision making process at Onetech, it is appropriate to analyze it through the lenses of the rational decision making model. This model consists…
Cologon, D.R., Cohen, D.R., 2008, FileMaker Pro 9 Bible, John Wiley and Sons
Hage, M., 2007, A stakeholder concern towards an economix theory on stakeholder governance, Uitgeverij Van Gorcum
Jacobs, P.K., 2000, Minding the muse: the impact of downsizing on corporate creativity, Harvard Business School, http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/1518.html last accessed on November 30, 2011
Markides, C.C., 2007, Diversification, refocusing and economic performance, MIT Press
Not even the most brilliant, ethical, and rational person has the ability to research every conceivable implication and alternative before making every decision in life.
Group decision-making is another method of decision-making, where the decision is often arrived at by consensus or committee, such as coming to a decision as to where to take a family vacation. The decision is often time-consuming, because ideally it must please everyone, although quite often no one is fully pleased (Petress, 2002). Multiple levels of irrationality are injected into the process, even if the 'team leader' (the parents who are paying for the vacation) have the final veto. To make the group decision-making process more efficient, often a vote is taken at the end of the discussion if the effort is supposed to be democratic. It can be superior to individual decision-making in that individuals can point out when group members are being irrational,…
Baker, G. (2004). "Decision Making." University of Florida. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://www.unf.edu/~gbaker/Man6204/Decision.PDF
Levitt, Barbara & Clifford Nass. (Jun 1989) "The lid on the garbage can: institutional constraints on decision making in the technical core of college-text publishers." Administrative Science Quarterly. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4035/is_n2_v34/ai_7376934
Petress, Ken. (2002). "An alternative model for decision-making." Journal of Instructional Psychology. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCG/is_3_29/ai_91707794/pg_1
Williams, Tim. (Mar 2004). "Setting Impossible Standards."
My taxonomy of decision-making approaches will be based, somewhat loosely, on brain dominance theory combined with what I have seen in my experience. The underlying principle is that people are either analytical or emotional in their decision making. These are the two basic types, but within these there are differences as well. For example, rational decision-making can be purely statistical -- using the numbers to guide the process, or it can be more qualitative-rational. On the emotional side, decision making can be "gut," which is fairly reactive, or it can be based on past performance, so more of a "what has worked before."
In the middle is a hybrid, which relies on a heavy amount of analysis, before the final decision is based more on feel. There might not be a much academic support for this one, but I do it myself all the time. The use of gut…
The brainstorming approach: The Grubb & Ellis Company
In contrast to the City of Miami, the Grubb & Ellis Company, a commercial real estate advisory firm, uses the 'brainstorming' method of decision-making. A creative business such as Grubb & Ellis clearly believes it benefits from a decision-making model that encourages a 'free for all' of information. In this model, individuals write down, collectively or individually, every idea that comes to mind, good or bad. No censorship is allowed. Quite often, unique and off-beat solutions are generated through this method, and sometimes even the 'craziest' ideas can germinate practical solutions.
The only problem with the brainstorming model is that because it is so democratic, the organization can get bogged down debating an array of available alternatives, when a quick decision is required. Eventually, a solution must be arrived at, and the organization may find itself forced to shift to a more…
Six-Step Decision Making Model. (201). Decision-Making Confidence. Retrieved February 12,
2010 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/six-step-decision-making-process.html
As in any merger, the organization would have to deal with human resource issues (because the verification process was double-performed, one of the two teams needs to be reapplied within the organization), financial issues, etc.
The third option would be to create a sole compartment to deal with the verification process, a compartment that would employ human resource from both the ECFMG and the EICS. This compartment would deal only with the verification and would have several advantages. First of all, it would eliminate the original problem we had to deal with and, second of all, it would probably increase the efficiency of the compartment, with more employees and a better coordination.
In making the decision, we need to choose between deciding by majority rule and consensus building. In my opinion, in this particular case, it is best to build the appropriate consensus with all party involved. For additional information…
1. Basic Steps in Decision-Making. On the Internet at http://www.boarddevelopment.org/display_document.cfm?document_id=86
Decision Making & Creativity, Power and Influence in the Workplace, and Leadership in Organizations
Creating a platform for leadership that is agile enough to respond quickly to unforeseen events, yet stable enough to ensure team and group solidary is one of the most challenging aspects of any leader's long-term growth. Coupled with the need for having a solid foundation of leadership skills including Emotional Intelligence (EI), situational awareness and transformational leadership (Purvanova, Bono, 2009) is the need for leaders to thoroughly understand power and influence not just in their departments but across their entire organization as well. The five dominant forms of organizational power, ranging from coercive, to reward, legitimate, referent expert and informational power, all must be orchestrated successfully by a manager if challenging, often time-constrained objectives are to be attained (Drea, Bruner, Hensel, 1993). This self-reflection analysis includes insights into specific types of power from the context of…
Drea, J.T., Bruner, Gordon C.,II, & Hensel, P.J. (1993). Comparing alternative measures of the French and Raven power bases. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 13(4), 73.
McShane, S., & Von Glinow, M.A. (2010). Organizational behavior. (sixth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Purvanova, R.K., & Bono, J.E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343
decision making tools and techniques whereby 6 Thinking Hats has been chosen as one of its tools. This decision making tool is widely used in the business world of today.
Decision making in science and indeed any other field of study is a difficult thing and for this, one needs to understand what are the basic ways in which a decision can be arrived at, without wasting much time and using the best tools and techniques in order to achieve the same. These decisions are very crucial to the outcome of a project but certain things should be kept in mind that information is the single most significant thing in this whole process. Decision-making is indeed a very complex and well-developed area, one that has to be looked at by the researchers and lecturers with particular care. This paper is about the decision-making tools and techniques…
URL: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_07.htm . Author Unknown
Best of all, any initiative in these areas, priced fairly for the island natives, delivers significant social value, or economic good for the nation and abodes by Mr. Morale's belief that in the long run, economics drives everything needs to be added to that by doing these core processes well, his company is doing good. The social conscience of Mr. Morales is also clear, and the ability to take the company's respected process-centric approach to problem-solving and apply it to the needs of Kava while at the same time earning a profit is a win/win for both the company and the nation. The concentration on healthcare especially and the development of a pediatrics clinic, potentially even underwritten by the local government for the citizens would also be significant in its contribution and revenue potential.
What Alex and Nik need to do is find broken processes in key areas and set…
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available on the Internet, accessed on February 5, 2007:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1995). "Why Not One Big Database? Principles for Data Ownership." Decision Support Systems 15.4 (1995): 267-284.
The Agenda (2003) - Chapter 4: Put Processes First. The Agenda: What Every Business Must Do to Dominate the Decade. Accessed from Michael Hammer and Company website on February 5, 2007:
Collaborative Decision Making Through Share Governance
I attended a committee meeting at a local school. The committee was formed in order to come up with a proposal on how they could improve the performance of the school. Those who attended the meeting were supposed to see to it that they come up with a proposal on how the performance of the students could be improved. I was quite keen on how the committee members interacted and the process the committee used to arrive at their decisions.
I observed that the committee used both managerial level and group levels in the decision making process. First of all I observe that there were proposals from the management that were forwarded to the committee members. The management of the school had come up with their own measures that would be taken to ensure that the performance of the school would be improved. This…
MountHolyoke.(2009). Skill Building -- Group Decision Making.Retrieved August 29, 2014 from www.soas.ac.uk/admin/.../file37354.pdf
Chand, S. (2010). 4 Techniques for Group Decision Making Process More Effective. Retrieved August 29, 2014 from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/management/4-techniques-for-group-decesion-making-process-more-effective/3506/
Decisions in Paradise III With Paretto Analysis
Decisions in Paradise II
Cesar a ivera
Decisions in Paradise II
This is Nik's problem
Nik has landed on Kava an island that is faced with numerous challenges including tidal waves/tsunami; typhoons/hurricanes; tornadoes; floods; fires; volcanic eruptions; earthquakes; HIV / AIDS; petroleum spill; high risk for avian flu; and terrorism, and has been asked to helped establish a business there. Aside from the above problems that impact the potential business, other challenges include the location and site being a mess; H procedures being chaotic, disrupted and confused organizational structure; and conflicting and conflicted workforce due to diverse composition, beliefs, attitudes, and ideologies. Employees in the past, the wrong mix and too many, barely stayed and so business management and environment became increasingly chaotic.
Nik's tasks, according to Alex, consist of establishing a greater presence in Kava. Ways of establishing that presence…
Decision Making Styles." Leadership Management. Leadership Management
Development Center, Inc., 1997. Web. 6 Jun 2011.
"Introduction Human Resources Applies to Any Size of Organization." Library's Human
Resources Blog. Free Management Library, 2010. Web. 6 Jun 2011.
The activities I will engage in will support the full scope of situational awareness and lead to decisions about what information is available, what information is needed, what resources are available, which resources are already engaged, and which resources are likely to be needed.
As deployment commences, attention will immediately be focused on situational awareness. Continuous monitoring is an essential attribute of situational awareness as incidents are dynamic, and require efficacious information gathering for the actual presenting incident and any developing incidents ("IS 800.b," 2011). The monitoring profile must be responsive to the type of incident and the attendant reporting thresholds ("IS 800.b," 2011). It is essential for both incident monitoring and coordination of effort that critical information pass through established reporting channels as stipulated by the established security protocols ("IS 800.b," 2011).
I will apply an activation and deployment framework early in this situation that will enable…
IS-800.b National Response Framework, An Introduction. (2011, April 27). FEMA Independent Study Program. Retreived from http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is800blst.asp
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Interim planning guidance for preparedness and response to a mass casualty event resulting from terrorist use of explosives. (2010). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://emergency.cdc.gov/masscasualties/pdf/cdc_guidance-508.pdf
Yechiam, E., Barron, G., & Erev, I. (2005, June). The role of personal experience in contributing to different patterns of response to rare terrorist attacks.
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(3), 430-439. doi: 10.1177/0022002704270847.
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
Decision Making with Providers
The scenario facing Mike, the lab technician, is that of lateness, which attracted a reprimand from his supervisor. Seemingly, lateness had become a trend to Mike while reporting to work and that is why the supervisor had questioned him. He had made a promise that he would be punctual, the last time his supervisor questioned him. Mike's promise pegged on the importance he attached to his job because he was the sole breadwinner for his wife and newborn baby. Mike was overwhelmed by the thought that his job would be terminated in the possible reoccurrence of his tendencies to come to the workplace while late. He had received the assurance his supervisor (Grand Canyon University, n.d.).
On this day, Mike tries his best to reach work on time. Therefore, he leaves home twenty minutes before time but unfortunately, there was an accident on his commute. Although…
Dlugacz, Y.D., Restifo, A., & Greenwood, A. (2004). The quality handbook for health care organizations: a manager's guide to tools and programs. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass.
ECRI Institute. (July 2009). Risk Management, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety. Healthcare Risk Control .
Grand Canyon University. (n.d.). Allied Health Community. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from Scenario: Critical Decision Making for Providers. Mike, Lab Technician: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt307v/allied-health-community/allied-health-community-v1.1.html .
Kuhn, A.M., & Youngberg, B.J. (2002). The need for risk management to evolve to assure a culture of safety. Qual Saf Health Care, 11 (2), 158-62.
Decision making and problem solving in companies are probably the most important processes in any business. These processes ensure that companies run smoothly and effectively. There are a variety of decision-making and problem-solving processes that ensure the effectiveness of business processes. Often, these are chosen on the basis of their effectiveness in the particular business setting involved. The automotive industry, for example, would not function on the same decision-making process as a childcare business. Particularly, problem identification relate to various problem-solving styles, including the morphological approach, the Kepner-Tregoe approach, inventive problem solving, constraints thinking, the collective-participative style, and the fairness approach. These will be related to five types of businesses, including an automotive business, a restaurant, an electronics business, a DVD store, and a preschool,
The first important step in problem solving is problem identification (Reference for Business, 2010). All five businesses investigated have a problem identification process in…
Jones, D, Padgett, M., Rose, C., and Weilacker, R. (2009, Aug. 3) Problem Formulation and Identification. Retrieved from:
Pashiardis, P. (1994). Problem and Dilemma Identification and Formulation as the Most Critical Element of the Decision-Making Process: Behavioral Biases and Characteristics. International Intervisitation Programme in Educational Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED375465.pdf
Reference for Business.. (2010). Problem-Solving Styles. Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed Retrieved from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Per-Pro/Problem-Solving-Styles.html
Organization Decision Making
Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…
Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/Docs/manage/decisions.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
Decision making in institutes have been depicted as a progression of conduct with the full amount of level-headedness at individual excessive, as well as absolute illogicality at the other excessive. The depiction entails that no more than illogical decision making brings about individual morals priority in excess of economic principles. There must be a way of finding some focal point amid these ends, as it is obvious that any of this set of values can be overlooked. Many a times, managers have been brazen out with the responsibility coming up with stern, objectionable, as well as obnoxious slashes of workers along with services in a speedy approach, for the reason that, in a way, they botched to pay attention to the earlier decisions as per economic values. In the same way, institutions have also been pushed to decision retracting as well as acting in a more confusing way…
Accounting Information for Decision Making
Corporate Confirming on Water isk (Feb 2010) indicates that the Global Confirming Initiative (GI) G3 Guidelines' five water-related indications (total withdrawal volume by source, ponds considerably impacted by distributions, percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again, total water discharge by quality and destination, and identification water physiques and related habitats impacted by discharges) make the perfect beginning point for assessing and confirming water risks. Within this section, we'll briefly discuss the relevance of all these standards (Power, 2010).
Total water withdrawal by source
Confirming the entire amount of water withdrawn by source adds for knowledge of the general scale of possible influences and threats connected using the company's water use. The entire volume withdrawn offers an indication from the organization's proper size and significance as a user of water and offers to set up a baseline figure for other information relevant to…
GRI, (Global Reporting Initiative). (2006) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Version 3.0, Accessed on September 27, 2012 from: www.globalreporting.org/NR/rdonlyres/ED9E9B36-AB54-4DE1-BFF2-5F735235CA44/0/G3_GuidelinesENU.pdf
Power, G. Paddling Upstream - Approaches to Corporate Water Reporting. Business and the Environment, 21. 6 (Jun 2010): 1-3.
To batter understand the mechanisms of decision making and purchase behavior within an adoptive family take the case of a nuclear family, formed from a 48 years old mother, a 51 years old father and an adopted 15 years old son. The mother is a clinical psychologist and the father is currently an out of work electrician. In this particular case:
big ticket purchases are generally decided by the mother, since she is the sole provider of the family; the father is charged with the family vacations food and toiletries are purchased on individual preference basically because the mother does not have enough time to cook group decisions are made in regard to the places where to dine out or electronic appliances to be purchased for the home the child's power of influence is revealed by his capability to research certain products and provide his mother with the required information…
Mann, a., Consumer Behavior - Family Purchasing Decisions Making Process, Ezine Articles, Retrieved at http://ezinearticles.com/?Consumer-Behavior-Family-Purchasing-Decisions-Making-Process&id=307532on February 8, 2008
Business Standard, 2004, Marketing with Precision, Rediff, Retrieved at http://imdownloads.rediff.com/money/2004/oct/28guest2.htm . On February 8, 2008
Chamberlain, B., Types of Families, Retrieved at http://www.hhs.wash.k12.ut.us/department/health/masters/ch5l1/type.htm. On February 8, 2008
Perner, L., PhD., Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing, Consumer Psychologist, Retrieved at http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/on February 8, 2008
Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…
Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115
With accurate data, students in need of particular help can be identified much earlier and helped more effectively.
To do this, educators themselves need to assume the role of researcher. Because students and classrooms have unique characteristics, teachers working with them can best assess their needs at any given time. The root of making this approach a success, however, is effective communication not only between teachers, but also with state administrators.
Marlow Ediger (2003) uses this element to point out the reasons for the relative ineffectiveness of data-driven decision making. The difference between this author's and the others' opinion lies in the definition and implementation of data-driven systems. According to Ediger, data is in itself a very specific science. The application of this approach to the teaching profession is to assume that teaching is itself an accurate science. There can be little dispute that it is not. Each teacher, being…
Ediger, Marlow (2003, March). "Data driven decision making." College Student Journal. Online database: FindArticles.com
Johnson, James H. (2000, Spring). "Data-Driven School Improvement." Journal of School Improvement. Vol. 1, Iss. 1 www.ncacasi.org/jsi/2000v1i1/data_driven
Shorr, Pamela Wheaton. (2007). "10 Things You Always Wanted to Know About Data-Driven Decision Making." Scholastic, Inc. www.content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=423
consumer behavior models: decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, Trait theory, learning process.
eflect individually on how your understanding and interpretation of the consumer decision-making process might influence your thinking when applying marketing principles in future business roles.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, all human beings are driven to fulfill certain needs and desires, but some needs are perceived as having priority over other needs. Until basic needs such as food and shelter are met, the individual cannot think about higher-level needs like social approval and self-actualization (Simmons et al. 1997). When consumers are making choices about what to buy and what not to buy, Maslow's hierarchy often seems to be operating in a clear and logical fashion. During a recession, most consumers cut back on luxury items designed to impress others, like restaurant meals and name-brand clothing. Consumers who are struggling with their budget…
Oxoby, Robert J. (2004, October). Cognitive dissonance, status and growth of the underclass
The Economic Journal, 114: 727 -- 749. Retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://people.ucalgary.ca/~oxoby/Oxoby%20EJ.pdf
Simons, Janet A., Donald B. Irwin and Beverly A. Drinnien. (1987). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychology: The search for understanding. West Publishing Company, New York, 1987. Excerpt retrieved March 24, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
Consumer Behavior Models:
Decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, trait theory, learning process models
Do consumers mainly use logical or emotional thinking when making decisions? This is the essential problem with which all marketers must grapple. Some models of consumer behavior, such as the seven-step decision model, suggest that consumers make decisions very logically, carefully weighing the pros and cons. Others suggest that when consumers make decisions about purchases, they do so in an instinctual fashion, based upon emotions.
The seven-step decision model suggests that people make decisions by first identifying the exact nature of the decision (like buying a new pair of sneakers); assessing personal priorities (such as fashion vs. functionality); identifying their options (Nike vs. New Balance); gathering information and data (talking to someone at a running store or simply talking to their friends); evaluating their options; selecting the best option; and…
How to use the 7 step decision-making model. (2011). Decision making confidence. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/7-step-decision-making-model.html
Jean, E. (1999). Cognitive dissonance theory. Meta-Discourses. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Jean.htm
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
Whether in business or other settings, Chinese people will often demonstrate a notable lack of contentiousness, preferring to say indirectly what an American would not hesitate to say frankly.
If one's professional or social senior in China errs in some way, the junior will seldom correct or criticize him. This is in part because doing so would cause the senior to lose face, which is undesirable. One does not want to be the reason another loses face. Others take a dim view of someone who caused another to lose face in this way.
When constructive criticism is invoked by a senior, or even by an equal, the response from a Chinese person will probably not be very candid. An articulate Chinese person will attempt to use polite conversation to lead the person requesting the criticism to arrive at the same opinion as is felt by the person of whom the…
Barker, Thomas S., Cobb, Steven L. (2000). Survey of Ethics and Cultural Dimensions of MNCs. Competitiveness Review, 10(2), 123-129.
Chen, Charles P. (2004). Transforming Career in Cross-Cultural Transition: The Experience of Non-Western Culture. Counsellor Trainees. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 137-144.
Gries, Peter Hays. (1999). A 'China Threat'? World Affairs. 162(2), 63-75.
Hall, Edward, T., Hall, Mildren Reed. (1987). Nonverbal Communication for Educators. Theory Into Practice. 26(1), 364-367.
decision making points a nonprofit organization. Study Boys & Girls Club New ochelle (http://www.bgcnr.org/-great.aspx) info find. Create a case study utilizing information learned Managerial Decision Making.
Boys & Girls Club of New ochelle
What is the history of the organization? What is the mission of the organization?
The Boys and Girls of New ochelle was initiated in 1929 aiming at safeguarding the interests of youth as the big sufferers during harsh economic times. Through the efforts of well-wishers, the Club has continually made efforts to meet the needs of the youth and the surrounding community (Bazerman, 1997).
The Club continues to attract grants and donations from individuals and organizations with the appreciation that youth empowerment is of great value to the community. To date Boys & Girls Club of New ochelle has boosted the potential of the youth by helping in the upbringing of successful adults and persons who are…
Bazerman, M.H.M.D.A. 1997. Judgment In Managerial Decision Making 7th Edition, London, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chugh, D. (2004). Societal and managerial implications of implicit social cognition: Why milliseconds matter. Social Justice Research, 17(2) 155-175.
Distinctly from John Updike's teenage character Sammy in his short story "A&P," who realizes he has just become an adult; Connie as suddenly realizes she feels like a kid again. Now she wishes the family she usually hates having around could protect her. The actions of the fearsome Arnold, are foreshadowed early on, when he warns Connie, the night before, after first noticing her outside a drive-in restaurant: "Gonna get you, baby" (paragraph 7). From then on, Arnold's quest to "get" Connie feels, to Connie and the reader, in its dangerous intensity, much like the predatory evilness of malevolent fairy tale characters, e.g., the Big Bad olf, or the evil stepmothers (and/or stepsisters) that fix on Snow hite, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, and other innocent young female characters as prey. And Connie at the end of "here Are You Going, here Have You Been" wishes, like Little Red Riding Hood, Snow…
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." E-text. 28 May 2007 http://www.mala.bc.ca/Johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm
Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Celestial Time
Piece: A Joyce Carol Oates Home Page. 28 May 2007 http://jco.usfca.edu / works / wgoing/text.html>
Updike, John. "A&P." Tigertown.com. 28 May 2007 http://www.tigertown.com/whatnot/updike/html
Components contributing to the library's decision making process include the library per se; its purposes' its structure and organization' its functions and forms/kinds of data; its resources in/for staff/volunteers; its facilities; its equipment.
Management teams and other groups play a key role in strategic decision making," Nancy H. Leonard, Laura Beauvais, and Richard Scholl (2005) relate the importance of involving groups in strategic decision making. "These groups include top management teams (Hambrick and Mason, 1984), boards of directors (Forbes, 1999; Pettigrew, 1992), and planning task forces (Van de Ven, 1980)" (Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl ¶ 2). To effectively manage work groups and decision-making teams, Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl stress, managers must understand that underlying psychological cognitive styles and social interaction of an individual impact them and their decision making. hen mangers better understand the concept of group cognitive style, they may be able to create groups with various strengths based…
Burrows, Toby. "The 'digital library hammer'?" The Australian Library Journal. Australian Library and Information Association. 2004. HighBeam Research. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.highbeam.com .
Carpenter, Kenneth E. "A Library Historian Looks at Librarianship." Daedalus 125.4 (1996): 77+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000447498 .
The Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press. New York. 1996, 2 Jan. 2009. www.bartleby.com/66/.
Dunham, J.. Developing Effective School Management. Routledge. New York.. Questia. 1995. 1 Mar. 2009. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108823897 .
Accounting for Decision Making
Shelter Partnership's Case Study
Purposes of Cost Information
The intended purpose of cost information is to provide a basis for determining the expenses and revenues associated with a particular activity (or cost object). Generally, cost and income is measured in order to determine net income or profit margins. However, as Shelter Partnerships is a non-profit, the cost information forms a basis for the allocation of resources and to assist with decisions about scaling. The cost information of Shelter Partnerships can also be used to address any cycles in the stream of donations and contributions that can impact the overall ability of the non-profit to meet its mission. In addition, since Shelter Partnership regularly applies for grant funding, it is essential that their accounting system be readily interpretable to grant reviewing bodies. Fund development cannot be sustained for long in an environment that is only loosely accountable…
Prestige Telephone Company (2004) [Course Notes ] AIM 4343 Retrieved
ACCOUNTING FOR DECISION MAKING
Judgment in Managerial Decision Making:
Availability, representativeness, and affect heuristics
The availability heuristic can best be summed up 'if it is not worth being remembered, it is not important.' In short, if a problem is available (i.e., preoccupying the manager) it is assumed to be more important than one which is not. Sometimes dealing with immediate problems are necessary, such as when managing a crisis or during an organization's busy season. However, it can also lead to a 'seat of the pants' managerial style in which the manager is always putting out fires rather than anticipating problems before they occur. On one hand, emphasizing recent information can be valuable and prevent a manager from remaining stymied in old behavior patterns. On the other hand, it can mean a lack of historical context for the data of which one is using to make a judgment. A manager of an ice cream…
Availability heuristic. (2014). Changing Minds. Retrieved from:
Giesler, H. (2013). Affect heuristic. Being Human. Retrieved from:
Marketing Canon: Approaches Based on Principles for Influencing Decision Making in Firms
Operating in several geographical locations, quite a number of firms have many product lines, which many marketing scholars believe are ever confronted by myriad dilemmas. o facilitate consistent decision-making processes, it is vital for the firms to come up with overall but common marketing strategies while at the same time, it is very essential for firms to permit their employees the ease to make their specific circumstances suit marketing decisions. However, allowing such flexible measures always leads to challenges in making marketing decisions because everyone, including managers often project dissimilar mental pictures and models of marketing.
Existing literature suggest two approaches for formulating a common means to making decisions that provides different levels of flexibility. he first approach is that firms could depend on mechanical approaches that influence decisions made by stipulating standard modes of operations (Homburg and…
The bias as referred to by Saunders et al. (2012)make an impact on reliability by: the general disposition and behavioral attributes of the researcher while in the fieldwork may cause different reactions; care has been taken to assimilate questions in way so as to not be suggestive in its approach. The utmost integrity can only be achieved by means of faith of the interviewee in the researcher that has been followed in this work religiously.
The role played by the respondent is as crucial as that of the interviewer. He must not be, in any way be prejudiced, about the researcher or the work (Saunders et al., 2012). The possibility of respondents not giving unbiased view and opinion to questions and queries cannot be ruled out even if the researcher takes all the measures to win wholehearted support. That is specially so because of the fact that the questionnaire may contain sensitive and personal questions to which one may refrain from giving honest answers, despite the fact that the researcher will make efforts to build trust prior to giving questionnaire, and it is but natural that the subjects will be aware about the delicate nature of certain questions and may decide not to reveal and answer certain questions.
On the other hand validity can be classified as the precision and accuracy of a variable's fits in a concept. Issues related to validity are generally heightened in survey designs as they assess subject's values and beliefs (Bouma, 2010). Considering, the aims and results of this research study, Yin (2013) offers that it is practicable to simplify case studies to hypothetical propositions. However, this should not extend to include populations and the aims of any study ought to be to relate and
Decisions in Paradise
The many infrastructure and culturally-based challenges that Nik, his team and Mr. Morales face illustrate how challenging new business development can be in an island nation the size and location of Kava. What is immediately apparent from the case is that there is ample opportunity to enrich the island's economy and people while also building a strong, scalable business at the same time. Today however the island nation has an infrastructure that is lacking, an economy that is for the most part agrarian, and a young inexperienced workforce lacking advanced skills and education. It's going to be very challenging for Nik and his team to build a business on Kava, making the selection of a common vision, strategic plan and objectives, and core values of the team critical for their success. The decision making tools used, and the selection of vision, mission and goals all need to…
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School http://ccs.mit.edu/papers/CCSWP189/ccswp189.html
Muller, R., & Turner, R.. (2010). Leadership competency profiles of successful project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 28(5), 437.
Pandelica, I., Pandelica, A., & Dabu, B.. (2010). The Response of Organizations in Crisis Conditions. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 15(2), 151-160.
Paul, R. And Elder, L. (2001) - Critical Thinking-Tools for Taking Charge of Your
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
leadership style is one of the most important factors that determine cross functional teams' success. Research and practice in the field have revealed several types of leadership theories, such as trait, behavioral, situational contingency, participative, transactional, and transformational theories. Each of these leadership theories introduces several types of leadership styles, amongst which the most frequently met in private and public organizations are autocratic or authoritative leadership, democratic or participative styles, transformational leadership, and others (Ricketts, 20). It is difficult to determine which of these leadership styles is the most efficient, as the need for a certain style depends on each situation. The table below compares and contrasts three key variables found in these theories.
Table . Leadership Theories Analysis
Key variable / theory
Situational contingency theories
Characteristics of leader
Cognitive abilities, social intelligence
Informing, clarifying, monitoring
. Derue, S.et al. (2011). Trait and Behavioral Leadership Theories. Personnel Psychology. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://php.scripts.psu.edu/faculty/s/e/seh25/DeRueNahrgangWellmanHumphrey2011.pdf .
12. Seyranian, V. (2009). Contingency Theories of Leadership. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://www.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference6.1.pdf .
Adolescents have a lot of social and personal temptations to either resist or to experiment with, including the following: smoking, using drugs, using alcohol, unsafe driving stunts, getting involved in crime, unsafe sexual practices, and other risky behaviors. These personal decisions of course impact the individual adolescents, but they also impact the greater society, according to a journal article in Psychological Science in the Public Interest.
Positive Attribute: If adolescents could get control of behaviors and avoid those practices that are unhealthy, it could "…set a different lifetime pattern" but also this avoidance and making better choices could have a "…broad impact" in terms of reducing crime, and in terms of reducing "the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering and association economic costs" (Reyna, et al., 2006). Still, getting control of bad behaviors would be a positive attribute of adolescence.
Negative Attribute: One of the problems that the…
Gleeson, B. (2012). 4 Ways For Leaders to Make a Decision. Forbes. Retrieved September
23, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com .
Reyna, V.F., and Farley, F. (2006). Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making.
Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7(1), 1-11.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Certain physical resources, including educational handbooks, facilities for training, and infrastructure resources will also be needed. The supply of these resources should be kept in Kava inasmuch as is possible, in order to provide jobs and establish business and social roots in the community on the island. Actions that need to be taken include preliminary meetings with government officials and social leaders, the evaluation of locations for youth development programs and the hiring and training of instructors, which again should be selected from the people of Kava if at all possible in order to build and maintain stronger ties in the community and establish early goodwill through good instruction and god opportunities. These actions and the limited resource consumption they require will give a sense of the organization's values and purpose to the people of Kava in addition to Nik, Chris, and Alex, providing a consistent and strong values-based platform…
34). Finally, in the Group II (GII) model, the leader shares the problem with his or her followers, and reaches a true consensus with the group. The leader does not influence the result.
The Group II model requires a great deal of time, so only decisions where time is not of the essence may be relegated to Group II methods (Shackleton 1995, p.36). For this type of time investment, the proposed change is likely to be important, and require a great deal of effort by the implementers of the change. Subordinates must also have a high level of quality of information, and it must be feasible to bring them into the same area for a prolonged period. There must be a great deal of goal congruence between the self-interest of the members of the group and the organization as a whole. In the Collaborative II model, a leader can still…
Shackleton, Viv. (1995). Business leadership. Thompson Learning.
Vroom-Yetton Contingency Model. (2005). epinions. Retrieved November 14, 2009 at http://www.epinions.com/content_4584087684
Decision Analysis System
Computers have brought a great change in our lives. A software program called spreadsheet turns the computer screen into a paper sheet one is working on. This program saves time by reducing the errors and repetitions of calculations. It is commonly used in physics labs in order to save time by getting accurate results and accumulating proper data in labs. Spreadsheets have traditionally been used by accountants for the purpose of bookkeeping and budgeting, when actually they can prove to be amazing tools for engineers and scientists as well. Using a spreadsheet, entered raw data could be manipulated and plotted through few easy commands. Furthermore, due to their built-in capability to easily plot data, spreadsheets prove to be especially useful (Karmakar et al., 2007).
Initially introduced in the corporate world in late 1970s and the early 1980s, it proved to be an immediate success. The usefulness, power…
Karmakar, S., C. Lagu, J. Agnew and H. Landry (2007) Integrated decision support system (DSS) for manure management: a review and perspective. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 57, 190 -- 201.
Kong, G., D.L. Xu, X. Liu and J.B. Yang. (2009) Applying a belief rule-base inference methodology to a guideline-based clinical decision support system. Expert Systems, 26, 391 -- 408.
Ragsdale, C.T., K.P. Scheibe and M.A. Trick (2008) Fashioning fair foursomes for the fairway (using a spreadsheet-based DSS as the driver). Decision Support Systems, 45, 997 -- 1006.
eref, Michelle M.H.; Ahuja, Ravindra K.; and Winston, Wayne L. (2007). Developing spreadsheet-based decision support systems: using Excel and VBA. Dynamic Ideas.
decisions in life, and often, critical thinking is required in order to fully understand the different issues at hand. Complex decisions tend to be those with life-altering consequences. I tend to set big goals for myself, and it requires some critical thinking to do this. For example, I must look at the overall objectives. I posed a number of questions to make this decision -- who am I? And what do I want from life? For me, these sorts of questions were central to setting out a plan. I wrestled for a long time with my plan once I thought I had one. Part of me wants to act more on emotion, using gut feelings, but life is complicated and a little bit of analysis can help ensure that the strategies I undertake are the ones that will take me to my goals. Then after thinking about all that, I…
Chaffee, J. (2012). Thinking Critically: 10th Edition. Wadsworth: Boston.
Popil, I. (2011). Promotion of critical thinking by using case studies as teaching method. Nurse Education Today. Vol. 31 (2) 204-207.
CIO- Strategist and Executive
Currently, Information technology (IT) is integral in providing business services, and the organization of information on the company. Business process, policies and plans have shifted from the back of the office to the internet. As the business embraces e-commerce and other innovative implementations of IT that assists organizations, leadership in controlling the business information resources becomes significant. The invention of new approaches and the improvement of old ones using the modern information era require strong engagement of information management from the commencement (Leidner, Preston & Chen, 2010).
The efficient, effective, and inventive application of information technology facilitates a high degree of leadership and insight that surpasses the IT functions. esearchers assert that the demand for strong control of information management necessitated the presence of chief information officer (CIO) in executive departments and organizations. The CIO has numerous responsibilities and duties in managing information in the business…
Leidner, D., D.S. Preston, D. Chen. 2010. "An Examination of the Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational IT Innovation in Hospitals." Journal of Strategic Information Systems 19(3), pp. 154-170.
Chen, D., M. Mockler, D.S. Preston, A. Teubner. 2010. "Information Systems Strategy: Re-conceptualization, Measurement, and Implications." MIS Quarterly 34(2), pp. 233-259
Chen, D., D.S. Preston, W. Xia. 2010. "Antecedents and Impacts of CIO Supply-side and Demand-side Leadership: A Staged Maturity Model." Journal of Management Information Systems 27(1), pp. 231-267.
Chen, D., Preston, D.S., 2007"Understanding CIO Compensation through Managerial Discretion" Proceedings of the 1st China Summer Workshop on Information Management, Shanghai, China, July 2
Scenario 1 Performance Reviews
Problems with performance reviews
The first problem with performance reviews as a process is that they are inherently subjective. That is, although the performance review may have the trappings of objectivity and take the form of a rating scale correlated between numerous individuals, still, those individuals are often of similar backgrounds and places in the company hierarchy and the scale may be viewed in an arbitrary or different fashion by all.
The second problem with performance reviews is that because they are often given in person, the superior is often unwilling to be fully candid with the individual under review, given the one-on-one nature of the process. Quite simply, it is difficult to tell someone to their face they are doing a poor job. Thus, someone gains a false sense that they are doing well -- until they are let go, and offended they…
Civil Rights Act of 1964 -- EEOC Website. (2004) Retrieved on June 6, 2004 at http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/vii.html
Six Sigma. "What is Six Sigma." Retrieved on June 11, 2004 at http://www.isixsigma.com/sixsigma/six_sigma.asp
Tannen, Deborah. (2001) Talking from 9 to 5. New paperback edition: New York: Quill, 2001
Three Framed Victims" (2003) Taken from Rhoades, K. Working Psychology. Retrieved at http://www.workingpsychology.com/index.html . On June 5, 2004
corporate culture at outhwest Airlines. Provide concrete examples of how its culture is displayed.
The mission of outhwest Airlines tells it all:
We are committed to provide our employees a stable work environment with equal opportunity for learning and personal growth. Creativity and innovation are encouraged for improving the effectiveness of outhwest Airlines. Above all, employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every outhwest customer. (About outhwest. southwest.com http://www.southwest.com/html/about-southwest/index.html)
The corporate culture in A is epitomized by a sense of 'goofiness' and fun leading colleagues to not only maintain a friendly environment amongst themselves but to also seep these good spirits down to clients. Employees, for instance have been allowed to work in pajamas for a day and rocking chairs are placed by meetings. Employees are respected. They are referred to as 'people', and the…
Culture is the key at Southwest Airlines
The skill being instilled in the team is important on two levels- to instill solidarity in the team and breaking down barriers and by serving as a macrocosm of what these team members will encounter over the course of their lives. Barriers will always exist among people, for whatever reason, but by pushing the boundaries and thinking outside the "bubble" that some of these team members exist and think in, the Coach is instilling lifelong skills in these players. Additionally, another important scene is when the white captain yells at his teammate of the same race because he failed to block his black teammate in practice. Though the captain was rough on his teammate, the coach allows the emotional outburst and tirade continue as the team watches. By allowing this to continue, the Coach allows the captain to become an example and emerge as a leader of how the team…
However, according to this model, what can be termed as the best way is defined by how the decision made marries with the content and context of the matter at hand. The contingency model establishes that a decision that is made for a particular context may not be applicable in another, even though the contexts may be similar. It also establishes that a unified role is played by the managers who have the decision making capacity. When faced with a particular issue, the managers must find the best way to deal with the situation and they have to create an effective decision process which minimizes conflict. Whatever the situation, the management has the obligation to analyze it and evaluate the assumption that need to be drawn to align the organization with the changed environment. The conclusion must be evaluated on the basis of the effectiveness, efficiency and the solution it…
Leadership Style: What Do People Do When they are Leading?
Hewlett Packard (HP) remains one of the most successful computer and related services company in the Diversified Computer Systems industry. In this text, I concern myself with the leadership style of Meg Whitman -- the CEO of HP. In so doing, I will amongst other things analyze how her leadership style aligns with the company's culture. I will also examine Whitman's strengths, weaknesses as well as personal and organizational values.
Born in 1956, Whitman has over the years earned herself an enviable reputation as an efficient and brilliant corporate executive keen on making a mark in a corporate environment dominated by men. Having cut her teeth at Hasbro, Stride ite, Disney, and most notably eBay where served as CEO for a decade, Whitman rose to become the head of HP. She has also in the past tried her hand in…
Ferris, G.R. & Treadway, D.C. (Eds.). (2012). Politics in Organizations: Theory and Research Considerations. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.
Forsyth, D.R. (2010). Group Dynamics (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Fox, W. (2007). Managing Organizational Behavior. Cape Town: Juta and Company.
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2009). Organizational Behavior (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
The intervention in Iraq can be said to have had a humanitarian purpose; nonetheless, the U.S. then remained in the region to reconstruct the society and the country as a whole. This in turn brought up important financial gains as well as business opportunities. At the same time though, the overthrow of Saddam was important from the point-of-view of the stability in the region and for the oil markets the U.S. And the world is so dependent on.
The second model of analysis is the "domestic politics" model which is crucial for the well being of the American democracy. This is an approach based on the actual interests of the domestic actors involved. In this sense, political factors such as parties play a key role. This model, particularly adapted to the framing of the environmental policy stresses the need for consensus or at least for debate concerning a matter of…
Nye, Joseph. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005
Softing, Guri Bang. "Climate change policymaking - three explanatory models." Cicero Working Papers. 2000. 14 June 2008 http://www.cicero.uio.no/media/205.pdf
The firm has never faced any significant crisis. Even when al-Mart was a small regional chain, it was still successful. al-Mart's decision making horizon is typically very short. hile it has larger strategic goals, most of al-Mart's success is driven by short-term decision making, specifically with respect to merchandising and with respect to purchasing.
One of the reasons why al-Mart has been able to operate with such a simplified decision-making process is because all decisions have the same base objective - to lower costs. This singularity of purpose almost entirely eliminates goal conflict. If you examine al-Mart's situation vs. The rational decision making process, you can see that the company meets most of the criteria that are the assumptions of rational decision making. This means that almost all decisions made at al-Mart are purely rational, thus driven by cost reduction and with strong information.
al-Mart eschews group decision making. Enculturation…
Wal-Mart eschews group decision making. Enculturation is key to this - when you join Wal-Mart it is made clear that you are going to do things their way. With a company that successful, it would be difficult for a manager to dispute this rationale, so you see a high degree of buy-in with respect to the organizational culture. While it is true that Wal-Mart does not take advantage of the benefits of group decision making, the company feels that the benefits of purely rational decision making are better. Since they have the luxurious advantage of having the means to make purely rational decisions, Wal-Mart can almost entirely avoid group decision making.
Guthrie, James. (2008) What educators can learn from Wal-Mart about data-driven decision-making. Education Research Newsletter. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.ernweb.com/public/1008.cfm
Troy, Mike. (2004). Wal-Mart Braces for International Growth with Personnel Moves. DSN Retailing Today. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FNP/is_3_43/ai_113230632
It is the balancing of tools within the rubric of employee-supervisor roles that requires one use different managerial techniques in order to solve the problem at hand. Similarly, find ways to build and increase trust between members of the group and management and group.
Blake, . And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.
Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. etrieved from: http://www.stuffofheroes.com/leadership_style_vs%20leadership%20tactics.htm
Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. etrieved from: http://www.dirigoconsulting.com/articles/WhyIsLeadershipStyleImportant.pdf
Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior
Performance. New York: Free Press.
owe, A. And Boulgarides, J. (2998). Managerial Decision Making. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning
Organization. New York: Broadway.
Zeidan, H. (2005).…
Blake, R. And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.
Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. Retrieved from: http://www.stuffofheroes.com/leadership_style_vs%20leadership%20tactics.htm
Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. Retrieved from: http://www.dirigoconsulting.com/articles/WhyIsLeadershipStyleImportant.pdf
Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior
Your LSI Styles Profile
The raw and percentile scores in the table below and the extensions on the circumplex shown below depict your perceptions of how you think and behave.
The CONSTUCTIVE Styles (11, 12, 1, and 2 o'clock positions) reflect self-enhancing thinking and behavior that contribute to one's level of satisfaction, ability to develop healthy relationships and work effectively with people, and proficiency at accomplishing tasks.
The PASSIVE/DEFENSIVE Styles (3, 4, 5, and 6 o'clock positions) represent self-protecting thinking and behavior that promote the fulfillment of security needs through interaction with people.
The AGGESSIVE/DEFENSIVE Styles (7, 8, 9, and 10 o'clock positions) describe self-promoting thinking and behavior used to maintain status/position and fulfill security needs through task-related activities.
My highest percentile score was in "Avoidance," with a raw score of 13…
Life Styles Inventory. (2010). Human Synergistics Internationa. Retrieved from http://www.human-synergistics.com.au/Solutions/DevelopingIndividuals
Describe Branson's leadership style in terms of the leadership models addressed in Chapters 10 and 11 and evaluate the likely effectiveness of that style in the U.S. today.
Sir Branson's leadership style is the combination of authentic and transformational. He believes in hiring staff that have the skills to perform effectively. he authentic leadership style leads the way to his skill to work with the understanding that people make mistakes and they can be corrected while the work continues. As a transformational leader he demonstrates the capability needed to foresee company development, inspire and empower staff. With these attributes it requires him to have balance as a leader in the day-to-day working environment while creating a productive work environment and focusing on company goals.
According to Chapter 1, "Leadership is the process of developing ideas and a vision, living by values that support those ideas and that vision, influencing…
This leader is known as a risk taker and someone who is always looking for new projects as attempts to elevate his business to new levels. With the input and help of a strong management staff, Virgin Group is comprised of retail, air travel, financial, music, books and telecommunications. Branson is at the helm of a multi-million dollar global business, so his leadership style has proven to be quite successful with his decision-making and people skills.
He developed his entrepreneur ability at an early age. As a person who by society's standards was not successful academically and suffered with dyslexia, he never let others define him. Instead what some saw as a weakness it was used to his advantage, while pursuing his dream of being a top business leader. Overall, his inexperience and personal treatment from others helped with creating a strong commitment to treating people with respect. "Virgin Group is an organization driven on casualness and data, one that is bottom heavy rather than one that is made difficult by upper-level management. (Richard Branson/Herb Kelleher-Leader Extraordinaire, 2012, Pg. 1).
For a number of years Branson has been leading global teams by recognizing how valuable staff is to the success of a business. The additional skill needed is to be aware of the societal and organizational culture and global laws that affect business. In Chapter 11, "Societal culture is shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and interpretations or meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of member of collectives and are transmitted across generations (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2011,
Leadership style of the CEO of Google Inc. using situational leadershi
Larry Page and Sergey Brin met at the Stanford University in 1995 and by 1996, they built first search initially called Backub, which used links to establish the importance of the individual web pages. They continued working on the search engine, and in 1998, they founded the now worldwide-established Google Inc. Company (Larson, 2010). The company packs a lot considering the young age of the company as it now serves billions of users and customers around the globe. The mission of Google Inc. is to organize the information of the entire world and make it useful and accessible universally. The headquarters of the company is in 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View CA 94043. The company boasts and enjoys a vast number of employees across the globe, with an established management team representing a team of the most experienced professionals…
Godin, S. (2009). Situational leadership by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey. Retrieved from http://www.sayeconomy.com/situational-leadership-by-kenneth-blanchard-and-paul-hersey / on May 15, 2011.
Nicholas Carlson, Google CEO Eric Schmidt: "We Don't Really Have A Five-Year Plan" (CLIP)|
May 20, 2009, 2:59 PM Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/google-ceo-eric-schmidt-we-dont-really-have-a-five-year-plan-clip-2009-5#ixzz2TwicO74K
Larson, C. (2010). Interview: Googlopolis. Foreign Policy, (181), 152-152. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/748713622?accountid=35812
Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior
Different Parenting Styles
This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.
Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…
Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.
Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.
Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
Leadeship Style Inventoy
Leadeship cises have been bewing since the past centuy. Evidently, the latest global economic lapses of financial makets aised a highe need fo an effective leadeship than it had been befoe. These cises led to a call fo contempoay oganizations to scutinize o assess the leadeship potential among thei employees and new ecuitments. Following the cuent changes in oganizational ules and business games, as well as andomly emeging competitions, the most fundamental pioity fo businesses and/o oganizations is to ascetain new leadeship potentials, develop them, and find the most appopiate ways to gow them. This pape theeby ecommends the need fo developing authentic and visionay leades by utilizing the "Leadeship Style Inventoy (LSI)" and matching the leadeship esults obtained, with distinguished job equiements. It futhe majos on the use of Kiesey Tempeament Sote and DiSC assessment as tools of evaluation, used in detemining an individual's leadeship competence…
references of cooperative extension faculty. Mexico: New Mexico StateUniversity.
Howell, R.E., Michael, J.A., & Wong, S.K. (1993). Leadership development in extension.
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Nahavandi, A. (2000).The art and science of leadership, 2nd Edition. Upper SaddleRiver, NJ:
management style for an entire country simply because there are too many possible variables. The citizens of a nation as large as Australia vary greatly from one individual to another - and even a single manager varies in style from one day to the next or one project to the next. Moreover, the management style of one industry is not likely to be the same for another industry with very different needs and goals.
However, these caveats aside, it is possible if one concentrates on a single industry to make some generally true statements about the management style of that industry throughout Australia. The particular industry chosen for this project may actually show greater uniformity of style than other Australian industries do since the topic - organic farming - is in fact one that tends to attract people who are like minded to begin with.
We should perhaps begin with…
James, Abigail. (2002). Personal communication.
Harvey, William. (2002). Personal communication. http://tbs-intranet.tees.ac.uk/international/ccd/ccd_block2b.htm http://www.bfa.com.au http:/www.ofa.org.au http://www.onepine.deuk/phof.htm http://www.stuart.iit.edu www.nre.vic.gov.au http://ww.bfa.com.au http://www.nre.vic.gov.au
Abigail James 2002. http://www.onepine.demon.co.uk/phof.htm
Consumers, being human, have whims that cannot be assessed with financial data, or even predicted by the best of marketing departments.
This is also true of motivating individual employees. After all, an organization is only as good as its people. Thus, a good manager, will not merely look at the bottom line but also what motivates employees on an individual and intuitive basis. Often this is reflected in personal, anecdotal experience, rather than pure data. For example, challenges rather than ease spur some employes on, for other employees it is recognition of their wisdom, experience, or commitment to the organization. "I can excel or I can do the bare minimum. It makes no difference. I get paid the same. hy do anything above the minimum to get by?" said one disgruntled employee. (Judge & Robbins, 2006, p. 238) This employee, a teacher, felt that her school district did not solicit…
Blue Letter Bible. Online Searchable Bible in Various Translations. Retrieved 11 Nov 2006 at http://www.blueletterbible.org/
Finance must excel now, more than ever: with continuous business volatility now a fact of life, the CFO must have a finance organization that can help to drive adaptive decision-making and overall company performance." (2002) CFO: Magazine for Chief Financial Officers. September 2002. Retrieved 11 Nov 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3870/is_9_18/ai_92866117
Robbins, Stephen: Judge, Timothy (2006) Organizational Behavior. 12th Edition
New York: Pearson.
Finally, the free reign style sees that the manager allows the staff members to make most of the decisions, with his responsibility revolving around the final outcome.
All the achievements of Dr. Manmohan Singh point out to the fact that he has managed to successfully implement all leadership styles when the situations arose and required a specific approach. Otherwise put, it becomes obvious that when he possessed all the information and a decision had to be taken rapidly, he implemented an autocratic leadership style. Then, when he needed additional data, he listened to those around him and based his decisions on what others had to say. Finally, whenever he was facing tough situations and could not resolve all problems on his own, and most importantly, when he was surrounded by capable and trustworthy staff members, Dr. Manmohan Singh implemented the free reign style by delegating responsibilities to his subalterns.
2008, Leadership Styles, The Skagit Watershed Council, http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html last accessed on July 15, 2009
2009, Manmohan Singh Reminds the World Not to Forget Africa in the Race for Development, Thaindian News, http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/world-news/manmohan-singh-reminds-the-world-not-to-forget-africa-in-the-race-for-development_100218458.html last accessed on July 15, 2009
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There are several other reasons in favor of participative management: employees take pride in the responsibility they have been given and work hard to prove their worth; changes that occur are accepted more easily than in the case of autocratic leadership; there is a strong relationship between manager and workers and when the first identifies problems in various areas, he can turn to his employees for help.
In a nutshell, the democratic way of running a company promotes a horizontal organizational structure rather than a vertical hierarchy and its main advantages revolve around: team work, strong and honest relationship between manager and employees, open and clear communication and encouragement of individual's creativity.
Project Management Issues and Considerations, Project Management Consulting, page 5, AEW Services, February 2002, accessed on July 4th 2006
Leadership Styles, Donald Clark, created May 11th 1997, last updated September 28th 2005, accessed on July 4th…
Project Management Issues and Considerations, Project Management Consulting, page 5, AEW Services, February 2002, accessed on July 4th 2006
Leadership Styles, Donald Clark, created May 11th 1997, last updated September 28th 2005, accessed on July 4th 2006