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The author of The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815 is historian Marshall Smelser. In this text, author Smelser covers a decade and a half of American history. This book describes the administrations of both President Thomas Jefferson and nearly the entire administration of President James Madison. It also covers all major historical events of the era in ways that are easily accessible, even to those who are not well-educated in American history. Marshall Smelser focuses both the actual historical events themselves, but also in how these historical events related to the creation and implementation of diplomacy between the United States and other countries.
Many historians and authors of historical texts are guilty of being, at the very least, subconsciously biased in favor or against the object of their writing. More often than not, these biases are quite obvious. However, most historians do not admit that they have these biases, if…
Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815. New York: Harper & Row. 1968.
Unilateral administrative acts are the imposition of the will of the administration upon the people of administrative law that has been "developed by doctrinal writings" (Zongwe, utedi and Phebe, 2007) and which fall into two primary categories:
1) The first is related to unilateral administrative acts "defined in the terms of the procedure for adopting, and the administrative bodies or officials performing these acts (classification formelle);
2) The second involves unilateral administrative acts defined by their contents (classification materielle). (Zongwe, utedi and Phebe, 2007)
ilateral administrative acts are "contracts which the administrative bodies may conclude" and are contracts both private and public in nature. (Zongwe, utedi and Phebe, 2007) The administrative body in private contracts is stated to be "but a private person in a commercial transaction." (Zongwe, utedi and Phebe, 2007) Disputes of these contracts are mediated by ordinary courts however disputes involving public contracts results in the…
Zongwe, Dunia; Butedi, Francois; and Clement, Phebe (2007) The Legal System and Research of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): An Overview. GlobaLex 2007. Online available at http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/Democratic_Republic_Congo.htm#_Toc182803280
Democratic Republic of the Congo (2007) Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor 6 Mar 2007. U.S. Department of State. Online available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78728.htm
Media sustainability Index 2006-2007 - Democratic Republic of Congo. Online available at http://www.irex.org/programs/MSI_Africa/2007/MSI07_drc.pdf
An Aspect of the Legal System
Today's world does not have many examples of absolutist monarchies left in the world (Bhutan and Nepal were good example, but recent political changes in these countries no longer qualify them for inclusion), but historically France is probably the best example to fit as an absolutist monarchy.
Representative democracy is a political system in which the people elect individuals to represent their interests in the decision making process at a state level. In a pure democracy, usually going back to ancient Athens, was a form of consultative democracy in which every member of the society participated in the political meetings and decision making process. With the growth of population that sort of democracy was obviously no longer functional, turning it into a representative democracy.
In the United States, the electing constituencies and districts are formed by a small number of individuals who reside in a certain area and have specific…
Challenges to Democratic Development in Africa
The political life in Africa has largely been characterized by poor governance and an inherently poor democratic record. This has in most cases led to not only political disillusionment, but also despair – effectively stifling the continent’s economic advancement. In effect, the challenges facing the continent as far as democratic development is concerned stem from political misrule coupled with the adverse effects of imposed westernization, as well as globalization and resource exploitation. As a consequence, the continent continues to suffer demobilization on the political front which has effectively led to economic decapitation. Millions of the continent’s inhabitants continue to be afflicted by disease and poverty, and illiteracy levels continue to be high in most countries. This text assesses and evaluates challenges to democratic development in Africa in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Democracy, as per its dictionary definition, has got…
The Democratic Party did not win another presidential election until 1913 when Woodwork Wilson was elected due to a split vote between Republican conservative candidate, William Howard Taft and Republican progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt.
The New Freedom "was the slogan of Woodrow Wilson who came into presidential office on the platform of promising reform on a liberal basis. Specifically, through an extension of Federal regulations of banking and industry. Further reform through setting up the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Trade Commission as well as strengthening antitrust statutes on the part of Wilson. Much needed reforms to legislation of welfare was attended by Wilson. Wilson's first Administration demonstrated breaking of connections to the old tradition of Democratic laissez faire.
The Republican Party:
The Republican Party united once again nominated Rutherford . Hayes in 1876. Although the Democratic candidate, Samuel Tilden, was said to have won by popular votes, the…
Historical Eras [Online] available at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/eras.html#reform
The United States Encyclopedia of History (1967) Vol. 6 Curtis Publishing Company Philadelphia - New York
Democratic and Republic Parties
In the same way, the Democratic party's 2000 platform is related to improving life for all Americans. The education policy seems very similar to that of the Republicans - to improve education and thus the future for young Americans. In its 2004 platform document, the Democratic party fiercely criticizes the Republican war effort and the strain that this has placed upon civil rights, emphasizing the Democratic aim to create and maintain equal rights for all.
The United tates is currently in a crisis of its own making. Civil rights are destroyed in favor of a war that few can endorse at this stage. Time alone will tell whether either party has enough strength or integrity to terminate injustice not abroad, but also at home.
Democratic National Convention Committee, Inc. "The 2004 Democratic National Platform for America." 2004.
Democratic Platform 2000." http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/dye4/medialib/docs/dplat2000.htm
Republican Party. "2004 Republican Party Platform."…
Democratic National Convention Committee, Inc. "The 2004 Democratic National Platform for America." 2004.
Democratic Platform 2000." http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/dye4/medialib/docs/dplat2000.htm
Republican Party. "2004 Republican Party Platform." 2004. www.gop.com/media/2004platform.pdf
After the initial frustration of the reparations crisis subsided in 1923, cooler heads prevailed for a time and the Weimar Republic started to address its immediate economic problems. The Weimar solved the fiscal crisis by replacing the devalued and disreputable rentenmark with a new currency, the reischmark. (146) The Dawes Plan eased reparations anxiety by bringing in American bankers to loan Germany hard currency to support the reischmark while overseeing the payment of reparations in reischmarks. (146)
Structurally, the Weimar government encouraged free trade and sought to restore Germany's historic trade surplus by favoring the production of goods for export, which eased unemployment greatly. (149) Germany's economic recovery was also aided by loans from investors in the United States, which underwent an extended boom throughout the 1920s owing partly to the economic gains it made during Germany's wartime absence from world trade. (158) By 1929, Germany had made enough economic…
Considering the enormous challenges facing it, it is somewhat of a miracle that the Weimar Republic endured for as long as it did. However, it is not so puzzling if one recognizes that during the Weimar period, the political situation tended to reflect the economic conditions. In this sense, it is not hard to imagine a stable moderate-left coalition emerging after five more years of economic prosperity. However, considering the fragile economic foundations and persistent political threats, the Weimar had a very small margin for error, a margin exceeded for it by the Great Depression.
Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.
" (United Nations, 2000) The Household udget Survey 1996/1997 reported that in excess of 14.5 of households in Mauritius are presently living below the poverty line and economic development has been stalled due to the "…rising cost of labor erosion of the protected international markets due to gradual effects of globalization and liberalization and increasing competition with other countries…" (United Nations, 2000)
The distribution aspect of income and wealth has not been addressed in a sufficient manner by the liberal economic policies that rely on the market. Unemployment has increased in recent years and this has been "accompanied by inflation that has contributed to a loss of purchasing power, especially affecting women." (United Nations, 2000)
There is a failure to meet the needs of very low income housing and creating further tensions in Mauritius are challenges related to employment equality of access and disparity in education which is stated to…
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) (2000) Mauritius. November 2000.
Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education (2002) The World Bank. Online available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/Constructing_Knowledge_Societies.pdf
Gokhool, Dharambeer (2008) 1148th Session of the International Conference on Education (Unesco) 25-28thNovember 2008,Geneva Comprehensive Approaches In Early Childhood Education: The Mauritian Experience.
Gokhool, D. Hon. (2008) Address given Certificate Award Ceremony for Training of Trainers' Course in Healthy Eating and Food Safety. 28 Apr 208, Paul O. Wiehe Auditorium, Reduit.
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…
Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,
1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
Dear Mr. President.
Your historic win to become the President of the United States is an event that has altered our view of national policy for each of us here within the borders of our nation and it immediately alters the course of our existing foreign policies which may directly or indirectly affect every man woman and child on the planet. We are here to suggest that your foreign policy analysis must be considered to be interdisciplinary because it will draw from a variety of theoretical approaches. Usually, public pundits have added emphasis on presidential leadership as key components of United States foreign policy so it is critical that you understand what else is needed to have, create and implement a successful foreign policy process.
The success of your policies, your cabinet and all associated policy makers will require an implementation of various underlying theories towards…
Elliot, John. (2000). "How Clinton Created A New Love Affair." New Statesman. 04/03/2000, Vol. 129, Issue 4480, p30, 1p
Badertscher, Eric. (2005). "George Washington." George Washington; edited by Sara Ann McGill. P 1-4, 4p.
Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.html
Stein, Janice Gross. (2008). "Foreign Policy Decision-Making: Rational, Psychological, And Neurological Models." Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199215294/smith_ch06.pdf
International Peace Conference
The purpose of this work is to examine the First International Peace Conference and identify the background, or what led to the meeting of delegations, the factors, actors and what was as stake. Further to explore the decisions and interactions that took place as well as the outcomes of the conference. Finally to evaluate the outcome and examine what might have been done differently as well as how the effect of a different outcome may have demonstrated itself historically.
The spring and summer of 1899 was witness to the gathering of twenty-six nations of the world for the First International Peace Conference which was held at the "House in the Woods" at The Hague by generous offer of The Netherlands Queen, Wilhemenia. Although the gathering failed to effectively address disarmament the adoption of other important agreements and conventions paved the way for collective efforts to follow.
Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at: http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?bitusud=ABQ7578-0169-53
Mahan, Captain A.T. "The Peace Conference and the Moral Aspect of War. The North American Review 515 (Oct. 1899) 439-440. Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin?ntisid=ABQ7578-0169-38
Paterson, T. et.al. (2000) "American Foreign Relations" V.1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 239
Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.educgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0169-53
The text deals at length and often with a great variety of matters which bear on the human condition, but there are matters which would certainly have no place in a modern treatise on politics"
Therefore, it is rather hard to determine the extent to which Plato used this means of communication, the dialogues, to point out to the actual necessities of the society he lived in and the aspects that needed changes. In particular, the arguments he provides from the realities of the time are provided by Plato to merely support his own line of thought related to the philosophical ideas on happiness and justice.
An aspect that firmly relates to the way in which the "Republic" is constructed and that uses the arguments on the ideal state is related to the role the state may have in providing its citizens (here, the term "citizen" must be understood as…
Benjamin Jowett, trans. The Republic by Plato. (2003-2012) Online version at http://www.literaturepage.com/read/therepublic.htm
Berstein, Serge, and Pierre Milza. Histoire de l'Europe. (Paris: Hatier, 1994)
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. (Paris: Ellipses, 1998)
Dunleavy, Patrick, and Brendan O'Leary. Theories of the state. The Politics of Liberal Democracy. (London and New York: Macmillan and Meredith, 1987)
United States singled a shining democratic governance;, U.S. system governance immune criticism. Scholar One of the critiques of democracy discussed within the articles for this assignment is greatly associated with the role that private property and wealth plays in democratic societies. Specifically, within Santas' "Plato's criticism of democracies in The epublic," the author alludes to the fact that the influence of these two external aspects of government -- the private property and wealth of the individual chosen to govern in a democracy -- has the innate potential to corrupt and to subject the needs of the masses who are governed to those of the individuals who are governing.
There is a great possibility that the author is correct regarding this point of criticism. One of the points of validity for this notion is the fact that it is found in literature and is one of the chief points of disparagement…
Beard, C.A. (1993). "Framing the Constitution." American Government: Readings and Cases. New York: Harper Collins.
Gilley, B. (2009). "Is democracy possible?." Journal of Democracy. 20 (1), 113-125.
Ranney, A., Kendall, W. (1951). "Democracy: confusion and agreement."
Santas, G. (2007). "Plato's criticisms of democracy in The Republic." Social Policy & Political Foundation. 70-89. 4, 430-439.
The issue of justice is also very closely related to that of morality. In the epublic, morality is again a function of the class division dictated by soul dominance. With every individual's place in society rigidly defined, social interaction were also defined. There would be a prescribed way of dealing with someone lese based on which class each member was, and since most immoral behavior has some form of jealousy at its root, the ideal state has carefully removed all such temptations to jealousy. The reason for the ascetic life of the philosopher-kings and warriors is so the commoners see the way of life that the rulers lead and are turned off by it; being ruled by desire and seeing nothing in that way of life to desire, they would cease even to desire power. For Plato, it would have been immoral for someone not equipped to rule to attempt…
Andreev, D. (2008). "The Soviet college student in the first half of the 1920s." Russian Education and Society, vol. 50, no 6, June 2008, pp. 77-90.
Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. (1918). Hosted on the Marxists Internet Archive. Accessed 6 December 2008. http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/constitution/1918/index.htm
Plato. The Republic. Richard Sterling and William Scott, trans. New York: Sterling, 1985.
Ross, K. (2004). "Plato's Republic." Friesian.com. Accessed on 6 December 2008. http://www.friesian.com/plato.htm
While this is not yet true for the United tates, might the country be dangerously close? If one could return to the events on 9/11, is it not possible that the diminished freedoms brought about by legislation such as the Patriot Act and its successor almost smack of tyranny? These are important questions to consider if the much-mentioned American "way of life" is to be preserved. Tyranny is far from desirable, and governments would do well to consider its dangers as these might relate to democracy.
The answer to this question is therefore dangerously close to yes, if certain paradigms are not curbed and warnings not heeded. While I do not fully agree with Aristotle's placement of democracy in the sequence so far away from the ideal tate, it is nonetheless important to consider specific governmental paradigms. Citizens should take great care when choosing their rulers. Many believe that the…
Plato. (2000). The Republic: Book VIII. Retrieved from the Internet Classics Archive: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.9.viii.html
Plato's "Republic" -- Justice, Myth, Education
Many of the rhetorical terms used by Socrates in Plato's "Republic" might be misleading to a casual observer from contemporary American society. It is important to go over the definitions of justice, myths, and education of children, as they are used within this text, so a reader is neither confused nor mislead as to the basic tenets of this great, but autocratic Greek philosopher's core beliefs about the stratified nature of an ideal society that mirrored the human soul.
Although the title of the text refers to a "Republic," and a republican form of government as exists within our own nation is representative and has many democratic elements and institutions to support its frameworks, such as the electoral process (for better or for worse), Plato intended his work to be a critique of democratic Athenian society and institutions. He believed that it was most…
Plato's The Republic
Throughout the book, the ideas of Plato and his peers center on the social conditions of an ideal republic, which lead each person to the perfect possible life. Socrates, who was Plato's mentor, acts as a moderator during Plato's discussions, presenting a series of questions and topics that contribute to Plato's ideas of a perfect society. At the beginning of The Republic, Plato asks the fundamental question of what is justice? This becomes one of the key issues of the book, along with Plato's ideas about forms.
Socrates had just attended a festival and was returning to Athens when he met Polemarchos on the road. Polemarchos insisted that Socrates join him at his home to meet his family and friends. The group began a conversation about justice. Polemarchos said that justice was giving back what is owed. Socrates argued that if he returned a weapon to a…
Justice in Plato's ideal "Republic"
Plato defines justice as an individual fulfilling his or her own vocational or personal purpose in life, rather than as a state upholding a principle of justice and enabling individuals to live and function in a fair and free manner. For instance, Plato believes that someone who is destined to be a good cobbler should be a cobbler, even if that cobbler may wish to run for higher office and not mend shoes. Instead, the leaders of a just state should decide what that person is most suited to do in life, and insure that he or she performs that function.
Likewise, a potential philosopher-king should not have to design or mend shoes, and thus a cobbler should not be forced to have the responsibilities of governance. A person's form or nature of character follows their vocational function and place in Plato's ideal state. The…
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
In What Ways is The Republic Still Relevant Today?
The Republic is Plato's best known work and gives and account of Socrates as he tackles several of some of the most intellectually important topics that humanity has known. This book has not only survived the test of time, but it is one of the world's most influential books that has ever been written. The book starts by giving an argument that deals with the nature of justice that sets the foundation for the rest of the topics and the assumptions about what an ideal relationship with the state might be from a variety of different perspectives. For example, Socrates argues that one should be just for their own self-interest, which is also presented as the means to organizing society. There are ten books in the series however and a wide range of different topics are covered -- everything…
Birth of a Repulic 1763-89: The Chicago History of American Civilization (Revised Edition) y Edmund S. Morgan. The University of Chicago Press, 1977, 202 pp. Edited y: Daniel J. Boorstin.
The delayed results of the Presidential elections of 2000 also known as the "Florida Fiasco" raised several questions. Two among them: What were the differences etween a democracy and repulic? Which of the two (democracy or repulic) was the United States of America? Cries of "the will of the people" eing denied were heard loud and often. Some pundits suggested that since Mr. Gore had won the popular vote, the constitution might e amended to accommodate the "democratic aspect" of the government. Fortunately (and not for political reasons) the sanctity of the constitution was preserved.
Edmund Morgan, Professor Emeritus at Yale University, had already answered all the aove questions in his eminently readale "The Birth of a Repulic." The ook…
bibliography of sources used; and, all of them treat each chapter of the book in great detail. True. But then, Edmund Morgan also does his readers a disservice. He teases. He leaves the reader dangling. He challenges the reader to seek out his sources. If he were thus successful, the reader would be disappointed on finding the sources lacking Morgan's narrative brilliance. His enormous abilities could serve to provide a little bit more information to the reader.
Two examples are salient. These are instances that most people have heard of, and no doubt would like to learn more about. The famous Boston Tea Party incident merits only a, "The people of Boston and the surrounding towns took up the challenge and on the night of December 6, 1773, unloaded the tea themselves -- into the harbor." (p. 58). To be fair, Morgan does provide a background to events leading to this incident. But a detailed discussion would have been better. Similarly, consider one of the more famous (and significant) battles in the War of Independence -- the battle of Bunker Hill. Once again, all Morgan can offer is, "In the Battle of Bunker Hill, as it was called, the British showed a courage that wiped out the stain of their hurried retreat from Concorde two months ago." (p. 69) A few books have been written about these incidents. One would expect a little more detail from Morgan about these events in the grander scheme of the revolution.
To its intended audience, "The Birth of a Republic" is perhaps one of the best books available. It presents, a nutshell two American struggles: A struggle for freedom; and, the struggle to create a nation borne out of principles that would stand the test of time.
It would likely also require the diplomatic alignment of the U.S. with United Nations interests, which has traditionally not been a guarantee. This would combine with the established potential of counter-terrorist cells to strike on U.S. soil to place unprecedented emphasis on securing U.S. borders from entities clearly designated as enemies of the U.S. Such an enemy list that includes a nuclear power such as North Korea could therefore pose grave consequences for the U.S. And for the entire world.
The history of North Korea's nuclear program has frequently been shrouded in secrecy, sheltered from the IAEA and denounced by the United Nations Security Council. With the announcement of the arrival of the nation as a nuclear power, there is little for North Korea to shield from the rest of the world beyond the tenuous nature of its political machine. It remains to be seen if North Korea can maintain…
Globalsecurity.org. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Nuclear Weapons Program.
McDonald, Mark. "North Korea Suggests Libya Should Have Kept Nuclear Program"
New York Times (New York), March 24, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/25/world/asia/25korea.html
consultancy firm expertise international business challenges issues. You present analysis a business report. Your report focus identification discursive analysis main issues include conclusions recommendations.
isk analysis: Australia vs. Colombia and the Democratic epublic of Congo
New taxes are always worrisome, and the Australian government's recent decision to pass a 30% tax on profits from iron ore and coal have left many investors scurrying in search of other investment opportunities in alternate countries with lower tax rates and labor costs (Scott 2011). However, simply looking at a balance sheet to determine average tax rates and wages is only a small component of deciding whether a country is a worthwhile investment. With this caveat in mind, it must be cautioned that the proposed decision to shift resources to investing in the coal mining sector in Colombia and the iron ore sector in the Democratic epublic of Congo is neither viable nor cheaper…
Janda, Michael. (2013). Trade deficit falls on iron ore, coal recovery. CNN. Retrieved:
[14 Apr 2013]
Scott, Jason. 2012. Australia Passes 30% Tax on Iron-Ore, Coal Mining Profits. Businessweek.
Conflict in DC (Case Study)
Conflict in DC
Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo
Background of DC Conflict
The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.
DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.
Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration
Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.vday.org/drcongo/background
Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic
Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc.htm
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
U.S. Justice System vs. India's Justice System
This paper compares the system of justice in India with the system of justice in the United States. Although they are both democracies -- in fact India is the biggest democratic country in the world -- the two countries are quite different in their approach to formal justice. Moreover, the system of justice in India has been the subject of a great deal of criticism in recent years due to the corruption that has been found in the system.
Comparing the U.S. And Indian Justice Systems
The legal system in India is backed by the Indian Constitution and is a mix of "adversarial and accusatorial," according to the Loyola University in Chicago (LU). There is an attempt to respect both Hindu and Muslim jurisprudence and to "preserve the timeworn tenets of both" (LU). In rural areas of India, an informal system of justice…
Bhushan, Prashant. (2009). 'My Honest And Bonafide Perception.' Outlook India. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://www.outlookindia.com .
Country Listing. (1995). India: The Criminal Justice System. Center for Children's Law and Policy. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from http://www.country-data.com.
Global Corruption Report 2007: Corruption in Judicial Systems. (2007). New York: Cambridge
Loyola Library. (2010). Criminal Justice System in India. Retrieved September 14, 2012,
As nations move away from a bureaucratic approached to building government t monoliths, the course of political leaders has been termed "creating a more responsive government." Responsive government is a reaction against the long lines, and red tape which has typically stereotyped inflexible government behaviors. Responsive government must become a reality in a world in which citizens have instant access to information and influence which in the past was open to only a select few. Responsive government is an systemic approach which must be addressed by all types of governments, whether democratic, socialist, or modern hybrid.
Robert Dahl (2000) says that a paradox often exists in the execution of government services. Although a majority of citizens in most democratic countries may view participating in political life as neither urgent nor rewarding, overwhelming majorities of citizens do value the rights and opportunities their democratic system of government provides to…
Fuller, Linda. SOCIALISM AND THE TRANSITION IN EAST AND CENTRAL EUROPE: The Homogeneity Paradigm, Class, and Economic Inefficiency Annual Review of Sociology, 2000
Sassoon, Donald "Socialism in the twentieth century:an historical reflection" published in Journal of Political Ideologies (2000), 5(1), 17-34
Linda Fuller "The Socialist Labour Process, the Working Class, and Revolution in the German Democratic Republic" published in Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 50,No. 3, 1998, 469-492
It is true that the West became more suspicious when the soviets began installing puppet governments in neighboring nations. Going back to the annals of history, Yugoslavia is one such country where the Soviets installed a puppet government. When Yugoslavia was pressured by the German Nazi government in 1941, she formed an alliance with the Axis of Powers. However, the Yugoslav military formed resistance armies. This is when the Partisans organized by Josip Broz Tito came into perspective. The Partisans overthrew the pro-German government. Tito's government was the puppet of the Soviet considering the fact that he was a very close ally of the Soviet. Germany later invaded Yugoslavia and took over power.
In 1943, the Partisans with assistance from United States and other allies freed Belgrade and established communist rule there. These developments coupled with the division of Germany into German Federal Republic and the German Democratic…
Conservatives and socialists splitted society and failed to create a functioning coalition. After years of authoritarian monarchic control, proportional system of election led society to political chaos, as nearly 20 parties with different political programs from communist to right radicals were represented in eichstag. None of country's politicians was successful either in diplomacy or in the art of achieving compromise. The experience of political pluralism led to political and economical disorientation in society, as in a period of 1919-1933 Germany witnessed several temporary coalitions in parliament and twelve governments, which were unable to stabilize country's economy.
Haffner describes that political crisis was a common attribute of Weimar republic's pluralism: "From 1914 to 1923 all governments had been weak" German parliamentarians of Weimar republic faced a common problem of all young political parties. Being one of the most popular parties in the country with wide support in society and even being…
Gay, Peter Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider W.W. Norton & Company 2001
Haffner, Sebastian Defying Hitler: A Memoir Picador 2003
Eyck, Erich History of the Weimar Republic Macmillan Pub Co 1970
Formerly known as Zaire, the Democratic Republic of Congo gained its independence from Belgium in June of 1960. Education standards have risen since the nation became independent, but political strife and an ongoing civil war continue to plague the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is actually run as a dictatorship. Since 1998, civil war has caused poverty, disenfranchisement, and a general low standard of living. Hardest hit are the women in society, who have traditionally been subordinated to their male counterparts. Although suffrage is universal and women maintain certain political and economic rights, women are still viewed and treated as secondary citizens. One of the most notable manifestations of the gender gap is in the educational system. In the total population, 77.3% of people over the age of 15 are literate in one of the major languages (French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba), but only 67.7% of females over the age…
The Republic of urundi is a small country in central equitorial Africa facing many challenges including a growing population of individuals with AIDS and an ongoing problem with tribal warfare. With an inflation rate of over 12% and the constant upheaval from internal turbulence, urundi faces many challenges as it attempts trade with the rest of the world.
urundi's population was about 6 million people in 2003 (CIA, 2003), with a high death rate due to AIDS and infant mortality. One population factor affecting urundi's economy is that nearly 50% of the population is 14 years old or under (CIA, 2003). The birth rate is markedly high at nearly 40 per 1,000 population (CIA, 2003). The death rate is just under 18 per 1,000, giving a rapid growth in the number of children. Partly because of AIDS, which over 8% of the adults have, life expectancy is about 43…
CIA. 2003. "Burundi," in World Fact Book, last updated Dec. 18. Accessed via the Internet 2/23/05. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/by.html
Clark, David. 1998. "Interdependent Urbanization in an Urban World: An Historical Overview." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 164.
Ngaruko, Floribert, and Nkurunziza, Janvier D. 2000. "An Economic Interpretation of Conflict in Burundi
Journal of African Economies, Vol. 9.
Spanish and American Democracy
The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in 1776 by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe. Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for 201 years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in 1975 when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the 1970s that are also said to mark the transition as well.
The philosophical foundations of the…
Conversi, Daniele. (2002) 'The smooth transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the nationalities question', National Identities, vol. 4, no 3, pp. 223 -- 244
Crapol, Edward P. (1992). "Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Diplomatic History 16: 573 -- 97
Fry, Joseph A. (1996) "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65:277 -- 303.
Higginbotham, Don. (1983) The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763 -- 1789.
5% unemployment figure, 7.6% inflation ratio, and $4.5 trillion in debt, Guatemala is forced to rely on external factors to survive.
National exports are coffee, sugar, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, meat, apparel, petroleum, electricity and the 9/11 events in the United States have severely impacted tourist trade.
Venezuela is a federal republic with over 24 million citizens, 67% of which live in poverty and 14% are unemployed.
The GDP is made up primarily of services with petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, and agricultural products composing the primary exports. Tourism is impacted negatively by the events of terrorism and the typical 587,000 visitors each year has dwindled considerably.
ECLAC's annual calendar reflects multiple meetings, lectures, educational workshops, conferences, seminars, and training sessions. Nowhere is there found a work initiative, a concerted on-site initiative or focused fund raiser, or any effort of measurable practicality.
According to the…
Altimir, Oscar & Sourrouille, Juan. Measuring Levels of Living in Latin America -- an Overview of Main Problems. The World Bank -- Working Paper no. 3. World Bank. Washington, D.C. 1980. Benson Collection. HC 59.7 a 47, 1980 LAC. (6)
Altimir, Oscar. The Extent of Poverty in Latin America. World Bank Staff Working Papers - Number 522. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. March 1982. (4-6)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique & Faletto, Enzo. Depend ncia e Desenvolvimento na America Latina. Zahar Editores. Sao Paulo, 1970-73. Benson Collection HC 125 C3413 LAC. (1-3)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. Dependency Revisited. Institute of Latin American Studies - the University of Texas at Austin. Austin, 1973. Benson Collection HC 125 C34162 LAC. (1)
learn how the law works by memorizing a set of rules or theorems. A misconception lies in the commonly asked question, "What is the law?" -- since it presupposes that it's all laid out somewhere on great stone tablets. The truth is that the answer often is, "It depends." As you'll soon discover the legal system basically is a method of applying abstract rules or social policy to concrete situations. To comprehend its workings, you have to get involved in the process -- it's a little like learning to swim in that you've got to jump in and splash around a bit. It's not an unpleasant sensation, but it may seem little strange until you get used to it and learn to keep your head above water. You'll discover it's a bit like peeling an onion in that as you strip away one layer of complexity you find another one…
Carter, L.H. (1979) Reason in Law.
New York: Little Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
New York: Little Brown & Co.
Mill believes that it is impossible to be a great scientist, without having some feeling and sensitivity about the human condition given by the humanities, and someone learning the classics must understand the functioning of the modern world, to give what he or she is learning some significance.
How do the ideas on education of Locke, Jefferson and Mill relate to one another and to the importance of education for a democratic society such as our own?
Mill's stress upon holistic knowledge is essential for a citizen in a democracy -- today, a citizen must vote an elected official into office who can deal with the scientific complexities of global warming and healthcare, and can comprehend the intricacies of foreign cultures. To judge the knowledge base of our elected officials, citizens must also have a well-rounded basis of knowledge. That is why Thomas Jefferson believed so fervently in the need…
establishment of the People's Democratic Republic in China in the late 1940's, the Chinese Communist Party actively re-engineered society to curb birthrates and bring the country's population down to manageable levels. Part of this idea was a process that would re-imagine the family, a concept first found in the work of Plato. However, this invention of an 'ideal family' as being a paradigmatic national goal of social reformers that has its origins in British Malthusianism and gave birth to the practice of eugenics in the United States. It complemented a long tradition of periodic moral reforms and religious revivals that have existed in the United States since the Great Awakening.
The modern American concept of 'family values' owes its existence to the progressives of the late 19th century, whose principal manifestation was in organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Society for the Prevention of Vice. The…
Labin, Suzanne. The Anthill The Human Condition in Communist China. Praeger, 1960
Robb, George. The Way of All Flesh: Degeneration, Eugenics, and the Gospel of Free Love. University of Texas Press, 1996.
Smith, Christopher J. China: People and Places in the Land of One Billion. Westview Press, 1991
This news story has a positive impression of Oxfam works.
Analysis.- Oxfam has a record of 60 years in increasing worldwide public understanding of economic and social justice as crucial elements to sustainable development. Its 12 confederates are located in their respective regions and undertaking international goals and policies according to the requirements of the regions. The confederates work with poor people so that their lives may be improved and they may govern their own lives. Oxfam struggles to influence governments and powerful people in a straightforward manner without infringing upon their sovereignty. And it joins hands with all people for the universal good through open and popular campaigning, alliance building and media work in arriving at earnest and workable solutions to global poverty, to motivate as many people as possible to actively participate in the movement for change and to create a sense of global citizenship. Oxfam's work method…
Courier Mail, the. Oxfam Unveils New Sense of Giving. Queensland Newspapers, May 12, 2005. http://www.thecouriermailnews.com.au/printpage
Nabi, Rashed un. Oxfam's Fair Trade Report: Rigged Rules and Double Standard. Holiday Editorials. Holiday Publications Ltd., 2005. http://www.weeklyholiday.net/190702/edit.html
Oxfam International. Who We Are, 2002. http://www.oxfam.org/eng /about_who.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.
Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany
etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.
. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…
Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last
updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667 .
Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty
That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
One of the pending cases involved a dispute between France and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Like the dispute with Belgium, this involved France's attempt to hold one of the Congo's ministers responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity. France sought to compel the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to appear as a witness, which the Congo claimed was a violation of its sovereignty.
nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Certain Criminal Proceedings in France (Republic of the Congo v. France). Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice
Web site: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=1&code=cof&case=129&k=d2
nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Judge Kenneth Keith. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice.
Web site: http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&p2=2&p3=1&judge=157
nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice.
Web site: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=4&k=5a&case=131&code=mwp&p3=6
International Court of Justice. (2008). Summary of the Judgment of 14 February 2002.
Retrieved April 10, 2008, from International Court of Justice.
Web site: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?sum=591&code=cobe&p1=3&p2=3&case=121&k=36&p3=5
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…
Adams, John. Ideology. Retrieved at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/Ideology.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Biography: Mao Zedong. Retrieved at http://il.essortment.com/maozedongbiogr_rkok.htm. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Bunton, Hedley P. Forty Years of China: Chapter 11 - the thoughts and acts of Mao Tse-tung. 1988. Retrieved at http://www.acay.com.au/~bunton/china40y/chap11.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Karl Marx, 1818-1883. Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Retrieved at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Cross-oundary Offshore Oil & Gas Resources
Joint Development Agreements & Frameworks
[Type the company name]
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 3
2. The rule of capture 3
3. The CooperationApproach 4
4. Legal framework to develop trans-boundary offshore O&G resources 5
4.1 Cross-border unitization agreements 6
4.2 Joint Development Agreements (JDA) 6
4.3 National law and its application in Co-operative Agreements 7
4.4 ilateral treaties for trans-boundary oil and gas exploration 7
4.5 The Framework Agreement Approach 9
4.6 The Third Party approach to dispute resolution 10
5. Conclusion 10
Treaties & Conventions 11
Subsea resources such as petroleum and natural gas are important sources of meeting the energy demand of countries. Cross-territory disputes are arising among different countries. Advancement in technology in exploration and extraction of subsea resources has expedited the overall procedure of competitive drilling. This…
Treaties & Conventions
Cross boundary petroleum cooperation between the UK and the Kingdom of Norway 2005
Treaty, Timor Sea. "Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste relating to the Unitization of the Sunrise and Troubadour fields Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra (Dili, 6 March 2003)(1)." Accessed from
U.S-Mexico Trans-boundary hydrocarbons agreement 2012
AFICA'S PETOLEUM AND CHINA'S ECONOMIC GOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
How Africa's Petroleum Supply Is Important to China's Economic Growth and Development
While China continues to grow, its oil demand is poised to grow rapidly. For China to ensure its oil security, it must obtain oil from the global world because it lacks adequate domestic resources to quench the thirsty appetite of the country's rapid economic development. Any approach for growth that the country takes in its demand for oil is likely to affect the global oil market and influence existing system and order of international oil. As one of its oil strategy, China's firms are reaching every corner of the world to purchase oil or invest in oil fields showing to have opportunities disregarding the possible enormous risks. Some of China's national oil enterprises have made outstanding investment activities in African countries (Ma, 2010). Today, China's largest imports from Africa continue…
Bhaumik, T.K. (2009). Old China's new economy: The conquest of a billion paupers. New Delhi: SAGE.
Brewer, J. & Miklancic, M. (2013). Convergence: illicit networks and national security in the age of globalization. Published for the Center for Complex Operations Institute for National Strategic Studies By National Defense University Press Washington, D.C.
Buss, T.F. (2011). African security and the African command: Viewpoints on the U.S. role in Africa. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.
Cheung, Y.-W., & Haan, J. (2013). The evolving role of China in the global economy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Alien Nation is organized onto fifteen chapters, divided into three parts:
Part I: Truth: (2) the View from the Tenth Circle; (3) the Pincers; (4) How Did it Happen? (5) Why Did it Happen? (6) So What?
Part II: Consequences: (7) Immigration Has Consequences: Economics; (8) Immigration Has (More) Consequences: Economics II; (9) Immigration Has Consequences: Cultural, Social, Environmental...; (10) Immigration Has Consequences: Political Power; (11) Immigration Has Consequences: A Less Perfect Union; (12) Immigration Has Consequences: The War against the Nation-State; (13) Doing the ight Thing? The Morality of Immigration;
Part III: Shipwreck and Salvage: (14) What, Then, Is to Be Done? (15) Conclusion: The Bowels of Christ?
Brimelow commences his book by seeking the genesis of the immigration problem and finds that it is linked to the massacres conducted by totalitarian regimes. To better explain, the author of Alien Nation… believes that the rulers of the…
Brimelow, P., 1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, Random House
Lind, M., 1995, the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Reilly, J.J., the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Forth American Republic, http://www.johnreilly.info/tna.htm last accessed on September 1, 2009
1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, National Vanguard Magazine, Edition of November-December, No. 115
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…
Bartee, Wayne C. 2000. A time to speak out: The Leipzig citizen protests and the fall of East Germany. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Berger, T. 2001. German unification and the Union of Europe. German Politics and Society 19(1):80.
Conradt, D.P. 2002. Political culture in unified Germany: The first ten years. German Politics and Society 20(2):43.
Edwards, Vincent, Gennadij Polonsky, Danijel Pucko, Malcolm Warner and Ying Zhu. 2004. Management in transitional economies: From the Berlin Wall to the Great Wall of China. New York: Routledge.
(ipley 2002) There is also an increasing presence of Middle Eastern expats within the metropolitan Detroit and its suburbs. Bush genuinely, believed, according to his supporters that ideologically driven Islamic youth might perform terrorist's acts from within despite any efforts by the Transportation Safety Authorities to ensure that no terrorists came into the country from without.
This gave rise to the first critic of President Bush, invoking the American Defense Act to allow security officials to perform security related wire taps on telephones and electronic surveillance on computer activities of suspected terrorists. This was in direct violations of the FISA (Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act). The violations involved non-compliance with FISA. The FISA rule involves the ordering the surveillance of suspects only after such a surveillance is court-ordered. (Apuzzo 2007) the uniqueness of the FISA construct is that for security reasons the court does not have to be informed of the…
Apuzzo, Mark. "Secretive Spy Court Refuses to Reveal Wiretap Rules,." Neward Star Ledger 2007.
Constitution. "Article 2, Section 1, Clause 1." 2009. April 3, 2009. .
Greenburg, Jan Crawford, Howard L. Rosenberg, and Ariane de Vogue. "Sources: Top Bush Advisors Approved 'Enhanced Interrogation'." ABC News, 2008.
Johnsen, Dawn E. "What's a President to Do? Interpreting the Constitution in the Wake of Bush Administration Abuses." Boston Law Review 88 (2008): 395.
Conflict with Getting Minerals from the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) is Important to China's Economy
Globalization is a significant part of the business world. It offers many opportunities for change and growth, and helps people connect to one another even if they are across the world from each other. eing able to buy something from the next town over or the other side of the world can make a person very happy, and can also help companies expand and gain new clients. However, what the person is buying and where the items are coming from is very important. Some globalization has resulted in a desire for items that are coming from countries where the people are not being treated well. When that happens, it can be a serious violation of human rights and can cause a significant number of problems in the country from which the items are being…
Eichstaedt, Peter (2011). Consuming the Congo: War and Conflict Minerals in the World's Deadliest Place. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
Ma, Tiffany. (2013). China and Congo's Coltan Connection. Project 2049 Institute: 1-7.
Magistad, Mary Kay (2011). Slideshow: Why Chinese Mineral Buyers are Eyeing Congo. PRI.org. Retrieved from http://pri.org/stories/2011-10-26/slideshow-why-chinese-mineral-buyers-are-eying-congo
Meale, David. (2009). China's Quest for Resources in Africa: Emerging Opportunities for New U.S. Policy Approaches. The Industrial College of the Armed Forces: 1-52.
UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…
AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,
Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.
Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.
Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?
Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall
Poland's Natural Resources
Minerals and Fuels
The Polish Economy Under Communism
The Centrally-Planned Economy
Establishing the Planning Formula
Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s
Reliance on Technology in the 1970s
Reform Failure in the 1980s
Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism
Poland After the Fall of Communism
Fall of Communism
Marketization and Stabilization
Required Short-Term Changes
Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy
Section 2.3.3. Initial Results
Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements
Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91
Section 2.4.1. Price Increases
Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages
Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions
Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances
Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline
Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process
Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism
Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy
Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell
Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita
Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN
Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:
At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."
For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…
Borowiec, Andrew. 2003. Taming the Sahara: Tunisia Shows a Way While Others Falter. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107024757.Internet . Accessed 14 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002077928
Dela Rosa, Darrell. 2003. The UN Role in Western Sahara. UN Chronicle, September-November, 22+. Database online. Available from Questia,
Democracy is not a spectator sport.
A bumper stickers popularity is measured by the extent it catches the spirit and general attitudes of the times. This slogan "Democracy is not a spectator sport" is unfortunately not likely to resonate with large sector of the modern population. For too many, the Democratic process has become just that. We are spectators who elect representatives to go to the government buildings and send us money, benefits, and social programs. The idea of the great value and cost to operate a successful democracy has been lost to many Americans. Thomas Jefferson's understanding of the cost and commitment to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness was best articulated when he reminded the early Americans that "The price of freedom is constant vigilance."
Democratic nation is said to be a "free" nation, but that is not guaranteed by the title "democracy." Democracy is a form…
The ole of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and their Involvement in the elief Efforts Following the 2002 Nyirangongo Eruption
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) operates under the remit of the United Nations Secretariat, with 35 global offices and approximately 1,900 staff (OCHA, 2012). The organization has four principle roles which are stated as being a part of its' mission (OCHA, 2012). The first role is as an inter-agency body; involved in the mobilization and coordinating of actors that respond to humanitarian emergencies, which it aims to perform in a principled manner to help alleviate the suffering caused by disasters and emergencies (OCHA, 2012). The actors that are mobilized and coordinated by the OCHA include United Nations (UN) actors and non-governmental organizations (NGO's) at both national and international levels (OCHA, 2012). The second role of the OCHA…
OCHA, (2012), retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://www.unocha.org/
O'Malley, Stephen, (2002, Sept 16), The role of OCHA in the emergency operations following the eruption of the Nyiragongo Volcano in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, report for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic-congo/role-ocha-emergency-operations-following-eruption-nyiragongo
UNDP Report Study
Human Development Report 2011:
A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations
Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…
From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.
This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.
Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.
Somalia Civil war
SOMALIA- CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WA
Columbia Encyclopedia describes the geographical position of Somalia in these words:
Somalia is directly south of the Arabian Peninsula across the Gulf of Aden. It comprises almost the entire African coast of the Gulf of Aden and a longer stretch on the Indian Ocean. It is bounded on the NW by Djibouti, on the W. By Ethiopia, on the SW by Kenya, and on the S. And E. By the Indian Ocean. Mogadishu is the capital. There are 18 regions. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2000)
Somalia has been ruled by various imperial empires. Some of its earlier rulers were the nations of Oman, Turks and Zanzibar. Most of these nations lost control in Somalia. Britain, France and Italy came to this part of the world in the 19th century. Each country has had a say during its rule. It was…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, Page 43895, 2000
I.M. Lewis: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, I.M. Lewis, Westview Press, 1988
Simons, Anna: Networks of Dissolution: Somalia Undone, Westview Press, 1995
Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Walter M. Clarke, Jeffrey M. Herbst, Westview Press, 1997
Home to the world's tenth largest economy and second largest population, India defies swift generalization. It includes a vast range of developmental situations, cultures, languages, and climates. The country remains largely rural, with just 26% of its people living in cities. Yet in 1995 it had over 30 cities of one million or more residents, including three of the world's 20 largest cities -- Bombay, Calcutta, and Delhi -- according to United Nations estimates (The Anguish of India, 1997).
Currently Indian labor laws, regulations, and workforce standards are very outdated. India is plagued with corruption. India has been ranked 9th in a list of 75 countries where dishonest practices are common, which is indeed an uncertain distinction. The corruptions, delays, bureaucratic red tape, and archaic labor laws are ingrained in India's business culture. These pitfalls have deterred foreign investors from investing in India (Stokes, 2003).
"Background Note: India," 2010, viewed 23 August 2010,
Chennai, Matrade, 2005, "Product Market Study: Consumer Behavior in India," viewed 23 August 2010,
Das Gupta, Aruna, 2007, "Social responsibility in India towards global compact approach." International Journal of Social Economic, 34(9), 637-663.
"Doing Business in India.," n.d., viewed 24 August 2010,
international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).
The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. (2009). African charter on the rights and welfare of the child: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Banse, R., Schmidt, A.F., & Clarbour, J. (2010). Indirect measures of sexual interest in child sex offenders: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Debabrata, R. (1998). When police act as pimps: Glimpses into child prostitution in India: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Fraley, A. (2005). Child sex tourism legislation under the protect act: Does it really protect: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
State Attributes & Structures
Regulation and Transparency
location – Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, 150 km south of Key West, Florida
Area- 110,860 sq km, rank - 107
Population – 11,147,407 rank - 80
Government— Communist state
International – ACP, ALBA, WHO, WTO
$132.9 billion, rank 80
Transparency CPI score - 47
GDP per capita - $11,900
Literacy - 99.8%
Longevity – 78.8
FH Freedom rating – 6.5/7
Civil Liberties score – 6/7
FH Political Rights score – 7/7
Central African Republic
location – Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Area – 622,984 sqkm, rank - 46
Population – 5,625,118 rank - 115
Government— presidential republic
International – WTO, WHO, ACP, AfDB
GDP - $3.395 billion, rank - 185
Transparency CPI score - 159
GDP per capita - $700
Literacy - 36.8%
Taken together, Zelizer and Gourevitch's work offer a substantial examination of the changes the United States has undergone following the end of the Cold ar. However, in both cases it seems as if the authors are so interested in what might have changed that they fail to acknowledge the continuities that exist between the United States' political, economic, and military postures during the Cold ar and after (Gourevitch 301; Zelizer 355). hile the country has of course been forced to adapt to the post-Cold ar world, the fact is that by and large, the United States has largely maintained many of its Cold ar behaviors and attitudes, and particularly in regards to the maintenance of its international military empire (Zelizer 14). Surprisingly, Zelizer is even able to recognize the imperial ambitions of American presidents without recognizing how successful those ambitions have been (Zelizer 14). Furthermore, he seems intent…
Gourevitch, Peter. "Reinventing the American State: Political Dynamics in the Post-Cold War
Era" in Shaped by War and Trade. ed. Ira Katznelson and Martin Shefter. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 2002.
Zelizer, Julian. Arsenal of Democracy. New York: Basic Books, 2010.
Democratization, Culture and Underdeveloped Nations
This paper looks at the issue of culture and democratization in underdeveloped countries. The paper is based on research conducted through a systematic review of the current literature on the subject, from policy documents published by bodies such as the IMF and the World ank, to academic papers written by workers in this field, to online discussion forums (which can be an extremely valuable source for assessing 'grass roots' opinions regarding issues such as this).
The paper begins with a basic introduction to some key topics, through a discussion of questions such as 'What is democracy?', 'What is culture?', 'What is an underdeveloped country', and 'What does democracy mean at the present time for people in the United States, and the rest of the developed world, and for people in underdeveloped countries'?
What do we mean, as a citizen of the United States, when we…
Abizedah, A. (2002). Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments. American Political Science Review 96(3).
Adams, D. And Goldbard, A. (1995). Cultural Democracy: A Brief Introduction. Available at http://www.wwcd.org/cd.html . Accessed 13th January 2003.
Elshtain, JB (1993). Democracy on Trial. Concrod, Ontario: Anansi.
Kasfir (2000) Democracy in Translation: Understanding Politics in an Unfamiliar Culture (Book Review). American Political Science Review September 2000.
GDP went down due to weak domestic demand, which went further down after a decline. Somehow, it again rose by 0.1% in the first quarter and appeared to have pulled the economy out of recession. ut Portugal retained big trouble. In the last quarter of 2002, its GDP plummeted.8% from the third quarter and in the last quarter, it contracted by 1.3% from the previous year until the.3% in the third quarter of 2002. The economy continued to sag until the ank of Portugal itself observed the fall of business confidence to its lowest recorded level since the 1993 recession. Official unemployment rate increased to a high 49.6%, rising by 26.3% from 2001 (O'Flynn).
Unemployment was 6.7% in 2003, compared with 4.3% in 2002 (O'Flynn 2003). Labor unions in Portugal claimed it was more than 7.6% as against the 5% ceiling set by the EU, despite the fact that the…
Clapp, D. (2005). Spain's Economy is Vibrating and Growing. Group Communications, Inc. http://www.facilitycity.com/busfac/bf_04_03_global1.asp
Development Assistance Committee (2001). Portugal Development Cooperation Review. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/31/0,2340.en_2649_201185_1883871_1_1_1_1,00.html
Giomo, C. And Jimenez, M. (2001). Economic Survey of Spain. Building Partnership for Progress. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/36/0.2340.en_2649_201185_1912676_1_1_1_1.00.html
Internal Study Programs (2004). Portugal. http://www.studyprograms.com/focus_portugal.htm