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Forests are at the major agendas of international climate change, with the strong discussions about the 'avoided deforestation' scheme, which is known as REDD (Reductions of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation). The goal of such scheme is to generate incentives for developing countries to curtail or reduce deforestation and forest degradation. The principle was agreed on at the 13th Conference of UNFCCC parties held in December 2007 in Bali. Though, whilst the principle has been approved, the scheme and its rules for implementation have yet to be established. Various controversial and difficult issues were also yet to be discussed, for example, whether to associate the concern with Kyoto's derived carbon markets and schemes like the Clean Development Mechanism and the European Trading Scheme, the use and design of baselines, methods of addressing degradation and the query of potential non-permanence. The proposals of these debates and anticipated decisions will be…
CHOMITZ, K.M 2007. At loggerheads? Agricultural expansion, poverty reduction, and environment in the tropical forests, World Bank Policy Research Report. The World Bank, Washington D.C.
HYDE, W.F. 1998. Deforestation and Forest Land Use: a Reply. The World Bank Research Observer 13 (1) Washington D.C.
HYDE, W.F,. 1996. Deforestation and Forest Land Use: Theory, Evidence,
and Policy Implications. The World Bank Research Observer 11 (2)
Political factors through the creation of a legislative bill on environmental issues particularly with deforestation laws are important to regulate the amount of environmental manipulation that gives threat to the welfare of the human population according to Benstrom (2010). It has been realized that United States is the most developed nation in the world that is why it has the capability to establish numerous facilities that helps to protect and empower the status of the environment to prevent ecological hazards such as the presence of deforestation. The United States has a well stable political structure that maximizes its own implementation of laws particularly with environmental issues that is why it is a country that is a role model for other nations to promote public cleanliness.
As a recommendation for the argument, the legislative officials of the Federal government should review all environmental aspects that cover the issue on deforestation so…
Anderson, Peter (2009). Deforestation across the United States. Journal on Environmental Issues. Dallas: Dallas Printing Company, pages 87-88.
Benstrom, Adelaide (2010). Implication of Environmental Hazards. Alexandria: Compton Publishing.
Hogan, Dan (2011). Deforestation. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/d/deforestation.htm .
Matthews, Christopher (2011). Deforestation causes Global Warming. Accessed at: http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2006/1000385/index.html.
The Future - Despite the devastation and the problems faced by the Amazon egion, there is cause for some optimism. Because of the heat and amount of rainfall, some of the rainforest returns once farming or agriculture moves on. The Brazilian government, largely due to international pressure from environmental groups, has taken a harsh and repressive stance against woodcutters and illegal ranching. It has also limited the number of roads it will allow to be built into more remote regions. Additionally the equatorial climate, insects, high humidity and tropical disease keeps a significant amount of the rainforest uninhabitable. This, combined with Eco-Tourism and a general awareness regarding illegal importation of lumber, animals, and plants, has many believing that the future is not all bleak for the area (Amazon ainforest).
"Amazon ainforest." Greenpeace USA. (2010). Web. Cited in: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/forests/forests-worldwide/amazon-rainforest/
"Deforestation of Amazon Threatens More than Just Plants and Animals." Science…
"Amazon Rainforest." Greenpeace USA. (2010). Web. Cited in: http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/forests/forests-worldwide/amazon-rainforest/
"Deforestation of Amazon Threatens More than Just Plants and Animals." Science Daily. (June 29, 1997). Web. Cited in: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/06/970629230930.htm
"Illegal Loggers Plunder." NRDC. " (2011). Web. Cited in: http://www.savebiogems.org/amazon/
"NASA Data Shows Deforestation Affects Climate in the Amazon." NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. (09 June 2004). Web. Cited in: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2004/0603amazondry.html
Deforestation, as a specific subject of study, is particularly salient to sociological research, given that the felling of trees largely results from human activities. Despite its importance, most empirical studies to date (principally by geographers, demographers, and economists) have been essentially theoretical. The lack of theoretical grounding retards the accumulation of knowledge by reducing the generalize-ability and explanatory power of research findings. Nevertheless, selected theories of social change have been suggested. Environmental degradation and deforestation in particular have been hypothesized to result primarily from three sources of change: population growth, modernization, and dependent development. Although all three have been hypothesized to increase deforestation, this article uncovers hidden complexities in their relationships that yield unanticipated outcomes. As a measure of modernization, for example, urbanization is shown to have a curvilinear effect on the rate of deforestation, resulting in lower rates of deforestation at the highest levels of urbanization. Two previously unexplored…
Andersen, Lykke E., et al. The Dynamics of Deforestation and Economic Growth in the Brazilian Amazon. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Batterbury, Simon, Timothy Forsyth, and Koy Thomson. "Environmental Transformations in Developing Countries: Hybrid Research and Democratic Policy." The Geographical Journal 163.2 (1997): 126+.
Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen. "Social Determinants of Deforestation in Developing Countries: a Cross-National Study." Social Forces 77.2 (1998): 567-586.
Hibbard, Michael. "Deforestation, Environment, and Sustainable Development: A Comparative Analysis." Journal of the Community Development Society 34.2 (2004): 122
Current estimations are that there is only 30 cents per person being spent by the Mexican government to combat deforestation efforts (Peters, 2002).
It will be important for the government to invest more money and sustain that investment for years as it takes 15 to 20 years to re-grow some of the hardwoods currently being threatened by the deforestation process (Peters, 2002).
This problem can be dealt with locally through government programs and education. A program that educates the public on the future problems of deforestation and ways to reduce the impact of the problem can be sponsored by the government and taught in individual areas of the nation.
Another serious issue being faced by the Mexican people is air pollution.
Mexico has been under the gun concerning air pollution for many years. Mexico City is among the world's most polluted cities when it comes to smog and…
____(2002) Mexico ranked tenth on list of deforestation.
____(2002)(Mexico City orders driving ban after declaring air pollution alert
The Record (Bergen County, NJ);
ithin the rainforests alone lie more than half of the earth's species (Roca 2010, p.2).
The eradication of wide swaths of the rainforest has caused the destruction of many indigenous people's cultures. Once these peoples are deprived of their lands, their old ways of life are no longer replicable in the outside world. Indigenous people often lack formal legal rights to the lands they have lived upon for centuries, making them easy to evict (Roca 2010, p.2). This raises a question of the injustice of deforestation. The eradication of the rainforests is not simply an environmental crime, but also a cultural crime similar to that which occurred in the United States, when the native population was deprived of its land.
Environmentalists cannot turn back the clock. However, finding more sustainable ways to eat and to produce material goods are essential. Recycling, using renewable resources, and better use of the land…
Davidson, J.R. "Witness to the Dustbowl." The Dustbowl. The American Experience. 1996.
May 2, 2010.
"Deforestation." National Geographic. May 2, 2010.
tree has died and the last river been poisoned and the last fish been caught will we realize we cannot eat money
~ Cree Indian Proverb
Lebanon is home to some of the most famous forests, with Mount Lebanon's Cedars mentioned in the Old Testament numerous times. For millennia these trees have been planted and replanted, preserving the history within the land. However in recent times, the ancient forests of Lebanon have been cut down for fuel to heat the homes of impoverished Lebanese. For millennia, the trees on Mount Lebanon have been, over time, depleted in order to make houses, boats, etc. due to the high quality of the Cedars. Even with ancient (oman) and modern (WWF and AFDC) conservation attempts at controlling the level of deforestation, there are still various situations that promote the continuance of deforestation: frequent forest fires, exploitation, unregulated tourism, and overgrazing.
The beauty of…
Al-Fakih, R. (2011, November 26). Poverty drives deforestation in northern Bekaa Valley. The Daily Star [Lebanon], p. 3. Retrieved from http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Local-News/2011/Nov-26/155256-poverty-drives-deforestation-in-northern-bekaa-valley.ashx#axzz2n78p81kr
DiscoverLebanon (2013). Forests in Lebanon Species and Distribution, Oak Pine, Forest Fires reason. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://www.discoverlebanon.com/en/panoramic_views/forests-species-distribution.php
Gunther, M. (2010). WWF - Lebanon's forests: introduction. Retrieved December 9, 2013, from http://mediterranean.panda.org/about/forests/forest_fires/background/
Mikesell, M.W. (1969). The Deforestation of Mount Lebanon. Geographical Review, 59(1), 1-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/213080?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103102415177
Deforestation in Ghana
The environmental history of the African nation of Ghana is particularly rich. Home to a myriad of flora and fauna, the Ghanaian landscape is blessed in more ways than one. Indeed, some would assert that it is this very richness that is currently leading to one of the worst environmental disasters on the African continent, for Ghana's rich stores of natural resources -- from Gold to lumber, have threatened to render this once, lush nation into a desert wasteland.
According to Microsoft's online Encarta, in the 19th century, the southern half of Ghana was completely covered by hardwood forest, however, by the year 1995, such large portions of its forests had been destroyed, over logged, or cleared for mining, that only 39.7 of the entire country remains forested, with (during the period from 1990-1996) more than 1.3% continuing to be lost every year (Encarta).
The reasons for…
Microsoft Encarta. Ghana. 1994. Retrieved from Web site on April 17, 2004 http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761570799/Ghana.html.
Environmental News Service. 2003. Gold Discovered Beneath Ghana's Forest Reserves. Retrieved from Web site on April 17, 2004 http://forests.org/articles/reader.asp?linkid=20709
One is a comprehensive means to increase gross domestic product and average real incomes via conscientious tourism and service industry occupations. Eco-tourism is a distinct possibility for a country that is well-known and well-regarded for its unique biodiversity. The presence of animals that can be found no other place on the planet can drive tourism demand for visiting Madagascar. If local communities manage their own tourism interests, rather than selling out to global corporate tourism interests, then it is possible to have a sustainable tourism model that will improve local economies and local ecosystems.
Madagascar has rich potential for an ecotourism destination. However, the pressure from China to exploit natural resources, and the corruption of local and federal governments, is leading to devastating consequences. Without resorting to external military intervention, it will be difficult to extricate the current corrupt officials out of Madagascar. The country needs to develop a ground-up…
Butler, Rhett. "Impact of Deforestation." 22 July, 2012. Retrieved online: http://rainforests.mongabay.com/0902.htm
"Deforestation of Madagascar," Retrieved online: http://www.angelfire.com/bug/globalissues/
"Deforestation in Madagascar: A political crisis and the lingering effects of colonialism." JSTOR Plant Science. Retrieved online: http://jstorplants.org/2010/05/25/deforestation-in-madagascar-a-political-crisis-and-the-lingering-effects-of-colonialism/
Harper, G.J., Steininger, M.K., Tucker, C.J., John, D. & Hawkins, F. Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 34(4), 2007: 325-333.
Humans on Ecology-
Deforestation in razil
Humans have been supposedly trying to protect the eco-system and environment for a long time. However without realizing, they themselves are causing the most destruction by their ill-planned moves and carelessness. Deforestation is one the most cruel steps taken by man to damage ecology and endanger the lives of fellow beings. Rainforests once covered 15% of the earth. That number has been reduced to 6%. The rainforests contain more than 40% of the world's life forms and they are home to more than 30 million species of plants, animals and insects. It is one of the richest and oldest forms of ecosystems in the world as they have been around for more than 50 million years. However most of the rainforest has been suffering due to deforestation. More than half of the rainforests in the world have disappeared due to deforestation. The percentage of…
The History of Deforestation, Michael Williams, History Today, Vol. 51, July 2001
Tree Cutting harms water supplies, Dan Johnson, The Futurist, vol. 36, 2002
Rainforest Web, http://www.rainforestweb.org
Playing with Fire Destruction of the Amazon is "one of the great tragedies of history," Time, Page 76, 1989
Deforestation can also lead to soil erosion, and more silt in rivers, streams, and behind dams throughout the deforested area. Biological diversity, including many unique species and ecosystems are lost, as well.
IN order to stop deforestation, people must be more aware of the problem and stop using products made from wood, such as paper, cardboard, and other products. We also need to find alternatives for wood products, such as the recycling of paper and wood products, and building materials such as steel, and products like Trex, which is a non-wooden material used for outdoor decks and such. To stop deforestation, we have to stop cutting down trees. eplanting deforested areas does not help, because it takes too long for the trees to grow, and the damage cannot quickly be repaired.
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy ochen.…
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy Rochen. "The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day." 2008. 26 May 2008. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm
Interpreting Contrast in a Photograph
The image present about deforestation has a plethora of different elements to consider. The most prominent in the photo is the positioning of the human legs atop the events that unfolded in the natural world. The legs are towering over the destruction that was caused and this destruction is portrayed as beneath humanity. The rubber boots are shown straddling the ground below as if the individual is in total command of the state of nature. The individual uses this dominance in a malevolent manner as the life that exist before the intervention is now gone in the wake of death and destruction all portrayed between the individual's loins. I think that this is an appropriate metaphor for human interactions with their natural environments on many levels. Even the people, who don't engage directly in the destruction of the natural world, do so indirectly…
The current construction of World-Systems analysis holds that core countries, including America, Europe's thriving economies, and developed nations in Africa and Asia, derive enormous economic and political power from "the axial division of labor of a capitalist world-economy (that) divides production into core-like products and peripheral products" (Wallerstein 28). Madagascar's relative abundance of untapped natural resources, in the form of massive "old-growth" tropical rainforests, and deposits of minerals like chromite and titanium ore which are now used in the construction of cellular telephones and laptop computing devices, represent peripheral products that can be exploited for the ongoing manufacture and distribution of the core products driving the engine of globalized commerce.
(America, China, India)
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-ivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National esearch." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin…
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-Rivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National Research." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin D. Brewer. "Trade globalization since 1795: Waves of integration in the world-system." American Sociological Review (2000): 77-95.
Duiker, William J. Contemporary World History. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2009.
Friedman, Thomas L. The world is flat [updated and expanded]: A brief history of the twenty- first century. Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2006.
Warmer temperatures mean more energy in the climate system
1. Warmer oceans and air current mean more violent and frequent hurricanes
2. More frequent and harsher rainstorms may cause flooding
B. Overall changes to weather patterns could be devastating
1. Ocean and air temperatures and current create weather
2. Disrupting these temperatures/currents would lead to major weather changes in many regions of the world, destroying ecosystems
VII. Effects of Global Warming: Melting Ice and ising Oceans
A. In addition to warming, ocean levels will rise
1. Melting ice sheets will cause higher oceans and flooding on continents
2. ising oceans destroy many coastal lands
B. ising oceans and water levels will have severe regional effects on weather
VIII. Effects of global Warming: Animals
A. Many animals are already changing the regions they inhabit
1. As temperatures change, so do ecosystems, and shifting animal populations reflect this
2. Global warming trends…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real 'inconvenient truth'." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
Environmental Problems and Deforestation
One of the most serious environmental problems facing society today is global warming. This problem has been related to the important issue of the depletion of trees and natural forests throughout the world. Scientists and medical experts are becoming increasingly concerned at the affect that global warming is having on human health and the environment. This sense of alarm is being increased by the fact that predictions about extreme weather and climatic changes that were previously seen to be an indication of the effects of global warming, are now taking place. This has also caused scientists to predict more dire effects of global warming for the future. Global warming has been linked to shortages of food supplies and the increase in infectious diseases as well as changes in the various biological ecosystems of the world, which are already having profound effects on human life and health.…
D'EMILIO, FRANCES ( 2003) "WHO Links Global Warming to More Deaths," AP Online, December 11.
Rainforests and Global Warming. Rainforest Action Network. Retrieved May 22, 2005. http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/04a.html
Revington J. The Causes of Tropical Deforestation. May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/32defore.html
Revington J. Stopping Tropical Deforestation May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/stopping-deforestation.htm
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
I would also like to know the suggested length of the canopy trees and the measurements of this 'partial shade'. (a third variable that I would like to know is what type of cacao they experimented with since there are different kinds).
These three aspects are important for the following reasons:
. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like…
1. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like to know whether researchers met these in order to know whether to accept study http://news.mongabay.com /2007/0305-sulawesi.html#DR35bKAtoweXgSRq.99' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Conference Berlin consequences b)
The History of Contemporary frica
Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…
A large degree of political turmoil took place in Uganda following its liberation from colonization midway through the 20th century. A number of political factions vied for power in the ensuing years; many of these were associated with religious groups set up by the European colonialists, such as Catholic and Protestant supporters. Economically, the country had a strong Indian population that was in control of much of the commerce nad industry there, which is why dictator Idi Amin expelled them in the early 1970's. Deforestation issues have affected Uganda quite significantly. Urbanization and expanding farmlands are responsible for much of Uganda's deforestation problem, while like most regions in Africa, the population housed within this country has seen an explosion in the number of victims of AIDS and HIV. Civil wars and internal fighting, however, would regularly plague Uganda into the new millennium. In more recent times, efforts have been made to reduce barriers to women owning property and being an economic influence within this country. The traditional gender equality within Uganda has certainly circumscribed its growth.
One of the most insidious instances of neo-colonization in Africa, however, was evinced in South Africa. The system of apartheid, which was essentially a legalized subjugation of people of African descent that highly favored Europeans and those of European descent, was responsible for political instability for several years as black South Africans strove to overturn such a repressive regime. Apartheid was eventually overturned in 1994 with the presidency of Nelson Mandela, but economically, unemployment was largely rampant in the country as it struggled to transition to true independence. Other contemporary issues plaguing this country are a nationwide rapid deforestation process, as well as rampant AIDS infection (South Africa may have the most people with AIDS in the world today). Women have played a significant role in the true liberation of this country from first its colonial history and then its repressive reign of Apartheid, as is evinced within the perseverance and political inclinations of Winnie Mandela.
There were several things about Africa that I learned while taking this course. One was that there was a highly planned, systematic implementation of repression that is responsible for keeping Africa socially, economically, and politically years behind many other parts of the world. This repression truly took hold during colonialism, but the bouts of neocolonialism that many countries endured even after formal colonialism was dispelled certainly contributed to this cause. I was also unaware of the contemporary problems that Africa has regarding issues of deforestation. I had no idea that the cutting down of trees and the reduction of forests could take hold of this area as quickly as it had, and continue to affect the environments there today.
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…
"CEH Protects People from Toxic Chemicals and Promotes Business Products and Practices That Are
Safe for Public Health and the Environment." Center for Environmental Health. N.p., n.d.
Web. 01 Mar. 2013.
"How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE." How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).
Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).
Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.
Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1323649
Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005091320344.html
EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/Access_to_Data/index.htm?l=en
Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
Global Warming and Its Effects
For many years, people have been talking about how the weather has changed over the past ten years. In fact, you may have witnessed these changes first hand. The earth's climate has been continuously changing for millions of years. Currently, studies indicate that the Earth is undergoing global warming. The first time I ever heard about global warming was a television commercial. I remember that the commercial featured two children and an adult. In the commercial, the adult started to explain global warming, however his explanation was beyond the scope of the children's understanding. The little girl in the commercial was too confused by the explanation that then prompted the adult to flash-forward into the future to show the children the effects of the climatological concept he was talking about. While the trio are seen in a luscious park at the beginning of the commercial,…
Gore, Al. An Inconvenient Truth. United States: Paramount Classics, 2007. DVD.
Carbon dioxide 07 Dec.2007
Discover the scientific facts on global warming effects 07 Dec.2007
Greenhouse Gas Emissions 07 Dec.2007
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
Indigenous Environmental Studies
For this assignment, we choose the problem of deforestation in Africa and it potential link to the outbreak of the Ebola virus. There have been scientific discussions and debates about whether deforestation was the primary cause of the rise and spread of the Ebola virus which is yet to be conclusively proven but there are enough indications to this end. Hence, for this paper, it is proposed to study the possible link between deforestation in Africa to the spread of the deadly virus that resulted in one of the greatest natural disasters for mankind.
Was deforestation the case of west Africa's Ebola outbreak?
Deforestation in Africa -- especially in sub-Saharan Africa is a major problem and a cause of concern for environmentalists as well as for the local population. However, this problem turned out to be a care for the global population after the rapid…
Chasek, P., Downie, D., & Brown, J. (2014). Global environmental politics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Clerici, M., Combal, B., Pekel, J., Dubois, G., van't Klooster, J., Skoien, J., & Bartholome, E. (2013). The eStation, an Earth Observation processing service in support to ecological monitoring. Ecological Informatics, 18, 162-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2013.08.004
Davies, C. (2015). Deforestation 'may have started west Africa's Ebola outbreak'. The Guardian, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/29/deforestation-might-have-started-west-africas-ebola-outbreak
Ginsberg, J. (2014). How saving West African forests might have prevented the Ebola epidemic. The Guardian, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/vital-signs/2014/oct/03/ebola-epidemic-bats-deforestation-west-africa-guinea-sierra-leone-liberia http://news.mongabay.com ,. (2006). Africa's deforestation rate may be underestimated. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from
Over last five years, the government has begun to change focus in regards to its policies towards the Amazon. Where, it has designated a number of different areas as protected national parks. Currently, there are nearly 201 million hectares that are protected from development. Then, in 2006, a law was passed creating an agency to manage the forests and protect them. With the law stating, that all protected forests should remain public land and that these areas should maintain their forest cover. This is significant because it would reduce the total amounts of destruction that was occurring. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the State Acre. Where, deforestation decreased by over 50% since 1998. The main reason for the drop was: the enforcement of the new laws by razilian official and increased funding for social development in the area. According to the state's…
"Amazon Deforestation Rate has Tripled." Fox News. 29 September 2008. Web. 6 Apr. 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,430401,00.html
"Land Use and Rural Development in the Brazilian Amazon." Wilson Center. 24 Feb. 2010. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
Cochrane, Mark. "Priority Areas for Establishing National Forrest in the Brazilian Amazon." Conservation Ecology. 6 (41) (2002).4. Print.
Hallowell, Christopher, and Walter Levy. Listening to Earth. Longman, 2004. 210-211. Print.
The United States was also very much economically dependent on the old-growth conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest during the period of heavy deforestation that occurred there. This dependence was not as total as Brazil's is, due to the sheer size of the country and abundance of other resources in the nation, but during the development of the nineteenth century especially the lumber that the old -- growth forests provided -- as well as the land that was used for farming once the trees had been cleared -- were vital elements of the continuing expansion of the nation (Foster 1991). Brazil is experiencing its own era of rapid economic expansion in the current era, and limiting its deforestation would limit this growth potential.
In this light, it becomes difficult to see how the United States or anyone living there can simply ask Brazil to stop the massive deforestation of its…
Butler, R. (2008). "Deforestation in the Amazon." WSPA. Accessed 21 July 2010. http://www.mongabay.com/brazil.html
Foster, J. (1991). "Capitalism and the ancient forest - battle over old growth forest in the Pacific Northwest." CBS MoneyWatch. Accessed 21 July 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_n5_v43/ai_11489365/
Economics of Forestry
Timber is the major product currently harvested from forests. Timber is used in a variety of products ranging from houses to paper and paperboard products. Long ago it seemed as if the supply of wood from forests was abundant and as if there would always be enough to provide everything that we could possibly need. However, recently we have realized that this is not the case. Timber is a major source of income and has become necessary to sustain out life-style as we know it. There has been a clash of ideology between ecologists and economists. Ecologists point out that forests have many other benefits besides just providing timber and are quick to point out that we need them to reduce the level of green house gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Economists are equally as quick to point out that we need timber to sustain…
Bradley, Dennis. "One of two parts of a chapter on EE for the Ecosystem Stewardship."
Workshop held in Tucson Arizona, December 4-14, 1995.
Bradley, D.P. Xu, Zhi, and Lewis, B.J. "Forests as Natural Capital: Parallels, Problems, and Implications." Unpublished paper: NCFES, Forest Service, USDA, St. Paul, Minn. 43
Bradley, D. And D. Lothner (ed.). "Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.
Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…
Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.
"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
It initially failed to attract the desired audience, but it is believed that the recent innovations of the re-launched tablet PC would ensure its success (Search Mobile Computing, 2010).
While Apple stated that they were the first creators of tablet computers, Microsoft comes to argue the same. Thorn Holwerda (2010) however states that neither of the two it monoliths were the creator of tablet PC. "Well, no. They're both wrong. oth Microsoft and Apple were late to the game when it comes to tablet computing, and so far, neither of the two companies have been able to popularize the paradigm in any meaningful way - but boy, did they try" (Holwerda, 2010).
In understanding the history of the tablet computer, it is first necessary to differentiate between the concept of the tablet computer and the resulting final product. The concept of the tablet computer was introduced by Alan Kay and…
Blackwell, G., 2003, Small business embraces the tablet PC, Small Business Computing, http://www.smallbusinesscomputing.com/testdrive/article.php/3114441/Small-Business-Embraces-the-Tablet-PC.htm last accessed on September 24, 2010
De Pablos, P.O., Lytras, M.D., 2008, the China information technology handbook, ISBN 0387777423
Doyle, B.J., 2004, Top 10 benefits of the tablet PC in education, Tablet Pc Forum, http://forum.tabletpcreview.com/news-headlines/249-top-10-benefits-tablet-pc-education.html last accessed on September 24, 2010
D'Silva, N.V., 2010, Tablet PC vs. laptop -- think before you buy, Buzzle.com, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/tablet-pc-vs.-laptop-think-before-you-buy.html last accessed on September 24, 2010
Global warming has become a hot topic since last few decades and there have been continuous efforts in understanding its causes and drastic consequences over the environment. It is a simple term that relates to the increase in the temperature of the earth which affects the entire world equally. Global warming has advanced dramatically with the increase in the use of the hydrocarbons, excess burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. One of the major contributors in global warming is the rising amount of carbon dioxide gas in the environment, which is released by burning of fossil fuels and gets trapped inside the environment, causing it to get hotter day by day. To cut down the ratio of carbon dioxide as compare to oxygen gas, it is important that the naturally occurring forests must be conserved and there should be afforestation instead of de-forestation. Several other severe…
Forests, jungles, woods & their trees. WWF Global. Retrieved on 7/7/2012 from:
Global Warming. One Cool Forest, One Hot Grassland. (December 18, 2001). Retrieved from: http://whyfiles.org/080global_warm/5.html
Harmon, D.E. (2009). Al Gore and global warming. New York: Rosen Pub.
Accounting Sustainable Management
The organization's emphasis towards the sustainability is increasing as a response to the scarcity of natural resources and the negative effects on environment by means of ecological hazards. Therefore, the organizations are adapting their business procedure to utilize such resources that are cost effective and environment friendly so that they can earn profits and can remain environment friendly by having a positive image in the society by addressing their social accountability.
Sustainability and its elevance to Business and Accounting
Sustainability and its elevance to WML
Implication of Sustainability in WML
The current study has been conducted in order to analyze the strategic practices of Wave Master Ltd. (WML) with respect to sustainability. The sustainability of a company indicates the extent to which the company is playing its part in the safeguard of biological systems and the extent to which the company is considered as environment friendly.…
Alcorn, Z. & Kenny, Z. (2007). HCNG: An alternative to coil and oil. Green Left Weekly. Available from: https://www.greenleft.org.au/node/37079 .
Bebbington, J., Unerman, J., & O'Dwyer, B. (Eds.).(2014). Sustainability accounting and accountability.Routledge.
Burton, T., Sharpe, D., Jenkins, N., & Bossanyi, E. (2001).Wind energy handbook. John Wiley & Sons.
Carroll, A., & Buchholtz, A. (2014).Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Cengage Learning.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Since its first mention at the UN General Assembly, global warming has come to be regarded the greatest human development challenge for the 21st century (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). This has prompted multiple studies, conventions and policy development meetings aimed at arresting the situation. One such study was the Fourth Assessment eport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Findings released in 2007 showed that global temperatures were unequivocal and accelerating. The magnitude - an average increment of 0.74 degrees centigrade in the past century, was notably the highest warming trend in recent times. The worrying aspect is that the warming trend is bound to continue with a predicted increment of about 1.8-6.4 degrees centigrade in the coming years (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). The increasing temperatures will have profound effects on life on earth as it is expected that the warming will disrupt…
Berg, L.R. (2008). Introductory Botany: Plants, People, and the Environment. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Islam, M.R., Chhetri, A.B., & Khan, M.M. (2011). Greening of Petroleum Operations:The Science of Sustainable Energy Production. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Maslin, M. (2006). Global Warming. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.
McInerney-Lankford, S.A., Darrow, M., Rajamani, L., & Banque M. (2011). Human Rights and Climate Change: A Review of the International Legal Dimensions. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
Environmental determinism has long been out of favor among historians and social scientists, although well into the 19th Century even the majority of Westerners were highly dependent on the climate and environment for their survival. Since the entire world economy was based on agriculture, a shortfall in harvests meant famines, epidemics and death for those who were at or below subsistence level. Such famines were a primary cause for the overthrow of the monarchy in France in 1789, for example, and they led to rebellions, riots and instability wherever they occurred. As late as the 1840s in Ireland, the great potato blight led to the death or immigration of half the population, and the near-destruction of Irish society. In the case of Easter Island, Norse Greenland and the Classic Maya civilization, climate change combined with deforestation and agricultural practices that destroyed the environment led to the total collapse…
Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Penguin Books, 2006).
Demarest Arthur A.. Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Fagan, Brian M. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History (Basic Books, 2000).
Gill, Richardson B. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death (University of New Mexico Press, 2000).
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).
In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…
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Grankvist, G., Lekedal, H., and Marmendal, M. (2007) 'Values and eco- and fair-trade labeled products.' Journal of British food 109, (2)
Green Label Thailand (2010) 'Thai Green Labal Scheme'. [online] available from [13 July 2010]
Gulf Daily News (2010) 'Toyota set to produce hybrid cars in Thailand.' [Online] available from [19 August 2010]
Gurau, C., and Ranchhod, A. (2005) 'International Green Marketing: A comparative study of British and Romanian firm.' Journal of International Marketing Review 22, (5) 547-561
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real "inconvenient truth." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
Political Issue and Tourism
Over the years, there has been concern over the fats shifting weather pattern occasioned by the global warming. Extreme and erratic weather conditions have been experienced in almost every part of the world. This essay will review the literature that is available on the definition of Global warming, the causes of global warming, effects of global warming on the community and nations, what the government is doing to stop global warming, as well as what Non-Governmental Organizations or Non-State Organizations are doing to stop global warming and finally what should be done to stop global warming.
The essay will also review the impact of global warming and community of Nations on tourism and how the changing weather patterns have impacted on the tourism trends from the human perspective as well as from the flora and fauna perspective. This will show how global warming has affected the…
Admin, (2011). Definition of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.definitionofglobalwarming.com/
African Safari Vacation, (2010). Effects of Global Warming on Tourism in Africa. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.kenyaonetours.com/african-safari/events/global-warming-on-africa.htm
Anita Pleumaron, (2007). Tourism Feels the heat of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11,
2011 from http://www.google.co.ke/#sclient=psyab&hl=sw&source=hp&q=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&oq=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=94883l112644l1l113205l35l34l4l0l0l14l3892l25307l5-184.108.40.206.4l22l0&bav=cf.osb&fp=a55a91a0191aef52&biw=12
Powerful Stakeholder Policy to Prevent Industrial Environmental Impact
Friedman's stakeholder theory emphasizes the critical function of stakeholders in determining company's goals and responsibilities. Responsibility in a corporation is stated as individual role of each employee and manager to act and report to the upper level and finally to the decision-making boards.
As the top-level management and decision makers, corporate directors address their responsibility to the stakeholders, literally as the "owners" of the company, to whom all the running processes in the company, goal settings, and money spent should be reported. To follow the track, a manager is tied to what his/her employers have defined in the tasks list. Whatever skills and creativity managers possess must be utilized within the range of responsibility they have to the stakeholders, as stakeholders are the top decision-making board.
Company directors act based on the interest of shareholders as stakeholders. Scholl reads them as the…
Camill, Phil. Dec 15, 1999. The Deforestation of the Amazon: A Case Study in Understanding Ecosystems and Their Value. Department of Biology Carleton College. http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/case.html.(Mar28, 2002).
De Leon, R. And White A.T. 1997. Mangrove Resources Decline in the Philippines: Government and Community Look For New Solutions. Intercoast Network Newsletter. Special Edition # 1.
Demosthenous, M. June 20, 2000. The Social Responsibility of Business: A Review. School of Commerce. The Flinders University of South Australia. http://commerce.flinders.edu.au/research/00-8.htm.(Mar28, 2002).
The natural factors that influence infiltration rate include soil characteristics, plant and animals, and topography. Man can modify these features to highly influence runoff. For instance, areas with grass/vegetation will reduce runoff by reducing speed of water on surface hence increasing percolation chances. On the other hand, bare lands will offer less resistance to water hence faster runoffs. In the event that rainfall produces much water to the land surface than it can be absorbed by the soil, the excess water will be left on the surface to flow down slopes as runoff. et areas with higher vegetation covers can have higher water tables that lead to faster saturations hence runoff.
On soil characteristics, finer soils will reduce infiltration and increase runoff and vice versa. Still, the size of rain drops can help compact soil reducing runoff. Concerning plant cover, they increase infiltration rates in that they slow the pace…
Rodriguez, Daniel Andres, Javier Tomasella, and Claudia Linhares. Is the forest conversion to pasture affecting the hydrological response of Amazon catchments? Signals in the Ji-
Parana basin. 26 March 2010. Web. 25 April 2010. Article available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/123261361/PDFSTART
Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).
However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…
1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
2. Baert Wiener J. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal 108.4
3. Behreandt D. (18 Sept. 2006). "Global Warming Too Hot or Not? The Theory of Global Warming Proposes That Man's Activities Are Causing the Earth to Heat Up, but There Is Compelling Scientific Evidence That Does Not Support This Conclusion," the New American.
4. Clemons E.K. Schimmelbusch H. "The Environmental Prisoners' Dilemma or We're All in This Together: Can I Trust You to Figure it Out?" Retrieved May 6, 2010, from the Warton School of the University in Pennsylvania Web site: http://opim.wharton.upenn.edu/~clemons/blogs/prisonersblog.pdf
Personal, Local, or National Issue;
Climate change has become one of the most debated subjects that mark the current political agendas throughout the world. The international community, the international and regional NGOs as well as the public opinion are constantly flagging more and more issues on the negative impact the lack of sustainable development has on the environment. Among other perspectives, one that has been rather often considered in relation to this subject is the role international organizations and in particular the ones at the level of the United Nations have mitigating the risks of climate change at the global level. This is in my opinion an important matter to discuss from several points-of-view; firstly, the issue of climate change affects the world at a global level and its perspectives are grim in comparison to the efforts made by every state individually in addressing the particularities of the situations; secondly,…
Currency fluctuations tend to create instability and disrupt the planning activities of tourists. In times of an economic recession, there is normally a lot of fluctuation in the currencies. In the previous year, many currencies appreciated in value while some depreciated. The appreciation of Great ritain Pound and U.S. Dollar against currencies of other countries, such as third world countries, while the depreciation of the Pakistani Rupee, Indian Rupee and the Sri Lankan Rupee against the U.S. Dollar (REPORTER, Staff, 2012) made it less likely for the travelers located in such places to plan to visit countries, as expenditure on goods and services will be incurred in the appreciated currency of the destination country and will have to be supported by the depreciated home currency. This increased expenditure, especially in the times of an economic recession, is considered to be a luxury that needs to be overlooked, at least until…
ALI, Shazad. 2010. The Rise of Terrorism: Examining Terrorism in the Middle East from a Pakistani Perspective. Duke Journal of Public Affairs. 5(2), pp.6-21.
Bangkok's new airport opens to first commercial flights. 2006. [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
BRANCATELLI, Joe. 2013. Where have all the business travelers gone? [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
CNBC. 2011. Egypt's tourism which adds 11% to GDP plunges amidst chaos. [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
Forests have long been exploited. They are harvested for their timber, or cleared for agricultural land, both activities being entirely destructive to the ecosystem. The fen exists typically within the forest, and is not usually subject to exploitation until the forest itself is, because the forest acts as a natural barrier for the fen. The destruction of forests for timber is arguably the lesser of the two forms of exploitation, at least in countries with active silviculture programs, as the forests will have the potential to regenerate. However the destruction of forest ecosystems is associated with several negative outcomes. The biodiversity of the forest system is reduced, and this effect is stronger the more forest is cleared. Destruction for agriculture is permanent, which means that the loss of biodiversity is permanent. Endemic and endangered species are rendered extinct, or their numbers reduced (Chediack, 2008).
Fenland is often exploited…
Breward, N. (2003). Heavy-metal contaminated soils associated with drained fenland in Lancashire, England, UK, revealed by BGS Soil Geochemical Survey. Applied Geochemistry. Vol. 18 (11) 1663-1670.
Chediack, S. (2008). The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina. Rev. Bio. Trop. Vol 56 (2) 721-738.
Fredeen, A. (2007) . Climate change and the mountain pine beetle. University of Northern British Columbia. Retrieved April 27, 2015 from http://www.unbc.ca/releases/2007/climate-change-and-mountain-pine-beetle
Sasaki, N. & Putz, F. (2009). Critical need for new definitions of forest and forest degradation in global climate change agreements. Conservation Letters. Vol. 2009, 1-7.
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…
Aimers, James J. "What Maya Collapse-Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands." Springer Science+Business Media (2007): 330-337.
Oldfield, F., ed. 1998. Past global changes (PAGES): Status reportand implementation plan. IGBP Report 45. Stockholm: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
Dunning, Nicholas, et al. Arising from the Bajos: The Evolution of a Neotropical Landscape and the Rise of Maya Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Chase, A.F., and Chase, D.Z. (1992). El norte y el sur: pol?'tica, dominios y evolucio'n cultural maya.Mayab 8: 134 -- 149
Is utilitarianism an effective approach to environmental ethics? Behaviors that demonstrate personal and collective responsibility to the environment can lead to tangible short-term and long-term objectives that benefit a large number of people. Reducing pollution, limiting deforestation, preserving natural resources, protecting sensitive ecosystems, and mitigating climate change bring about the greatest good for the greatest number, what John Stuart Mill (2017) refers to as summum bonum, the fundamental principle of utilitarianism (p. 1). Therefore, most environmentally conscious policies, business practices, and personal behaviors can be viewed in utilitarian terms.
Explanation of Theory
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory, which essentially means that its proponents focus more on the consequences of actions than on the motivations for the actions (Haines, n.d.). There are several types of utilitarianism, including act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism suggests that any act is morally right when it leads to consequences that are better than (or…
The women sustainably harvest items from the forest, and how produce essential oils, lotions, and soaps from the ingredients they harvest. Because they only harvest ingredients instead of using the entire plant, the forest lives on, while they still are earning an income from the sales of their products.
Many experts have ideas about how to improve on sustainable development in the region. Another expert says, "For instance, improving the monitoring of species loss reduces ignorance about the ecological system and may lead to patents for medicinal plants. The latter enables synergies that integrate indigenous knowledge into management/conservation" (eyer). Convincing companies to invest in these types of development have often fallen on deaf ears because of costs. Many very large global corporations have large operations in the rainforest, such as Mitsubishi and Georgia Pacific, and because the government essentially gives them free reign with little regulation, they exploit the rainforest…
Butler, Rhett a. "Deforestation in the Amazon." Mongabay.com. 2009. 19 March 2010.
Editors. "Rainforest Facts." Raintree Nutrition. 2010. 19 March 2010.
Most of our human society is guided by greed causing an imbalance in nature. Consumerism has led to an energy crisis and a pollution problem at the same time. At this rate it does not surprise me that most of our crucial energy sources are getting depleted. I believe in being a part of nature and accepting all its gifts. However my religion teaches me to give back as much as we take. The sooner people realize this; the easier it will be to solve our problems. I support a lot of environmental campaigns in my society. I have participated in various events organized by them which carried out cleaning operations in the neighborhood and their front yards.
Our family has had a garden since I was very young. It has been a part of my life and I would probably have a garden when I get my own house…
Two general approaches are used in connection with mangrove restoration. One method only focuses on the replanting of mangroves to replenish those that were lost. The other concentrates on discovering the reason for losses and preventing further loss of mangrove habitat. This philosophy supports natural recovery of the ecosystem, once the sources of destruction have been discovered and eliminated (Lewis & Streever, 2000). Both of these approaches have merit for different reasons.
The first option is to plant mangroves to replenish areas that have been lost. This method is the most costly in terms of capital input. However, it will result in the most rapid recovery of the mangrove forests. Natural recovery of the forests takes between 15-30 years, and that is only if the sources of destruction can be adequately controlled (Lewis & Streever, 2000). However, as mentioned earlier, replanting may be difficult, especially if the area has been…
Coastal Conservancy Association (CCA). (2007). CCA Florida Habitat Restoration Projects. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.ccaflorida.org/habitat.html .
CSIRO Australia (2001, February 14). Storm Surges Increase with Warming Oceans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 10, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010212073904.htm
Hill, K. (2001). What is a Lagoon? Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.sms.si.edu/irLspec/Whatsa_lagoon.htm .
Department of Environmental Protection (n.d.). Florida's Mangroves "Walking Trees" Florida Marine Research Institute. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.floridaplants.com/horticulture/mangrove.htm
The measures could be introduced through the education of the population and the breaking of these regulations should be severely fined.
2. A better recycling process - This would be supported by the selective garbage collection and would be compulsory to all organizations. Breaking the regulations would be severely fined
3. Stopping deforestation - This must be done across the entire globe and national authorities must be the only ones to grant tree cutting rights and only after intense analyses. Also, new trees must be planted. Illegal deforestation should be punished with imprisonment
4. Modernizing the technologies used by the most polluting industries - these programs should be supported with government subsidies and the states refusing should be internationally trialed
5. educing the usage of resources - this could be achieved by better control and pollution systems and would also reduce the general levels of consumerism, also in the best…
Connor, S., 2005, the Final Proof: Global Warming is a Man-Made Disaster, Independent UK, Edition of February 19, 2005
Kiehl, J.T., Trenberth, K.E., 1997, Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 78, Number 2
Thomas, E.C., 2003, Partnership for Environmental Protection, Press Information Bureau, http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr2003/fjun2003/f030620031.html, last accessed on March 12, 2008
2005, Expert: China Overtakes U.S. As Top Consumer, China Daily, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-02/17/content_417043.html. Ast accessed on March 12, 2008
Island nations may be beautiful, but their isolation makes them vulnerable to outside forces that increasingly threaten their survival. Rising sea levels linked to global warming could submerge some altogether. Tuvalu, a est Pacific nation whose peak height rises just 5 meters over sea level, could be uninhabitable within 50 years, some experts say. A similar fate could also doom the Maldives, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tokelau. Of all the threats facing island nations, the rise in sea level could be the most catastrophic....in the early 1990s, satellites began generating more comprehensive profiles of global sea level. Thanks to these orbiting systems, scientists now know that the average global rate of sea level rise has increased 50% during the last 12 years -- up to 3 millimeters per year from a 50-year annual average of 2 millimeters,...NASA..
hen we discuss this issue we often slide back to…
Mastny, Lisa. "More Evidence of Antarctic Melting Reported." World Watch July-Aug. 2005: 9.
Pitois, Sophie, Michael H. Jackson, and Brian J.B. Wood. "Sources of the Eutrophication Problems Associated with Toxic Algae: An Overview." Journal of Environmental Health 64.5 (2001): 25.
Schmidt, Charles W. "Keeping Afloat: A Strategy for Small Island Nations." Environmental Health Perspectives 113.9 (2005): 606.
Schwartz, Brian S., Cindy Parker, Thomas a. Glass, and Howard Hu. "Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do about it Now?." Environmental Health Perspectives 114.12 (2006): 1807.
The pots will be packed in resistant cartoon boxes that will have printed the name and contact data of the producer and sellers. For purchases over 20 flower pots, the delivery to the customers' house will be free of charge. The Multifunctional Flower Pot will have ranging prices, starting from $50 a piece and reaching $2,200. The products have a 24 months warranty, after which the producer encourages buyer to address their problems to the repairs and support department.
2. The Tipping Point
The "Tipping Point is a sociological term that refers to the moment when something unusual becomes common." For starters, the Multifunctional Flower Pot might not seem as a necessity nor a much desired product, as such an unusual product. ut along the marketing process, the product could reach the tipping point and become a common product.
Law of the Few
The Few are represented by individuals or…
The Tipping Point, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, September 3, 2007, ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tipping_Point_ (book),last accessed on October 4, 2007
The Tipping Point, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, September 3, 2007
This is true regardless of your belief on this particular issue.
In the last work to be discussed in this document "Global arming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms" there is a cry, by educators to come to terms with the facts about global warming and get a sense of how to teach these facts to educators and students. The information being given to educators is depressing, as one student educator stated and figuring out a way to teach the issues is difficult. ithout the development of a greater understanding of the "butterfly effect" of technology there will likely not be a more responsible humankind.
If the global warming trend continues, the results could be depressing indeed: melting polar ice along with thermal expansion of the oceans could raise the sea level, flooding coastal cities, and many agricultural landscapes could dry out, becoming deserts. And yet,…
Cline, William R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1992.
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Parsons, Michael L. Global Warming The Truth behind the Myth. New York: Insight Books, 1995.
Rye, James A., Donna D. Strong, and Peter A. Rubba. "Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms." Social Education 65.2 (2001): 90.
Brazil and Chili -- a Cultural Comparison
Brazil was originally colonized by Portugal, while the Spanish colonized Chili. The natural resources that provide jobs and help the economy in Brazil include gold, timber, tin, nickel, iron ore, oil and hydropower. Chili's natural resources include hydropower, copper, nitrates, molybdenum and timber as well. Chili only has 2.62% of its land that is arable; in Brazil, 6.93% of the land is arable. Brazil's fishing industry has a lot of fresh water and ocean to use, 55,460 square kilometers (with 7,491 miles of coastline); the Chilean fishing industry has just 12,290 square kilometers of ocean and fresh water to use (with 6,435 miles of coastline).
In Brazil the deforestation of the Amazon Basin (rainforest) is severe and has put many species of plants and animals in jeopardy. Improper mining tactics have caused Brazil's environment great harm and severe oil spills have caused degradation…
About.com. (2008). Fast Facts About Mesopotamia. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/nearest/ss/052909Mesopotamia.htm.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The World Factbook. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html .
We will write this law on stellas. There will be a system of police to maintain order and to ensure that trouble does not occur. There will also be a system of judges (and a legal system of sorts) that will not only answer people's questions in terms of the laws but also decide change and legal minutia during cultural changes that warrant it. The judges too will decide conflicts between people according to the minutia of the law.
The classical Mayan system of priests and shamans will be retained. There will be the same titles Ah K'uhun, Ah K'uhul Hu'n, and Ah K'uhuun (namely "he of the holy books," "keeper of the paper/headbands," and "he who worships signifying the various tasks) (Maya culture; Miller & Taube, 1993).
Good sirs, we will establish an elevated educational system based on the highest wisdom of the time and run according to wisdom…
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya (Sixth ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson
Culbert, T.Patrick (Ed.) (1977). Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press.
In fact it is large companies and the inequities of international trade which are the root causes of rainforest destruction." Consider the following facts:(1)M millions of hectares of primary rainforests are being destroyed in South East Asia by logging, and the driving force in this industry is not the local population but international demand for timber; (2) in Central America, 40% of all the rainforests have been cleared or burned down in the last 40 years, mostly for cattle pasture to feed the export market; (3) "Latin American environment groups have cited skewed land distribution as the most important factor frustrating the conservation and sustainable use of rainforest areas; and (4) the economic exploitation of poorer countries by the world's industrialized nations underlines much of the over-exploitation of tropical ecosystems by populations without land or employment.
This inevitably calls for reform in relation to both bilateral and multilateral aid policies…
Developing Countries Miss Out in Trade Globalization International Labor Organization Press Alert 1997 November 6 Tuesday Edition Online available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inf/pr/2001/47.htm
The Causes of Tropical Deforestation" Revington (1991) New Renaissance magazine Vol. 3, No. 2.
Brown, Lester R., and others. Vital Signs 2003. W.W. Norton, 2003, 158
The Worldwatch Institute documents the trends that are shaping our future in concise analyses and clear tables and graphs.
Altria's commitment to the environment appears very weak. It pledges full and complete compliance will all applicable environmental laws and regulations, something it has to do anyway unless it wants to face the consequences (Altria, environment and agriculture). Kraft says it is developing a systematic approach to move beyond compliance and to understand issues along its supply and demand chains, but this effort began in 2000 and five years later it's still formulating plans rather than reporting results. Further, its own Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs) show only moderate improvement from 2001 to 2003. It's interesting to note that 2004 EPIs are missing. Philip Morris International reports monitoring efforts, but offers no concrete results. Of all the environmental issues related to cigarettes, all Philip Morris USA can talk about is cigarette litter. And, even on this issue, the company makes it clear that it does not endorse any changes…
Altria, environment and agriculture. Retrieved September 3, 2005 from Web site: http://www.altria.com/responsibility/4_10_environmentagriculture.asp
Tobacco, Its impact on our environment. Retrieved September 3, 2005 from Web site: http://www.mpshu.on.ca/Tobacco/enviro.htm
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm