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1992, the U.S. Department of Agriculture proposed the food pyramid as a tool of assessing the healthiness of a diet and as a proposal towards healthy living. While many of the issues that were relevant in the 1992 USDA food pyramid, such as "eating a variety of foods," balancing foods with physical activity" or moderate consumption of alcohol -- general indications for a healthy lifestyle -- the actual reference to food and to what can actually be called a healthy diet has been a point of controversy ever since. We will be proposing three modifications to key points in the food pyramid, according to the reasoning presented here below.
The first issue is the failure of the USDA pyramid to "recognize important health differences between red meat"
and other foods in the group. The risk of consuming red meat is clearly related with increased risk of developing coronary disease, colon…
1. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid. Scientific American. January 2003
2. The Food Pyramid. Release from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. August 1992, revised octover 1996. On the Internet at http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/pyrabklt.pdf
The Food Pyramid. Release from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. August 1992, revised octover 1996. On the Internet at
Part II: Identify several possible solutions based upon the factual resources (NOT opinion) and discuss them in greater detail.
It was deemed that increased competition was necessary in the rail industry, either mandated by Congress, or the (Surface Transportation Board) STB could exert a more forceful regulatory role, to expand access to smaller producers, to reduce consolidation, and mandate competition.
Part III: Conclusion - Pick one of the solutions and tell why it was chosen, also tell why the others were not chosen.
However, while initiatives by the STB were phrased in pro-competitive language, and it insisted to Congress in December of 1998 that it already had done all it could to solve the problem, regional transportation and development organizations were, on the whole, disappointed in its efforts ("Achieving Rail Competition Requires your Support," 1998, ARC presentation). Ultimately, the STB's policy to address the issue offered no specific standards to…
Achieving Rail Competition Requires your Support." (1998). ARC (Appalachian Regional Commission) presentation. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.ams.usda.gov/tmd/LATS/ARCpresentation/ARC%20Pres.pdf
Brennan, William. (1998, Jul). "Long-term Capacity Constraints in the U.S. Rail System." The U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Marketing Service. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.ams.usda.gov/tmd/summit/ch4c.pdf
The management of large organizations is a very crucial issue, whether they are government-related or not (Argyris, 1993; Argyris & Schon, 1978; Broom, Jackson, Harris, & Vogelsang-Coombs, n.d.; Brown & Brudney, 2003; Hatry, 1999; Haynes, 1999). Often, however, the government does not seem to realize that it must manage itself in the same way that a business would in certain aspects if it is to succeed and therefore it does not market itself to the public.
The spending that has been involved with the Department of Homeland Security is also crucial, because it has changed over time to reflect the needs and the realization of what it takes to make the Department work (Eggen & Mintz, 2003). This spending is important to discuss, because it indicates how much of the government's money - and by extension how much of the tax dollars of Americans - is going toward funding this…
Argyris, C., (1993). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Argyris, C. & Schon, D.A. (1978). Organizational learning, a theory of action perspective. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Broom, C., Jackson, M., Harris, J., & Vogelsang-Coombs, V. (n.d.). Performance measurement: Concepts and techniques (3rd ed.), workbook. Washington, DC: American Society for Public administration.
Brown, M.M., & Brudney, J.L. (2003). Learning organizations in the public sector? A study of police agencies employing information and technology to advance knowledge. Public Administration Review. 63(1), 30-43.
Principal Directorates of Department of Homeland Security
Border and Transportation Security
The largest component of the Department of Homeland Security is the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security (BTS). This division is responsible for maintaining the security of the nation's borders and transportation systems. BTS employees about 58% of DHS's total employees, has nearly half of its operating budget, and includes what was formerly TSA, Customs, the border security functions of INS, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and FLETC. Just like the other directorates of DHS, it is managed by an undersecretary of homeland security (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2012).
This department brought together several agencies from such departments as the Treasury Department, the Department of Justice, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Agriculture. The mission of this directorate is to secure the borders and transportation systems of the United States and to…
About the Directorate for Management. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0096.shtm
About the Science and Technology Directorate. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0530.shtmUnited States Department of Border and Transportation Security. (2010). Retrieved from http://homelandsecurity.uslegal.com/department-of-homeland-security/components -
Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.gov.com/agency/dhs/
military tactic, the United States Department of Defense authorized the use of chemical warfare during the Vietnam ar. It was a radical strategy: to eradicate all foliage and ground cover in the war zones in order to prevent guerillas from hiding and therefore sabotaging American troops. The Department of Defense called its chemical warfare program Operation Ranch Hand. Companies like Monsanto and Dow Chemicals designed compounds and named them after the colored drums they were shipped in, and the most famous of these compounds was Agent Orange. Agent Orange left a devastating impact not only in Vietnam but also in the American troops exposed to its deadly chemical compounds like dioxin. Because of the extreme health and environmental ramifications of exposure to Agent Orange, the United States government needs to take responsibility for its actions and offer financial and structural support for the victims at home and in Southeast Asia.…
Department of Veterans Affairs. "VA History." Retrieved: http://www.va.gov/
Farberov, Snejana. "Generation Orange." Daily Mail. 24 Aug 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2401378/Agent-Orange-Vietnamese-children-suffering-effects-herbicide-sprayed-U.S.-Army-40-years-ago.html
Fuller, Thomas. "4 Decades On, U.S. Starts Cleanup of Agent Orange in Vietnam." The New York Times. 9 Aug, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/10/world/asia/us-moves-to-address-agent-orange-contamination-in-vietnam.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Lefler, Dion. "Vietnam veterans speak on effects of Agent Orange." The Witchita Eagle. Aug 13, 2014. http://www.kansas.com/news/article1169345.html
As all these studies show, ethanol is not exactly the environmental darling that many seem to think it is. It is actually helping to raise food prices, it is adding to world hunger, and producing it may be actually adding to global pollution rather than easing it. Much more study needs to be done on all the aspects of biofuels, including ethanol, and Congress needs to take action and stop subsidizing ethanol and other biofuels until they have been much more heavily studied. Biofuels could be the answer to our transportation problems in the future, but for now, they have far too many problems associated with them to be so heavily subsidized and promoted in America.
Brown, L.. (2008, January 24). Why ethanol production will drive world food prices even higher in 2008. etrieved December 1, 2010, from Earth Policy Institute: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2008/update69.
Decesaro, J. (2006, June). Farming bio…
Brown, L.R. (2008, January 24). Why ethanol production will drive world food prices even higher in 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from Earth Policy Institute: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2008/update69 .
Decesaro, J. (2006, June). Farming bio fuels: Growing crops that can be converted into liquid fuels has come a new focus of America's farmers. State Legislatures, 32, 14+.
Gasoline and corn prices are linked. (2008, August). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 137, 14.
Goodell, J. (2007, August 9). The ethanol scam. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from One of America's biggest political boondoggles: http://www.rollingstone.com .
Tesco UK food department
a.) Legislative risks: The decision to provide healthier food by labeling the ingredients on the packages to include the calories, sugar, fat, sodium, and saturated fat content needs to also comply with the U.K. food and labeling law. According to the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of eading, "In most cases, ingredients have to be listed in weight descending order determined as at the time of their use in the preparation of the food. This is commonly referred to as the 'mixing bowl stage'. The following exemptions are however permitted" (A Guide to UK egulations, 2011)
Water and volatile products used as ingredients have to be listed in order of their weight in the finished product. The weight of water is calculated by subtracting from the weight of the finished product the total weight of the other ingredients used.
If an ingredient is…
CSPI Reports International (1998) Functional Foods: Public Health Boon or 21st Century Quackery? http://www.cspinet.org/reports/functional_foods/uk_regltry.html
Feindt, P.H. & Flynn, A. 2009, Policy stretching and institutional layering: British food policy between security, safety, quality, health and climate change, Palgrave Macmillan.
Food Labels: A Guide to the UK Regulations. Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading. http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/label/index2.htm
Lacey, R. 1992, Scares and the British Food System: Problems and Policies in Relation to Food-Related Health Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Limited.
Divisions of This Department
Quality, Metrics and Statistics Division
Wage and Hour Division
List three things from each of the three divisions you learned from exploring the website
Quality, Metrics and Statistics Division
The Quality, Metrics and Statistics division reports on performance management within the state. They report of occupational illness, injury and fatalities within the state. They utilize six sigma related projects which reduces the amount of injury or illness dramatically within the workplace.
Workplace fatalities have steadily declined from 1992 which was the first year that statistics were collected. Fatalities have fallen from a high of 195 per year in 1994 to 127 fatalities per year in 2014.
Over the past three years, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting related deaths has increased by nearly 40% from 16 in 2011 to 27 in 2014.
The Indiana Occupational Safety and Health Administration's primary responsibility is to help…
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214.
Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail
Global Emerging Industry
The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of entering into the industry of either retail of organic food or perhaps the possible agricultural realm of the organic food industry. This work will examine all aspects of the organic food industry in brief as well as exploring the marketing possibilities as well as the financial report of a sampling of those doing business within this industry.
Organic food products are growing in terms of customer demand and that is good news for those in the business and indeed for those who desire to see this industry expand which will offer more choices in health wise consumption to consumers as well as providing employment for those who may be otherwise considered non-employable due to educational limitations and finally this industry may very well provide at least some of the…
10 Reasons to Buy Local Food (2004) [Online] available at: http://www.mariquita.com/articles/10reasons.local.htm
Whole Food Market Investor Relations [Online] located at: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/ investor/fiscal04highlights.html
United States Department of Agriculture (2004) (USDA) News Release No. 0423.04[Online] available at: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/p/s.70a/7010B?contentidonly=true& ; contentid=
Whole Foods Market: Our History [Online] available at:
Macroeconomics -- Inflation
Domestic and national news are constantly talking about the rapid changes and increases in prices of basic commodities today. Prime commodities for a specific economy or country are discussed with the same intensity as changes in the global market prices for important, universal necessities such as oil. Prices of basic commodities are not the only ones susceptible to increasing in value. Services, too, particularly wages, are subjected to increases ultimately driven by union power or collective bargaining agreements between manufacturing companies and corporations and its workforce. Changes in the supply of raw materials used to produce products and commodities and services required to mass produce these products or to provide services on a large scale are the drivers that serve as catalysts to price increases. This increase in prices and costs of products and services over time, respectively, is called inflation (Maunder et al., 2000, p. 147).…
Maunder, P. (2000). Economics Explained. UK: Collins Education.
Tymkiw, C. (2012). "Food prices on the rise as drought worsens." CNN Money Website. Retrieved 23 July 2012. Available at: http://money.cnn.com/2012/07/25/investing/corn-food-prices/index.htm?iid=Popular
USDA ole in America
This report shall be a summary of the role of the United States Department of Agriculture, or USDA. The lens through which the analysis of the agency will be done is the Baldridge Criteria for Performance Excellence. To start with, there will be an organizational profile, a self-analysis and a narrative summary of recommendations that come from the profile and analysis. The seven categories that will be done as part of the Baldridge-assisted analysis are leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, measurement/analysis/knowledge management, workforce focus, operations focus and result. There will be important aspects and details that will be touched up on with each section. While some may dismiss the role of the United States Department of Agriculture as being mundane and unimportant, this could not be further from the truth.
As explained on the United States Department of Agriculture website, the agency…
Hertz, T. (2016). USDA ERS - Farm Labor: Background. ers.usda.gov. Retrieved 28 February 2016, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/farm-economy/farm-labor/background.aspx
OPM. (2016). Federal Leadership Development Programs. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 28 February 2016, from https://www.opm.gov/services-for-agencies/federal-leadership-development-programs/
USDA. (2011). Customer Service Plan. USDA.gov. Retrieved 28 February 2016, from http://www.usda.gov/documents/usda-customer-service-plan-nov2011.pdf
USDA. (2016). About USDA -- USDA. USDA.gov. Retrieved 28 February 2016, from http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=ABOUT_USDA
ut neophytes should not attempt to do this. Halved coconuts can be dried in one of two ways. The first is by letting them dry by the heat of the sun, which takes a longer time. The other and faster way is by heating them. A bamboo house or shack without walls is built at about 3 feet above the ground. It has only a roof and a floor. The halved coconuts are piled on the floor. Some coconut husks are piled beneath the shack but not too close to burn the shack. A torch is used to set fire on these piled coconut husks but they are monitored carefully. More fire is set if it turns low. The halved coconuts turn brown and separate from the shells when ready for scooping. Just enough heat from medium to low is used to avoid burning. When the fruits at the bottom…
Albert, Jose Ramon G. How Important is Agriculture in the Economy? National
Statistical Coordination Board: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2013. Retrieved on May 1, 2014 from http://www.nscb.gov.ph/beyondthenumbers/2013/04122013_jrga_agri.asp
Baas, Stephen and Ramasamy, Selvaraju. Coconut Leaf Pruning in Bicol Region,
Philippines. Technologies and Practices for Small Agricultural Producers, 2013.
A BIEF synopsis of the Australian Blueberry Industry
Introductory Production Information
Australian and World production
Seasonal growth cycle
Native to North America, the blueberry, is also known as bilberries, whortleberries and hurtle berries, (Filippone 2006). The blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae, or Heather family and its growth was regulated by the indigenous peoples of North America (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005). Blueberries are of the genus Vaccinium, which originates from the Latin word vacca, which means cow. Captain James Cook, circa late 1700s, noted in his records that cows really liked to eat this tasty berry (Filippone 2006). The first European settlers recognized these berries to be analogous to kinds of berries found in their land of birth. For example, there's the blaeberry which is found in Scotland, whortleberries in Ireland, bilberries in Denmark, blabar in Sweden,…
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2005. 'Crop Profile for Wild Blueberry in Canada'. Prepared by: Pesticide Risk Reduction Program
Asoex, 2007. Fruit Export Statistics. Chilean Federal Association of Exporting.
AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS (ABS) 2008. Agricultural Commodities: Small Area Data, Australia, 2005-06 (Reissue), ABS No 7125.0.
Australian Blueberry Growers Association (ABGA). 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.australianblueberries.com.au/the_blueberry_story.php
It stated that the future negotiations will "try to achieve substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support" (Beghin, oland-Holst and Van Der Mensbrugghe, 2002).
6. Possible future developments
All in all, the topic on the international trade of agricultural products remains opened for further discussions; and the most likely outcome is an increase in the efforts made by the World Trade Organization to resolve the disputes and complaints of the participants in the meaning of reducing and even eliminating export subsidies, while in the same time easing the access to the markets in the high income countries.
Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue
Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha ound: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and ural Development,…
Ballenger, N., Blaylock, J., 2003, Consumer Driven Agriculture, Amber Waves, Volume 1 Issue
Beghin, J.C., Aksoy, a., 2003, Agricultural Trade and the Doha Round: Lessons from Commodity Studies, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/DBS/PDFFiles/03bp42.pdfon March 9, 2008
Beghin, J.C., Roland-Holst, D., Van Der Mensbrugghe, D., 2002, Global Agriculture and the Doha Round: What Are the Implications for the North and South?, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Retrieved at http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/DBS/PDFFiles/02wp308.pdfon March 9, 2008
Schmitz, a., Koo, W., Moss, C., 2003, International Agricultural Trade Disputes: Case Studies in North America, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
Farmers backbone nation supported ensure a constant high-quality food supply citizens. Dairy farms, examples, assistance government form subsidies order remain competitive continue supply needed dairy products.
Farmers in today's context
Agriculture is the oldest occupation on Earth and the first and still most important means of supporting life. Agriculture was initially manifested through hunting and gathering of wild fruit and vegetable, to gradually evolve into an organized action of land cultivation with the use of developed tools and techniques.
Up until the Industrial evolution, the cultivation of land was the most common human activity and the primary source of food sufficiency. Nevertheless, as machines and equipments were developed, as the steam engine was created and as more and more factories were opened, the people migrated from the rural sites to the urban locations, in search of better lives. Agriculture as such was seconded by work in factories, which came to…
Maneschi, A., 1998, Comparative advantage in international trade: a historical perspective, Edward Elgar Publishing
Winter, M., 2007, Sustainable living: for home, neighborhood and community, Westsong Publishing
2011, Rural and community development, United States Department of Agriculture, http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/!ut/p/c4/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os_gAC9-wMJ8QY0MDpxBDA09nXw9DFxcXQ-cAA_2CbEdFAEUOjoE!/?navid=RURAL_DEVELOPMENT&navtype=SU last accessed on March 15, 2011
2011, The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html last accessed on March 15, 2011
The Herald Tribune also provided that consumers get away with taking raw milk by purchasing ones that are packaged for pets. Small farm owners also get to avoid the law by directly selling their cow milk to neighbours and other willing consumers.
This concern was acknowledged by the State through its Trends and Conditions Statement. Said document stated that "there is an increasing interest in consumption of raw and minimally-processed foods…such as the production of raw milk for human consumption..." Aside from the acknowledgement, the State stressed the need for "active surveillance and compliance activities" to ensure that intake of unpasteurized milk from consumers would be stopped. However, sadly, aside from numerous reports stating the hazardous effects of consuming raw milk, no particular law or action were noted during research of this concern. Said reports are also obviously useless as the Herald Tribune were able to report several farms discretely…
Kennedy, P. (2004) an Overview of U.S. State Milk Laws. Summary of Raw Milk Statutes and Administrative Codes. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://www.realmilk.com/milk-laws-1.html
Guidelines for Mobile Food Establishments and Commissary Letter of Agreement. (n.d.) Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/fs/mobile_guide.pdf
The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Trends and Conditions Statement. (n.d.) Retrieved September 29, 2009 from www.doacs.state.fl.us/LRPP/DACS_Trends_and_Conditions_Statement.doc - 2008-09-29 -
The United States would most likely survive without global food trade because it exports more agricultural products (9.2%) than it imports (4.9%). (CIA - the world factbook) However, the country would be worse off because it would not be trading with the countries that have comparative advantage in producing certain agricultural products and certain products could become scarce and more costly or unavailable.
Food trade has important economic implications because it impacts Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the total market value of all final goods and services produced with a country. One of the components for calculating GDP is exports minus imports. Thus, when a country exports more food than it imports, it increases its GDP and when a country exports less than it imports GDP goes down.
The United States currently imports more than it exports. Estimates for 2007 show imports to be $1.987 trillion while exports were $1.14 trillion…
CIA - the world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html#Econ
State fact sheets: Florida.U.S.Department of Agriculture. Retrieved at http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/FL.htm
Overview of Florida agriculture. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Retrieved at http://www.florida-agriculture.com/agfacts.htm
Trade and agriculture What's at stake for Florida. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved at http://www.fas.usda.gov/info/factsheets/WTO/states/fl.pdf
USDA Certified in Organic Beef on a Family Owned anch
Becoming a certified organic farmer is an expensive and time-intensive process, and, accordingly, a significant decision for any small farmer. The problem is to understand the process by which a family owned ranch could become USDA certified for organic beef. What are the necessary steps and important factors to consider from beginning the process to marketing to retailers?
Understanding USDA Organic
The government-managed organic food certification program is USDA Organic. Within this certification system, organic food production follows guidelines laid out in the Organic Foods Production-Act of 1990 and amended according to Public Law 109-97, Nov. 10, 2005. These regulations take into consideration site-specific conditions "integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity." (USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, 2011) Included in OFPA are rules for farm planning, livestock handling, use of pesticides…
Certified Naturally Grown. (2011). Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from CNG: http://www.naturallygrown.org/
MOSES. (2008). Local and Organic, Not an Either/Or Issue Fact Sheet.
MOSES. (2008). Transitioning to Organic Beef Production Fact Sheet.
Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education. (2010). Grants Information / Grants / SARE Nationwide. (USDA, Producer) Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from SARE Grant Information: http://www.sare.org/Grants/Grants-Information
According to the United States Census Bureau, Pennsylvania's population was estimated as 12,071,842 in 1995, ranking it fifth nationally, with 68.9% urbanized and 31.1% rural, and making it the 25th most urbanized state (Pennsylvania pp). Since 1980, the population growth pattern has been one of increases in the eastern border counties other, rather than Philadelphia and Delaware, in the southern tier counties west to Somerset, along the Susquehanna Valley, and in the other southeastern counties bordering the traditional anthracite producing counties (Pennsylvania pp). Butler was the only western county to grow in population, and Monroe and Pike counties, formerly sparsely populated, grew at astonishing rates (Pennsylvania pp). Between 1980 and 1990, Adams, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, Perry, Union, and ayne grew by ten percent or more, and there has been a remarkably high population growth in the eastern, non-industrial boarder areas, which have been stimulated by improved interstate highways…
Annual Report Pennsylvania Rural Development Council Federal Fiscal Year
http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:d-MBrcPx0GgJ:www.ruralpa.state.pa.us/ruralpa/lib/ruralpa/mainpage/2002.pdf+why+is+middle+pennsylvania+rural& ; hl=en
Black, David E. "Rural Revitalization." Congressional Testimony. March 08, 2000.
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
Gilmore writes, "Carver discovered more than 300 peanut-related products, including milk, cream, cheese, buttermilk, instant coffee, face powder, ink, dyes, vinegar, soap, wood stains and creosote" (Gilmore). He went on to discover a wide variety of products that used sweet potatoes and other items grown in the South, which helped literally recreate agriculture in the early 20th century.
One of the ways Carver's works continue to influence agriculture today is in the use of plant and crop rotation, which is one of the most common methods of rejuvenating the soil today, and Carver discovered it. Another biographer continues, "Carver understood that cotton had depleted the soil of the nitrogen that plants need in order to grow, and he knew that legumes, such as peanuts and peas, had a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that could take inert nitrogen molecules from the atmosphere and convert them into a form plants can use"…
Author not Available. "George Washington Carver: A Mighty Vision Beyond Peanuts." USA Today Magazine; June 2008, Vol. 136 Issue 2757: 4-5.
Editors. George Washington Carver. New York Amsterdam News; Feb. 2006, Vol. 97 Issue 8: 22.
Gilmore, Jodie. "Man of Science -- and of God: George Washington Carver Believed That Providence Guided His Scientific Investigations and That Those Investigations Led to a Better Understanding of God and His Handiwork." The New American 26 Jan. 2004: 35+.
These crops are usually luxury high profit items such as flowers, beef, shrimp, cotton, coffee, and soybeans cultivated for export to well-fed countries. In addition, monocultures are notoriously vulnerable to insect blights and bad weather, and greatly contribute to soil infertility."
Saving Farms - Feeding the Hungry
The answers to this dilemma in feeding the hungry masses are various and diverse depending upon whom is inquired of. However, the only credible solution is to develop sustainability in the local communities, towns and villages of the world. Empowering local individuals in the cultivation and harvesting of their own food. This will take initiatives that until now are only in the imagination of a few and the reality of even fewer.
In the years long gone the family farmer was the backbone of the structure of the world's food supply chain. Planting each year in the spring and toiling through the changing…
Linsmeier-Wurfel, Sara (2005) Michigan agriculture bucking national trends -- Number of small Michigan farms on slow rise; total number of farms and farmland acres remain unchanged Online at http://www.michigan.gov/mda/1,1607,7-125--26841 -- ,00.html
Eight Myths of Economic Globalization (2005) World Trade Observer, Seattle, WA Online available at http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=Eight%0Myths%20of%20Economic%20Globalization
The Political Economy of Land Degradation: Pressure Groups, Foreign Aid and the Myth of Man-Made Deserts, Institute of Economic Affairs, 1995-05-01International Policy Network
Vieth, Warren (2004) Nations Talk Free Trade, but Protectionism Rises, Global Policy Forum Online at http://www.policynetwork.net/
Pescibed Buns to Pevent Wildland Fies
While technology may help solve many poblems in fiefighting, it is man's use of the pescibed bun that is ultimately his best weapon against unwanted wildland fies and the theat they pesent.
Wildland fies continue to theaten the foest aeas of United States at an alaming pace. Although we can neve eliminate them, we can limit the damage caused by wildland fies by using a combination fie suppession, fie pevention, and most impotantly, fie use.
This is the belief of seveal diffeent fie management oganizations including the Society of Ameican Foestes, the U.S. Depatment of the Inteio and the USDA Foest Sevice.
Pevention of foest fies is the message that has been hammeed home to us since we wee all young by eveyone fom Native Ameicans with teas in thei eyes to Smokey the Bea. But nonetheless, pevention still emains a top pioity of…
references several works: a. Society of American Foresters. 1984. Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. Karl Wenger, Editor. p 235. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience; b. MacCleery, D.W. 1992. AMERICAN FORESTS: A History of Resiliency and Recovery. FS-540. Washington, DC: States Department of Agriculture; c. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior. 1995. Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review. Final Report. Boise, ID: National Interagency Fire Center; d. Northern California Society of American Foresters. 1997. Position Statement: The Need for Expanded Wildland Fuel Management in California. Rancho Cordova, CA. ( http://www.safnet.org/policy/psst/psst20.html )
National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, Id.; National Fire News, June 17, 2002.
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
From the author's analysis and historical narrative, it became apparent that food is also a commodity, not unlike manufactured objects or things sold and available commercially. Food is likened to a commodity because it is culture-specific and responsive to the economic state of societies at the time it became popular or highly patronized by the elite, the working class, and the peasants.
An interesting finding from Pilcher's investigation on the history of nouvelle cuisines is a detailed account of how popular food such as sushi and coffee became staples not only in Japan and Western countries, respectively, but also influenced the "landscape" that nouvelle cuisines currently dominate. Coffee and coffeehouses are examples of how a gastronomic product such as coffee became a 'commodity,' in the sense that it became a social habit that both elite and working classes cannot live without everyday (38). In the same vein, sushi became popular…
Badami, a. (October 2000). "Turkey and tamarind chutney: the spices of one's birthplace can cast a magic spell over immigrants to the land of Thanksgiving turkey, muses." The Globe and Mail.
"Globalization of the Processed Foods Market." (October 1996). United States Department of Commerce. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/Summaries/process.htm .
"Ham and Food Safety." (March 2007). United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service. Available at: www.fsis.usda.gov.
(Pilcher text). "Nouvelle cuisines."
beef a small anch make tansition.
What ae the equiements fo natual beef and how would a small anch make the tansition?
To begin with, it is impotant to claify the caption "natual beef," since it is not self-evident what "natual" means. Accoding to a factsheet fom the Food Safety and Inspection Sevice (2011), pat of the United States Depatment of Agicultue, using the tem "natual" on a beef poduct implies the following: the poduct is minimally pocessed and it does not contain any atificial flavoing, coloing o chemical pesevatives. Howeve, within the same factsheet a mention is made suggesting that all companies should explain what the tem "natual" is actually meant to convey. This means that beef obtained fom cattle aised in feedlots, teated with antibiotics and homones and fed fom chemically fetilized pastues can still technically qualify as "natual," even though some consumes might disagee.
On the othe…
references and willingness to pay for natural and regionally produced beef?
Agribusiness, Volume 25, Issue 2, pages 268 -- 285, DOI: 10.1002/agr.20194.
United States Department of Agriculture (2011). USDA Certified beef programs. Agricultural Marketing Service. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ .
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…
Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf
"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms
Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.
United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
One brand of turkey bacon, Oscar Mayer's Louis Rich, was recently given a spot in the Taster's Choice Hall of fame. Such a spot is awarded only to products that are awarded a score of 80 or higher out of 100 in the Taster's Choice taste test (Gold). Despite the opinions of cookbook authors such as James Villas, turkey bacon is clearly a viable substitute for its pork-based counterpart.
Less popular but growing in viability is beef bacon. Bacon purists consider very idea of beef bacon to be ridiculous. Nevertheless, beef bacon is slowly but surely making its way into more and more grocery stores. It is a product that is still easier to find in a butcher shop than a grocery store, but that fact is in the process of changing. For non-pork eaters, beef bacon can be an alternative that is preferable to turkey bacon because it is…
Bacon Today. Bacontoday.com, 2010. Web. 30 May 2010.
"Bacon Makes it All Better." The Early Show. CBS. 4 Nov. 2006. Television.
Gold, Amanda. "One Turkey Bacon Stands Out in the Flock." SFGate.com. 22 Oct. 2008.
Web. 30 May 2010.
They will do this by implementing a strong advertising and promotional campaign, based on the benefits of American soybeans. The campaign will be simultaneously aired on several media channels and will address the identified target market.
The United States of America and China have long been trade partners. In regard to soybeans, the U.S. is world's largest producer, but its position is threatened by Brazil and Argentina. China is the world's largest soybeans consumer, and as their internal capabilities fail to satisfy the demand, they are also the globe's largest importer. A decision to export soybeans to China could result in beneficial outcomes, but only if the market characteristics are entirely respected.
Provance, P., March 2003, Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, http://184.108.40.206/pecad2/highlights/2003/04/chexp/index.html. Ast accessed on June 4, 2008
Song, B., Marchant, M.A., Reed, M.R., Xu, S., 2007, Market Power and Competitive Analysis…
Provance, P., March 2003, Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, http://220.127.116.11/pecad2/highlights/2003/04/chexp/index.html. Ast accessed on June 4, 2008
Song, B., Marchant, M.A., Reed, M.R., Xu, S., 2007, Market Power and Competitive Analysis of China's Soybean Import Market, Contributed Paper Presentation for the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC) July 8-9th, 2007, Beijing, China, Retrieved at http://aede.osu.edu/programs/Anderson/trade/51Song.pdfon June 4, 2008
Targowski, a., Korth, C., China or NAFTA: The World's Largest Market in the 21st Century? January 1, 2003, Advances in Competitiveness Research
1998, China, Island, http://islands.unep.ch/CEZ.html. Ast accessed on June 4, 2008
Some of these nutrients are extremely valuable to humans, such as the salicylic acid that can be found in tomatoes and is the same chemical found in aspirin (orthington 990-991). Considering the benefits identified with aspirin use, who wouldn't rather get the same effects from a natural and pleasant tasting source instead of a bitter pill?
Not only can organic produce provide valuable nutrients better than traditional produce, but the absence of pesticides and other chemicals used on conventional farms is also a boon to the consumer. Synthetic chemical pesticides and herbicides have a notorious history of being dangerous carcinogens. The highest death rates in the United States of certain cancers can be found in the rural farming areas of the country. Migrant workers have also demonstrated abnormally high rates of cancer that have been shown to be linked to herbicide and pesticide use (Steingraber 64). If these substances are…
United States Department of Agriculture. Organic Food Standards and Labels. Brochure.
Dauncey, Guy. "Ten Reasons Why Organic Food is Better." Common Ground, April 2002: 17-19.
Worthington, Virginia. "The Effects of Agricultural Method on Nutritional Quality."
Alternative Therapies, 1998:4.
TACO BELL CASE STUDY.
A2034298 Taco Bell Case Study
On 30th November 2006, officials of Taco Bells Corporation learned that many of their customers had gotten sick with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from eating in one of their restaurant chains in New Jersey. Many cases of E. coli bacteria relating to the Taco Bell kept popping up throughout the Northeast in New Jersey, Delaware, New York and Pennsylvania. Majority of the victims infected were vegetarian, making authorities focus on the produce instead of the ground beef. Green onions got suspected to be the cause of these outbreaks; there was extensive testing of Taco Bell ingredients determined to be the source. As word of this quickly reached the media, more cases continued to be seen. People started asking if the food in Taco Bell would be safe to eat. What caused the E. coli? What were the…
Allison A. Perry, Cynthia G. Reimer, Ross R. Swanes, James O'Rourke and Eugene D. (2004). Taco Bell E. coli Outbreak: Dealing with the News Media. Fanning Center for Business Mendoza College; University of Notre Dame. Available at:
http://business.edu/uploaded files/Academic centers/fanning center for business- communication/cases/TacoBellecolioutbreakDNC.pdf
UK Wine Import Industry
Within this report, an analysis will be provided of the wine import industry in the UK. Initially, an environmental analysis will be provided. This will be followed by a competitive analysis of the UK wine import market. The report will conclude with a summary of key findings.
The history of grapevine cultivation, wine production and wine importing/exporting is both interesting and relevant to understanding the current marketing mix and importation of wine into the UK. While an in-depth historical analyses is beyond the scope of this paper, a brief overview of historical issues of relevance to the importation of wine into the UK and the globalization of the wine industry today will be provided.
Anderson, Norman and Wittwer (2001) have provided a succinct historical analysis of critical issues related to globalization and the wine industry. As described by the authors, grapevines were first cultivated…
Anderson, K. & Norman, D. (2001), Global Wine Production, Consumption and Trade, 1961 to 1999: A Statistical Compendium, Adelaide: Centre for International Economic Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide, AU.
Anderson, K., Norman, D. & Wittwer, G. (2001). Globalization and the World's
Wine Markets: Overview. Discussion Paper No. 0413. Adelaide: Centre for International Economic Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide, AU.
Berry Bros and Rudd (2003). UK Wine Consumption Soars. Wine News, (February 23, 2003). Found at http://www.bbr.com/GB/db/newsitem/457?ID=null&first_news_F=1 .
SWOT analysis in the strategic financial planning process:
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
The FDA, as part of the Department of Health and Human Services, regulates food, drug, tobacco products and other matters that pertain to consumer health and safety. It is charged with "protecting the public health by assuring that foods are safe, wholesome, sanitary and properly labeled; human and veterinary drugs, and vaccines and other biological products and medical devices intended for human use are safe and effective" (What does the FDA do, 2012, FDA).
The FDA's mission of upholding consumer safety is widely supported by the public. It periodically posts information regarding the recall of dangerous products, providing a resource for the public and holding companies accountable. This ensures there will be sustained support for funding the organization. Although there have been calls to cut other departments, in general the public has grown more,…
FDA facing increasing criticism and calls for restructuring. (2009). American Association for Cancer Research. Retrieved at: http://www.aacr.org/home/public--media/science-policy -- government-affairs/aacr-cancer-policy-monitor/aacr-cancer-policy-monitor-february/fda-facing-increasing-criticism-and-calls-for-restructuring.aspx
Layton, Lyndsay. (2011). Food safety advocates decry FDA cuts. The Washington Post.
Retrieved at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/food-safety-advocates-decry-fda-cuts/2011/05/27/AGzY7yEH_story.html
What does the FDA do? (2012). FDA. Retrieved at:
Andrejczak, M. (February 9, 2011). hole Foods raises outlook; shares po
Marketwatch. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://www.marketwatch.com/story/whole-foods-raises-outlook-shares-pop-2011-02-09
Barbaro, M. (May 10, 2006). hole Foods Talks Dollars and Cents. The New York Times.
Retrieved February 24, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/10/business/media/10adco.html
Bloomberg.com. (February 25, 2011). Stocks in U.S. Extend Advance after Consumer
Confidence Exceeds Forecast. Bloomberg. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-25/stocks-in-u-s-extend-advance-after-consumer-confidence-exceeds-forecast.html
Bloomberg.com. (February 25, 2011). Stock Futures Rise; Boeing Climbs on Air Force
Refueling Contract. Bloomberg. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-25/u-s-stock-futures-rise-boeing-climbs-on-air-force-refueling-contract-win.html
Brand Image- hole Foods Market: "Love, love, love." Social Brand Value. Retrieved February
24, 2011 from http://www.social-brand-value.com/2010/07/12/brand-image-whole-foods-market-love-love-love/
Breakfast Run Secures Sponsorship with hole Foods Market. (November 24, 2010).
HUMANRACE. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.humanrace.co.uk/news/35-latest-news/791-breakfast-run-secures-sponsorship-with-whole-foods-market
CBNC.com. (February 25, 2011). hole Foods Financials. Retrieved http://data.cnbc.com/quotes/FMI/tab/7.2
Cultural Sweat. (August 19, 2010). hole Foods Market Launches Healthy Mission App for iPhone. Cultural Sweat. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://culturalsweat.com/2010/08/whole-foods-market-launches-healthy-mission-app-for-iPad-iPhone/
Dustman, R. (July…
Whole Foods Corporate Site. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/
Whole Foods Magazine. (N.D.). Subscriptions. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmagazineonline.com/subscribe
WikiInvest. (N.D.). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/Whole_Foods_Market_ (WFMI)
change dining plan at Texas a&M University
POPOSAL TO CHANGE EQUIED DINING PLAN FO INCOMING FESHMEN AT TEXAS A&M
Freshmen and members of the Corps of Cadets at Texas A&M are required to select a dining plan prior to attending the university however, should the student fail to select this dining plan by the first of August, the student is then automatically assigned to the Good Bull plan. This plan includes 120 meals or approximately seven to eight meals per week. Each plan that is created by A&M University dining has three tiers within the plan. The various University dining plans include: (1) Old Army; (2) Good Bull; and (3) Non-eg. The number of meals varies ranging from approximately two hundred meals to ninety meals each semester. The Old Army meal plan is the most expensive costing $2,070.00 which provides the student with $500.00 dining dollars each semester and then…
Kaib, J. (2014) Here's Why College Meal Plans Suck. The College Fix. 6 Feb 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.thecollegefix.com/post/16235/
Landes, L. (2014) How a College Meal Plan Wastes Money. Consumerism Commentary. Retrieved from: http://www.consumerismcommentary.com/how-a-college-meal-plan-wastes-money/
Porter, S. (2010) Meal Plan Costs Surpass Cash Prices with Pioneer. Indiana Wesleyan University. The Sojourn. Retrieved from: http://www.iwusojourn.com/wp-content/uploads/archive/fall2010/Issue%205.pdf
Williams, L. (2013) Location, Variety Take Priority in Meal Planning. University Business. Retrieved from: http://www.universitybusiness.com/article/location-variety-take-priority-meal-planning
The state of Virginia may be considered a pioneer in wine making in that the very first wine cultivation experiments for the purpose of wine making were held here in the early 1600 (iancalana 2002). y the end of the 1800s, Virginia was already an important wine-producing state, although interrupted by prohibitionism. The industry was revived by local produces and investors who started investing on quality production again in the early 70s. Its present focus is mainly on Chardonnay, although the state also produces local varieties and hybrids as do other states in the east coast. Among its most important white hybrids are Seyval lanc, Vidal lanc and red hybrids Norton and Chambourcin. It also cultivates European species like Chardonnay, Riesling and Viognier for white species and Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and arbera for red species. The most important wine areas in Virginia are Eastern Shore, Shenandoah Valley, Northern…
Biancalana, a (2002). United States of America. ABC Wine: DiWine Taste. 11 pages. Retrieved February 1, 2007 at http://www.diwinetaste.com/dwt/en200622.pdf
2. Geisler, M. (2006). Wine industry profile. Agriculture. 5 pages. Marketing Resource Center
Insel B, et al. (2007). U.S. wine, grapes, and grape products contribute $162 billion to economy. Wine Institute. 4 pages. Retrieved February 1, 2007 at http://www.wineinstitute.org/industry/statistics/2006/us_wine_economic_impact.php
Summer, D.A. et al. (2001). An economic survey of the wine and the winegrape industry in the U.S.A. And Canada. University of California. 35 pages.
The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…
"Battle Over Beef Hormones." BBC News Online. 13 May 1999; pp.
"EU asks for end to beef sanctions.(European Policy News)"
Agra Europe; 17 October 2003; pp.
In "American Earth," Leopold Aldo refers to the "epidemic of ditch digging and land booming" that represents the "conqueror role" that humanity has played for most of its existence (269). The conqueror role presumes that the human species is entitled to use the earth in any way possible to achieve human ends. It is a mentality that leads to wanton destruction and misuse of land. Natural resources are depleted. Aldo also claims that the "conqueror role" precludes human beings from envisioning the aesthetic or practical functions of wilderness. etlands and marshes are particularly vulnerable, for as Aldo points out, even some environmentalists do not recognize their core value in the ecosystem. I agree fully with Leopold's assessment. For one, I appreciate the author's affection for marshland birds and other flora and fauna. Second, I have also witnessed the fact that the earth is filled with "dustbowls" and "rivers washing…
Aldo, Leopold. American Earth. Retrieved online: http://www.scribd.com/doc/137854048/American-Earth-Pg-275-285
EPA (2013). "Organic Farming." Retrieved online: http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/torg.html
Suddath, Claire. "The Problem with Factory Farms." Time. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1983981,00.html
USDA (2013). Overview. Retrieved online: http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/natural-resources-environment/organic-agriculture.aspx#.UYRsCyshKII
Cheap: Chapter 8
Cheap, a Summary of Chapter 8:"Cheap Eats"
Ellen Ruppel Shell takes a critical look at some of the intended and unintended consequences of efforts to produce inexpensive food in Chapter 8 of her book Cheap. Shell argues that our penchant for saving money on our diets is in reality more costly because this practice promotes factory farming. Shell warns that food grown on the factory model is in reality more costly in the long run due to erosion of health, the environment and its impact on humanity.
Shell notes that the modern factory farm is more analogous to a factory than a farm. Agribusiness and the technologies supporting it provide results beyond the capabilities of any ordinary farmer. Genetically engineered livestock fattened on corn and growth hormones in confined facilities and pumped with antibiotics grow to enormous size as do crops grown from scientifically optimized seeds with…
Shell, Ellen Ruppel. Cheap. New York: The Penguin Press, 2009. Print.
Recalls of tainted meat by government authorities
Consumers don't know when and where it's being recalled from III. The Solution -- Disclosure
The Case Against Disclosure
hy Disclosure, ethically, is the right thing to do.
"Tastes like (the California State Legislature is being) Chicken"
Public threats to health and safety in the food industry pose unique ethical quandaries for public health officials. On one hand, full disclosure seems to be the best option. No one wants people, especially children, becoming ill, from tainted food. Even from a capitalist's potentially self-interested perspective, nothing was worse for the fast food industry when a child died from e.coli poisoning from a Jack n' the Box hamburger. Eric Schlosser's landmark Fast Food Nation, the expose of the hamburger and fast food industry was the result, and sales of the chain have been plummeting since the revelation.
However, on the other hand, no…
Lee, Mike. (October 2, 2004)"Recall data to remain secret: Bill to release details on retail sales of possibly tainted meat vetoed by governor." The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved on October 3, 2004 at http://www.sacbee.com/content/business/story/10948904p-11866241c.html
Schlosser, Eric. (2001) Fast Food Nation. Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
USDA treats those details as confidential business information and says secrecy is the key to getting cooperation from meat companies.
The new industrious order developed many more mechanical farming abilities and this helped to drive more farmers out of the fields and into the job market. They began to rely more on bank loans for land and their equipment which put them in debt. If a bad crop season happened the farmer would not be able to pay the bank and would go further into debt until the bank would eventually foreclose on the farm or force the farmer to become a corporate farmer.
880 U.S. population reaches 50,55,783, with farm population estimated at 22,98,000. Forty-nine percent of all employed persons are farmers, and of those, one in four is a tenant, despite the Homestead Acts. With the development of barbed-wire fencing and windmills, plow farming reaches the Great Plains."
In 893 642 banks closed due to a United States economic crisis and more than 6,000 businesses closed. Tens of…
1880 U.S. population reaches 50,155,783, with farm population estimated at 22,981,000. Forty-nine percent of all employed persons are farmers, and of those, one in four is a tenant, despite the Homestead Acts. With the development of barbed-wire fencing and windmills, plow farming reaches the Great Plains."
In 1893 642 banks closed due to a United States economic crisis and more than 16,000 businesses closed. Tens of thousands of small farms closed due to produce prices dropping drastically and quickly.
The farmer became public enemy number one as the public blamed them for the problems with the economy and the banks. They faced anger and adversity as they watched their farms and belongings get auctioned off to people who they used to consider friends. The farmer survived. The farmers worked together buying what they could of each others at auctions and returning them to their owners. They continued to plow and work and toil and the industry survived though it suffered along the way.
NYS Policy Issue Briefing
Sample Policy Memo Template
The issue addressed by the creation and mission statement of the NYS Council on Food Policy is the encroachment of a multitude of factors on the food supply for the state of New York.
The objective is to stabilize and sustain the sources to sufficiently feed the stae of New York.
The policy attempts to do this by bettering the delivery and production of food for the state.
It also seeks to do this by provisioning healthy food throughout the state.
This is a fairly longstanding issues that the state has been dealing with for some time. It addressed this issue at the government level in the latter decades of the 20th century. Its solution was to create the governmental entity referred to as the NYS Council on Food Policy. This solution involves numerous disparate organizations for th sake of deciding policy…
Opponents argue that government has no right to impose higher taxes due to something they seriously oppose and for which they cannot find a reasonable justification. "The "burden of the tax" falls most obviously on the people who pay the taxes. Those who put the money into the public coffers might not enjoy being required to put in even more to provide for whatever group or industry the state chooses. While some people might welcome the opportunity to contribute voluntarily a portion of their well-being for that of others, for most people a government subsidy program entails compulsion rather than contribution."
Opponents have also found that farmer subsidies are no longer being given to those who need them the most. It was originally planned that farm subsidies would support small sized farms. This was done with the intention of promoting agriculture in the country as more and more people would…
Daniella Markheim. Commit to Farm Subsidy Reform to Revive the WTO's Doha Round. http://www.heritage.org/research/tradeandeconomicfreedom/wm1175.cfm
Morgan Rose. Paying for Farm Subsidies. JANUARY 7, 2002 http://www.econlib.org/library/Columns/Teachers/subsidies.html
A Five-Point Defense of Farm Subsidies. http://www.alfafarmers.org/issues/farm_programs.phtml
Liber8, 2008 http://liber8.stlouisfed.org/newsletter/2008/200809.pdf
Food Supply Safe and Adequate?
The question to be answered in this essay is whether or not America's food supply is adequate and safe. The two issues are related.
One of the reasons America has an ample food supply is because of advances made in the biochemistry of agriculture. This affects food coming from both animals and plants.
New advances in herbicides have helped farmers increase the size of their crops. The newer herbicides are biodegradable and rapidly change from something that poisons some living things to chemicals not known to cause harm to plants or animals. Some people worry any time chemicals are added to the food chain, but farmers will argue that they need to make the most effective use of their efforts and their land.
Similar arguments can be made about fertilizers. Most people know that unless farmland is enriched, eventually it will become so depleted that…
Examples in the United States include canned mushrooms" (p. 365). In contrast to the fresh market, the market for canned mushrooms in the United States has been adversely affected by imports, initially from Taiwan but increasingly from mainland China (Zamula 1998).
The research showed that the global mushroom industry has enjoyed significant growth in recent years due to a combination of increased consumer demand and innovative production methods. The research also showed that although fresh white button mushrooms continue to dominate the production and consumption patterns in the United States, demand fell slightly for this category while specialty mushroom categories experienced significant growth. The mushroom industry appears to have weathered the global economic downturn better than some other industries as well, and despite increasing pressure from foreign producers, it is reasonable to conclude that the domestic and global mushroom industries will continue to experience solid growth in the future.…
Chang, S-T. & Buwell, J.A. (2008). Development of the world mushroom industry: Applied mushroom biology and international mushroom organizations. International Journal for Medicinal Mushrooms, 10(3), 10-114.
Dietz, D. (2005, October 12). Forests suddenly off-limits to pickers. The Register-Guard, A1.
Dry fungi. (1997, November). Southern Living, 32, 37-38.
Iqbal, T., Rodriguez, F.A., Mahajan, J. & Kerry, P. (2009). Effect of time, temperature, and slicing on respiration rate of mushrooms. Journal of Food Science, 74(6), 298-303.
More objectivity is however expected from scientists, but their opinions also vary. Specifically, the opinions of those who support growth hormones and those who reject them are all derived from scientific evidence. This in turn means that the results of scientific research could be manipulated and influenced so that the findings are indicative of the desires of those who initiated the study. In this particular sense, the most pertinent situation is revealed by the beef and dairy producers, who hire their own scientists to lead the research process in the direction desired by them.
Aside from these situations however, the scientists who have conducted studies tend to link various health problems with the growth hormones. Some of the side effects to consuming products with residual matters from growth hormones include the onset of early puberty in girls, an increase in the risk of breast cancer, an increase in the risk…
Leonard, a., the story of stuff, the Story of Stuff Project, http://www.storyofstuff.org / last accessed on February 21, 2012
McLaughlin, a. 2011, the effects of growth hormones in food, Live Strong, http://www.livestrong.com/article/98816-effects-growth-hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
Artificial hormones, Sustainable Table, http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
EU scientists confirm health risks of growth hormones in meat, Organic Consumer Association, http://www.organicconsumers.org/toxic/hormone042302.cfm last accessed on February 21, 2012
Fast food is a phenomenon that has become part of the American way of life during the past few decades. However the convenience of fast foods has resulted in major health issues in the country, as well as in the rest of the world. The prevalence of fast food in American society is evident from the fact that "Americans now spend more money on fast food than they do on higher education, personal computers, software or new cars. They spend more on fast food than on movies, books, magazines, newspapers, videos and recorded music ? combined." (Schlosser Eric. 1998)
It is now become common news that obesity has become a major health concern in both developed "Westernized" and less developed countries around the world. One of the major factors that have been blamed for this increase in obesity and obesity related diseases is fast food -- often termed 'junk food."…
Adams. M. The real reason why processed meats are so dangerous to your health. 2005. Accessed August 25, 2005. http://www.newstarget.com/011148.html
(This is an extremely useful article as it covers some of the main reasons why fast food products are detrimental to health. The article was particularly good at outlining the negative aspects of processed foods.)
Berlau, John. "Big Food Fight: When Big Tobacco Was Taken Down by a Rash of Lawsuits, Consumers Were Assured That Other 'Bad' Products Wouldn't Be Targeted. But the Fast-Food Industry Appears to Be Next." Insight on the News 15 July 2002: 12+. Questia. 27 Aug. 2005 .
(An important article that deals not only with the health issues facing the fast food industry but also with the legal aspects and the comparison between the tobacco and fast food industries.)
portrayal of the status of honey and sweeteners that are derived from honey within the U.S. And how this product forms a relationship between the U.S. And other nations. The article gives the quantities that are produced within the U.S. And the imported amounts of honey as well as the demand trend and the consumption of honey. It is shown that the U.S. does not have the capacity to meet its domestic demand for honey hence relies on two thirds of its supplies from the importation of the product. The article further discuses how the reliance on the foreign importations is dangerous for the U.S. economy since factors like weather, where severe rain and hail can easily negatively affect the production of honey in the producing nations like Mexico hence hamper U.S. imports. The future of the U.S. trade with other nations like Mexico, Argentina and Vietnam is also discussed…
McConnell M., (2015). Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook. Economic Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
80s and the 90s, an unknown but virulent cattle disease, called "Mad Cow," destroyed 180,000 livestock in the United Kingdom and some other European countries and plunged other major cattle-producing nations - including the United States - into global panic (Freudenrich 2004). Health experts assured the public that humans were not prone to it. Nonetheless, its symptoms resemble those of an already existing and similarly deadly human nervous condition called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), believed to afflict only those 50 years old and older. CJD was then linked to Mad Cow, but believed to be limited to the older population. In the mid 90s, however, several ritish young people, died of a new variety of disease with similar symptoms to both Mad Cow's and CJD's, this time plaguing the young (nvCJD). In all those troubled years, contaminated ritish cattle were exported to as many as countries, including the U.S.A., as animal…
Dealler, Steve. BSE Statistics. The Pathology Laboratory: Burnley General Hospital, 1999. http://bse.airtime.co.uk/statb.htm
Department of Health. Monthly CJD Statistics. Jan 2004, http://www.doh.gov.uk/cjd/stats/jan04.htm
Freundenrich, Craig C. How Mad Cow Disease Works. HowStuffWorks, 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/mad~cow-disease.htm
Lohn, Martiga. Why Mad Cow Could Happen in America. Natural Health: Weider Publications, Oct-Nov 2001. http://www.findarticles.com
health, safety, nutrition interrelated. How health, safety, nutrition interrelated? Give examples readings relations importance. Think relationship preventative health care health promotion.PAGE 1 Emotional regulation important skill learned early childhood. Your textbook states "One important aspects emotional regulation predicts development. Preschoolers elementary-age children express a great deal anger, hostility, negative emotions show poorer social competence school isolated rejected peers (Eisenberg al,.
Individuals' health is often a cumulative of factors. These come in relation to certain safety extends that a person can assume, as well as other, external elements, external in that they come about as the result of other people's actions. For example, smoking will not only affect the individual in cause but as well those around him. Further, individuals can be predisposed to particular illnesses due to hereditary traits, which is why medical controls, especially for children, are proper safety measures that do not only diagnose but as well help…
Consumer Product Safety Commission. (2013). Recalls: Toys R Us recalls Imaginarium Activity Walker due to choking hazard. cpsc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Recalls/2013/Toys-R-Us-Recalls-Imaginarium-Activity-Walker/
Food Safety and Inspection Service. (2011). Strategic plan FY 2011 -- 2016. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/65602d92-d017-4edc-8536-5ed6aaa6b52a/Strategic_Plan_2011-2016.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=0934ae30-583b-46e9-be35-1603c707228c
Marotz, L.R. (2012). Health, safety and nutrition for the young child (Seventh Edition). Australia, Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Spain, United Kingdom, United States. Retrieved from http://abiiid.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/health-safety-and-nutrition-for-the-young-child-7th-edition.pdf
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Federal Agencies and Climate Change
Climate change is today affecting communities and environment across the world. In response, the federal governments have taken action to help people to adapt to current and potential risks through programs and policies. The federal agencies are taking leadership roles in enabling the state and communities in their adaptation planning and projects. In many countries, such as the United States, policy is set by the President, while the congress has the role to set laws. The Supreme Court on the other hand, is responsible for resolving the conflict of policy (ussell, 2013). This paper will therefore research on the federal agencies and cabinet departments which are important in determining causes of climate change as well as, identifying the ones that formulate and execute policies in response to assertions of climate change.
There are a number of federal agencies and cabinet departments which are responsible in…
Russell, P.R. (2013). Federal Agencies Tackle Climate Change. Roll Call. Retrieved June 11, 2014, from http://www.rollcall.com/news/federal_agencies_tackle_climate_change-223053-1.html
Stephenson, J.B. (2006). Climate change federal agencies should do more to make funding reports clearer and encourage progress on two voluntary programs: testimony before the Subcommittee on Energy and Resources, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Wellman, L. (2014). Climate Change Policy Analysis. EInternational Relations. Retrieved June 11, 2014, from http://www.e-ir.info/2012/10/20/climate-change-policy-analysis/
The study found that while the students sought out information from a variety of sources, the sources they found most valuable were parents, friends, teachers, and school counselors. Students in upper grades (11th & 12th) were more likely than students in lower grades to seek out information, and upper level students were more likely to find school counselors, college resource materials, campus visits, and college representatives as most helpful, compared with lower grade students (9th & 10th) who reported that parents, relatives, or siblings were most helpful. There are several implications of this study for colleges and universities. First of all, as school counselors were cited as an important resource for information, colleges need to work with counselors to make sure they have up-to-date information. Griffin et al. (2010) explain that "erroneous information can lead to unrealistic expectations that may cause students to select goals and take actions that can…
Griffin, D., Hutchins, B.C., & Meece, J.L. (2011). Where do rural high school students go to find information about their futures?. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(2), 172-181. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Hahn, A.,, Coonerty, C. & Peaslee, L. (2003) Colleges and universities as economic anchors: Profiles of promising practices. Retrieved from http://www.compact.org/advancedtoolkit/pdf/HAHN_FINAL_PAPER.pdf
Hardy, D.E., & Katsinas, S.G. (2007). Classifying community colleges: How rural community colleges fit. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2007(137), 5-17. doi:10.1002/cc.265
Ludlow, B.L., & Duff, M.C. (2009). Evolution of distance education at West Virginia university: Past accomplishments, present activities, and future plans. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 28(3), 9-17. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Other than the branch expansion there has been no significant change in their financial structuring. The future does not hold much along these lines as shown in the future projections. Other than conservatively adding lease financing as an option their growth is limited. Past figures from Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC).
However with the possible income gain from selling either their branch of a line of loans they may be able to further expand their existing loan base into larger corporate agribusiness financing. Out of any pool of assets a bank has the option of lending or investing the money. Lending does has a number of advantages both economically a socially: The act of lending usually increases the economic strength of the community, promoting the growth of the community and the bank. Lending also typically creates more deposits at the originating institution because the borrower usually receives an account…
Bielski, Lauren. "Rebuilding the Ultimate Lending Machine: Will Life after Subprime Yield Better Lending Environments?." ABA Banking Journal 100.3 (2008): 45-55
FFIEC. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. (2009). 9 September 2009
Hoffmann, Susan, and Mark Cassell. "What Are the Federal Home Loan Banks Up to? Emerging Views of Purpose among Institutional Leadership." Public Administration Review 62.4 (2002): 461-477
Holdren, Don P. "Community Banks and the Importance of Lending." Review of Business 12.4 (1991): 3-9
What we can take from this is that their pluralistic society was always being threatened. No matter how far a pluralistic society would come in theories, those individuals without the same morality could immediately endanger and void new theories.
Carpenter focuses on the emergence of bureaucratic policy innovation in the U.S. during the Progressive Era, questioning why the Post Office Department and the Department of Agriculture became politically independent writers of new policy and why the Interior Department did not (Carpenter 2001, 4). To explain these developments, Carpenter gives an essentially new theory of bureaucratic autonomy grounded in organization theory, rational choice models, and network concepts.
In Carpenter's opinion, bureaucracies with very distinct goals are able to achieve autonomy when they are able to create and keep a reputation among different coalitions for offering services that are also very distinct (Carpenter 2001, 4) (which is what happened with the Post…
Bertelli, Anthony. & Lynn, Lawrence. Madison's Managers: Public Administration and the Constitution. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Carpenter, Daniel P. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862 -- 1928. Princeton University
Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Genetically Modified Trees
Scientists and environmentalists must join one another in support of genetically modified trees. Biotechnology has afforded mankind a new method for preserving and restoring the natural landscape of the earth through genetic engineering. The use of genetically modified trees will not only help support the natural landscape but also improve preservation efforts and encourage balance between the needs of environmentalists and commercial enterprises.
For thousands of years mankind has relied on trees for economic and health reasons. In recent years however the landscape has significantly changed as more and more natural forests are depleted to due natural and unnatural causes. This has resulted in multiple deleterious effects on both the health, economy and well being of mankind and the environment. Biotechnology has afforded new hope however, allowing researchers to produce artificial trees offering many of the same benefits, if not more benefits than natural forests offer both…
Avise, J.C. 2004. The Hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine and the environment." New York: Oxford University Pres.
Booth, D.E. 1994. Valuing nature: The decline and preservation of old growth forests.
Lanham: Rowman Littlefield Publishing.
Sedjo, R. 2004. Genetically engineered trees: Promise and concerns. Resources for the Future. http://www.rff.org/rff/News/Features/Genetically-Engineered-Trees.cfm . Accessed 10/21/2005.
These were categorized into three aspects, which the care provider could control for the benefit of the patients. These were satisfaction with the punctuality of the caregiver; the quality of interaction between the patient and the caregiver; and the overall dependability of health care. Promptness or punctuality with care or service was rated most highly by both groups. eing on time affected their functioning and comfort throughout the day, specifically with dressing, bathing and daily activities. Promptness was considered the easiest and most controllable aspect for the provider. The quality of interaction made the patients feel safe, respected and valued. And satisfaction with the overall dependability of health care mostly involved the caregiver's following through with the patient's suggestions, especially those by the more frail patients. This last aspect was also well within the control of the health care provider (Kolodonsky, et al.).#
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of…
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of U.S. elders do not have health insurance coverage -- not even Medicare (Online). American Academy of Family Physicians.
http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/media/releases/2004/uninsured-elders-4-1-04 (Accessed 18 August 2009).
Cummings, S.M.; Neff, J.A.; and Husaine, B.A. (2003), functional impairment as a predictor of depressive symptomatology: the role of race, religiosity and social support (Online). Health and Social Work, National Association of Social Workers. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb138/is_1_28/ai_n28983552 (Accessed 18 August 2009)
Kolodinsky, J.; Junghun, N.; Lee, J.K.; and Dorzewiczewski, M. (2001). Degree of frailty and elderly satisfaction with personal care services in a community setting (Online). Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, ProQuest Information and Learning Company. http://www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa5516/is_200101/ai_n21465985. Accessed 18 August 2009).
The apathy of private landowners discussed earlier may be due to the feeling that one may not feel that individual efforts are important. However, the case in Waldo, Florida demonstrates just how important the actions of one individual can be in averting danger.
Bend, Oregon has developed large community efforts to help reduce fuel in the area. They open up the landfill several times a year free of charge to allow citizens to dispose of debris from thinning and pruning (NCS, 2003). Thinning and pruning around houses creates a barrier of defensible space should a fire threaten. The landscape and fire resistance efforts in Bend have become a social factor.
These case studies demonstrate how communities can be spurred into action. The study conducted by eams, Haines, & enner et al., (2005) found owner apathy as the number one obstacle that they faced in preparing communities in case of a…
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(2005) Snapshots: Successful BLM Projects Supporting the National Fire Plan. May 13, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2009 at http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc./medialib/blm/nifc/snapshots0/2005.Par.64322.File.dat/05-13-05.pdf
Davis, C. (2001). The West in Flames: The Intergovernmental Politics of Wildfire Suppression and Prevention. The Journal of Federalism. 31-93): 97-110.
FireWise. (2009). About Firewise. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at http://www.firewise.org .
FireWiseCommunities/USA. (2009). Fire wise Communities/USA. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at
Commercial aviation, therefore, warrants the highest attention to risk management, precisely by virtue of the obvious risks to life and limb first, and devastating financial consequences of materialized risks associated with commercial aviation operations.
Designing and implementing a comprehensive risk management program entails specific components to identify potential risks, evaluate their likelihood of occurrence, the magnitude of harm associated with them, and the interrelationship of their statistical likelihood and extent of potential harm they represent. Program implementation is, in many ways, merely the first step in a long-term comprehensive safety strategy for effective and economical risk mitigation, precisely because the complexities of risk management in commercial aviation.
Consequently, post-implementation procedural monitoring and regular follow-up are necessary to ensure proper redress of any operational oversights and inadequacies, especially those that come to light only retrospectively after initial program implementation. In this regard, statutory requirements are merely the first level of risk…
Accessed October 27, 2007, at http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/risk_management/
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (2005).
Aviation Safety Center. Risk Management; Accessed October 27, 2007, at: http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/av_safety/risk_mgt/index.html