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Vascular Dementia became an issue in aging in the late 19th century when Otto Binswanger and Alois Alzheimer identified vascular dementia as a separate form of neurological disorder, distinct from dementia paralytica. In the 1960s, researchers took another step forward via the clinical studies performed by the New Castle school in the UK: these trials lay the groundwork for modern understanding of vascular dementia. Today, vascular dementia is an issue in aging as physicians have discovered that the most typical vascular change accompanying aging is the increase of cholesterol found in the walls of blood vessels: this has a congestive effect that alters the cognitive ability of the patient. Confusion, disorientation, trouble speaking and vision loss are all symptoms related to this issue.
Influence of Demography
While Alzheimer's is the leading type of dementia in the world, vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, accounting for 17%…… [Read More]
This theory presents problems because not all replacement roles are ineffective or useless. Another is the age stratification theory, which categorizes society according to age, gender, and social class. People are classified or grouped as young, middle-aged and old. They are expected to play certain roles and enjoy certain rights in each classification or group as well as lose privileges accorded each group or classification (American Association of Retired Persons).
A more responsive and realistic theory of aging for consideration by demographers should not fixated to the notion that older or senior persons' capabilities are waning. Many older persons or retirees have been living alone on their savings or continued incomes and modern-day gadgets, which enable them to survive on their own. They should not be seen as inessentials that must be sent to the homes for the aged. More and more people approaching the end of employment years are…… [Read More]
Since the peak in residential Black/hite segregation during the 1960s and 1970s, there has been a slow decline in the index of dissimilarity; however, this did not translate into an increase in interactions with different racial groups ("Residential Segregation" 15-19). By the 2010 Census, the average hite person still lives in a predominantly hite neighborhood and the average Black person lives in a predominately minority neighborhood. By comparison, the residential segregation experienced by Hispanics and Asians has remained relatively stable during the latter decades of the 20th century and during the first decade of the new millennium.
The two main competing models are "human ecology" and "socioeconomic status" ("Residential Segregation" 47). The human ecology model proposes that segregation is created by trends in migration and new housing starts, institutionalized discrimination, population growth, an urban center's size and age, and the demographics specific to a region. By comparison, ilson…… [Read More]
2005, the British publication, The Economist, published an article regarding immigration and the parties who benefit from it. At the time, a decade ago, Prime Minister Tony Blair failed in his attempt to rally support against illegal immigration throughout the European Union (EU). Countries across the continent experienced intense political division regarding this issue. Those who favored politics argued for illegal immigration to cease; those who prioritized economics supported immigration, legal or otherwise. The article explains that to ease tensions within the British government, Blair proposed official supporting of legal immigration and the intensification of stopping illegal immigration. Blair ensured that the administration and bureaucracy regarding legal immigration was streamlined. The article then proceeds to question which parties in society benefit from immigration and how.
Immigration, from the perspective of The Economist is an occurrence that should be calculated, regulated, and firmly enforced. The article questions who benefits from immigration;…… [Read More]
As one would expect, the police are aggressive, noticeable and thespian. It is easy for them to happen to be the objects and representatives of order, jeopardy, and inscrutability. They not only mark the boundaries of an urbane organization and regulation but also are the boundary markers themselves. They have vast authority over the legal resources including lethal and nonlethal weapons, specialized vehicles, adequate personnel etc. (Manning, 2008). In American society, the most significant revolution taking place in policing today is possibly associated with information technology. A majority of the police agencies are using the Internet to transmit information to the public. They are also making use of cell phones to be in touch with others while in the field. Moreover, mobile computers are also being used in order to retrieve information straight away. Nevertheless, it is crystal clear that this is just the beginning. The information technology…… [Read More]
High-isk Family Health Promotion: Teen Pregnancy
Teen pregnancy is a problem in the United States which has enormous consequences for both the individuals who are immediately concerned with the pregnancy and the public at large. The role of family nursing in assisting young mothers cannot be understated, but prevention and education are the primary goals of family nursing. Nurses must realize the adverse consequences that can occur when a teen becomes pregnant, understand how to advocate for the teen and have the personal skills to positively affect the patient.
The United States continues to have an epidemic of teen pregnancies. The United States leads the world in all categories of teen pregnancy. In 2006 more than 750,000 women below the age of 2o became pregnant (Gutmacher Instittute, 2010, 2). This is actually a low number as the birth rate per 1,000 representative women was only 71.5. However, this…… [Read More]
Moreover, multiculturalism is alive and well in Canada today; to wit, foreign-born Canadian citizens are "over-represented in the fields of mathematics and physical science, the health professions, sciences and technologies," Thompson concludes, as well as in the fields of engineering and applied sciences.
Boyd, Monica. 1976. Immigration Policies and Trends: A Comparison of Canada and the United States. Demography 13 (1): 83-104.
Canadian Council for Refugees. 2001. A hundred years of immigration to Canada 1900-1999:
chronology focusing on refugees and discrimination. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.web.net/~ccr/history.html.
CIC Canada. 2001. The Role of Transportation in Canadian Immigration 1900-2000. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/transport/chap-3b.html.
Patrias, Carmela. 2000. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy
By Ninette Kelley; Michael Trebilcock. The American Historical Review 105 (2): 532-533.
The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2003. Immigration. Retrieved march 20, 2007 at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com.
Thompson, John Herd; & einfeld, Morton. 1995.…… [Read More]
San Diego is a beautiful place, and as I increase in affluence, I could even consider buying beach-front property.
The libraries I read about seem very nice. I look forward to reading and walking on the beaches. If the city web site is any indication, San Diego is a place that will make it easy for me to get my work out of the way and spend more of my time relaxing. The web site also has a section decided to city employment, which means that I have a starting point to look for a job.
City of San Diego Official ebsite." 2 Nov. 2006 http://www.sandiego.gov/.
Personal Positioning Statement
Step 1: Define Research Purpose
The purpose of this project is to use the research and exploration I have done this far to form a personal positional statement that I can use for job interviews or cover letters.
Step…… [Read More]
Presence of minority groups at a workplace
At work places, individuals are being discriminated on the basis of being a minority. Structural theory states clearly there is always a consequence for being the minority. This theory is in relation to three known token dynamics which include; it leads to contrast effect that leads to social isolation, it has the element of visibility that results to performance pressure and it also results to stereotyping or role encapsulation (Bell, 2007). Discrimination may be as a result of the individual (from the minority group) being scrutinized to find out whether he/she is capable to excel in whatever he/she is doing. From this theory, an individual whom the public does not associate his/her presence with a certain kind of work is more doubted than a person whom they have faith that he/she can handle the work. For example, a woman with mechanic skills can…… [Read More]
Manning (1993) undertook one of the early researches on the question of whether cohabitating and non-cohabitating single women have equal tendencies towards marriage prior to childbirth. In addition, Manning also looks for differences between black and white women, as well as socioeconomic status. Her research finds that for Caucasian women in their twenties, those who cohabitate with their mates are more likely to get married prior to childbirth. This statistical relationship was not observed among African-American women in the same age group.
This research therefore suggests that cohabitation carries different meanings for the two groups, an issue which may be of interest to symbolic interactionists. For African-Americans, cohabitation and childrearing were deemed more acceptable. In contrast, Caucasian women were more likely to consider cohabitation a stage in the marriage process.
esearch is still being conducted regarding the effects of cohabitation unions on children, especially since statistics show that at least…… [Read More]
This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.
Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…… [Read More]
Marriage, Divorce and Family Functions
Define the Institute of Marriage and identify the important cultural functions
Marriage encompasses a broad definition of the interpersonal unions established between partners granting them familial bond based on legal, social, and religious grounds. Further, marriage grants partners mutual conjugal rights. The family as a social unit functions to ensure the cooperation of its members based on aspects of child rearing and managing reproduction. Cultures endeavor to dictate the marriage patterns among other aspects. Cultures define the types of marriages such as monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry. On the economical aspect, cultures dictate dowry, bride wealth, and service.
Different societies have set different limitations on marriage. For example, some societies practice polygamy, especially African cultures whereas Westerners shun it and prefer monogamy. In the U.S., partners cannot enter into a new marriage arrangement without coming to a close on the previous one.
Love and marriage…… [Read More]
"Nothing endures but change."
Developing Human Development
The "learning organization" is without a template. Writers have tried to give it an ideal form or a template in "which real organizations could attempt to emulate." (Easterby-Smith & Araujo 1999). The learning organization, however, can be best characterized by saying that it's an organization where both individual and collective learning are crucial. Donald Schon has come up with a theoretical framework associating the experience of living in a situation of an increasing change with the need for learning. He states:
The loss of the stable state means that our society and all of its institutions are in continuous processes of transformation. We cannot expect new stable states that will endure for our own lifetimes. We must learn to understand, guide, influence and manage these transformations. We must make the capacity for undertaking them integral to ourselves and to our…… [Read More]
If the question is left unaddressed, this would result in increasing dissatisfaction among customers and staff, and a possible loss of library patrons.
Another strategic issues is the shift to the central purchasing of books. This policy entailed the decision to move the book buying capability to the Service Center in order to implement the goal of a more in-depth and sophisticated level of collections. This was implemented without consulting with the branch managers, who were directly affected by the decision. From the viewpoint of patrons, this new policy would indeed create a better selection of materials to better serve their needs by means of greater diversity and avoiding duplication. However, this created a large amount of resentment among librarians, who regarded this duty as one of their favorite responsibilities that directly utilized their skills as librarians.
If left unaddressed, this issue could severely impact the job satisfaction of librarians,…… [Read More]
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010).
-- . BLAMING the VICTIM: THE TUTH ABOUT PALESTINIAN ANTI-SEMITISM. 09-28, 2010. http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/45397 (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Foxman,…… [Read More]
Target Group and their Local Government
To determine the actual effects of diabetes on the indigenous population, you must examine the areas where many of these individuals live. This will provide insights as to possible issues that could be contributing to the problem by: examining the policies of the local government, looking at relevant health statistics, determining fruit / vegetable consumption and looking at the different support services / infrastructure. These different elements are important, because they provide insights about how the local community could be contributing to the problem. If you can see how these factors are affecting a particular community, then the government can begin to design intervention strategies to reduce the overall effects. Once this takes place, is when you can see how this demographic of 25 to 64-year-olds can be effectively targeted for an intervention.
A description of the Local Government and relevant socio-demographic characteristics of…… [Read More]
However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002)
The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi ai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)
It is reported that "...High levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (apo) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with the progression of atherosclerosis and a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (CHD). To prevent the development of these diseases, a great deal of research has been focused on determining the relationship between these lipid phenotypes and dietary intake and…… [Read More]
There are a number of solutions that are medically available for infertility. Fertility treatments for men and women can include chemical solutions, solutions to boost fertility as well as surgical procedures. However, these work on a personal level and do not address the wider and larger issues in society. The most effective and long-term solution to the problem of declining fertility rates is understanding and knowledge, coupled with governmental and institutional application of this knowledge. In other words, this could involve simple precautionary aspects such as the understanding and avoidance of certain chemical substance and toxins in the workplace that can increase the possibility of infertility.
Social and cultural stresses are major factors that impact on fertility rate and research into these factors is needed if the general problem is to be addressed adequately. Governmental and social policies that improve the possibility for increased fertility rates have in…… [Read More]
Over its years of existence, the company has also created a large network for distribution, while building consumer trust in the process.
One of the weaknesses of the company is created by its competition with another significant brand, Clinic All Clear, whose creative campaign has put it in a favorable position as compared with Head & Shoulders. In countries like India, the product's popularity is lower in rural areas.
In terms of opportunities, the company has great potential to develop not only into untapped markets, but also in terms of product development and differentiation. Consumer loyalty towards this brand provides a good platform for future product development opportunities. Because of higher consumer awareness, there has also been a higher investment in shampoo research, providing an opportunity for further product development.
Threats include a high level of competition in the shampoo market across the world, and particularly in terms of anti-dandruff…… [Read More]
Welcome to the 21st Century, my friends. This is your century of reward and your day of awards. The Eagle Award, established in 2001, is organized and sponsored by Transcoast London Ltd. It aims to create, or rather -- to recognize -- the astounding role models and leaders like yourselves. As leaders you are important, for others may feel inspired by your achievements. The word "inspired" is an important one, because it is further defined as "in-spirited." What controls our lives are the meanings we associate with things in our lives, which are shaped by our own personal psychology, our world view, and the beliefs and values that we have created. You, as role models and leaders, have a unique spirit in you, and "inspiring" spirit, and that what makes you leaders is that this spirit touches others and gives that spirit to them. You have added…… [Read More]
Forty years ago, when ALPA still championed the rights of all pilots to remain employed, former ALPA president Clarence Sayen challenged FAA Administrator Elwood Quesada to justify his hasty decision to enact the Rule. Quesada responded with 41 highly questionable articles culled from the medical archives of the 1950's, the majority of these having been published decades earlier. In addition to being astonishingly outdated, these articles described characteristics of the general population and not of airline pilots.
Medical evidence was therefore manipulated. A closer examination of the "facts" would have revealed that there was much that was not applicable to the situation at hand. And if these data were years out of date more than two generations ago, one can only imagine that the picture that they present is even more inaccurate today than it was in 1959. In countless other fields, 60-year-old men and women pursue their careers without…… [Read More]
So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.
ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.
The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…… [Read More]
arriers Female Educators Experience With Regard to Promotion Positions in Management and Leadership
Gender-ased Employment iases in Educational Fields:
An Examination of the arriers Experienced by Female Educators with Regard to Promotion and Management Positions in Education
While the plight for gender-equitable workplace has long been thought to have a potential solve within the halls of academia, the disparate employment equation between men and women has long been under-observed. The feminist's battle cry for equality rallied the forces around professional gender streamlining, and in the face of affirmative action for races, the professional inequality across genders gained widespread attention in the second half of the last century. Much of the increased discourse was cemented by the Title IX legislation, passed in 1972 and cementing the importance of gender balance in academic fields.
Title IX most notably prohibited sexual discrimination in education for students, but its legal boundaries included educators and…… [Read More]
This activity is intended to focus on developing critical thinking, research, reading and writing skills in Students by making students motivated about learning necessary facts about United States, its demographics, history and distinctive attributes of U.S.
Education Standards Addressed
This particular lesson plan adheres to the Education Standard of United States (Teaching standards of the respective states)
Enable students to develop report writing skills by following a given template.
Enable students to develop and demonstrate their understanding regir undertsanding e elop report writing skills by fts about United States, its demographics arding overall geography of the states, its history, important places of tourists interests, structure of the government, general economy, and demography
Enable the students to understand the report making process and develop reports using electronic tools such word processor and other softwares. The activity will also focus on developing graphs and necessary tables as…… [Read More]
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)
This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.
During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…… [Read More]
Strategic Management of a Healthcare Facility in St. Louis
In the late 1800's and early 1900's St. Louis was a major center for automotive and other heavy manufacturing but the industrial restructuring of the Midwest during the latter half of the century has resulted in consistent economic decline of the St. Louis region. Today however as the rest of the country faces a slowing economy this region is showing new signs of growth. [Kotkin, 2002] Due to changing socio-demographics, the demand for health care and advanced medical technologies is growing consistently with a concomitant rise in health expenditure. [Zhou 2001] Health expenditure in the U.S. has risen from 7.4% of the GNP in 1970 to 15% of the GNP in 1995.[Zhou, 2001] The Health care sector deals with not only the clinical medical services, but also include methods which finance them, for e.g. insurance, benefit schemes, Medicare and Medicaid. eforms…… [Read More]
Literature Review on homosexual parenting
For a period extending back to the last twenty years, the number of households headed by same-sex parents in the United States has subtly increased. According to a unanimous agreement in the U.S. In 2010, the number of same-sex couples who stay together was estimated to be 646,464, out of which 514,735 were unmarried couples of the same sex while 131,729 were married couples of similar sex. In another survey carried out in the U.S. In 2000, it was established that almost 163,879 households had children although they were headed by similar sex couples. With about 33% of households belonging to similar sex females, it was found out that bisexual or Lesbians had higher chances of being parents as compared to isexual or gays who accounted for just 22% although these male couples had at least a child below the age of 18…… [Read More]
Saudi Arabia there are a large number of nurses from other nations as the demand in the country for nurses is higher than the supply that the country has. This is not a strange situation as there is a shortage of nurses all over the world and retention rates of nurses are not high (Almalki, et al., 2011). This situation has also been created by the increase in the population which has required that the Saudi health care system accommodate increased numbers. This has brought about the need to handle the recruitment of nurses and their subsequent retention in better ways (Almalki et al., 2011). There is a serious need for better strategies to handle nurse recruitment and retention because where the retention is low, and nurses are fewer, more patients are lost and the failure in terms of rescue rates is higher (Needleman, et al., 2011). Where there are…… [Read More]
H in Healthcare
Over time, everything changes. This is truer of some things as compared to others and healthcare is certainly one of those things. Indeed, the last ten years has marked some major changes for healthcare. Among other things, technology has significantly advanced, the Affordable Care Act has been passed and the financial workings of healthcare have become more and more complex and worrisome to many people. This report will discuss a theoretical clinic that will be set up in a rural setting. The overall factors and points that will be covered will include change in demography, change in disease, change in societal norms/values, changes in healthcare technology, financial pressures that are rendered upon healthcare professionals and cultural awareness/cultural diversity in work environments. While some things in healthcare and human resources have remained unchanged over the years, there are other things that changed significantly.
There have been some…… [Read More]
Expectations of Advisory Program
Foundation supporting this study design
Explain How Statement Meets the Criteria
Greenlee, B. J. (2010). School advisory council demography: Birds of a feather. Planning and changing, 41(1/2), 3-17
Adolescence is believed to be a stage in which people form their identity as well as develop the skills required for one to be academically successful. Benson &Poliner (2013) state that the failure of schools in involving most students due to their failure to meet 4 fundamental students needs: to love and belong, to enjoy themselves, have freedom and gain power. Thus, advisory programs are important for ensuring every student has a close relationship with a trustworthy adult that they can run to when they are having personal and academic issues (Knowles & Brown, 2000). This research is about advisory programs, how they enhance and analyze the association with academic improvement as well as the positive…… [Read More]
2 Mavoothu, D.
Year of publication:2015
Volume, Issue, Pages:9(3), 38-52
Effects of Career Orientation On Intrapersonal Issues of e-Entry Women and Their Career Penalty
Title of Journal Publication: Global Management eview
Identify at least three key issues, concepts (ideas), propositions or theories that have been discussed in the literature review. How have these issues informed or influenced the current paper and its research questions? (Paraphrase -- i.e., use your own words)
Intrapersonal e-entry issues: More often than not, intrapersonal re-entry issues are deemed as insufficiencies and paucities that are present within re-entering women. This issue has influenced the prevailing paper and its research questions as the research study attempts to examine the link between career penalty and intrapersonal problems of re-entry. In particular, aspects such as stress, loss of self-esteem, guilt as well as conflict are perceived as vital interpersonal issues experienced by re-entering women (Kok and…… [Read More]
India, as we saw earlier, as many strengts. Tese strengts ave caused many analysts to lump te country in wit te so-called BRIC nations -- Brazil, Russia, India, Cina -- wic are expected to become key global players. Tis puts India in a position to benefit from international trade and investment. (2)
One way in wic India stands to gain is similar to te ways in wic foreign multi-national's ave gained by te country being open to foreign investments. India as te ability to build plants and industry on a global scale, but it must develop a blue print for ow different industries can acieve productivity and efficiency comparable to te advanced countries. Indians makeup 16.7% of te world's population, despite tat it encompasses just 2.0% of te world's land area. Terefore, tere is a pressing need for India to develop long-range sustainability programs so as to best manage natural…… [Read More]
Large number of respondents will require large number of questionnaires to be given to the individuals and this would have high financial implications.
Due to the problem of fear of the information that if the Facebook members disclose will be used against them in future, I intend to guarantee them anonymity on any information given and confidentiality by ensuring no names or sensitive information is required in the questionnaires. On the time constraint, the questionnaires will be designed so that it takes small amount of time with few open ended questions. On the financial, the samples taken will be done randomly so that even if it's quite small compared to the whole Facebook membership, it will be representative.
Social networking is considered the as the manner of communication in the 21st century. It refers to the individuals grouping into groups…… [Read More]
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…… [Read More]
Conclusions: The friendship environment affects suicidality for both boys and girls. Female adolescents' suicidal thoughts are significantly increased by social isolation and friendship patterns in which friends were not friends with each other. (Am J. Public Health. 2004; 94:89-95) Adolescent well-being is largely the product of interactions among the multiple contexts in which, adolescents are embedded. Central contexts for adolescents include family, school, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, and larger social networks. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provides unique data on adolescents' relationships with their friends, in that it is the only national level data set to provide unique data set to provide information on network structure." (Bearman, Moody, 2004)
According to Duncan (2001), "We use nationally representative data to calculate correlations in achievement and delinquency between genetically differentiated siblings within a family, between peers as defined by adolescents, bestfriend nominations, between schoolmates living in the same neighbourhood,…… [Read More]
Overall, Foucault uses a blend of historical analysis and philosophy as his primary method to answer questions about modern societies.
The primary evidence Foucault uses to justify his comments about human society is how sexuality was viewed in classical times compared to how it is viewed today. He says that governments now regulate sexuality because they have to ensure the longevity and health of their population. Because society now values life more than it did in the past, power is more widespread across the population because of wider sovereignty. Foucault's evidence for this point is not always direct, maybe because his research methods are also not always direct. He says that racism and Nazism are proof that biopolitics now exist. "Nazism was doubtless the most cunning and the most naive (and the former because of the latter) combination of the fantasies of blood and the paraoxysms of a disciplinary power"…… [Read More]
Pubs on account of operating costs, food prices, and the increase in minimum wages have therefore changed to the tenanted model. Some regulations have also curbed customer choice like ban on smoking in public places, and other interventions on customer freedom have resulted in the closure of two thousand pubs. Changing customer habits have resulted in the decline of the UK restaurant by three percent as a result of poor consumer spending. (Deoitte, 2011)
In England these different entities are representative of the fact that consumers have grown in variety and as well have begun to explore all that the hospitality industry has to offer. Apart from the changes in the eating habits of the natives, the demands from the tourists, and the peculiar tourist out for gastronomic experience has given birth to a new industry -- Gastronomic tour. There are many types of consumers of hospitality including the current…… [Read More]
Meng and Meurs (2009) examine the effects of intermarriage, language, and economic advantage. They find that immigrants who have some skill in the dominant language of the country to which they immigrate tend to intermarry and earn more income (Meng and Meurs). Marrying outside of one's culture may influence language acquisition due to social and economic needs to advance within the adopted culture.
Moua and Lamborn (2010) note that ethnic socialization practices by parents of immigrant adolescents strengthen the ethnic heritage connection between adolescent, parent, and ethnic community. These include native language use, marriage ties, taking part in cultural events, sharing history, and preparing traditional foods (Moua and Lamborn). As noted previously, immigrant parents tend to congregate in ethnic communities, where they are essentially immersed in the ethnic culture. The native language is often the most utilized if not the exclusive language in the home. However, children are acculturated into…… [Read More]
According to Stevensen and Wolfers, marriage is far from a static phenomena, and in subsequent research they contend that this specialization is far less likely, that women and men both work outside the home, marry later marriages are formed without the specific purpose of procreation. (Stevensen & Wolfers, 2007, p. 27)
Lastly, this work looked at another issue, associated with marriage and divorce, which looked at the period between 1980 and 2000 and determined that several basic trends are true of marital quality, between 1980 and 2000; marital interaction declined significantly. A decomposition analysis suggested that offsetting trends affected marital quality. Increases in marital heterogamy, premarital cohabitation, wives' extended hours of employment, and wives' job demands were associated with declines in multiple dimensions of marital quality. In contrast, increases in economic resources, decision-making equality, nontraditional attitudes toward gender, and support for the norm of lifelong marriage were associated with improvements…… [Read More]
One very timely and cogent example of this is within the realm of Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDS). These systems are interactive computer programs designed to assist medical professionals in the analysis and diagnosis and provide greater health care options at a more cost effective rate. The raw data that is used is the knoweldge base -- raw statistics about populations, trends, demography, and individual indicators such as test results, measurments, vital statistics and symptomology. Then, the process moves into information in which the inference part of the program takes what may be disparate data and combines it into something that may have meaning for that particular situation or patient -- or may not -- thus saving medical personnel time pouring over chart data. Finally, usuing algorithims in machine learning (computers learn from past experiences and patterns) and artifical intelligence (computers make connections that were not always aapparent, the system…… [Read More]
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…… [Read More]
Families, Delinquency & Crime
The fundamental changes occurring to families in the 2st century can be classified into two different categories, depending on the internal or the external perspective that is used in the analysis. The external perspective proposes an analysis of the sociodemographic changes that have occurred to families under the impact of the external factors of the 2st century. The sociodemographic changes are characterized both by the numbers, by a quantitative reflection of families, and by the relationships that are formed within each family.
From the first perspective, the 2st century has imposed both changes in the number of families (some cultures, notably the Western ones, have encountered decreases in size because of an increased reluctance of individuals to get married) and in the formation of these family groups. As such, in many of these family groups, the norm has translated from a man-woman marriage as the basis…… [Read More]
According to this research, these trends are due to changes in the association of husbands' and wives' education rather than by changes in the relative supply of more- and less-educated partners.
In addition to income and education, individuals select marriage partners along racial lines (Fu, 2001). In fact, although racial homogamy has declined over time, it remains as the strongest pattern in assortative mating according to Fu. Further, many individuals remain particularly resistance to marriage between whites and blacks than they do between whites and other minorities. Fu (2001) also reveals that African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans who are in interracial marriages tend to have a higher socioeconomic status than others from these groups. Fu theorizes that this higher socioeconomic status helps to equalize their status with majority group partners.
In summary, forced marriages may be dead, at least in the modern Western world, but individual preferences are alive and well. Ironically,…… [Read More]
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]
Ananat & Michaels (2008) concur with the emphasis on income being the deciding factor upon the divorced child's success. They found that divorce significantly "increases women's odds of having very high or very low income. In other words, while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal earnings through child support, welfare, combining households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly unsuccessful. e conclude that by raising both poverty and inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences" (Ananat & Michaels 2008). Some women use divorce as a vehicle of self-empowerment, for other women who are unable to compensate, poverty becomes more severe in a single-income household. Another interesting finding of Ananat & Michael's research is that "having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up," and this may account for the lower incomes of children with divorce, if women still tend to earn less than…… [Read More]
Lastly, the gender gap has meant that males need to engage in more intense competition for females. As a result, money has become a more important means of attracting females (ei, 2009). These different factors combined to push more rural Chinese into the cities in search of better work. This in turn kept the cost of labor down, fueling intense economic growth that kept the unemployment rate in urban areas down. Even with the recent economic downturn, official unemployment rates for urban China were at just 4.2% for the fourth quarter of 2008, up from 4.0% in the previous quarter (Xinhua, 2009). These official figures have never fluctuated too much, although they were significantly higher in the late 1970s when economic modernization began, between 5-6% (Giles et al., 2004). It should be noted that the official unemployment rates belie the reality of China's economy, which features tens of millions of…… [Read More]
The question is no longer only about whether same sex marriages should be legal, it is about whether a certain faction of society should be allowed to have control over the whole of society. In order to achieve true equality in America, we need to legalize same sex marriages.
Anderson, G. Noack, T., and Seierstad, A. "The Demographics of Same-Sex "Marriages" in Norway and Sweden. " Demography. February 2006. pp. 79 -- 98.
Cosgrove-Mather, B. "The Global View of Gay Marriage." CBS NES. March 4, 2004>
Golombok, S., Tasker, F., and Murray. C. Children raised in fatherless families from infancy:
family relationships and the socioemotional development of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. October 1997. Vol. 38. Issue. 7.
Herek, Gregory M. "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." American Psychologist,…… [Read More]
UK Immigration Act of 1971 and Its Enforcement with espect to Administrative emoval/Deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are Engaged
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many observers stated that "nothing would ever be the same again" and in some ways they have been absolutely correct. While the United Kingdom continues its inexorable march to become fully integrated into the burgeoning European Union, a number of obstacles remain firmly in place that relate to the perceived need by the UK government to better control movement of foreigners within its borders. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the UK Immigration Act of 1971 and its enforcement with respect to administrative removal or deportation when Articles 3 and 8 of European Convention of Human ights are engaged. This study used a three-chapter format to achieve this research purpose. Chapter…… [Read More]
From these responses will be generated the even more specific and in-depth questions that will used to obtain a more complete picture from the focus group.
The focus group, as mentioned above, will be composed of five students from each of the three groups. That will provide the study with a big enough focus group to discern certain trends and by seeking a more in-depth knowledge of how the students feel about certain scenarios could be helpful in providing more insight into how different events are perceived by students from different backgrounds.
David L. Morgan writes in his book; Focus Groups as Qualitative esearch that "most rewarding...is the fact that focus groups are now a much more widely practiced research method within the social sciences" (p. vii).
Morgan continues by writing "there is a sizeable literature about focus groups in anthropology, communication studies, education, evaluation, nursing, political science, psychology, public…… [Read More]
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…… [Read More]
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…… [Read More]
The Partido Revoluationario Institucional Party was an "enormous social network that reached the most remote parts of the country..." (Aerni, 2001) the PRI Party is accredited with having created "the largest public interest groups such as Unions, Farmer Organizations and Consumer Organizations and it somehow managed to keep the political influence of the powerful Catholic Church under tight control." (Aerni, 2001) in order to assess agricultural biotechnology and the environment from the view of developing countries it would also be necessary to asses the traditional crops grown in developing countries. For instance, Mexico begin modernizing its agriculture following World War II and established a research center CIMMYT which was an international research center for the improvement of corn and wheat and later added was high-yielding corn varieties. The agricultural revolution in the Philippines began when the International Rice Research Institute was established in the 1960s.
Stakeholder Perception of Domestic Problems…… [Read More]
Moreover, recent welfare reforms have focused on work requirements and lifetime limits on public assistance, which increasingly necessitate the provision of childcare to low-income families. The state distinguished 27 classes of child care service, based on age of child, hours of care per day, and size of the child care provider. For each of seven geographic areas in the state, a maximum subsidized fee for one day's care for each class of service was specified. If a provider's fee was less than this amount the state paid the fee, while if a fee exceeded this maximum, the state paid the maximum and the client was responsible for the difference. Eligible households had their choice of child-care providers. Although the subsidy payment was often made directly to a provider, the subsidy was on behalf of a particular client. Many clients were required to provide a co-payment, which depended on family income…… [Read More]
As such, age differentiates potential customers into three categories: young consumers of ages up to 20, potential clients of ages between 21 and 56, and clients older that 57. The first group of consumers is not the ideal target market, as young people rarely have sufficient money to travel and stay in luxurious hotels. The greater emphasis will be placed on the second group as its members travel and require the largest amount of accommodations. These individuals travel for both social and business purposes. The third group is less desirable than the second, but more desirable than the first. Consisting of people older than 57 years, this target market is generally represented by social trips and leads to decreased incomes as compared to the segment of people aged between 21 and 56.
The income criterion also divides the market onto three segments: the target market formed of individuals that register…… [Read More]
This is why people that had financial resources to move away from the agitated center often chose Harlem. At the same time however,
On the periphery of these upper class enclaves, however, impoverished Italian immigrants huddled in vile tenements located from 110th to 125th Streets, east of Third Avenue to the Harlem iver. To the north of Harlem's Italian community and to the west of Eighth Avenue, Irish toughs roamed an unfilled marshlands area referred to by locals as "Canary Island."
In this sense, it can be said that in the beginning, Harlem represented the escape place for many of the needy in search for a better life. From this amalgam, the Jews represented the largest group, the reason being the oppressive treatment they were continuously subject to throughout the world. Still, the phenomenon that led to the coming of a black majority of people in this area was essential…… [Read More]
Proponents advanced that both legal and illegal immigration to California was a concrete and hard reality, which neither legislation nor strict controls could blot out. They envisioned a menial, lowly paid workforce, a source of cheap labor, on which the State would depend. They also held that opponents were racially motivated and too harsh towards non-whites who wanted to flee from poverty and despair. On the other hand, those who opposed illegal immigration blamed it for the country's shortage of social services, which illegal immigrants shared with citizens. These opponents argued that providing healthcare and welfare to these illegal immigrants necessarily infringed the law and made illegal behavior acceptable and legitimate. They denied that their support for legislations, such as Proposition 189, was racially motivated (IGS).
More Arguments for and Against the same vigor and frustration characterized the struggle for driver's licenses in Illinois but which failed to get the…… [Read More]
It would be nonsensical to take away Social Security, as the program, for all of its flaws, gives the government the ability to tax wage earners in support of the program. If this tax revenue is stopped, and the government still has to provide for those in need as it surely will do without Social Security in place, an attempt to solve one problem will be replaced with a much larger crisis.
eplacement of Social Security with a privatized system is a popular remedy for phasing out Social Security, but this is an unlikely scenario, given the fact that private accounts would only create a feeding frenzy among Wall Street power brokers to collect huge commissions on financial transactions, while the account holders are left with nothing (Baker, 1998). The bottom line is that ending Social Security is unlikely and impractical.
In conclusion, as has been shown, from a…… [Read More]
This is so strong of a correlation in their analysis that it generated an R2 correlation coefficient of.84 at the.01 level of confidence according to Niehuis & Huston (1999). In summary, the escalating divorce rate is attributable to the action of partners, yet more fundamental than that, where a difference in religiosity occurs at any point, yet most typically at the later stages of a marriage, the higher the divorce rate.
Amato & Wallin (2001) - People's reasons for divorcing: gender, social class, the life course, and adjustment. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations, November 8-11, 2001, Rochester, New York, USA. Paul Amato and Denise Wallen. Penn State University.
CDC (2001) - National Center of Health Statistics. Advance Data, Number 323. ay 31, 2001. First arriage Dissolution, Divorce, and Remarriage:
United States. Dr., osher and Bramlett. Division of Vital Statistics.
David…… [Read More]
Although it was once hypothesized that these were made by giant extraterrestrial figures, scientists now say that the Indians could have made them with special techniques. However, the why's still remain.
Many of the Indian groups used a numbering sequence to count objects, timekeeping and calendars, and dozens of writing systems. In the Adena villages in the Ohio Valley, the residents grew "a multifarious suite of crops," such as tobacco, barley, maygrass, and knotweed. The Adena also built huge tombs for their nobles, which included copper beads and bracelets, stone tablets and collars, textiles and awls and stone pipes (256). The "ubber People" may have invented rubber and used it themselves. The first traces of these people go back to 1800 BC.
That brings up another interesting aspect about the book -- it is not only the number of people who lived here that is amazing, but also the length…… [Read More]
Has there been any parent contact at the school, prior to, during or after the bullying incident?
3. What are the school guidance counselor's clinical impressions as to the present problem? Underlying issue?
4. What are some of Beth's strengths?
5. Has she been willing to talk in the past about things that may be bothering her? Does she have suicidal ideations? Her response to friend leaving? Lack of friends at the school?
Process Issues for Consideration
The process issues that need to be considered if the child counselor has determined it is beneficial to engage Beth in services include presenting behaviors, attitude and affect. Beth may be much more willing to discuss these issues vs. beginning with something possibly more difficult such as addressing her parent's divorce. The child counselor will also need to address the comments Beth has made regarding herself to determine if there is a risk…… [Read More]