Dementia Essays (Examples)

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Savages in the Film the Savages Jenkins

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31441386


In the film The Savages (Jenkins, 2007) two siblings (Jon and Wendy Savage, the parallel to the Peter Pan characters by the same first name is not hidden) are brought together to care for their aging father who has dementia. Lenny Savage (the father) is the patriarch of the estranged Savage family. Lenny was living in Arizona with his girlfriend, whom we suspect also has dementia, but she abruptly passes away as the film begins. Lenny has had no connection with his children who both live far away on the east coast (Jon in Buffalo; Wendy in New York). Their mother is out of the picture having left their father years before and no one knows where she is. The children, left to their own devices, have grown into isolated, repressed, emotionally-stunted, self-absorbed adults (savages). The film is more about the struggles of the sister and brother to grow…… [Read More]


Alzheimer's Association (2012). .

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

de Boer, M.E., Hertogh, C.M.P.M., Droes, R.M., Riphagen, I.I., Jonker, C., & Eefsting J.A. (2007). Suffering from dementia - the patient's perspective: A review of the literature. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(6), 1021-1039.

Jenkins, T. (2007). (Jenkins, T. Director & Payne, A. Producer) The savages [Film]. United States, This In That Studios.
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Models to Promote Health Behavior and Proposed Project Plan

Words: 2184 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74682590

Health Promotion for End-Stage Dementia

End-Stage Dementia Care

Health Promotion Plan for End-Stage Dementia

Health Promotion Plan for End-Stage Dementia

Globally, an estimated 35.6 million adults are living with dementia, a number expected to double by 2030 and triple by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2014). Most patients with dementia in the United States will die in a nursing home (reviewed by Goodman et al., 2010), which means that these patients sometimes live for years within these institutions. The level of dementia care required can sometimes be quite high as the ability for self-care and effective communication is lost (Puurveen, n.d.). These facts and statistics explain why an estimated $157 to $215 billion is spent each year on dementia care in the U.S. And why there is a need for cost effective and humane dementia care globally; however, some care professionals have questioned the efficacy of the traditional medical model and…… [Read More]


Brownie, S. & Nancarrow, S. (2013). Effects of person-centered care on residents and staff in aged-care facilities: A systematic review. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 1-10.

Barbosa, A., Sousa, L., Nolan, M., & Figueiredo, D. (2014). Effects of person-centered care approaches to dementia care on staff: A systematic review. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias, published online ahead of print 20 Jan. 2014, doi: 10.1177/1533317513520213.

Department of Health, Australian Government. (n.d.). About the Community Health Action Pack. Retrieved 13 Feb. 2014 from

Goodman, C., Evans, C., Wilcock, J., Froggatt, K., Drennan, V., Sampson, E., Blanchard, M., Bissett, M., & Iliffe, S. (2010). End of life care for the community dwelling older people with dementia: An integrated review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25, 329-37.
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Barriers to Utilizing Adult Day Centers and Associated Factors on Alzheimer's Patients

Words: 1446 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63463583


Adult Daycare for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

Barriers to Daycare Utilization:

Fortinsky, Richard H., Kulldorff, Martin, Kleppinger, Alison, and Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa. (2009). Dementia care consultation for family caregivers: ollaborative model linking an Alzheimer's association chapter with primary care physicians. Aging & Mental Health, 13(2), 162-170.

The study by Fortinsky et al. (2009) discusses some of the obstacles standing between family caregivers and the admission of their patients to daycare nursing communities. The purpose of the research is to evaluate strategies that might improve the willingness of family caregivers to work with these community services. In a consultation with 84 family caregivers, the study aims to determine what strategies might raise confidence in the capabilities of such services. Additionally, the study seeks to evaluate the responses of primary caregivers to the outcomes produced by this type of intervention. A third objective of the study would be to determine how successfully…… [Read More]

Cantegreil-Kallen, Inge, Turbelin, Clement, Angel, Pierre, Flahault, Aantoine, and Rigaud, Anne-Sophie. (2006). Dementia management in France: Health care and support services in the community. Dementia, 5(3), 317-326.

As study of community-based Alzheimer's support services in France lends greater insight into the obstacles preventing the optimization of care. According to the study by Cantegreil-Kallen (2006) et al., France provides a state-administered network of community-based services available to individuals suffering from Alzheimer's or dementia related to aging. While this federal oversight provides regulatory consistency and quality control, it may also be impeding the fullest possible effectiveness of community-based service contexts. According to the study in question, "Although GPs acknowledged carers' need for emotional support, only minimal levels of other interventions such as day care (12%) and psychotherapeutic interventions (12%) were prescribed. Reasons for under-use included non-availability and carers' reluctance to undergo psychotherapy. Lack of integrated community care services, insufficient information on services, lack of collaboration between health professionals and the frequent absence of a reliable carer were considered the most important barriers to the effective support of people with dementia in primary health care settings." (p. 317)

This confirms the general observation drawn from the preset research that while there are clear benefits to the employment of any form of daycare, community agencies often lack the resources or protocol to ensure that patients are given the best opportunity for the improvement of faculties as well as the improvement of long-term health outcomes.
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Myra's Case Is Just One Instance of

Words: 1739 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1249250

Myra's case is just one instance of many that a mental health nurse encounters on a regular schedule.

Nursing is best practiced when it follows the intentions of its founder Florence Nightingale who urged that nursing should be a practice that should literally provide for and care for the patient. Nursing, in other words, should be purely patient-centered. This caring extends to all aspects not just to the illness so that one treats the patient in a holistic way, considering all components of the patient such as the family, his or her social needs, hobbies, desires, spiritual inclinations and so forth. When done in this way, nursing extends itself from an automatic, robotic procedure to something that can motivate the nurse and uplift the patient (Watson, 1998). 'Nursing', in other words, extends to caring for the patient as a whole.

An effective nurse will strive to accomplish her best in…… [Read More]


Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.

Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969,

Broe, K et al. (2007) A Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing

Home Residents: A Randomized, Multiple-Dose Study JAGS 55:234 -- 239
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Long-Term Settings and Services

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29834317

Long-Term Settings

The health of the person usually starts declining with every passing day after 65 years of age and as Mrs. Smith is 82 years old, she is also suffering from some problems. She is in mid stage of dementia because of which she suffers from recent memory impairment, hypertension and mental confusion. Due to dementia, she has already been in problems several times. Like, once she left the pan over the stove and also fallen number of times due to syncope. Moreover, she forgets to take her medicines on time. So, she needs an attended that takes care of her medication, diet and exercises and must not be left alone or unattended at home.

In an old age, a person is in need of company more than any medication. Healthy routine and happiness is the best treatment for various diseases. However, Mrs. Smith lives alone at home during…… [Read More]


AHRQ. (n.d.). Choosing Long-term Care. Retrieved from Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality: 

Brodaty, H. (1988). 'Minimal brain damage in the Adult II: Early dementia'. Patient Management, August, 127-150.

Better Health Channel. (2011). Dementia -- Support Services are available. Retrieved from Better Health Channel:

Shea, D.E. & Reilly, M.S. (1999). An Action Plan for Dementia. Dublin 2: National Council on Ageing and Older People.
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Application Process Improvement Models Organizations Systems a

Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45924888

Application Process Improvement Models Organizations Systems

A clinical practice improvement initiative

The strategy of treating patients with dementia must be dependent on a thorough neurological, psychiatric, and general therapeutic assessment of the nature and causes of the cognitive setbacks and related non-cognitive symptoms, in the setting of a strong collaboration with the patient and family. It is crucial to distinguish and treat general medical conditions, notably delirium, that may be answerable for or contribute to dementia symptoms (Ferrara, 2010).

Currently, the organization is embracing the Progressing evaluation strategy. This approach focuses on incorporating occasional monitoring of the advancement and development of cognitive and non-cognitive psychiatric and how they respond to intervention. With the end goal to provide prompt medication, improve patient safety, and provide convenient advice to the patient and family, it is ordinarily fundamental to see patients in routine follow-up at regular intervals. Frequent patient visits such as once…… [Read More]


Baur, C. (2011). Calling the nation to act: Implementing the national action plan to improve health literacy. Nursing Outlook, 59(2), 63-69.

Ferrara, L.R. (2010). Integrating evidence-based practice with educational theory in clinical practice for nurse practitioners: Bridging the theory practice gap. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 24(4), 213-216.

Grant, B., Colello, S., Riehle, M., & Dende, D. (2010). An evaluation of the nursing practice environment and successful change management using the new generation Magnet Model. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(3), 326-331. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01076.x

Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Bonin, J.-P., Lesage, A., Farand, L., Lavigne, G.L., & Trudel, J. (2011). Implementation of diagnosis-related mental health problems: Impact on health care providers. Health Care Manager, 30(1), 30(1): 4-14 (50 ref). doi:10.1097/HCM.0b013e3182078a95
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UTI in Elderly Patients

Words: 1072 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31560520

Nursing Informatics

The scenario described herein is in grounded in geriatric medicine, and utilizes the NANDA, NIC, and NOC elements to link the various components in standardized language to the data, information, knowledge, and wisdom associated with this exercise. The key parts of the paper are as follows: 1) Introduction; 2) nursing diagnosis (NANDA), including actual diagnosis, risk diagnosis, and wellness diagnosis; 3) nursing outcomes classification (NOC); 4) nursing interventions classification (NIC); 5) conclusions.

Case Presentation

The patient is an elderly woman with early stage dementia, who reports her age as 87 years. The patient's family brought her to the clinic because she has been complaining of malaise and refuses to receive help with dressing, both of which are unusual for the patient. Vitals were taken and all are within normal range, except that the patient had a temperature just above 37.9C. Examination revealed that the patient was experiencing suprapubic…… [Read More]

References 4

Beveridge, L.A., Davey, P.G., Philliops, G. & McMurdo, M.E.T. (2011, June). Optimal management of urinary tract infections in older people. Clinical Interventions of Aging, 6, 173 -- 180. . doi: 10.2147/CIA.S13423. PMCID: PMC3131987

Mellen, C.K., Ford, M., & Rindone, J.P. (2010, July). Effect of high-dose cranberry juice on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 70(1), 139-142. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03674.x.

Nicolle, L.E. (2000). Asymptomatic bacteriuria in institutionalized elderly people: evidence and practice. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ),163(3), 285 -- 286.
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Program Budget and Cost Analysis

Words: 4858 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97749747

Program Budget and Cost Analysis

Line-Item Budget for an in-Service Dementia Care Training Program

Florida now requires all direct-care staff working with dementia patients to receive specialized training. The curricula offered must be vetted by the Training Academy of the University of South Florida's Policy Exchange Center on Aging, otherwise assisted living facilities, nursing homes, adult day care, and hospices will be unable to accept patients with dementia into their facilities. In order to meet these statutory requirements and improve patient care, an in-service training program in dementia care will be instituted for a hospice facility located in Florida.

The Hospice House in Cape Coral, Florida maintains 36 beds for patients with terminal illnesses. On average, a little over 60% of the residents suffer from dementia at any one time, which is consistent with national trends (Williams, Hyer, Kelly, Leger-Krall, and Tappen, 2005, p. 98). The number of patients tends…… [Read More]


CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services). (n.d.). Hospice Center. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2012 from

Goyder, Judith, Orrell, Martin, Wenborn, Jennifer, and Spector, Aimee. (2012). Staff training using STAR: A pilot study in UK care homes. International Psychogeriatrics, published online ahead of print, p. 1-10. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2012 from

Hobday, John, V., Savik, Kay, Smith, Stan, and Gaugier, Joseph E. (2010). Feasibility of internet training for care staff of residents with dementia: The CARES® Program. Journal of Gerontology Nursing, 36, 13-21.

Hyer, Kathryn, Molinari, Victor, Kaplan, Mary, and Jones, Sharmalee. (2010). Credentialing dementia training: The Florida experience. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 864-873.
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Dealing With Difficult Patients Translation of Evidence and Best Practice

Words: 3786 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75591008

Difficult Patients

Mitigating isks from Dementia

Providing adequate care for an individual suffering from dementia presents many difficulties for nurses. Patients with dementia often have debilitating conditions such as Alzheimer's or similar neurologic diseases which are progressive, thereby making it challenging for them to remember, think lucidly, communicate effectively or complete activities of daily living. Furthermore, dementia can cause rapid variations in mood or even modify personality and behavior. With the tremendous number of elderly in society more and more nurses are required to care for patients with progressive dementias. It is imperative that a diagnosis be reached early in the course of the cognitive impairment and that the patient is closely monitored for coexisting morbidities. Nurses have a central role in assessment and management of individuals with progressive dementia. This essay provides some evidence-based practical strategies for managing the behavioral problems and communication difficulties often encountered in this population.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aud, M.A., Oliver, D., Bostick, J. And Schwarz, B. 2011. Effectiveness of Social Model Care Units for Dementia. International Nursing Research Congress 2005.

Care, N.D. 2010. Teaching and Learning. Pulse. Winter Edition.

Fletcher, S. And Zimmerman, S. 2010. Trainee and trainer reactions to a scripted dementia care training program in residential care/assisted living settings and nursing homes. Alzheimer's Care. 11(1): 61-70.

Goodman, C. 2011. The organizational culture of nursing staff providing long-term dementia care is related to quality of care. Evidence-Based Nursing. 47:1274-1282.
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Walking as an Intervention for

Words: 2284 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25871799


According to Kane and Houston-Vega, Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and manifests as "an insidious memory impairment, with other possible symptoms including aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and disturbances in executive functioning" (p. 286).

In a highly multicultural society such as characterizes the United Kingdom today, identifying any relevant cultural factors that must be taken into account when formulating walking regimens as proposed herein. For example, Kane and his colleagues report, "There are differing epidemiological rates for dementia among the various ethno-cultural groups. Additionally, there are differing values, beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, coping strategies, and needs related to Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. This is evidenced by an expanding body of literature that describes the effect of mental health concerns, such as dementia, on diverse ethno-cultural groups" (p. 285).

Beyond the challenges to the provision of a cost-effective, community-based walking regimen is the difficulty involved in…… [Read More]


College of Occupational Therapists Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. (2005). College of Occupational Therapists. [Online]. Available: .

Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1998). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Evans, S. & Garner, J. (2004). Talking over the years: A handbook of dynamic psychotherapy with older adults. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Hill, R.D., Thorn, B.L., Bowling, J. & Morrison, a. (2002). Geriatric residential care. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Alzheimer's in a Healthy Community

Words: 2178 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43997315

Alzheimer Healthy Community


Alzheimer's Healthy Community

Dog-Assisted Therapy for Older People with Dementia

A review of nine studies on the subject produced loose conclusions on the value of this type of therapy (Perkins et al., 2008). They, however, established a trend, indicating increased social behavior and decreased agitation when dogs were in the company of the respondents. This improvement in social behavior was unrelated with the severity of the respondents' dementia. Six of the 9 studies were conducted in the U.S.A., 2 in Japan and 1 in Australia on 28 respondents, all with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or dementia (Perkins et al.).

The behavioral and psychological symptoms of this ailment not only cause the afflicted individuals much pain but also put them at risk of physical harm (Perkins et al., 2008). Animal-assisted therapy, on the other hand, has shown positive effects over pro-social behavior and the…… [Read More]


Cevizci, S. et al. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and activities in Alzheimer's Disease.

Chapter 12. "Understanding Alzheimer's Disease," InTech:Canakkale Onsekiz Mart

Hung, J, (2012). A study on the establishment and evaluation of adult day care service centers. Vol. 6 # 5, Global Journal of Business Research: Chao-yang University of Technology.

Iecovich, E. And Biderman, A. (2013). Attendance in adult day care centers of cognitively intact older persons: reasons for use and nonuse. Journal of Applied Gerontology:
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Alzheimer's Disease The Onset as

Words: 3283 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31971086

What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…… [Read More]

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.

Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002

Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
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Articles on Hoarding Behavior in

Words: 1377 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54752183

181). Thus, it seems that a majority of hoarder have some kind of mental or psychiatric issue. The dementia patients who hoarded food were sometimes successfully treated with the drug fluvoxamine 15 Phenyopropanoloamine (Hwang et al., 1998, pg. 287), while most of the elderly received physical assistance in cleaning and/or clearing out the home, but this treatment was not "consistently effective" (Steketee, Frost & Kim, 2001, p. 182). A majority of the elderly hoarders were women, while dementia patients did not show a specific pattern. More than have of the elderly who hoarded lived alone, and had never married (Steketee, Frost & Kim, 2001, p. 182).

Another study in 2001 studied the same problem of hoarding in the elderly, and found some similar results. The study followed 62 cases found through social and service organizations, where the members were 65 or older. Caseworkers were interviewed about their elderly clients, and…… [Read More]


Hwang, Jen-Ping, Tsai, Shih-Jen, Yang, Chen-Hong, Liu, King-Ming, and Limg, Jiing-Feng. (1998). Hoarding behavior in dementia: A preliminary report. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Fall, Vol. 6, Iss. 4, 285-290.

Lovett, R.A. (2004, March/April). Clues to Compulsive Collecting: Separating Useless Junk from Objects of Value. Psychology Today, 37, 29.

Steketee, G., Frost, R.O., & Kim, H. (2001). Hoarding by Elderly People. Health and Social Work, 26(3), 176-185.

Tryba, L. (2002, November/December). Trash Menagerie: The Disturbing World of Animal Hoarders. Psychology Today, 35, 22.
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Improved Screening Tool for Mild Cognitive Impairment

Words: 2086 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47056962

As expected, NIHSS scores indicated mild stroke severity, while the FIM scores suggested moderate motor deficits. A comparison of the demographic variables for the patients that met the inclusion criteria with those that did not, revealed no significant differences except in terms of stroke severity, laterality, and comprehension impairment.

The results of the cognitive evaluations (MMSE vs. MoCA, r = .79, p < .001; MMSE vs. cFIM, r = .56, p < .000; MoCA vs. cFIM, r = .67, p < .000) revealed good agreement between the three instruments (Toglia et al., 2011) and mirrored the results of Stewart et al. (2012). A comparison of the mean scores for MMSE and MoCA, however, revealed a significant difference (24.4 vs. 17.8, respectively, p < .001) in terms of sensitivity to subtle changes in cognition. This finding supports the conclusion that the MoCA may be more sensitive to MCI than the MMSE.…… [Read More]


AHRQ. (2013). Assessing cognitive functioning. in: Evidence-based geriatric nursing protocols for best practice. Retrieved 3 Apr. 2014 from .

Alzheimer's Association. (2012). Mild cognitive impairment. Retrieved 3 Apr. 2014 from .

Alzheimer's Association. (2013). 2013 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 9(2), 1-69. Retrieved 3 Apr. 2014 from .

Aslam, S., Georgiev, H., Mehta, K., & Kumar, a. (2012). Matching research design to clinical research questions. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(1), 49-53.
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Model for Community Palliative Care

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36797784

Community Dementia Care and the Chronic Care Model

nd-Stage Dementia valuation Proposal

Health Promotion Plan for Community nd-Stage Dementia Care: The Chronic Care Model

Health Promotion Plan for Community nd-Stage Dementia Care: The Chronic Care Model.

In 2013 an estimated 5.0 million Americans over the age of 65 suffered from Alzheimer's disease (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Although the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers dementia/Alzheimer's to be the fifth leading cause of death among adults 65-years of age or older, careful examination of Medicare claims data revealed that dementia is probably right behind cardiovascular disease as the second leading cause of death for this age group (Tinetti et al., 2012). Most of these patients would prefer to die at home, not only because of comfort concerns, but due to the higher quality of care that tends to be provided by informal and paid caregivers in this setting (reviewed…… [Read More]

Eloniemi-Sulkava and colleagues (2009) evaluated patients at baseline using the Barthel Index and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) (see Appendix). The Barthel Index (Stone, Ali, Auberleek, Thompsell, & Young, 1994; University of Iowa Healthcare, n.d.) and NPI (Cummings et al., 1994) were administered again at 6 and 12 months into the study and will be used in the current study to track ADL and BPSDs using the same intervals. PQOL will represent a composite score obtained using the Color Analog Scale for pain (Santos & Castanho, 2013) and the Quality at the End of Life Scale (QUAL-E) (National Palliative Care Research Center, 2005) (see Appendix). In cases of severe cognitive impairment, completion of the QUAL-E may depend on family caregivers. FCQOL will be evaluated using the Zarit Burden Scale (Regional Geriatric Program Central, 2014) (see Appendix). The success of the intervention, as perceived by family caregivers and providers, will be assessed using the questionnaires developed by Morita and colleagues (2013). The goal of these questionnaires will be to evaluate how effective the community palliative intervention was in improving the knowledge and skills of palliative care, increasing access to specialized services, coordinating care services, and increasing deaths at home. This evaluation will be performed following the death of the patient or the end of the study period, whichever comes first. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires developed by Morita et al. (2013) have not been evaluated, but should prove informative and provide context for the other findings.


A review of interventions designed to improve the quality of community palliative care has revealed mixed findings, but the trend is in the desired direction of reducing the number of patients dying in hospital wards, ICUs, and hospice facilities. CCM has garnered the interest of researchers interested in improving palliative care outcomes for patients, family caregivers, and providers alike, and have begun to study the efficacy and quality of interventions, including CCM. This proposal provides justification for implementing CCM for end-stage dementia patients residing at home and details an evaluation strategy that can be implemented to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, and quality of the care provided. In contrast to many other studies, however, this proposal places equal value on the experiences of patients, family caregivers, and providers alike, in addition to the more common outcome measures of BPSDs and institutional admissions. The methods of data gathering will involve the review of patient records and several instruments designed
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Healthcare the Exelon Patch and

Words: 1370 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53451640


4. What is the advantage of a "patch"?

Evidently, the drug rivastigmine causes gastrointestinal side effects, but the patch allows only a small amount to be steadily absorbed into the bloodstream and thus creates fewer negative reactions to the drug. The Novartis website makes the case for a patch over a pill by saying "On average, an older American takes 5 prescription medicines. These medicines may need to be taken at different times and managing them all may seem overwhelming" (Novartis, para. 1). In this case, a patch eliminates having to remember several doses each day of one of the medications.

5. What is "moderate" dementia? What is dementia?

Dementia affects brain function. There is no known cure for dementia. It refers to several illnesses (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy or DLB) involving behavior, memory, communication and learning problems. There are other conditions in the brain which damage nerves or blood…… [Read More]


Activa. (2008). Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. Activa Deep Brain Stimulation. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website:

Medications and treatment. (2008). Parkinson's Disease Foundation Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website:

NHS. (2005). Holding Statement. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from website:

NHS. (2007). Final appraisal determination: Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine (review) and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Centre Director Report for Guidance Executive. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Retrieved January 20, 2008 from Website:
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Cognition and Aging

Words: 4217 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31466565

Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process

The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.

Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…… [Read More]

Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?

Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.

PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]
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Care Case Study Slide 1 Footnotes There

Words: 1301 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2580470

Care Case Study

Slide 1 Footnotes

There have been enormous changes due to introduction of various cultural elements in the continuum of care. Before, when people were admitted to assisted living facilities or hospital settings, there were very little cultural elements outside of the majority culture which had sponsored the facility. For example, if a facility was associated with some sort of church or temple, there were elements of that religion present, but there was little alternatives for members of other cultures or religions.

Yet, today, there are now a much wider array of cultural elements available in assisted living homes and hospital facilities. Assisted living programs are regulated on the level of the state.

As such, different states have different types of programs and policies that impact the degree to which cultural characteristics are included or excluded within various assisted living facilities. Some programs encourage cultural elements of patients…… [Read More]


ALFA - Assisted Living Federation of America. (2009). Assisted Living Regulations and Licensing. Retrieved from

Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. (2011). Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy. Retrieved from

National Caregivers Library. (2012). Independent Living Facilities. Retrieved from

Next Step in Care. (2012). Reducing the Stress of Hospitalization for Patients with Dementia and their Family Caregivers: A Guide. Family Caregiver Alliance. Retrieved from
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Notorious for Mistaking Plagiarism for

Words: 818 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64011930

Whenever possible, the relative should be informed regarding the existence and cause of the state of confusion. This is particularly so in the case when relations are asked to be involved in the care of the disturbed patient. The relatives should then be informed why and how their involvement is beneficial and how they may practically assist nurses in calming the agitated individual.

As regards wandering and agitated patients, they need to be carefully and closely watched in order to ensure that they do not wander out of the bounds of the circumscribed domains.

Persuasion and distraction is preferred to restraints or sedation and the relatives of the patient can be involved in helping the nurse deal with the agitated patient. The causes of agitation should be traced and seen to. These may include need for relieving oneself, hunger, or thirst.

Confused speech may also be a mark of the…… [Read More]

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Care of the Elderly The

Words: 2500 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71635903

The emphasis is on normal, everyday activities provided for residents. According to the authors, however, little research has been conducted to investigate the actual effect of such activities and settings upon residents. The assumption is that such settings have a better effect that traditional institutions, but there is little empirical research to support this.

Hence, Verbeek et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare small-scale living with regular care in nursing homes in the Netherlands. Interestingly, they found no significant difference between the quality of life experienced by residents in traditional institutional settings and those in small-scale living facilities. Furthermore, there was also no significant difference in the job satisfaction levels of nursing staff between both types of institution was found. Another important aspect, namely neuropsychiatric symptoms and agitation were also significantly similar for both institution types. According to the authors, a difference was found in the satisfaction level of…… [Read More]


Gaugler, J.E. (2005, Mar.). Family Involvement in Residential Long-Term Care: A Synthesis and Critical Review. Aging and Mental health, Iss. 9, vol. 2. Retrieved from: 

Lyness, J.M., Yu, Q., Tang, W., Tu, X., and Conwell, Y. (2009, Dec.). Risks for Depression Onset in Primary Care Elderly Patients: Potential Targets for Preventive Interventions. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: 

Simonazzi, a. (2009, Jun). Home care and cash transfers. Effects on the elderly care-female employment trade-off. Retrieved from:

Verbeek, H., Zwakhalen, S.M.G., Van Rossum, E., Ambergen, T, Kempen, G.I.J.M., and Hamers, J.P.H. (2010, Nov.). Dementia Care Redesigned: Effects of Small-Scale Living Facilities on Residents, their Family Caregivers, and Staff. American Medical directors Association. Retrieved from:
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Constructing a Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's

Words: 1456 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63595502

Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients

The objective of this study is to construct a health promotion program for Alzheimer's Patients. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is "a form of dementia that interferes with a person's intellectual and social functioning." (NCPAD, 2012) One of the primary concerns for the individual with Alzheimer's is weight loss "due to eating problems such as poor-fitting dentures, problems in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Weight loss or loss of appetite may be caused by noise, odor, and/or conversation distractions while eating." (NCPAD, 2012) Caregivers are faced with many challenges in providing care for the Alzheimer's Patient. Findings in this study state that the primary components required for the health promotion program for the individual with Alzheimer's disease are those of: (1) nutrition; (2) physical activity; (3) mental activity; and (4) social activity and participation.

Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients


The objective of this study…… [Read More]


Adopt a Brain-Healthy Diet (2012) Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from:

Berkman, LF (1995) The Role of Social Relations in Health Promotion. Psychosomatic Medicine. Vo. 57, Issue 3. Retrieved from:

Gillett-Guyonnet, Sophie, et al. (2000) Weight Loss in Alzheimer Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 71 no. 2. Retrieved from:

Growing Stronger -- Strength Training for Older Adults (2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:
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Defilippi and Crismon 2000 Observed

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13880214

Fields such as human interaction are too unpredictable to be manipulated under laboratory settings. Human behavior, too, varies from place to place, and, therefore, results of one study that is conducted in one situation to one specific sample of people may not (and rarely do) have the same carryover effects to a different group of individuals conducted in a different spot or time. In other words, experimental, or quantitative, experiments necessitate that variables be closely matched and more, rather than less, homogenous. Therefore, they are best used in the hard sciences where they more often and most likely show consistent and repetitious results. The field of people is, however, more unpredictable and 'messy'. To that end, therefore, I find qualitative experiments more useful here.

This is particularly so in this specific case where we seek to zone in on difficult patients and seek to understand their motives. The characteristics of…… [Read More]


Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
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Successful Aging What Do You

Words: 3063 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99893583

If anything, such a person may have regrets over having wasted too much of life on impersonal achievements and selfish pursuits.

6. Do you agree that in later life men become more nurturing and women more assertive? What do you think are the findings that could support or challenge that observation?

The observation that men tend to become more nurturing, less competitive, less aggressive, and "gentler" in later life and that women tend to become less emotional and more confident or assertive would seem to be substantially true. That is largely attributable to hormonal changes; specifically, aging males tend to produce much less testosterone and post-menopausal females secrete less estrogen in their later years (Pinker, 2002). Naturally, those hormonal changes would be expected to result in various behavioral changes in areas where human behavior (and gender-specific behavior in particular) are products of the secondary sex hormones (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008;…… [Read More]


Bearon LB. "Successful Aging: What does the 'good life' look like?" Concepts in Gerontology Vol. 1, No. 3, (Summer 1996).

Birren JE. And Schaie KW. (2006). Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. Burlington,

MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Translating Evidence My Innovation Is

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29702378

Alzheimer's Care. 11(2). 83-99

Question Two

The majority of the desired results for my study rest on excellence of the nursing staff. Whereas in normal nursing home environments patients are constantly over stimulated, sleep is disturbed and patients are transferred (Gould, 2010). With regard to dementia patients, all of these nursing-related areas increase the chances of confusion and difficulty with the patient.

Instead, my innovation would be to set up an inn facility where each patient would have consistency above all else. The day staff would keep the patients on a regimented schedule for all meals, bathroom breaks and activities. The room would be decorated with calendars, clocks and other features to help the patient avoid disorientation. The night staff would be limited to only intervening and entering rooms in the event of an emergency to ensure each patient receives proper sleep.

urses would be accountable to log all daily…… [Read More]

Nurses would be accountable to log all daily and evening activities and expected to maintain the schedule of care. Additionally, nurses must document observations of the patient's behavior, both for the better and for the worse. The goal is to determine whether the steady conditions improve the patient's behavior and help the patient avoid outbreaks requiring interventions such as sedatives.

Should a nurse fail to follow the daily routine, their tracking of behavior will aid in determining whether the routine was effective or whether it was simply coincidental behavior.

Gould, E., Cox, T. & Johnson, M.A. (2010). Best practices-dementia care training in nursing homes and assisted living settings. Alzheimer's Care Today. 11(2). 134-138
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Gilman Was a Social Activist and Herself

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15747691

Gilman was a social activist and herself experienced mental illness. These elements infuse her story "The Yellow Wallpaper" with greater meaning and urgency for Feminism and for plight of females then and now.

Gilman as social activist

Gilman advocates for woman. The woman owned by males and disallowed by husband, male physician, and brother from leaving the room becomes mad.

The woman is imprisoned -- locked in. Males stunt and kill her life. In the end she steps over them; Gilman is telling females to do so too.

Gilman's experience with mental illness and its treatment

Description of Gilman's experience

Elaboration of the haunting description of the wallpaper. Gilman's familiarity with the psychosis

E. Typical 19th century views/treatments of mental illness.

Description of contemporary treatment

b. Treatment of the character. It matched social beliefs and was created by males


How this knowledge enhances our understanding of the story and…… [Read More]

Sources Charlotte Perkins Gilman biography

Brainy Quote  Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper
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Nursing Case Study

Words: 1425 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93800722

Nursing Case Study

Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study

The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.

The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.

The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…… [Read More]


1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.

2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.

3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from-

4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
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Alzheimer's Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30276211

In stage five, the affected person will begin to experience "major gaps in memory and deficits in cognitive function" and may require some type of assistance with "day-to-day activities like preparing meals, taking a bath or putting on clothing. The affected person will also lack the ability to recall very simple, ordinary things like his/her address, telephone number or even the name of his/her spouse or close friend and will be unable to recall where they are in a physical setting, such as in a shopping mall or even their own home, and will not be able to recall what day of the week it is or the exact date (2009, "The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's," Internet).

In stage six, the affected person will experience severe cognitive decline in the form of a change in his/her personality and will not be able to "recollect their personal history, such as where…… [Read More]


The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's." Alzheimer's Association. 2009. Internet. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at
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Recommendations for Improvement

Words: 1165 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41467593

Long-Term Care Facility Safety: Prevention and Reduction of Injuries Due to Falls

One out of every three adults ages 65 and older experiences a fall annually however, only about 50% of health care providers discuss falls with these individuals. Falls are the leading cause of injury death in adults 65 years of age and older. More than 19,700 adults died in 2008 form accidental fall injuries and in 2009 out of the 2.2 million nonfatal fall injuries in older adults in excess of 581,000 individuals had to be hospitalized. The direct medical costs were over $19 billion in 2000. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) According to the National Council of Certified Dementia Practitioners, "One of the most challenging, life-threatening issues related to care of the person with cognitive loss is the occurrence of wandering, wherein the person strays into unsafe territories and may be harmed." (2012) It is…… [Read More]


Comprehensive Prevention Program (2012) Premier Inc. Retrieved from:

Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview (2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: 

Koski, K., Luukinen, H., Laippala, P., & Liisa-Kivela, S. (1996). Physiological factors and medications as predictors of injurious falls by elderly people: A prospective population-based study. Age and Ageing, 25: 29-38.

McCarthy, R. Adedekun, C and Fairchild, R. (nd ) Preventing Falls in the Elderly Long-Term Care Facilities. RN Journal. Retrieved from:
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Senior Helpers Began Franchising in 2005 Senior

Words: 1340 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4614422

Senior Helpers began franchising in 2005. Senior Helpers is an in-home care service that is designed to give clients as much or as little help as they require so that they may enjoy living independently at home. Senior Helpers offers flexible and non-contractual services.

The Company provides the following services: assisting clients with everything from companionship to bathing to Alzheimer's and dementia care. Senior Helpers services include an in-home assessment to assist in the determination of the type and level of care needed. Our services are available anytime, including days, nights, weekends, and holidays for either long or short-term duration. Our future plans include developing a new Senior Helpers Facility at 7632 Hull Street Road, Chesterfield, Virginia 23832 by the end of 2012.

The greatest risks associated with our business today are competition and employee turnover. e feel we can overcome these risks because of our franchise support. Our biggest…… [Read More]

Works Cited:


Extracted 08/30/2011


Extracted 08/30/2011
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Personal Letter

Words: 906 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65688223

Personal Statement

It is very clear to me the demands medical school has upon a person's time and character. Though I am well aware that nothing I do beforehand can fully prepare me for the experience of medical school, I have made substantial efforts to build my character as well as prepare my mind and body for the adventure of medical school.

One of the most valuable experiences a person can participate in is to volunteer, which is one reason why I have a variety of volunteer activities. Practicing medicine and being a licensed physician is, for me, a kind of civil service -- an overt dedication to one's community. I do not believe that any person, particularly a person who intends to be a doctor should wait until the formal training commences for the doctor's dedication to the community to begin.

As part of my discipline and preparation for…… [Read More]

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Experimental Design for Hypothetical Research Study Recent

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85852922

Experimental Design for Hypothetial Researh Study

Reent researh has emerged whih suggests that the ingestion of hoolate may lead to improved ognitive funtion within the realm of memorization and retention of information. Establishing a onlusive link between ertain hemial omponents found in hoolate and the improvement of memory funtion would be a signifiant point of progress for medial siene, espeially when the impat of Alzheimer's disease, early-onset dementia and other memory-redution ailments on senior itizens is fully onsidered. By expanding on the work of Jones and Wilson (2011) -- who improved soring on math tests two hours after subjets ate hoolate -- it may be possible to identify the partiular enzymes released during digestion whih serve to alter fundamental aspets of memory. Researh published by Wong, Hideki, Anderson, and Skaarsgard (2009) -- whih suggests that the impat of hoolate on memory improvement ours more frequently for women -- an also…… [Read More]

cited in the Introduction, as the subjects who ingested chocolate before testing showing marked improvements over their baseline scores, while the control group exposed to a placebo chocolate substitute returned results which were nearly identical to their baseline. More specifically, women tested higher than their baseline at each duration interval of chocolate ingestion, and the gains experienced by women were significantly higher (on a statistical basis) than those produced by men. In terms of the previously stated hypothesis, the fact that women were consistently observed to record higher test scores after eating chocolate, and that these improvements consistently outpaced that documented in their male counterparts, would appear to suggest a biological basis for the discrepancy. Additional research must be performed from a molecular analysis standpoint to determine if a link between naturally occurring enzymes in chocolate and hormones like estrogen and progesterone which occur predominately in women. The conclusion to be drawn from this experiment is that chocolate contains a particular chemical capable of interacting with the brain on a biological level to stimulate improved cognitive function relating to memory and retention of information. Furthermore, this phenomenon has been observed to occur more frequently and more powerfully in women, suggesting that a component of female biology such as certain hormones may be producing an exaggerated effect. The null hypothesis stated prior to the experiment has been rejected, as chocolate appears to offer genuine benefits for those seeking to improve their ability to memorize facts and retain information.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of

Words: 2054 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14834415

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and isk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans

According to Yaffe et al. (2010), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric syndrome linked to increased mortality and morbidity rates. This condition is among the most prevalent amid veterans returning from combat. Among veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder is estimated to be about 17% (Seal et al., 2009). Veterans returning from Vietnam have a twenty to thirty percent rate. Past studies have confirmed that PTSD is linked to increased health care consumption and an augmented danger of developing a variety of other medical conditions among veterans such as dementia. The risk factors that link PTSD to increased rates of dementia include head injuries, depression or medical comorbidities.

This work highlights the findings of the study carried out by Yaffe et al. (2010). The project specifically focuses on the conclusions…… [Read More]


Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Deurenberg, R. (2009). A practical guide to Pubmed/Druk 1/ING. London: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.

Gerrish, K., & Lacy, A. (2013). The research process in nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Glasziou, P.G., Mar, C.D. & Salisbury, J. (2009). Evidence-Based Practice Workbook. John Wiley & Sons.
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Alzheimer's Disease Has Developed Into a Major

Words: 2636 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4635387

Alzheimer's disease has developed into a major health concern for the elderly population throughout the world. This degenerative brain disorder was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907. Today Alzheimer's is one of the most prevalent forms of brain disorders contributing to as much as 50 to 70% of all reported cases of dementia. Over the years the study of early onset Alzheimer's disease (pre-senile AD) has kind of overshadowed the study of late onset Alzheimer in elderly group. However the disease statistics indicate an increasing susceptibility of the older population. Approximately 5% of the population above 65 years of age and around 20% of the people above 85 years of age are affected by Alzheimer's disease. Hence what was previously ignored as an inevitable old age symptom (senile dementia) is now being properly recognized as an illness. This new perspective of AD has resulted in a drastically altered understanding…… [Read More]


Simon Lovestone and Martin Dunitz, " Early diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer's

Disease," Published by Martin Dunitz Ltd., 1998

Gerry Bennett and DR Mark Jones, "The Alzheimer's Handbook," Vermilion

Publishers, 2001
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Dlb and Patient KM

Words: 2028 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18937120

medication for patient named KM is Prothiaden. Prothiaden is used to treat depression as well as limit the feelings of anxiety in those taking it. The case file indicates a normal MI and no previous diagnosis of neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. Patient KM has complained of depression and anxiety related to the passing of her mother. Progressive functional and cognitive decline has presented ever since mother died four years ago.

Although the patient worked until the age of 60 as an accountant, within the last 18 months patient has experienced fluctuations in mood, confusion, mild word finding difficulties and spatial disorientation. She also has visual hallucinations and violent dreams. She experienced recent falls and a slowing of motor skills. These symptoms extend to the inability to carry out motor sequences with either hand or double alternating hand movements. Although she can detect shapes well, she has poor ability in…… [Read More]


Armstrong, M., Litvan, I., Lang, A., Bak, T., Bhatia, K., Borroni, B., Boxer, A., Dickson, D., Grossman, M., Hallett, M., Josephs, K., Kertesz, A., Lee, S., Miller, B., Reich, S., Riley, D., Tolosa, E., Troster, A., Vidailhet, M. and Weiner, W. (2013). Criteria for the diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration. Neurology, 80(5), pp.496-503.

Ballard, C., Jacoby, R., Del Ser, T., Khan, M., Munoz, D., Holmes, C., Nagy, Z. and Perry, E. (2004). Neuropathological Substrates of Psychiatric Symptoms in Prospectively Studied Patients With Autopsy-Confirmed Dementia With Lewy Bodies: American Journal of Psychiatry: Vol 161, No 5. American Journal of Psychiatry, [online] 161(5), p.843. Available at: [Accessed 19 Sep. 2015].

Burke, A., Yaari, R., Tariot, P., Dougherty, J., Fleisher, A. and Brand, H. (2012). The Shadow People. The Primary Care Companion For CNS Disorders.

Ciro, C., Hershey, L. and Garrison, D. (2013). Enhanced Task-Oriented Training in a Person With Dementia With Lewy Bodies. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(5), pp.556-563.
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The Appropriate Approach to Treating Alzheimer S

Words: 2616 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61076604

Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation

Understanding Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation

Caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's Dementia have massive responsibilities that come to them in the form of demands. These responsibilities are sometimes overwhelming and make them wear out and even experience burnout in some instances. These responsibilities present them with limited alternatives over their situations (DeSanto-Madeya & Fawcett, 2009). When burnouts occur, caregivers find challenges when administering their duties and sustaining their psychological and physical health. The experiences they undergo are always demanding, calling for many of them to consider alternative measures of offering their caregiver services to the patients with Alzheimer's Dementia. Burnout begins with stress developed within the normative working conditions of the caregivers. Stress takes effect upon the health, relationship, and even the families of persons involved. It is imperative for the caregivers to have some time where they take rest and resort to simple avenues that will assist them…… [Read More]


Cowen, P. S., & Moorhead, S. (2014). Current Issues in Nursing. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

DeSanto-Madeya, S., & Fawcett, J. (2009). Toward Understanding and Measuring Adaptation Level in the Context of the Roy Adaptation Model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22(4), 355-359.

Fawcett, J., & Garity, J. (2009). Chapter 6: Evaluation of middle-range theories. Evaluating Research for Evidence-Based Nursing. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F. A. Davis.

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2013). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Saunders.
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Alzheimer's Disease Currently Affects More Than Four

Words: 2553 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61380087

Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.

For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…… [Read More]


Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,

Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),

Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.

Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,
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Nursing Research Critique Provision of Acute Nursing

Words: 821 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70560215

Nursing esearch Critique

Provision of acute nursing care is impacted by complex needs of hospitalized patients suffering from dementia. Despite of the gains that have been made in the realms of medical care, older adults have had to contend with progressive cognitive decline, functional decline, and challenging behaviors that impact the quality of their lives. Quality of life of patients suffering from dementia is further eroded by suboptimal healthcare. Elderly patients suffering from dementia are at risk group because the healthcare providers lack understanding of the etiology of the cognitive impairment and misrepresentation of the condition (Joosse, Palmer & Lang, 2013).

The purpose for carrying out the research is explicitly stated. The research seeks to address the challenges in providing care to hospitalized patients suffering dementia and delirium superimposed on dementia. The research also seeks to outline nursing assessments, problem identification, and interventions for dementia and delirium that can promote…… [Read More]

References List

Joosse, L.L., Palmer, D. & Lang, N.M. (2013). Caring for the Elderly Patients with Dementia:

Nursing Interventions. Nursing: Nursing Research Reviews, 3, 107-117.
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Parkinson's Disease a Brief Description of Parkinson's

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82724099

Parkinson's Disease

A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."

In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).

The Cause…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W. & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain,

Second Edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Echo Valley Council Case Report Mr William

Words: 2684 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42156989

Echo Valley Council

Case eport: Mr. William Doe

Director, Community Options Program

Case Manager

Proposed Interventions and Treatment Plan for Mr. William Doe

Like other developed Western nations, the elderly in Australia are confronted with numerous challenges to living independently as they grow older, including coping with age-related diseases processes such as dementia and obstructive airways disease as well as adjusting to the loss of a spouse. This case report provides a discussion concerning the application of the overarching and practice functions of the case management model described within the organisational and community contexts. A reflective discussion concerning the proposed approach to practice that focuses on decisions and reasons for practice, the effectiveness of the proposed practice and alternative approaches, skills or techniques that may be required to provide appropriate levels of care for Mr. William Doe who is described further below.

eview and Discussion

Overview of Client: "Mr. William…… [Read More]


Calver, J., Holman, C.D. & Lewin, G. (2004, January 1). A preliminary casemix classification system for home and community care clients in Western Australia. Australian Health

Review, 27(2), 27-33.

Cameron, M., Chahine, N. & Selig, S. (2008, August). A pilot program of physical activity promotion among clients receiving home and community care. Australian Health Review,

32(3), 439-449.
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Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of

Words: 2424 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98066769

Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of Dementia

With an aging population, issues related to cognitive abilities and impairment, including dementia, are increasing in relevance to public health officials. Being able to delay the negative results of dementia can contribute to increased quality of life for a number of aging individuals and their families. At present, many health care professionals view dementia as a condition that will deteriorate over time and do not view it as something that can be effectively stalled or reversed (Hodges & Graham, 1999). Many of the programs available for individuals dealing with cognitive deterioration or dementia are designed to provide for their safety and contentedness, but do not focus much on improving or maintaining cognitive abilities. Furthermore, the emphasis of many day programs is on providing a safe place for individuals so that their caregivers can have the much-needed respite in their care routines. Caregivers…… [Read More]


Banks, M.R., & Banks, W.A. (2002). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 57(7), M428-M432.

Barker, S. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49, 797-801.

Breuil, V., De Rotrou, J., Forette, F., et al. (1994). Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 211-217.

Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Bown, D., Gage, S., Bybee, D., Roberts, S.J, Goldstein, R.S., Robinson, A., Rankow, E.J., & White, J. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventative screening behaviours among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 591-597.
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Brain Structures Systems Are Affected in

Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31587043

Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)

The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…… [Read More]


Aarsland, D. Laake, K. Larsen, J.P. & Janvin, C. (2002) Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 72 (6), 708-712.

Cools, R. Barker, R.A. Sahakian, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (December 2001) Enhanced or Impaired Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Dopaminergic Medication and Task Demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11 (12), 1136-1143.

Drapier, D. Peron, J. Leray, E. Sauleau, P. Biseul, I. Drapier, S. Le Jeune, F. Travers, D. Bourguignon, a. Haegelen, C. Millet, B. & Verin, M. (September 2008) Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates. Neuropsychologia 46 (11), 2796-2801.

Dubois, B. Pillon, B. (November 1996) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Nuerology. 244 (1), 2-8.
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Comprehensive Analysis of Memory and Forgetting

Words: 27179 Length: 100 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93076981

Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis

Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.

No substantive cure for memory loss.

Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.

Different types of memory loss:





The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.

Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.

There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness

Background music



Daily behavioral changes

The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness

Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis

Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory

F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.

G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities

II.…… [Read More]


Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].

Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.

Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9

Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
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Treating a Disorder

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57294834

disorders discussed in the text was the frontotemporal dementia. This is an interesting disorder in that it can affect three different areas. This neurological disorder presents itself through "three clincal subtypes that present with either changes in behavior (behavior variant FTD (bvFTD)) or changes in language (semantic dementia (SD)) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA)) (Rascovsky, Hodges, Knopman, Mendez, Kramer, 2011; Gorno- Tempini, Hillis, eintraub, Kertesz, Mendez, 2011). Patients who develop FTD usually do so in their 50's or 60's and the signs displayed depend on what subtype the disorder takes.

Until recently, FTD was considered a relatively rare disorder but according to the text it now is considered prevalent in 40-60% of neurological disorders. According to the website created by Alzheimer Organization "there is no single test - or any combination of tests - that can conclusively diagnose frontotemporal dementia" (Frontotemporal Dementia, 2013). Rather than tests, FTD is more a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ethical Principles (2014) accessed on Mar 10, 2014 at the American Psychology Association website:

Frontotemporal Dementia (2011) accessed on March 9, 2014 at the Alzheimer Organization's website: 

Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Hillis, A.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; (2011)

Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology, Vol. 76, pp.
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Psychological Religious Development of a 70 Yr Women

Words: 2567 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46118517

Interview of 70-year-Old oman

Psychological and Religious Development

This paper represents the results of an interview with a seventy-year-old Caucasian woman named Elma Rose. Research includes her personal background, life experiences and crossroads as well as her beliefs concerning marriage, family and lifestyle.

Elma Rose was born April 13, 1934 in the small Appalachian town of Abingdon in the northwestern corner of Virginia. The youngest of eight children, she now has one surviving sister. Elma Rose has been widowed twice and currently lives alone. She has four children, ten grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren. Her parents were devout Catholics of middle class status who instilled an appreciation of education in their children. However, as Elma Rose explains, this did not mean that she and her siblings all graduated from college or even from high school for that matter. In fact only two brothers graduated from college, while three, two sisters and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Ellison, Christopher G; Boardman, Jason D; Williams, David R; Jackson,

James S. "Religious involvement, stress, and mental health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit area study." Social Forces. September 01, 2001.

Paloutzian, Raymond F. "The psychology of religion." Annual Review of Psychology. January 01, 2003.

Genia, Vicky. "Religious Issues in Secularly-Based Psychotherapy."
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Grumpier Old Men This Movie

Words: 2869 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22009818

Not only that, the results of eating badly is harmful. Holland and Barrett magazine reports: "If your diet isn't as balanced as you'd hope for, there's a chance you could be missing out on L. Trytophan - an important amino acid that plays a vital role in the production of brain chemicals." If one's diet is lacking it, the safest way to get this supplement is in the form of 5-HTP - a natural compound that the body produces from L-Trytophan. 5-HTP is believed to help the body produce serotonin, a chemical that regulates mood, sleep and other brain-related functions. (Pearce, 1999)

In aging people who seem to have no appetite, there actually may be a sensory dysfunction, which keeps that person from enjoying food and other things that are sensed through taste and smell. Susan S. Schiffman, Ph.D. pointed out that in the elderly these senses are not entirely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Dementia.

Davis, Alison. "Stress -- it might be even worse than you think," a Summary of the Conference "Biology of Stress" co-sponsored by the OBSSR and NIGMS, April 12, 2006.

Huang, Cindy S., et al. "Common Molecular Pathways Mediate Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Excitation and Slow Synaptic Inhibition." Cell (Journal), Volume 123, Issue 1, 7 October 2005, Pages 105-118.

Pearce, Gillian. Depression Antidotes Newsletter. Thu, 15 Jul 1999-18:35:21 -0400.
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Alvez Et Al What Surprised

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11353755

This is then followed by a discussion and recommendations for future study. The findings offers hope that there could be prevention measures to drastically reduce the likelihood of developing dementia symptoms when health factors are emphasized while risk factors are reduced. This has implications for the drive towards healthy aging that has become an increasing concern in society today.

One potential shortcoming of the article is its nature as a review article. There is therefore a specific lack of practical study to confirm the findings presented by the literature. Nevertheless, the research is highly valuable in terms of creating a premise for future studies of this kind, where practical information can be gathered to confirm the literature outcomes. Ultimately, the article could be the basis of many effective measures to prevent the burden that dementia has become for individuals with the condition and those who are obliged to care for…… [Read More]

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Comparing Cognitive Changes

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83662529

Cognitive Changes

As people age, there are three main types of cognitive changes that can impair or alter cognitive functioning: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. All of these syndromes are more severe than the normal decline that is expected with aging, though they do not all reach the severity of dementia. Dementia refers to the "the loss of cognitive functioning- thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavior abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities" (NIH, 2013). While there are some similarities between these three conditions, there are also significant differences between the three syndromes. These differences can impact treatment options and also help predict impact on the patient and the family.

MCI is an intermediate stage, which features a more significant cognitive decline than that expected with normal aging, but is not as severe as full-blown dementia. "It can involve problems…… [Read More]


Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, August 21). Mild Cognitive Impairment. Retrieved October 21, 2013

from Mayo Clinic website:

National Institutes on Health. (2013, October 17). Alzheimer's Fact Sheet. Retrieved October

21, 2013 from the National Institute on Aging website:
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Genetic Counseling

Words: 2111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630310

Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.

The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.

Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…… [Read More]


Brickell, K., Steinbart, E., Rumbaugh, M., Payami, H., Schellenberg, G., Deerlin, V. V.,... Bird, T. (2006). Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol, 63(9), 1307-11.

Campion, D., Dumanchin, C., Hannequin, D., Dubois, B., Belliard, S., Puel, M.,... Frebourg, T. (1999). Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J. Hum Genet, 65(3), 664-70.

CDC. (2015, March 3). Genetic Counselling. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services:

Goldman, J. S., MS, M., Hahn, S. E., Catania, J. W., Larusse-Eckert, S., Butson, M. B.,... Bird, T. (2011). Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: Joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genet Med, 13(6), 597 -- 605.
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Health Maintenance Organization Impact on

Words: 13949 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80930377

" (AAF, nd)

The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)

One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]

Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians

Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at:

Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at:
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Sandwich Generation Caregiving and Alzheimer's

Words: 3114 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88702489

A driver came to the house and picked Robert up five days a week at 7:30 and brought him home at around 4:00 P.M. The couple received a grant from United ay to fund the service they received from the Respite Center, which cost around $200 per week. The Respite Center had well-thought-out activities designed for seniors with dementia and Alzheimer's, and those activities "helped slow down his Alzheimer's" (Claunch). Those activities include arts and crafts, chair aerobics, games, socializing, breakfast, lunch and a snack, Claunch explains. On many days a special visitor or group comes to entertain the seniors; among those groups are the Gulf Coast omen's Club, the Garden Club, PAS Ministry, gospel groups, line dancers, pianists and sing-along singers.

hen an Alzheimer's patient is stimulated (by being entertained, walking, or engaging in a game of some kind that challenges the mind but does in minimally) the nerve…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Assist Guide Information Services. (2009). Caregiving. Retrieved November 10, 2009,


Claunch, Shannon. (2009). Council on Aging: Respite Center Cares for Community.

News Herald. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from
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Sketch the Client That I Spoke With

Words: 2141 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2620611


The client that I spoke with is an 84-year-old woman named Rose. She is Caucasian, 5'2" tall, with blonde hair, blue eyes, well-maintained skin, and hair, and she is dressed in clean, expensive classic attire. Rose looks approximately 10 years younger than her physical age, and there is enough smoothness to her skin to suggest that she may have undergone some type of plastic surgery or cosmetic procedure, however there is nothing overtly fake in her looks. She looks moderately wealthy, and one would automatically assume that she is a member of the upper-middle socio-economic class, though her home size and location actually suggest that she is firmly middle class. Her physical appearance and dress reveal other details about her. For example, she is overtly Christian, and consistently wears a gold cross necklace.

Rose was born in Peachtree Georgia, which is where she spent the majority of her childhood.…… [Read More]

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Feeding Tubes at the End

Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63541816

The quality of life was another issue addressed in research of the use of feeding tubes with patients who have dementia (Finucane, 2001).

obert MCCann, MD reports that the everyday imagery of food and its pleasant addition to life cannot be ignored in the discussion of removing natural nutrition and using a feeding tube.

McCann reminds the medical community that the image of a family gathered around the Thanksgiving table, interacting and nurturing each other through the meal presents an entirely different image than an elderly person suffering from dementia alone in a bed in a nursing home with a tube inserted into their stomach. The imagery of food and its measurable impact on a person's life must be accurately envisioned for the decision to be made according to McCann (Finucane, 2001).

McCann studied Hospice cancer patients who were in the end stage of life. According to his research it…… [Read More]


Funicane, Thomas (2001) a Review of the Evidence the American Geriatric Society.

Lebovitz, Lubert, a. Habot (2003) Attitudes of Relatives and Nursing Staff Toward Tube feeding in the Severely Dementia Patients. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias.

Ersek, Mary PhD RN (2003) Artificial Nutrition and Hydration. The Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing.
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Christian Counseling

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62497196

Mr. H


Mr. H case study

What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?

Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.

Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…… [Read More]


Alzheimer's disease: Treatment and drugs. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:

Diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. (2013). BehaveNet. Retrieved from:
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Security Consulting Firm

Words: 3345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26764992

Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure

Advanced Pathophysiology

egents Online Degree Program

Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure

Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.

M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…… [Read More]


Ahern J, Kruger DF, Gatcomb P, Petit W, Tamborlane W.,(1989). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): the trial coordinators perspective. Diabetes Educ 15:236 -- 281

Bassilios N, Launay-Vacher V, Khoury N, et al. (2001) Gabapentin neurotoxicity in a chronic haemodialysis patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant.

Blum RA, Comstock TJ, Sica DA, et al.(1994). Pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in subjects with various degrees of renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther;56(2):154-159

Brawek B, Loffler M, Dooley DJ, Weyerbrock A, Feuerstein TJ.(2008) Differential modulation of K (+)-evoked (3)H-neurotransmitter release from human neocortex by gabapentin and pregabalin. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol.:376(5):301-307
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The Nursing Field Is Evolving as Helpful Technologies Are Embraced

Words: 4845 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32311244

Nursing Informatics / Annotated Bibliography & Brief Critique

Harris, R., Bennett, J., and Ross. F. (2013). Leadership and innovation in nursing seen through a historical lens. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(7. 1629-1638.

Aim of the Article and Main Findings

There was a time when technology was a distant vision in the minds of healthcare professionals, but the values that emerged from nurses nearly a hundred years ago are values that should be alive and well today notwithstanding all the wonderful tools that the healthcare field has today. This peer-reviewed article looks into the past to see how (qualitatively) nurses in the UK responded to the leadership style of Dame / Matron Muriel Powell between the years 1920-1980, well before today's nurses are empowered with the advanced technologies and communication standards of today. The point of the research is to review interviews that were conducted with nurses that worked and trained…… [Read More]

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NFL Retirement Benefits Issues and

Words: 2086 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16664641


Furthermore, EISA issues aside, according to Linda Sanchez (D-California), "It concerns me when those who work hazardous jobs don't get the care they deserve, whether a coal miner, tire factory worker or football player... " referring to the questionnaire distributed to the NFLPA requesting medical data pertaining to their retirees, she said, "I look forward to timely responses to our questions so we can determine what steps might be necessary that those who made football great aren't neglected."13

AP, 2007

Carpenter, 2007


Professional football is, by all accounts, a violent sport whose participants frequently suffer significant physical injuries on the playing field. Because of the nature, frequency, and intensity of the collisions inherent to the game, especially at the professional level, the effects of football injuries often persist long after retirement. Most insidious are the cumulative effects of repeated cerebral concussions, only recently identified as a specific injury…… [Read More]


Associated Press. 10/24/07 NFL Adds $10 Million to Medical Fund, Latest Step in Dispute Concerning Retirees and Pensions. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from CBSonline at

Associated Press. 5/31/07-35 NFL Players Qualify for Dementia-Alzheimer's Assistance Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from FoxNews Web site, at,2933,276617,00.html

Carpenter, L. 10/13/07 Congress Presses NFL, Union on Benefits. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, from at 

Conrad, M. (1999) Sportslaw History: The John Mackey case. Retrieved, November 3, 2007, at