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Depression can have profound and devastating effects on individuals, including the elderly. Since the elderly population is continually aging, it is important that factors involved in treatment interventions for depression among the elderly be investigated to its fullest extent. The purpose of this study is to illuminate the effectiveness of different treatment modalities among the elderly and the influence that personality traits have on outcomes. This proposal aimed to ask two major questions: a) what kind of treatment intervention works best to reduce depressive symptoms among the elderly - antidepressants, psychotherapy, or a combination of the two? And b) what effects do personality traits have on the effectiveness of treatments for depression in the elderly? It is hypothesized that combination therapy will prove to be the most effective treatment intervention, and that autonomous personality traits will be associated with more positive treatment outcomes than dependent personality traits.
A limitation…… [Read More]
Prescription and Nonprescription Medications and Therapies for the Treatment of Depression
Today, depression is among the most commonly diagnosed mental conditions in the United States affecting a majority of the population at some point in their lives (Depression overview, 2017) and the World Health Organization has projected that the disorder will become the leading cause of chronic illnesses in affluent countries by 2030 (Richards & Richardson, 2016). Although the precise etiology of depression remains unclear, the research to date indicates that the disorder is the result of a combination of biological, environmental, psychological and perhaps even genetic factors (Depression overview, 2017). Fortunately, there are a number of efficacious pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that are available for treating depression and most sufferers manage to overcome the debilitating effects of the condition to resume their normal lives. To gain some new insights into this disorder, this paper provides a systematic analysis of…… [Read More]
Depression in Young and Older Women
Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.
Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.
This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.
To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…… [Read More]
Depression continues to be one of most common medical conditions for the elderly.
Percentages of elderly with the illness
Degree of increase in suicidal tendencies of depressed
Wrong assumption that aging necessitates depression.
Difficulty of healthcare providers in recognizing depression.
Increased tendency toward suicidal tendencies in many depressed.
Other individuals immune to depression and suicide despite life problems.
Individuals may not even recognize their own depression
Myths associated with aging including depression
Symptoms may take months to worsen and show up
Aging individuals should be treated similar to younger patients when seen by doctor.
Depression can mask itself in many ways
Up to family and healthcare providers to be vigilant and notice changes.
With care, individuals can be helped.
Depression ranks as one of the most common medical problems in the elderly. The occurrence of this illness among community-dwelling older individuals ranges from 8 to 15% and among institutionalized individuals,…… [Read More]
The nature of depression
Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.
People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…… [Read More]
Psychology and Treatment for Depression
There are many different views on depression, what causes it, and how it should be treated. The two most common options for depression treatment are medication and therapy (Lambert, 2006). These have been used for some time, mostly because they seem to have the highest rates of success. However, some people think that coupling them is the best choice while others feel that only one at a time is what is going to work. There are two points-of-view: that therapy works to "fix" depression, and that medication is what is required to correct depression problems in the population. Both of these are valid points-of-view, and both have their merits. However, whether only one is correct, one has more merit than the other, or a different (or combined) approach should be taken still has to be addressed in order to ensure that depression treatments are…… [Read More]
Depression Among Preschoolers
Depression is an illness where one gets bad feelings that hang on for weeks or even longer. The feelings don't go away that easily just like the way bad feelings do after a day or few hours, it hangs on a bit longer and could as well lead to a disease which ought to be treated. When you one is depressed one feel sad, angry, hopeless and discouraged. Physically one may feel tired all the time and have constant headaches. Different individuals have a number of reasons that makes them depressed such as; work related, family reasons, unfulfilled desires, sickness, financial strains just to name a few. All this are reasons that cause worry but if they change to become uncontrollable it leads to depression (ey & Birmaher, 2009). Those found to exhibit such tendencies are known to be depressed. Such people are unable to think clearly…… [Read More]
Depression in Adolescence
Depression in Adolescents
The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.
In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.
The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]
Depression in Children and Adolescents
Depression is a severe sickness, which is capable of affecting almost all parts of a young individual's life and considerably affects his or her family as well. It can interfere with relationships amidst friends and family members, damage performance at school and limit other academic opportunities. It can result to other health issues because of the impacts it has on eating, physical activity, as well as sleeping. Given that it has several repercussions, it is very vital that the illness is realized and successfully treated. When this is done, the majority of kids can resume with their normal daily lives. Depression is not easily noticeable in kids. The symptoms of depression are frequently hidden in kids by other physical and behavioral complaints. The majority of young individuals that are depressed shall at the same time also have a second psychiatric condition, which complicates diagnosis (APA…… [Read More]
Treatments for PTSD
Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients has varied from one context to the other depending on the nature of the disorder. However, over the years, an increased number of research studies have been conducted to establish the best treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder patients. A number of findings have been made public as further research takes place. This study will critically evaluate three articles whilst comparing group treatment and CBT in the tackling of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This evaluation is valuable considering the increased number of victims of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the society today.
Sloan, Bovin, and Schnurr (2012) support the idea of using group treatment for PTSD as the best option given to patients. In the article, they advance the value of treating patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder as a group. The article gives an overview picture of the benefits accompanied…… [Read More]
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.
The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)
Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…… [Read More]
Depression in Adolescents
Roughly nine percent of the population - an estimated 18.8 million Americans -- suffers from depressive disorders, illnesses that affect the body as well as the mind.
The effects of depression are magnified in children, who are experiencing depression in greater numbers. An estimated 8.3% of teenagers in the United States are suffering from depression, a significant leap from two decades ago. To compound the problem, researchers like Farmer (2002) found that about 70% of adolescents suffering from depression are unfortunately not receiving adequate treatment.
This paper examines the growing problem of depression among adolescents. The first part of this paper is an overview of teen depression, looking at its causes and contrasting teen depression with depression in adults. The next part then looks at the depressive symptoms among teenagers, contrasting these with the symptoms of depression in adults. In the last part, the paper examines the…… [Read More]
So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.
ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.
The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…… [Read More]
The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.
A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.
The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…… [Read More]
Depression and Eating Disorders
The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…… [Read More]
Treatment and Management of Cancer
Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare
The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.
Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…… [Read More]
Then after Homer disappeared, she gave china painting lessons until a new generation lost interest, and then "The front door closed...remained closed for good" (Faulkner pp). Emily's depression caused her to become a recluse.
All three female protagonists are so dominated by male authority figures that their loneliness leads to severe depression, which in turn leads to madness, then eventually acts of violence. None of the women have active control of their lives, however, each in their own way makes a desperate attempt to take action, to seek a type of redemption for the misery and humiliation they have endured by the male figures in their lives.
Curry, Renee R. "Gender and authorial limitation in Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" The Mississippi Quarterly. June 22, 1994. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Faulkner, illiam. "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/wf_rose.html…… [Read More]
When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.
As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).
As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…… [Read More]
Depression in the Lifespan
Depression is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon affecting multiple age cohorts. It is therefore important to understand what differential age-related risk factors account for the manifestation of depressive symptoms, whether precipitating factors are genetic or environmental, also how specific treatment interventions might change depending on age-related needs or age-appropriate interventions. A developmental approach to depression can provide some insight into how clinicians can improve treatment interventions and promote a more nuanced and realistic understanding of the disorder. The symptoms of depression are also likely to be different for different age cohorts, in part due to developmental differences, but also to biological differences in brain structure and chemistry, life experiences and socialization. This topic is important to both clinical and counseling psychology because reframing depression from a developmental perspective can shed light on etiology and best practices.
eview of Literature
Literature has generally not focused on a…… [Read More]
A key strength of the study was that it was the first to show that major depression predicts increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. One of the key limitations of the study was that it only evaluated the role of depression in middle-aged women and not in men. This limits the external validity of the study. In addition, the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, or the measurement of depressive symptoms as opposed to clinical depression only provided indirect support for the link between depression and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Although a majority of the research agrees that a clear connection exists between depression and metabolic syndrome, several sources disagree. Hildrum, Mykletun, Midthjell and associates (2008) are a key example of research that does not support the connection between depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome. This study used a cross sectional study of participants aged 20-89.…… [Read More]
Treatment of Heart Failure in Nursing Home Residents
Heart failure (HF) symptoms may occur because of systemic and pulmonary congestion, structural defects arising on account of HF, structural defects leading to HF, or from treatment complications. At first, studies addressing the issue of heart failure focused on HF patients and decreased left ventricular contraction. As a result, therapies were tested within this patient cluster. This patient cluster's agreed description is HF with LVSD (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) (NCGC, 2010).
In order to treat chronic HF, non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological therapy ought to be utilized for patients. While this condition is quite frequently witnessed among patients living in nursing homes, whether the suggestions put forward in the pharmacological therapy guidelines are implemented within this cluster of patients is unclear (Daamen, et al., 2016).
Owing to the lack of awareness of the precise prevalence of chronic HF, this phenomenon is…… [Read More]
Depression or Oppression: The Yellow Wallpaper
\\"The Yellow Wallpaper\\" is an amazing piece about Charlotte’s descent into mental impairment. Presented in diary form, the text recounts the experiences of Charlotte who is diagnosed with a nervous condition (i.e. hysteria) and is advised by her physician husband that she ought to be exposed to minimal mental stimulation in her path to recovery. Towards this end, she is essentially barricaded in her bedroom – a room wrapped in yellow wallpaper. While Charlotte is at first diagnosed with depression and supposedly put on treatment for the same, what informs her descent into further mental impairment is oppression, as opposed to depression.
It is important to note that human beings happen to be social creatures. What this means is that they thrive on constant interactions with each other. Charlotte is isolated and the only persons she has access to are the nurse and her…… [Read More]
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) "Studies have shown that on any single day (called "point prevalence" by epidemiologists) about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression." It is true then that this condition affects millions of children a year along with their families. Depression itself is mysterious and most likely a necessary function of our psyche, but for many this state of mind can lead to much disastrous and dangerous conditions.
The purpose of this essay is to present a 10-point program that helps parents understand several factors associated with depressive disorders. This essay will list these 10 ideas and provide a baseline of information that can help provide a firmer grasp on some of the more hidden qualities that are present within a depressive disorder.
elax. Depression is common and can be treated. If…… [Read More]
exist on kleptomania. They may include treatment options, background on the disorders, or even how to identify a person suffering from kleptomania. New research however, has begun linking the disorder to others in hopes of better understanding what causes kleptomania and how to effectively treat it. Kleptomania has been linked to compulsive buying and binge-eating disorder. omen are known to suffer more from these disorders than men. This suggests these three disorders may have more in common than initially believed.
Kleptomania is a rare disorder found in both men and women with women producing higher occurrences than men. Shoplifting although similar to kleptomania, is not habitual nor does it produce the same effects that someone suffering from kleptomania would. The disorder is commonly characterized by a need to steal things, sometimes trivial things, in order to feel better or feel in control. Normally people who show symptoms of kleptomania…… [Read More]
It is common for everyone to feel sad for a period of time and such phases tend to phase away after some time. But when such a feeling of sadness and profoundly impacts the daily routine of an individual it is often defined clinically as depression. This form of mental illness tends to happen more in adults compared to children and needs treatment. The consequences of this illness can be serious and sometimes can even lead to suicides if left untreated.
There can be social, psychological, and biological factors behind the development of depression among adults. Stress and strain of daily life or some sad life events can drive an individual to depression. Depression also tends to set in among older adults due to loss of ability to live independently due to a number of factors like limited mobility, frailty, chronic pain or other physical or mental problems.…… [Read More]
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.
Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).
It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…… [Read More]
Depression: Not just a Bad Mood
MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood
The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.
Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…… [Read More]
Anxiety and depression are the most commonly witnessed psychiatric disorders in adolescence. The prevalence of both anxiety disorder and depression increase in the adolescence period and progresses to young adulthood. The final result of these developments is low self-esteem. General prevalence measures for depression stand between 2 to 4%. Recurrence rates are placed at 70% in a span of five years. Point prevalence rates for anxiety disorders stand at 20% and show stability across one's life. Furthermore, anxiety and depression highly co-occur. They also occur along with other psychiatric complications (Lee & Hankin, 2009).
Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety
The CBT (2006) center describes self-image as a circus mirror which remolds the shape and size of a person into one that departs from the way one really looks like. These are perceptions of how we see and think of ourselves, how we think others see us, the beliefs about ourselves, our…… [Read More]
depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "... [an] affliction [that] laid its cause to supernatural intervention, primarily religious in nature. (insworth, p. 48) In the Hindu depression was noted as a struggle between good and evil in which evil would win and "victimize individual humans." (insworth, p.48) In texts from Babylonia and Egypt, gods punished transgressions in the hearts of people and placed on them the depressive curse. The early Hebrew texts allude to the belief that depression in humans reflects the displeasure of Yahweh.
But according to up-to-the-date research, we know that depression is an "innocuous-sounding word... that refers to a potentially disabling illness that affects many but is understood by few." (insworth p.1) Professor Patricia insworth, a leading psychologist on depression, further explains that sufferers often do not…… [Read More]
treatment modalities for conduct disordered adolescent males has primarily been focused on comorbidity. Adolescent males with conduct disorder typically receive individual and family therapy, but when overt behaviors are extreme, pharmacotherapy may supplant insight-based therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and social skills training are complementary approaches to intervention. Using an experimental approach, this study examines the impact of combined intervention approaches on perceived and observed improvement in the expression of problem behavior and life change strategies of adolescent males with conduct disorder.
Adolescents, across the board, experience a range of emotions. Negative impacts of these emotions include struggling with acceptance, self-esteem, isolation, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which can also be a result of instability at home (earight, et al., 2001). In addition to these social effects, many adolescents experience a distorted perception of reality (earight, et al., 2001). On occasion, this distortion may cause them to make poor choices, which demonstrates…… [Read More]
Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.
Unlike…… [Read More]
Homeless Mental Health
Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…… [Read More]
Depression in African-American Adolescents
Etiology of Depression
Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…… [Read More]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013a) reported that in 2005/2006 an estimated 5.4% of all Americans over the age of 12 sought medical help for depression. Americans, however, are far from alone. Globally, 37% of lost life years due to disease have been attributed to mental illness (Insel, 2011). Of this 37%, depression is responsible for a full third. The economic burden of mental illness on a global scale is massive, representing $2.5 trillion dollars in 2010. By comparison, all health care spending worldwide in 2009 reached $5.1 trillion. These statistics suggest mental illness accounts for half of all health care spending globally and depression is responsible for approximately one-third. In addition, mental illness is expected to account for 35% of lost economic output within two decades. Given the substantial impact that depression has on society and the lives of individuals, this essay will review what is…… [Read More]
Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments
Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]
Depression is a term that has multiple meanings. In an economic context, it can mean a continued, long-term decline in economic activity in one or several economies. Depression can also mean a landform that is depressed or sunken below the adjacent area. This definition is for geology and can be used to describe sinkholes. However, the focus of the meaning of the term depression will be examined through the psychological perspective. As defined in psychology, depression is a mood disorder causing an ongoing feeling of loss of interest and sadness. Depression can affect how one feels emotionally and physically, often requiring long-term treatment. This report aims to understand the word depression, its roots, and why it is being used today to categorize a mood disorder.
The word depression has been used for quite some time. When examined as a noun, is was first seen in the late 14th century from…… [Read More]
Depression in Adolescents Group
This group aims at aiding participants in modifying their cognitions, maladaptive schemas, and behaviors. Participants acquire a grasp of how to be more relaxed and occupied in more pleasing activities. Such changes to behavior will trigger the succeeding profounder change levels. Participating individuals will be aided in altering their depressogenic and impractical thoughts as well, to thoughts that are more practical, successively decreasing their depression levels. In order to achieve true, longer-term change, as well as to lower the possibility of recurrence of depression, one needs to modify maladaptive schemas. The group is presented with the 'schemas' idea, group members are aided in distinguishing their respective schemas, and efforts are initiated towards altering schemas. However, one must bear in mind the fact that this process of schema transformation is time-consuming and won't be achieved by the time of the group's termination. Participants in the…… [Read More]
Women and Depression
Depression is among the most studied psychiatric disorders in the world. While it is known that every person will go through periods of mild, short-term depression (following a death, divorce, etc.), there is a growing number of individuals who are experiencing depression on a much more serious scale. Among the research findings is a curious finding that women suffer the condition at a much greater rate than men. Again, this means that women suffer clinical depression at a much greater rate than men. The research has tried to determine the causes, symptoms and treatments for the condition, and there has been some success in this endeavor. In this paper, depression's causes, symptoms and treatments modalities will be examined as they apply to women as a body.
It may seem necessary to discuss symptoms before causes since it is easier to delineate what the symptoms…… [Read More]
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.
Title of paper
The…… [Read More]
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…… [Read More]
psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.
hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.
Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…… [Read More]
Textbook chapters most relevant to this particular component on the relevancy of cost utility and cost effectiveness as it relates to non-pharmacological or supplement treatment effectiveness in comparison to Prozac, will highlight in a balanced manner, the cost benefit of both interventions as evidenced by empirical study. Moreover, the side effects of flouxetine such as nausea, anxiety, insomnia, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of appetite should be taken into consideration when discussing the cost benefit to the client. In addition, any balanced discussion on the subject should include discourse with regard to the propensity for antidepressants to cause increased risk of suicidal ideations as compared to intervention via therapy such as rational emotive or cognitive behavioral therapy (Prigatano & Plinskin, 2003).
Flouxetine, or Prozac continues to be one of the most prescribed antidepressants for those clinically diagnosed with depression. Since its introduction some 20 years ago, Prozac has…… [Read More]
Treatment and support for June Porter sufferer of Depression and Drug & alcohol
The patients using excessive alcohol, drugs, or suffering from other mental and physical illness can only be treated according to the prescribed methods adopted by the doctors and physicians. The usage of drugs and alcohol is also one of the factors that hold the tendency to create a potential for depression. There are other multiple means of developing depression and related mental illnesses. The issues related to June Porter are discussed in the sections below with a solution provided in the concluding section.
Depression is regarded as a one of the mental health issue which cannot be considered as a reaction to everyday normal events. The result of these events might be interpreted in terms of happiness or grief. There are multiple dimensional impacts of depression on human beings. It is…… [Read More]
Coping ith Depression
Depression could be, well, a depressing subject matter to deal with, over the course of an entire 158-page text. However, by emphasizing positive coping strategies that can be adopted by sufferers of depression and the friends and loved ones of those going through a depressed period in their lives, Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton. (Hazeldon, 1995), manages to avoid this potential stylistic pitfall. In fact, if anything, it errs on the side of excessive cheerfulness.
Part of the reason the book has such an upbeat tone is because this work is clearly intended for younger, rather than older adults. It attempts to explain the many causes of depression, the different potential courses of treatment for depression (from therapy to chemical remedies), how to personally manage the disease on a daily basis and how to cope if a family member or friend is clinically…… [Read More]
Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).
Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).
Other Natural Herbs
SAM-e…… [Read More]
("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)
Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)
Another study, described in…… [Read More]
Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
Contemporary Approaches Used for Assessment and Diagnosis
The Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health relates screening tools used for screening for bipolar disorder to include the 'Mood Disorder Questionnaire' (MDQ); the 'Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale'; Differential Diagnosis of ipolar Disorder I & II vs. Major Depressive Disorders; and Obtaining a Family History Through the Use of a Genogram. The MDQ is designed for use as a tool to aid in screening for present and past incidences of mania and hypomania and includes 13 questions related to the symptoms of bipolar disorder in addition to items that assess the clustering of symptoms as well as any functional impairment. (CQAIMH, 2014, paraphrased) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale' can be used to make accurate identification of "both threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder." (CQAIMH, 2014, p. 1)…… [Read More]
Acceptance and Commitment Theory
It largely appears as though Jacob is experiencing signs of depression. There are a number of telltale signs which point to this assessment. One of these signs is he has recently experienced a life-altering event with the loss of his business. Such a loss is especially devastating for this individual because it was his sole source of income, which lends a degree of pragmatism to the sort of anxiety which can rapidly lead to depression (Cadigan and Skinner, 2015, p.293). This notion is compounded by the reality that he seems somewhat unilateral in his interests, claiming his former business was his sole hobby. As such, it appears he feels he has nothing else to turn to in such a time, which might heighten any feelings of depression. It is important to realize such perceptions on his part are likely aggravated by the frustration of being in…… [Read More]
(Mason, ice & ecords, 2005, p.52)
The literature dealing with postnatal depression has sought over many years to understand the phenomena of postnatal depression and to find causal links to external and internal environments that could cause it in certain women. In Grote and Bledsoe the goal of the work was to study the influence of optimism and stress in the life and mind of the new mother and determine if there was a link between the negative and/or positive the led to or helped avoid postnatal depression. The results of this research correlated internal optimism with a reduced risk of postnatal depression but also found causal links between postnatal depression and life stresses. Though internal optimism was able to counter these effects it is clear that the lack of social support that can be linked with life stress still increased the incidence of depression in some women. (Grote &…… [Read More]
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…… [Read More]
Therefore the cognitive performance wasn't improved significantly by the use of DHEA though in the 3 months period only a fleeting effect might have been observed (Wolkowitz et al., 2003, p.1073.)
Vitamin is often prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. A large study which was funded by the federal government showed that the reduced ability to do daily activities is delayed slightly by the intake of vitamin E The useful aspects of vitamin E can be attributed to its antioxidant nature which helps in the protection of nerve cells from chemical deterioration. The physician supervision is necessary when someone takes vitamin E as an Alzheimer treatment. There were high doses of vitamin E used in the federal study and vitamin E when used with other medications can interact negatively including the ones used for preventing the clotting of the blood (Khachaturian, 1992, P.73).
The…… [Read More]
Screening for Depression in Prisoners Using the Beck Depression Inventory" by Boothby & Durham examines depression levels of a random sample of 1,494 prisoners admitted into the North Carolina state prison system between September 1995 and February 1997 using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (1999). The article first addresses its potential significance to the criminal justice and psychological fields; it states that incarceration is an event characterized by lack of control, undesirability, and threat. Situations involving these characteristics typically precede depressive symptoms. eactions to feelings of depression can lead to disciplinary infractions, assault, self-injury, and suicide, among other problems. Boothby & Durham argue that reducing these problems would not only alleviate suffering, but save prisons money. Furthermore, unlike Boothby & Durham's study, existing literature related to screening for depression among prison populations using the BDI focus on specific groups within the prison system, rather than a random, general sample. These…… [Read More]
Counseling a Midlife Woman
A person only is in need of a counselor or a therapist when he or she cannot resolve their issues on their own. People who are undergoing psychosocial problems tend to depend and rely on the counselor too much. They have created this set idea in their mind that their counselor knows how to fix their problems and in doing so they develop a very dangerous dependency on the counselor. (Bond, 2010) It has been noted that sexual and romantic relationships between the client and the counselor have been going on since a long time. However, it was in the 1970s that the American Psychological Associated prohibited sexual intimacies with clients. (APA, 1977)
Transference basically means the past issues and feelings of the client project onto the counselor in the current relationship. Kahn (1991) stated that the client can merely not differentiate the difference and…… [Read More]
' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.
Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…… [Read More]
Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. egularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…… [Read More]
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…… [Read More]
Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.
Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…… [Read More]
In Treatment: Sunil
Intake, Axis 1-5 diagnostic, outline of treatment initiatives specific to Sunil
Sunil is a retired widower from Calcutta who is currently living with his son and his son's family in New York and is experiencing cultural and familial conflicts with the family, as well as physical distress about the arthritis he has in his knee. According to the Axis I: Clinical Disorders of the DSM, Sunil could be said to be experiencing major depression precipitated by his sudden shift in lifestyle and the death of his wife. Although some might classify Sunil as experiencing a personality disorder according to Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder based upon his need for control, it is important to remember the cultural conflicts between himself and his family and the particular, non-Western cultural situation from which Sunil originates.
According to Axis III: General Medical Condition,…… [Read More]