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Pecola represents this imperfection to them and that only reinforces their insecurity. Every time one must look upon her, one realizes what ugly means and may even see a bit of that ugly in him or herself. This inability to deal with what society has laid upon them simply reinforces how very deep the issue runs. It is not something that easily be wiped away. Then notion of beauty is buried deep in the human mind and it is impossible to turn a blind eye in this day and age. In short, Pecola represents imperfection and all the ugliness the world can offer.
It is also important to realize that Morrison felt obligated to protect Pecola's identity. By leaving some aspects of her character somewhat mysterious, she creates a distance between the reader and the character. Pecola is no doubt victim of violence and that is all we need to…
Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. New York: Plume Books. 1970.
Food in Kafka's Metamorphosis
Food in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis serves a narrative function and a symbolic function as well. After all, Gregor Samsa's family is seated down to an ordinary bourgeois breakfast at the time when Gregor is awakening from his uneasy dreams: this seems like ordinary narrative but it also establishes the centrality of food to bourgeois family life. To this extent, we should not be surprised that the succeeding portions of the novella use food to subject Gregor to sub-human positions, as the family gradually ceases to regard him as a member of its cohesive structure. I hope to show through close analysis of episodes in The Metamorphosis that deal with food that the overall symbolism is clear, and that Kafka's use of food in the fiction has a coherent purpose overall.
e have noted that the story begins at breakfast. One reason this setting is so…
Corngold, Stanley. "Allotria and Excreta in the Penal Colony." In Bloom, Harold, Franz Kafka. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2010. Print.
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." Translated by David Wylie. Project Gutenberg, 2002. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/5200/5200-h/5200-h.htm
Ryan, Simon. "Franz Kafka's Die Verwandlung." In Bloom, Harold, Franz Kafka. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2010, Print.
Inhumanity in the Stanford Prison Experiment
According to Philip Zimbardo, dehumanization is the act of marginalizing another human being to the point where that person is seen to be less than human, outside the moral order—i.e., an animal. The moral order suggests that people should respect the lives of other human beings. When that order is ignored, dehumanization occurs. This paper will look at what dehumanization is, why it is so important to “The Lucifer Effect,” and how it is pursued in “The Lucifer Effect” that Zimbardo describes as he recounts his own past experience with the Stanford Prison Experiment and in the context of the Abu Ghraib scandal.
What is Dehumanization?
Dehumanization is one of the most horrific experiences that can occur to a human being. Every human being has a sense of self-worth, a sense of pride, a sense of self, and even an ideal self, as…
Wanton Loss of Life
A careful reading of David Livingston Smith's seminal treatise on the science of dehumanization, Less Than Human, reveals there is a fundamental relationship between the phenomena of dehumanization and that of genocide. There are countless examples which underpin this reality. Several genocides were accompanied by both thoughts and actions in which the perpetrators of these crimes against humanity seemed to consider their victims less than human. Livingston largely seizes upon this point in assembling what is his stance on the exact nature of the relationship between these two phenomenons. His central premise regarding that relationship is that on a basic level, dehumanization is almost a prerequisite for genocide -- and certainly is a causal agent in the carrying out of attempts to completely eradicate a certain group of people. Livingston argues dehumanization is a pivotal part of most attempts at genocide.
It is not difficult to…
Actuarial vs. Clinical Predictions
There are several issues of note in the time-honored debate as to whether it is more effective to employs actuarial or clinical predications for the purpose of assessment. On the one hand, it would appear congruent with the job of psychologists to actually perform clinical studies and utilize predictions as such to evaluate various issues of people and of incidents. The principle problem with this approach is that it leaves room for human error, which can overthrow the entire purpose of a clinical study. Conversely, there is little denying the fact that an actuarial "set of rules" (Kaplan, year, p. 554) can oftentimes determine the results of clinical studies without such human error. However, the actuarial approach may possibly be bested by a clinical approach when there is a "variety of sources" (Kaplan, year, p.554) contributing data to clinical predications. Of course, the clinicians would still…
Kaplan, R.M. (no date). Psychological assessment and theory creating and using psychological tests. Beverly: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Suzuki and Ponterotto. (2000). Multicultural assessment. Handbook of Multicultural Assessment. New York: Jossey-Bass.
History makes it possible for one to understand how the masses can be persuaded to adopt particular attitudes by being provided with manipulative information. People lose the ability to discover when they are being controlled as they are provided with more and more false information. One's inclination to act similar to a typical human being can thus be destroyed as the respective individual becomes entangled in a greater scheme. This is basically what a dehumanizing process consists of: waves of false information meant to influence people in thinking that it is in their best interest to put across a certain type of behavior.
It is easier for people to abandon their principles when they are presented with a purpose. This is exactly what happens with Ender: his energetic personality is exploited by his superiors as they constantly influence him in displaying his determination in various games that they devise. They…
Card, Orson Scott, Ender's Game, Retrieved March 18, 2012, from the Scribd Website: http://www.scribd.com/doc/34993931/Ender-s-Game-Novella
Dixon, John and Levine, Mark, Beyond Prejudice: Extending the Social Psychology of Conflict, Inequality and Social Change, (Cambridge University Press, 2012)
Fournet, Caroline, the crime of destruction and the law of genocide: their impact on collective memory, (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007)
Kaufmann, Paulus. Humiliation, Degradation, Dehumanization: Human Dignity Violated, (Springer, 2010)
The colors used are also drab and grey-green dominates to evoke a sense of claustrophobic death and destruction.
Another aspect that evokes atmosphere in the film is the use of music. Kubrick chooses a soundtrack which is both empty and banal yet also succeeds in emphasizing the loss of meaning and vacuity in what the young recruits have become. The director makes use of popular songs such as "These Boots Are Made for Walking" and "Surfin' Bird." The very emptiness of the lyrics tends to ironically emphasize the dehumanization and loss of identity which pervades the film (Maslin).
The theme of dehumanization is followed through in the graphic events of the battle and we also see the "…collapse of the individual into the group" (Anderegg 11). For example, when Joker tries to express his individuality by wearing a peace symbol on his uniform, he is sternly rebuked by a marine…
Anderegg, Michael, ed. ( 1991) Inventing Vietnam: The War in Film and Television.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
MASLIN J. FILM VIEW; INSIDE THE 'JACKET': ALL KUBRICK . ( 1987) Retrieved
June 8, 2009, from http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?_r=2&res=9B0DEEDD1731F936A35754C0A961948260&oref=slogin&oref=login
Post Colonial Literature
Historical literature is filled with examples of pre- and post-colonialist paradigms. Within each of these models, however, there is a certain part of a larger story that can only be told in the larger view of the historical process. One of the grand themes that help us wade through that process is that of the dehumanization of the individual. For whatever psychotically reasons, humans seem to have the need to change others into less than human in order to subjugate them economically, intellectually, or culturally. We might even think of the process of imperialism as practiced by the European powers as dehumanization of culture and society; begun at the micro level and then evolving into the macro. This dehumanization was particularly exemplified by the manner in which indigenous cultures were decimated, how families were torn apart and scattered all over the Empire, and the manner in which…
Achebe, C.Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, 1994, Print.
Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Web. Plain Label Books. 2009. Retrieved from: googlebooks.
Hawthorne, N. Young Goodman Brown. Boston, MA: Wildside Press, 2006.
Scott, A. "Apocalypse Now Redux (2001). The New York Times. 2001, Web.
When we look at Starkey's works we appear to be looking at moments captured from everyday life, in particular the everyday life of women. In fact Starkey's photographs are constructed, the people we are looking at are actors.
Her images of modern banality also suggest ennui, despair, depression and listlessness, which are conveyed as central facets of the reality of life for women in society. As one critic describes her images; "apathetic teenagers, usually girls, languish, slack-limbed and expressionless, in dimly lit cafes, nondescript interiors, and anonymous shopping malls."
Furthermore, the images also emphasize the sense of loneliness and isolation that she considers to be the existential situation of working women in the city.
In these images and others like them, individuals stand apart from the world, separated from it by a screen of indifference. It is not that they actively refuse to invest in their surroundings; they simply do…
Berger, P and Luckmann T. The social construction of reality: A
treatise in the sociology of knowledge, Garden City, NY; Doubleday. 1966.
Delamater, J.D., & Hyde, J.S. "Essentialism vs. Social Constructionism in the Study of Human Sexuality," The Journal of Sex Research, 35, no. 3(1998): 10.
Fuku Noriko. "A woman of parts." Art in America, June, 1997. November 30, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n6_v85/ai_1948
The book, 'Aren't I a Woman?' explores the challenges that women faced in the antebellum America. The author has focused to address the challenges of sexuality and racism that affected many women of this age. The author, Deborah Gray is a Professor at Scott University, who has focused her study in examining the issues of justice and social inequality in society. She is interested in this study as she attempts to explain the challenges of sexuality and racism that has affected the women from minority races in the United States. Her focus is to lead the readers of her work to begin understanding the challenges that women have faced from the antebellum America to the current day. Through a better understanding of these issues, better remedies may be developed to help the affected women in the society. Indeed, without an in-depth understanding of the issues of sexuality, and racism,…
White, Deborah, 1985, Aren't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York:
W.W. Norton and Company. Print
Kubrick himself suggested the baton be passed onto Spielberg due to that director's unique abilities.
The play was originally-based Brian Aldiss's short story "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," on which a.I. is based, in 1983 (Corliss 1-3). In the Kubrick formulation, the world is a lot darker and Gigolo Joe is much more aggressive. According to Corliss in the "Joe was much more aggressive, more twisted." Here he is, in Spielberg's word, David's "scoutmaster." Spielberg did this to solve many of the problems Spielberg had with the text, Joe being one of the biggest problems. By softening things and making them more human and less dark, he provided solution to the problem (Ibid 1). The Flesh Fair and Rouge City are vintage Kubric and remained a part of the body of the work. Garish scenery completes this menagerie Spielberg identifies himself with the abandoned child (ibid 2).
It is the…
Corliss, Richard. Time 17 June 2001: 1-3. Web. 3 Nov 2010.
The above relates directly to the destruction of a prisoner's basic right for respect. Indeed, all rights, basic or not, are removed when the inmate enters the prison system. This is part of the system that destroys the former identity of the prisoner completely. Not only all self-respect, but also all respect from others, are removed from the prisoner. This destruction of respect is used by the prison system in order to keep control over the inmates. The only way in which inmates can the react is to become part of the subcultures, where they can at least earn respect from their fellow inmates, and perhaps regain some sense of self-respect.
Finally, the ideal of hope is also completely destroyed within the prison, and it is directly related to the prison sentence. A person with a life sentence for example, has little hope of release, even on parole. The destruction…
Indeed, the period now spanning the so-called Modern Era and the Industrial Revolution has been dependent upon humanity taming and turning nature to our own ends. This has led to a process whereby we downplay the natural world and of native peoples in general who live in a more harmonious fashion with their surrounding world. hile this process, especially during the Industrial Age, has led to dehumanization process and it has also led to a cheapening of human life in general as well. One can therefore see in New Age approaches to nature (and religion) that there is a hunger to rediscover an intra-natural balance that was lost in the last few centuries. By studying and internalizing these myths and their moral lessons, we can recapture this lost balance. The author compared these other approaches and built upon what we learned in class, especially by comparing and contrasting and them…
Brightman, Robert Alain. (2002). "there was just animals before." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
Ibid. (2002). "they come to be like human." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
If anything, the fact that ordinary civilian students proved capable of such conduct on other civilians, even without the psychological stresses of a wartime combat zone and genuinely hostile prisoners, suggests that the risk of similar abuse in genuine wartime situations is much higher.
In Abu Ghraib, mixed units with different levels of training were operating in a hostile combat zone where they were subject to hostile action (i.e. mortar attacks) by the same forces from whom their prisoners were captured. Whereas at Guantanamo detention facilities guards worked in an environment of 1-to-1 prisoner-to-guard ratio, the Abu Ghraib facility sometimes required working in a 75-to-1 ratio of prisoners-to-guards (DOD, 2004). Zimbardo's study already demonstrated that anonymity is one conditions capable of "... stirring the crucible of human nature in negative directions." The other factors listed by Zimbardo include diffusion of responsibility, dehumanization, peers who model harmful behavior, bystanders who do…
Schlesinger, J. Independent Panel to review D.O.D.
Detention Operations Final Report; U.S. Department of Defense
Aug 24/04 Accessed October 13, 2007, at http://www.prisonexp.org/pdf/SchlesingerReport.pdf
Zimbardo, P. Power Turns Good Soldiers into "Bad Apples."; the New
Although "Midsummer" is a shot work, in keeping with more of the original modernistic style of poetry writing, it is no less poignant in the message it conveys.
In many ways, DH Lawrence is a visionary that offers the reader imagery and creativity that engulfs the reader into the world in which he creates with his words. As with Walcott, it was not necessary for Lawrence to achieve cadence in his writing though the use of rhyme. There is a balance that is struck that clearly reads as poetic. Lawrence's expressive language and use of interesting characters helps to tell the stories of dehumanization that only comes with man's lack of recognition for the power of nature, and moving too fast in directions unknown under the call for modernization.
"If one thinks a poem is coming on… you do make a retreat, a withdrawal into some kind of silence…
Baugh, Edward. Derek Walcott. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
Burnett, Paula. Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.
Eagleton, Terry. The English novel: an introduction. Willey-Blackwell, pp. 258-260, 2005.
King, Bruce. Derek Walcott, a Caribbean life. Oxford: OUP, 2000.
The regime was crazy, as were the times. It was a very difficult thing for the young boy and his family since the regime of Mao constantly went from one extreme to another. Like most people, they were just trying to find their way in the world and probably at a base level could not have cared one way or other about the party or politics except as far as it was necessary to have a decent life and to get ahead. This cultural craziness was followed up later with the Cultural Revolution (ibid, 116). All of this chaos was combined with food shortages, so the quality of life was not good for Liang Heng's family (ibid, 16-17).
It is amazing that Liang Heng is able to keep his humanity. He is told "You're a human being, not an animal. You have the right to be loved" (ibid, 262). This…
Heng, L., & Shapiro, J. (1984). Son of the revolution. New York, NY: Vintage.
Victims Become the Aggressors
The process of dehumanization is one that is repeated quite often in literature. Unfortunately, if we look at the history of mankind, we find that it is part of human behavior that regularly appears -- typically as some type of process in which one group asserts their superiority, whether moral, racial, physical, or all -- over another group. This paradigm of dehumanization occurs in covert and over ways, may be focused on a group of people (religious or ethnic minority) or against behaviors that are considered anti-societal (the disabled, homeless, etc.). Looking at history, one can find numerous examples of this sort of behavior -- the "other" taken to the extreme so that individuals are identified as being inferior, incapable of actualization, or barbaric. Sometimes this is an excuse for colonialism, sometimes for war, sometimes simply to subjugate people for organizational or state interests (Keen).
Biale, D. Power & Powerlessness in Jewish History. New York: Schocken Books, 1986.
Chomsky, N. Middle East Illusions. New York: Rowman and Littlefeld, 2003.
Covarrubias, J. And T. Lannsford, Strategic Interests in the Middle East. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007.
Halwani, R. And T. Kapitan. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Essays on Self-Determination, Terrorism and the One-State Solution. New York: Palgrave MacMaillan, 2008.
Looking at one of Kulkarni's pieces, a Peasant in the City, oil on canvas done sometime in the 1960s, we see a trend in modern Indian art in which the protagonist is featured as a part of an abstract background. Literally, the piece is a snapshot of a man and a beast, at night in a large urban area. The man is downcast, downtrodden, with no discernible ethnicity or age. He is a mixture of gray, and his elongated facial features suggest that he is, or has been, weeping. The single animal by his side could be a dog, a cow, or a representation of simply an "animal." The animal's front leg is extended, ostensibly onto the fence in which the man is leaning. The houses are abstract, made up of geometric lines and some color, designed it seems to indicate that they are lit. The moon is full, but…
Datta, S. (2006). K.S. Kulkarni: Life of Form in Art. Kumargallery. Retrieved from: http://www.kumargallery.com/forthcomingexhibitions/kskulkarni/kskulkarnireview.htm
Krishna Shamrao Kulkarni -- Profile. (2012). Saffronart. Retrieved from: http://www.saffronart.com/artist/artistprofile.aspx?artistid=260&a=Krishna%20Shamrao%20Kulkarni
Vision for Society: A Just Society
The Vision: A Just Society
It is a moral duty for those in immigration department to ensure that immigrants get free English classes to help them promote their own life. In AACA, there are rules that do not allow employees to help immigrants. For instance, reading letters for immigrants who cannot read and understand English is not a responsibility of AACA staff. In this regard, clients end up going back with unsolved problems because AACA staffs are not obliged to assist them. Although such acts do not form part of the organization's duty, helping these immigrants read bills and solve their problems is a moral duty that calls for commonsense. Commonsensical thoughts from Kant's point-of-view begin with the idea that what is good; is a good will. The thought of good will is a noteworthy reasonable decisive factor that Kant employs all through his…
Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline & Punishment. London: Knopf Doubleday Publishing
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed: 30th anniversary edition. London:
Continuum International Publishing Group.
Promised Land/Black Girl
Ousmane Sembene's short story "The Promised Land," which was later adapted into a film called Black Girl, asks its audience to step into the life and subjectivity of a young Senegalese woman working in France, and attempts to demonstrate the isolation and persecution she experiences. The story opens with police arriving at the villa where the main character, Diouana, has killed herself, and immediately the story reveals the distinct divide between the French and Diouana, as nearly everyone calls her "the black woman" (Sembene 85). From this introduction, Sembene returns to Diouana's origins and traces how she went from an excited young woman to a disillusioned and ultimately suicidal servant, and the result is a tragic, though ultimately enlightening look at the ramifications of colonialism and the implicit racism it leaves as a legacy. Even though it was first published in 1974, the story is still relevant…
Sembene, Ousmane. Tribal scars, and other stories. New York: Inscape, 1974.
Exploitation and Hardship in Harvest
The gap in living standards between those in the developed and developing spheres is substantial. And in the context of a global recession, this gap has only grown wider. Globalization has given us over to a concentrated form of socioeconomic exploitation within which wealthy estern nations strip poor Third orld nations of their most precious resources. In this way, the global economy has come to be driven by the systematic deprivation of the Third orld's critical commodities. This arrangement doesn't simply lower living standards and opportunities for those in the poorest parts of the world but also reinforces the notion that the wealthy are simply more entitled to these commodities and resources than are the poor. This arrangement is taken to its most absurd and disturbing ends in the 1997 play Harvest by Manjula Padmanabhan. Centering on the experience of Om, his wife Jaya,…
Gilbert, H. (2001). Postcolonial Plays: An Anthology. Psychology Press.
Gonio, B. (2006). 'Harvest' by Manjula Padmanabhan. TPS Online.
Padmanabhan, M. (2003). Harvest. Aurora Metro Press.
Technology and Film
Almost from its inception, the idea of the relationship between the individual and technology has been part of an evolving paradigm. While this new technology brought entertainment to the masses, technology itself as often the subject of early films which explored the idea of whether technology was a tool for humans to use, or a foreboding tyrant that both dehumanized and attempted to control both the individual and society. The idea of dehumanization by technology was, of course, nothing new and was part of the Marxist view that industry actually prevented humans from actualizing as humans while paying them a wage that resulted in a kind of self-slavery. Technology could both save and awe humans, it could expand boundaries, but it could also warn of impending doom.
In the 1902 film A Trip to the Moon, for instance, space travel was introduced to the public by using…
Andre Malraux's novel, Man's Fate reflects the human realities and costs of war that have been depicted throughout Chinese literature. In his depiction of characters like Ch'en, Ferral, Old Gisor, Kyo and Katov, Malraux gives life to the terrible realities of war that have been seen in humanity as a whole, and are represented in almost any time of war. Ch'en's struggles with the dehumanizing effects of war reflect the struggles of many men throughout history, as Kyo's unfailing patriotism reflects the Moral Law of warfare written over 2,000 years ago in Sun-Tzu's The Art of ar. Similarly, Chinese Poet Tu Fu's "Ballad of the Army Carts" describes the agony of losing loved ones that is seen again within Man's Fate.
In Man's Fate, Malraux expertly exposes human emotions and conflicts that are universal to any time of war. A powerful novel that depicts human loss, difficult decisions, and the…
Malraux, Andre. 1990. Man's Fate. Vintage.
Sun-Tzu. 1990. The Art of War. Vintage.
Tu Fu. Ballard of the Army Carts. Du Fu Poetry (Tu Fu). 25 May 2004. Available at http://www.chinapage.com/poet-e/dufu2e.html
Wikipedia. Andre Malraux. 24 May 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andre_Malraux
Kolchin's Unfree Labor
Kolchin uses primarily "printed primary materials" as his sources -- material that was either printed and published at the time of the events which he chronicles or collected by historians later (377). The fact that these materials are not hard to find and that they exist quite abundantly is what made this possible. Thus, what Kolchin does in his comparative history is to simply "order" the information and make sense of it: he has no difficulty gathering it; on the contrary, putting the pieces together to form a coherent whole or a convincing picture is his goal.
For example, Kolchin utilizes "records left by the masters (and their allies)" as sources as well as other records such as "diaries and reminiscences, plantation and estate records, and correspondence between owners and their administrative subordinates" as he builds his foundation of historical data (377). This is a solid foundation…
Kolchin, Peter. Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom. MA: Harvard
University Press, 1987. Print.
Heroin Impact on Caucasian Family?
A large number of Caucasian families are plagued with the issue of heroin use, mostly consumed via injections. This is a major public health issue. Viral hepatitis, HIV and other dangers associated with heroin dependence, as well as social harm resulting from accompanying poverty and crime, exceed those of almost all other drugs used. A majority of Caucasian households are indirectly as well as directly impacted by the aforementioned diseases.
Increased pureness and decreased drug costs are potential factors contributing to the trend of decreased age of first-time consumption and increased initiation into habitual consumption in the Caucasian population. As heroin dependence can be successfully cured, primary care providers need to check their patients for this problem.
This paper serves two purposes. Firstly, it attempts to study substance abuse's socio-economic effects on Caucasian people. Secondly, depending on this analysis, it attempts to provide recommendations on…
Immigration and the Muslim Population
9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality'," in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions, Ed. Ronald…
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined. Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups (Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, 1995).
Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications. Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: genocide, colonialism, repressive immigration policies and all kinds of discriminatory behavior. This kind of racism is explicit and visible. Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. acism is totally embedded in the social structures…
Hier, Sean E. And Walby, Kevin 2006. "Competing Analytical Paradigms in the Sociological Study of Racism in Canada." Canadian Ethnic Studies. 38(1), p83-104.
La Parra Casado, Daniel and Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo 2007, "Scientifically Correct Racism: Health Studies' Unintended Effects against Minority Groups. 2007." Language & Intercultural Communication. 7(2), p152-162.
Paradies, Yin 2005, "Anti-Racism and Indigenous Australians." Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy. 5(1), p1-28.
"Racism." 2010. Viewed 1 April 2010,
hile not as sexy and "politically correct" as a direct confrontation of homophobia in the military, the author thinks that a pragmatic, gradual expansion of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy is in order. It is probably the best way to preserve the lives of gay servicemen and to protect and expand their rights.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
"Hephaestion." Heritage Key. N.p., 2010. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Pacion, Stanley. " Sparta: An Experiment in State-Fostered Homosexuality." Sex and History. N.p., June 27, 2008. eb. 7 Apr 2010. .
Plutarch. "The Sacred Theban Band." Plutarch's Lives. Ed. J.S. hite. New York:
Biblio and Tannen. 1966. 416.
Bateman, Geoffrey. Don't Ask Don't Tell. London: Lynne Riener Publishers, 2003. 2, 12.
Grener, Richard. "Colonel Redl: The Man Behind the Screen Myth." New York Times 12
October 1985: n. pag. Web. 7 Apr 2010. .
This section has incredible sound editing with the camera bobbing up and down out of the water and the sound going from muffled to vibrant. Spielberg then gets to the beach and goes back and forth between individual shots of one or two men, and then wider shots of the full scope of the battle. This gives the view the sense of the personal and the large-scale event. Hanks' character finally gets to shelter on the beach and the sound goes quiet as he is shell shocked; this technique of low sound and slow motion creates the feeling of disorientation for the audience. Moving up the beach, the camera is hand-held so the shots are tight and shaky with the people cut off at the sides of the frame. This technique makes the action seem more intimate and gives a real sense of what the action was like on the…
Entertainment Weekly, EW.com. (21 January, 1994). Making History. Retrieved from:
Entertainment Weekly, EW.com. (24 July, 1998). Message in a Battle. Retreived from:
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.
The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…
Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A
Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
The different "isms" such as sexism, heterosexism, and racism are creating very real schisms -- in our minds, and between people. The chasms of communication that are created by hatred and misunderstanding are socially constructed. They can be socially deconstructed too. Such rifts occur between groups of people and between whole cultures. In some pockets of the United States, social conservatism threatens to erase the social progress made since the Civil ights movements of the 1960s. There are still people in the United States that believe that homosexuality is unnatural, even immoral. The idea that heterosexual marriage is in some way superior to homosexual marriage is rooted in outmoded religious doctrine and not in positive social progress. Within these "isms" are the chasms of misunderstanding that create social strife and inequality. Income disparity, for example, is closely linked with race as well as gender. Women still get paid less than…
Brennan, D. Selling sex for visas.
Collins, P.C. "Prisons for Our Bodies; Closets for Our Minds." In Black Sexual Politics. New York: Routledge.
Katz, J.N. The Invention of Heterosexuality. University of Chicago.
Lareau, a. Unequal Childhoods: Class, race, and family life. University of California Press.
World War II had a tremendous impact on einhold Niebuhr and his theological thinking. In light of the actions of Hitler and the Japanese, his "Christian ealism" theory forced him to re-examine many of his previous views on the world. Niebuhr severed all socialist connections after Hitler and Stalin signed a non-aggression pact in 1939 and was a staunch supporter of America's entry into the war. He viewed sin as part of the world, felt it was more important to have justice in the world than universal love, felt the pacifist movement was unable to stop sin in the world, and that power could be balanced by power. He criticized the members of the pacifist movement for using intellectual arguments to respond to real threats. He claimed that the pacifist and non-interventionists "…shrouded the conflict in an ambiguity that operatively established a 'moral equivalency' between Nazism and the…
Bains, David R. "Conduits of Faith: Reinhold Niebuhr's Liturgical Thought." Church
History 73.01 (2004): 168. Print.
Berke, Matthew. "Print Edition | First Things." Home | First Things. 03 Mar. 2000. Web
01 Mar. 2011.
They attempt to achieve normalcy at points by allowing Gregor to witness the family interacting through his opened door. Still, he begins to view his family with a detached hostility as they have clearly begun to treat him with shame and revulsion, rather than as a member of the family. Though his sister still attempts to feed him for a time, she can no longer bring herself to address him directly. Likewise, the mounting unhappiness in the family results in a total neglect, where his room is left to descend into filth, underscoring the idea that Gregor himself is, on the basis of his ghastly appearance, filthy and to be cast out.
This would be particularly difficult for the reader to witness, as Gregor undergoes his descent with seemingly little internal reflection. Much as is the case with his life in service to his job, Gregor is driven only by…
Charmaz, K. (1983). Loss of self. A fundamental form of suffering in the chronically ill. Sociology of Health and Illness, 5(2), 168-195.
Kafka, F. (2004). Metamorphosis. Kessenger Publishing.
If they can change the fundamental beliefs of the tribe, then they can control the natives more easily: "The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. e were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart" (Achebe 152). Confronted with change, individual members of Ibo society react differently. Those who stand to gain from change -- the outcasts, the oppressed -- welcome it. Those who have risen to positions of authority by following the old way -- Okonkwo, for example -- resist change. The battle between the old and the new is highlighted by the arrival of Christian missionaries and colonial authority. Okonkwo and Obierika recognize that many of their clansmen…
1. Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Anchor, 1994.
2. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Dover Publications, 1990.
3. Plato. "Apology." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
4. Plato. "Crito." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
The "Halloween" films that continue to be so popular are prime examples, but just about any horror film made within the past three decades follows basically the same formula, they have just gotten increasingly sexual and violent, as society has continued to embrace the genre. There are literally hundreds of other graphic examples, such as "Saw," an extremely violent film that has spawned six other films, and the examples of so many films being released in 2009. These films do not celebrate the woman, they demean her, and the fact that they are celebrated by society is troubling and agonizing at the same time.
Some of the films that empower women into the hero roles include "Terminator 2," the "Alien" series, "Misery," and other films glorify or at least acknowledge the female predator or warrior, offering up a different view of women as successful anti-heroes. However, most of these films…
England, Marcia. "Breached Bodies and Home Invasions: Horrific Representations of the Feminized Body and Home." Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography; Apr2006, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p353-363.
Graser, Marc. "Production Houses Pump Out the Horror." Variety. 2008. 10 March 2009. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117994266.html?categoryid=1019&cs=1&query=horror+films .
Iaccino, James F. Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror: Jungian Archetypes in Horror Films. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Lally, Kevin. "For the Love of the Movies." Film Journal International. 1999. 10 March 2009. http://www.filmjournal.com/filmjournal/esearch/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000692252 .
The fog is actually generated by two painful experiences in Chief's past: first, the fog in his mind is a recurrence of the brain treatments ordered by Nurse Ratched, and secondly, the fog is a direct reference to the actual fog machine of World War II operated by military intelligence in order to obscure what was occurring on the airfield (Lupack 70) as Chief recalls: "Whenever intelligence figured there might be a bombing attack, or if the generals had something secret they wanted to pull -- out of sight, hid so good that even the spies on the base couldn't see what went on -- they fogged the field" (Kesey 116).
Generally speaking, the themes of a particular novel cannot be fully understood outside the social context of the plot. This also largely applies to "One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest" whose plot is set in the 1950s which also…
Kesey, Ken. One flew over the Cuckoo's Nest. Penguin Classics, 2003.
Ferrell, William K. "A Search for Laughter: One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest." Literature and Film as Modern Mythology. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000. 75-85.
Tepa Lupack, Barbara. "Hail to the Chief: One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest." Insanity as Redemption in Contemporary American Fiction: Inmates Running the Asylum. University Press of Florida, 1995. 63-99.
Valentine, Virginia. "Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest." Explicator 41.1 (1982): 58-59.
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
After all, when Marcellus is raped, the audience has witnessed the murder of two college students by Marcellus' hit men, and knows that Marcellus had a former ally thrown off of a roof for an unknown reason. In addition, it is because of Marcellus' orders that Vincent, whom the audience has grown to like, is killed at Butch's house. Marcellus is clearly not a good man, and yet, nothing in the movie suggests that he deserves to be raped by Zed and Maynard. It was significant that Tarantino chose Marcellus, the most criminal person in the movie, as the rape victim. It was even more significant that Tarantino chose Butch, the person with the most motive to see Marcellus injured, as Marcellus' rescuer. ather than dehumanizing people, the violence in the movie humanizes the monstrous Marcellus, both by depicting him as a victim and by showing him getting revenge. By…
Scorsese, Martin. Taxi Driver. Los Angeles: Bill/Phillips, 1976.
Scott, Ridley. Thelma & Louise. Los Angeles: Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer, 1991.
Tarantino, Quentin. Pulp Fiction. Los Angeles: A Band Apart, 1994.
Winner, Michael. Deathwish. Universal City, CA: Dino De Laurentiis Company, 1974.
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…
Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.
Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/
Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
Although no American would have hoped for war, the complete industrialization of formerly fallow aspects of American industry enabled many Americans to become financially independent again, and proved particularly personally empowering for many women, who were encouraged to work outside the home in nontraditional, better paying factory jobs rather than work at home -- or at non-industrial jobs. A return to industrialization and the expansion of technology empowered all workers, and brought dignity and security to the lives of many Americans, dignity that they had not known since before the Great Depression
After the end of orld ar II, one might argue that fear of new technology, in the form of the prospect of the Soviet Union using the atomic bomb against America, allowed for the rise of McCarthyism. However, it is important to remember that fear of the unknown and the alien, in this case, the Soviet Union, is…
Fishman, Charles. "Global fishiness." Excerpt from the Wal-Mart Effect at Salon.com.
23 Jan 2006. 2 May 2007. http://www.salon.com/tech/books/2006/01/23/walmart_effect/
From the New Deal to a New Century: About TVA." TVA Government Website. 2007.
May 2007. http://www.tva.gov/abouttva/history.htm
The Al-Qaeda network which dominated in the surrounding regions of Iraq successfully penetrated into the Iraq, and was bale to develop understanding with the Iraqi militia to continue their joint struggle against the American forces. The efforts and struggle of the Iraq militia against the American forces have no religious justification, it is just that these force is trying to secure the support of the local population for bringing the real Iraqi people into the power. The Al Qaeda network has created differences and conflicts with the American forces on the basis misinterpreted religious teachings, and have tried to justify their authority through abuse of religious knowledge and fundamental. In the case of Iraq we have observed the existence of strong coalition of the local militia with Al-Qaeda network, which has proved every deadly in recent past. The convergence of the religious elements and those who have prejudice against the…
Joseph a. Cancelmo, Isaac Tylim, Joan Hoffenberg, and Hattie Myers. Terrorism and the Psychoanalytic Space: International Perspectives from Ground Zero. New York: Pace University Press. 2003. pp. 175
Susan W. Coates, Jane L. Rosenthal, and Daniel S. Schechter. September 11: Trauma and Human Bonds. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press. 2003. pp. 298
Colin Covington, Paul Williams, Jean Arundale, and Jean Knox. Terrorism and War: Unconscious Dynamics of Political Violence. London: Karnac Books. 2002. pp. 419
Jessia Stern. Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: HarperCollins. 2003. pp. 241
The second signing statement put forth the Bush view that "the new legislation is not enforceable in U.S. courts and that it terminates all pending habeas corpus actions by Guantanamo Bay detainees."
POINT #4: CONCLUSION: MUSEUMS & the PUBLIC'S RIGHT to KNO
Several U.S. military personnel have been convicted and sent to prison for the abuses that took place in Abu Ghraib. But whether or not future museums will allow photos of Abu Ghraib abuses in exhibits remains to be seen. In 1995, when the Smithsonian Institution planned to show an well-illustrated exhibit depicting "the role the atomic bomb played in ending II" (Bernstein, 1995), pressure from 80 members of Congress, the Air Force Association, the American Legion, and others, caused the Smithsonian to reverse plans, according to an article in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. "hy were the a-Bombs used?" was one question the exhibit was originally planning…
Bernstein, Barton J. "Misconceived patriotism: the Smithsonian's critics should have defended
Freedom rather than censorship." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 51.3 (1995): 4-5.
Crook, John. "New U.S. Legislation Prohibits Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment,
Restricts Habeas Corpus Petitions by Guantanamo Detainees, and Establishes Limited
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
Bauman summarises these factors by referring to the methods of scientific and bureaucratic rationality and logic which reached extreme levels during this period in Germany. While on the one hand bureaucratic rationality can be seen as a positive aspect in relation to the ordered development of society, it can also be seen as the underlying cause that led to an atmosphere of moral distancing and irresponsibility.
In respect to the theoretical view of civilization and society espoused by the theorist, the above discussion highlights Bauman's view that sociology as a science has not taken into account the full implications of the rational-scientific worldview. This is evident from his critique of the Webber's model of sociology as a science that follows the rational dictates of modernism. (Bauman, 1988, p. 478) As the author states;
The anxiety can hardly abate in view of the fact that none of the societal…
Bauman Z. 1988, 'Sociology after the Holocaust', The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.
39, No. 4, pp. 469-497.
Bauman Z. 2007, Liquid Times: Living in an Age of Uncertainty, Polity, Cambridge.
Bauman Z. And Ga-ecki L. 2005, The unwinnable war: an interview with Zygmunt
The fact that he commits suicide supports the belief that he is unable to live with his memories in boot camp, given that he was permanently traumatized. The film's general character changes significantly after the sergeant and Pyle die and one can almost say that it turns into a typical war movie from that point on.
The Hurt Locker Although the action in this film revolves around the Iraq ar, it is not actually meant to discuss this conflict. Its main purpose is to have people acknowledge the effect that war has on soldiers and on their failure to integrate society properly consequently to taking part in a conflict. hile the film uses the character of illiam James to exemplify a soldier's experience during warfare, it can be considered to portray sentiments felt by soldiers everywhere. The masses typically see soldiers as fierce warriors capable to make it in any…
Dir. Bigelow, Kathryn. The Hurt Locker. Warner Bros. (Italy), Summit Entertainment/Universal Studios (USA), Optimum Releasing/Lionsgate (UK), 2009.
Dir. Coen Joel & Coen Ethan. No Country for Old Men. Miramax Films, Paramount Vantage, 2007.
Dir. Curtiz, Michael. Casablanca. Warner Bros. 1942.
Dir. Kubrick, Stanley. Full Metal Jacket. Warner Bros. 1987.
images from the university gallery museum. Those works were the Victim, Abolish the Death Penalty, George Jackson Lives, Ruth Snyder, and Lynching. All five works examine how violence has become an institutionalized part of modern American society, so much so that it seems almost commonplace. Taken as a whole, the pieces are powerful, because they serve as a reminder that when violence is institutionalized and permitted, it creates an atmosphere of violence in society. The images also serve as reminders that violence, whether government-sanctioned or individually driven, often targets those in society with the least power. While powerful people are not wholly immune from violence, they are not nearly as likely to be victimized as people in marginalized positions.
The first work I examined is called The Victim. It depicts a skull-head type figure, done in stark blacks with some splashes of red, and it is clear the image in…
The Subjective over the Objective
Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).
Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…
1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.
2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
3. Wilson, E., & Reill, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment. New York, NY: Facts on File.
4. Zafirovski, M. (2011). The Enlightenment and Its Effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer.
Being old, she has spent a lifetime learning the intricacies of life, providing her with priceless wisdom. All this wisdom however has not prevented her from becoming a beggar in her old age. The girls in the picture are just beginning to be admitted into society, whereas society has finished with the old woman in the story, and thus she sits outside and begs where she only receives money from those not living in the vicinity.
This brings me to the connection points between the photo and the story. One important connection is the fact that the setting of the photo is an industrial school. Thus the setting is hardly luxurious. It is therefore easy to connect the rather drab setting of the industrial school with life in the street. The girls' clothing is also far from what one would expect a rich person to wear. There is thus a…
erlin: Symphony of a Metropolis
The Weimar Republic represented a period of tumultuous upheaval for Germany politically and economically, but culturally as well. Following World War I, the public was only beginning to come to terms with the emerging pathologies and conflicts of Modernity and industrialization, and avant-garde art offered a means of approaching these issues apart from, but not outside, both the prevailing political rhetoric of the past as well as the discourse provided by a new generation of political actors and agitators. Walter Ruttman's 1927 film erlin: Symphony of a Metropolis (erlin: Die Sinfonie der Grosstadt in German) is one such piece of avant-garde art, because it attempts to show, over the course of a day, the life of a contemporary city as it blends, sometimes forcefully, the new and old worlds of the early-twentieth century. Examining Ruttman's film in detail will offer important insights into Wiemar-era cultural…
Elder, R. Bruce. Harmony and Dissent: Film and Avant-Garde Art Movements in the Early
Twentieth Century. Ontario: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2008.
Follmer, Moritz. "Suicide and Crisis in Weimar Berlin." Central European History 42, no. 2
Last of the Mohicians
James Fennimore Cooper's The Last of The Mohicans was published in 1826, part of a pentology, but the best known work for contemporary readers. The story takes place in 1757 during the French and Indian War, when France and Great Britain were at odds for dominance of the North American Colonies. During this war, the French made treaties and allied themselves with many Native American tribes to up the balance between the far more numerous British and colonialists. It was written in a popular genre of the time in which historical accuracy came second and numerous inaccuracies in terms of Native culture were simply overlooked, or became part of White popular culture (Peck). Ironically, there is a famous American author who took great pains to deride the material, Mark Twain. Twain found the novel lacking in variety with excessive verbiage, and even suggested that before praising…
Boles, J., ed. A Companion to the American South. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. Print.
Cooper, J.F. The Last of the Mohicans. New York: MacMillan, 1921. Print.
Franklin, W. The New World of James Fenimore Cooper. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Print.
Meacham, J. American Lion. New York: Random House, 2008. Print.
Kafka's Joseph K. goes through a confusing and bizarre experience over the course of the novel, learning more and more about the legal bureaucracy surrounding him without ever actually learning anything about it. In a sense, Joseph K.'s experience mirrors the human experience in any society, because it demonstrates how the justification for legal and political authority is ultimately an illusion; there is no inherent justification for human political power, but rather it depends either on the consent of the governed or coercive force, and both of these actually serve to isolate the individual (Panichas 86).
In the case of the former, consent of the governed, the individual is isolated due to the fact that he or she must give up some agency and power to the state, and thus lose some small bit of individuality. The individual essentially becomes a constituent element of the state, and thus, like the…
Chekhov, Anton. "The Lady with the Lapdog." An Anthology of Russian Literature From
Earliest Writings to Modern Fiction. Ed. Nicholas Rzhevsky. M.E. Sharpe Inc.: New
Chekhov, Anton. "The Man in a Case." Trans. Rosamund Bartlett About Love and Other Stories.
Nature.... General Will
The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal." They didn't go in depth to explain its structure, functions of government in details, etc. These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.
Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…
1. Locke, John, The Second Treatise on Government, ed by Thomas P. Peardon, Indianapolis, In.; The Library of Liberal Arts, 1952
2. Lavine, T.Z From Socrates to Sartre Bantam; Reissue edition, 1985
3. Camus, Albert The Stranger Vintage; Reissue edition, 1989
4. Marx, Karl Communist Manifesto Signet Classics; Reprint edition, 1998
Even though the Gypsies in prewar Germany consisted of a very limited per capita population they received massive amounts of attention from the Regime and were left ripe for further marginalization and destruction.
Though they made up less than 0.1% of the German population (between 20,000 and 30,000), Gypsies, like Jews, received disproportionate attention from the authorities as the various agencies of the state sought to transform Germany into a racially pure society. etween 1934 and the outbreak of World War II, a series of laws and regulations created a web of restrictions that set Gypsies apart and severely restricted their ability, individually and collectively, to survive. In July 1934, a decree forbade intermarriage between Germans and Gypsies. 4 the same year, the law permitting the deportation of aliens was extended to foreign Gypsies. 5 in September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws declared the Gypsies "an alien People" 6 and restricted…
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe,. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Csepeli, Gyorgy, and David Simon. "Construction of Roma Identity in Eastern and Central Europe: Perception and Self-Identification." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30, no. 1 (2004): 129.
Csepeli, Gyrgy, and Antal rkeny. "The Changing Facets of Hungarian Nationalism." Social Research 63, no. 1 (1996): 247-286.
Epstein, Eric Joseph, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of the Holocaust: Biography, Geography, and Terminology. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.
As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…
Andrews, Lori B (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New
World of Reproductive Technology. New York, Henry Holt and Company.
Descartes, Rene. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 2 June. 2004 Retrieved Dec. 22, 2004 at http://www.literature.org/authors/descartes-rene/reason-discourse/
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Although Frederic inslow Taylor may have built his management model on observations of machines, for people working on machines, he also systematically analyzed human behavior at work. He stressed that just as machine parts were easily interchangeable, cheap, and passive, so too should the human parts be the same in the machine model of scientific organizations. In other words, even if one must lose an employee because of personal and cost concerns, the duties and protocols of the office should be sufficiently clear that another human being can fulfill those duties. (ertheim, 1999) This is not a humane-sounding ideology, but the idea of functions rather than people is the key to the ability of any hierarchy to work in modern times, from the military to management of hierarchical corporations.
Then as now, many workers resist the dehumanization of work. To be fair to the father of scientific management, Taylor also…
O'Connor. (1991) "Is Scientific Management Dead?" Unpublished article from Engineering Website retrieved 5 Feb 2005 at http://www.pat-oconnor.co.uk/smdead.htm
Robbins, Stephen P. (2002) Fundamentals of Management. Second Edition. Prentice Hall.
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He even speaks of the petticoat wildly flinging and closely clinging "to thy thighs," evoking the movements of sex and the bodily language of intercourse once again. In the end, this sexualization of language is transformed into words that speak of orgasm and the loss of erection, so often referred to by poets as that "little death" and here labelled as that which is "Drown'd in delights, but could not die" as the speaker grows soft with a passion that did "melt me down" until "I there did lie."
The physicality of these lines might be merely beautiful, as much sexualized love poetry is, had not Herrick's narrated also chosen a wealth of words hinting at the dirtiness of this act, and the fact that it was resisted (in mind) by the woman. " I follow'd still," he says, as Julia walks away from his hungry eyes. The words of…
Without a doubt, the expansionist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan and a direct attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor necessitated the need for America to enter World War II. However, the real question is not whether America should have entered World War II, but could it have prevented it from happening. As the world's new super power following World War I, America should have done more to restore stability to Western Europe, particularly Germany, a country saddled with huge reparation payments. And, the United States could have taken a more active role in the League of Nations to discourage aggression. Instead, America enjoyed the spoils of World War I and became isolationist in response to the Great Depression. Economic and political instability caused by World War I led the rise of fascism. The Nazi goals of reversing the Versailles Treaty and the establishment of a German Empire by…
'World War II." Wikipedia. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II#Home_front (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II.," Available: http://web.uccs.edu/history/student%20presentations/heidi/world_war_two.htm (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II." Wikipedia. Available:
Oddly enough, this passage paints a brighter picture of Nietzsche than popular thought attributes to him. Nietzsche here presents a direct path -- unlike Rousseau -- out of the swamps of nothingness: the path is not necessarily religion, nor is it secularism. Rather, it is a lack of contradiction.
Nietzsche urges each man to evaluate just what he believes and desires and understand for himself whether he wishes to credit God or himself. In other words, Nietzsche calls upon man to answer the age old question: fate or control?
If mankind avoids contradiction here, he is able to pick himself up by the bootstraps and re-instill into his life some of the soul and passion that Rousseau bleakly believes is missing.
In fact, Nietzsche had a great argument with Rousseau's thinking: this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. Nietzsche…