Depression Treatment Essays (Examples)

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Efficacious Treatments for Depression

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25403369

Prescription and Nonprescription Medications and Therapies for the Treatment of Depression
Today, depression is among the most commonly diagnosed mental conditions in the United States affecting a majority of the population at some point in their lives (Depression overview, 2017) and the World Health Organization has projected that the disorder will become the leading cause of chronic illnesses in affluent countries by 2030 (Richards & Richardson, 2016). Although the precise etiology of depression remains unclear, the research to date indicates that the disorder is the result of a combination of biological, environmental, psychological and perhaps even genetic factors (Depression overview, 2017). Fortunately, there are a number of efficacious pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that are available for treating depression and most sufferers manage to overcome the debilitating effects of the condition to resume their normal lives. To gain some new insights into this disorder, this paper provides a systematic analysis of…… [Read More]

References

Depression overview. (2017). National Institutes of Mental Health. Retrieved from https://www. nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml.

Khan, A. & Faucett, J. (2012, July 30). A systematic review of comparative efficacy of treatments and controls for depression. PLoS ONE 7(7), 33-37.

Maletic, V. & DeMuri, B. (2016, March). Chronic pain and depression: Treatment of two culprits in common. Current Psychiatry, 15(3), 41-44.

Nasrallah, H. A. (2015, February). Ten recent paradigm shifts in the neurobiology and treatment of depression. Current Psychiatry, 14(2), 10-13.

Richards, D. & Richardson, T. (2016, September 1). Predictors of depression severity in a treatment-seeking sample. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 16(3), 221-225.

Warren, R. (2014, June). Using CBT effectively for treating depression and anxiety: Modify the elements of CBT to address specific anxiety disorders, patient factors. Current Psychiatry, 13(6), 45-49.

Williams, A. M. & Knox, E. D. (2017, January). When to prescribe antidepressants to treat comorbid depression and pain disorders. Current Psychiatry, 16(1), 55-59.


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Depression in the Young or Old Adult Women

Words: 2252 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96416849

Depression in Young and Older Women

Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.

Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.

This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.

To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.

Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.

Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.

National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
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Depression Continues to Be One of Most

Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34445568

Depression continues to be one of most common medical conditions for the elderly.

Percentages of elderly with the illness

Degree of increase in suicidal tendencies of depressed

Wrong assumption that aging necessitates depression.

Difficulty of healthcare providers in recognizing depression.

Increased tendency toward suicidal tendencies in many depressed.

Other individuals immune to depression and suicide despite life problems.

Individuals may not even recognize their own depression

Myths associated with aging including depression

Symptoms may take months to worsen and show up

Aging individuals should be treated similar to younger patients when seen by doctor.

Depression can mask itself in many ways

Up to family and healthcare providers to be vigilant and notice changes.

With care, individuals can be helped.

Depression ranks as one of the most common medical problems in the elderly. The occurrence of this illness among community-dwelling older individuals ranges from 8 to 15% and among institutionalized individuals,…… [Read More]

References

De Leo, D. (ed) (2004). Suicidal Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.

Evans, G. (2000) Suicide and the elderly: warning signs and helping points.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) of the University of Florida.

Fact sheet FCS2183. Gainesville, FLA.
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Depression the Nature of Depression Depression Exists

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7455366

Depression

The nature of depression

Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.

People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…… [Read More]

References

Joiner, T.E. (2010). Interpersonal, cognitive, and social nature of depression. Mahwah [u.a.: Erlbaum.

Knittel, L. (2013). User's guide to natural remedies for depression: Learn about safe and natural treatments to uplift your mood and conquer depression. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publ.

Stark, K.D. (2010). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford Press.

Wasserman, D. (2011). Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Depression Psychology and Treatment for Depression There

Words: 1768 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58370583

Depression

Psychology and Treatment for Depression

There are many different views on depression, what causes it, and how it should be treated. The two most common options for depression treatment are medication and therapy (Lambert, 2006). These have been used for some time, mostly because they seem to have the highest rates of success. However, some people think that coupling them is the best choice while others feel that only one at a time is what is going to work. There are two points-of-view: that therapy works to "fix" depression, and that medication is what is required to correct depression problems in the population. Both of these are valid points-of-view, and both have their merits. However, whether only one is correct, one has more merit than the other, or a different (or combined) approach should be taken still has to be addressed in order to ensure that depression treatments are…… [Read More]

References

Lambert, K.G. (2006). Rising rates of depression in today's society: Consideration of the roles of effort-based rewards and enhanced resilience in day-to-day functioning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(4): 497 -- 510.

Sharp, L.K., & Lipsky, M.S. (2002). Screening for depression across the lifespan: a review of measures for use in primary care settings. American Family Physician, 66(6): 1001 -- 1008.

Walker, S. (1997). A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine, and Misdiagnosis. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
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Causes of Depression O in Preschoolers

Words: 1736 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87816276

Depression Among Preschoolers

Depression is an illness where one gets bad feelings that hang on for weeks or even longer. The feelings don't go away that easily just like the way bad feelings do after a day or few hours, it hangs on a bit longer and could as well lead to a disease which ought to be treated. When you one is depressed one feel sad, angry, hopeless and discouraged. Physically one may feel tired all the time and have constant headaches. Different individuals have a number of reasons that makes them depressed such as; work related, family reasons, unfulfilled desires, sickness, financial strains just to name a few. All this are reasons that cause worry but if they change to become uncontrollable it leads to depression (ey & Birmaher, 2009). Those found to exhibit such tendencies are known to be depressed. Such people are unable to think clearly…… [Read More]

Reference

Rey, J., & Birmaher, B. (2009). Treating child and adolescent depression. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rutledge, R., & Bannister, T. (2007). The everything parent's guide to children with depression: An authoritative handbook on identifying symptoms, choosing treatments, and raising a happy and healthy child. Avon, Mass: Adams Media.

Huberty, T.J.R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention. New York: Springer.
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Analyzing Depression in Adolescent

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45960897

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

References

Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/

Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at  http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf 

Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential

Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at: http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
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Analyzing Depression in Children and Adolescents

Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62687673

Depression in Children and Adolescents

Depression is a severe sickness, which is capable of affecting almost all parts of a young individual's life and considerably affects his or her family as well. It can interfere with relationships amidst friends and family members, damage performance at school and limit other academic opportunities. It can result to other health issues because of the impacts it has on eating, physical activity, as well as sleeping. Given that it has several repercussions, it is very vital that the illness is realized and successfully treated. When this is done, the majority of kids can resume with their normal daily lives. Depression is not easily noticeable in kids. The symptoms of depression are frequently hidden in kids by other physical and behavioral complaints. The majority of young individuals that are depressed shall at the same time also have a second psychiatric condition, which complicates diagnosis (APA…… [Read More]

Bibliography

APA, & AACAP. (n.d.). The Use of Medication in Treating Childhood and Adolescent Depression: Information for Patients and Families. Parents Medical Guide Workgroup, 1-6.

Egger HL, Angold A. (2006).Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry;47:313-337.

Gibb, B. (2014). Depression in Children. 383.

Gray, P. (2011). The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Play, 459.
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Treatments for PTSD Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress

Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21309840

Treatments for PTSD

Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients has varied from one context to the other depending on the nature of the disorder. However, over the years, an increased number of research studies have been conducted to establish the best treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder patients. A number of findings have been made public as further research takes place. This study will critically evaluate three articles whilst comparing group treatment and CBT in the tackling of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This evaluation is valuable considering the increased number of victims of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the society today.

Sloan, Bovin, and Schnurr (2012) support the idea of using group treatment for PTSD as the best option given to patients. In the article, they advance the value of treating patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder as a group. The article gives an overview picture of the benefits accompanied…… [Read More]

References

Gilman, R., Schumm, J.A., & Chard, K.M. (2012). Hope as a Change Mechanism in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Psychological Trauma, vol. 4(3):

270-277

Mulick, P.S., Landes, S.J., & Kanter, J.W. (2012). Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, vol. 7(1): 23-31

Sloan, D.M., Bovin, M.J. & Schnurr, P.P. (2012). Review of group treatment for PTSD.
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Treatment of Women Offenders The

Words: 3904 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52229761

CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.

Recommendation #2)

The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)

Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bilchik, Shay, Cyntha Seymour, and Kristen Kreisher. "Parents in Prison." Corrections Today Dec. 2001: 108+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

Bjorhus, Jennifer. "Getting into Prison." Columbia Journalism Review July-Aug. 1994: 14+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

Brown, Sammie. "Are Prison Classification Systems Addressing the Diverse Inmate Population." Corrections Today June 2002: 104+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

Chesney-Lind, Meda. "Women in Prison: From Partial Justice to Vengeful Equity." Corrections Today Dec. 1998: 66+.
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Depression in Adolescents

Words: 2145 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23764681

Depression in Adolescents

Roughly nine percent of the population - an estimated 18.8 million Americans -- suffers from depressive disorders, illnesses that affect the body as well as the mind.

The effects of depression are magnified in children, who are experiencing depression in greater numbers. An estimated 8.3% of teenagers in the United States are suffering from depression, a significant leap from two decades ago. To compound the problem, researchers like Farmer (2002) found that about 70% of adolescents suffering from depression are unfortunately not receiving adequate treatment.

This paper examines the growing problem of depression among adolescents. The first part of this paper is an overview of teen depression, looking at its causes and contrasting teen depression with depression in adults. The next part then looks at the depressive symptoms among teenagers, contrasting these with the symptoms of depression in adults. In the last part, the paper examines the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beardslee, William R., Tracy Gladstone, Ellen Wright and Andrew Cooper. 2003. "A family-based approach to the prevention of depressive symptoms in children at risk: evidence of parental and child change." Pediatrics. 112(2): 401-412.

Egger, Helen. 2003. "Recognizing and treating depression in young children." The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter. 19(3): 1-3.

Farmer, Terri J. 2002. "The experience of major depression: Adolescents' perspectives." Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 23(6): 567-586.

Koplewitz, Harold. 2002. More Than Moody: Recognizing and Treating Adolescent Depression. New York: Putnam.
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Depression Currently Depression Is a

Words: 3040 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91861547

So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.

ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.

The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ainsworth, Patricia M.D. Understanding Depression. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000.

American Medical Association. Essential Guide to Depression. New York: Pocket Books, 1998.

Cherlin, Andrew J. "Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science." Demography, Vol. 36, Nov. 1999. Pages 421-28.

Copeland, Mary Ellen M.S., M.A. The Depression Workbook: Second Edition. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, 2001.
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Depression Caused by Steroid Use

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9044167

The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.

A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.

The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…… [Read More]

References

Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).

Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq347steroids.aspx.

Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.

Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/releases/steroids0226.html.
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Depression and Eating Disorders the Eating Disorder

Words: 2168 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29615540

Depression and Eating Disorders

The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
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Treatment and Management of Cancer Diagnosis Obligations

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16892447

Treatment and Management of Cancer

Cancer Diagnosis

Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare

Cancer Diagnosis

The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.

Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…… [Read More]

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Depression in Literature Minnie Wright

Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76509342

Then after Homer disappeared, she gave china painting lessons until a new generation lost interest, and then "The front door closed...remained closed for good" (Faulkner pp). Emily's depression caused her to become a recluse.

All three female protagonists are so dominated by male authority figures that their loneliness leads to severe depression, which in turn leads to madness, then eventually acts of violence. None of the women have active control of their lives, however, each in their own way makes a desperate attempt to take action, to seek a type of redemption for the misery and humiliation they have endured by the male figures in their lives.

orks Cited

Curry, Renee R. "Gender and authorial limitation in Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" The Mississippi Quarterly. June 22, 1994. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.

Faulkner, illiam. "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/wf_rose.html…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Curry, Renee R. "Gender and authorial limitation in Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" The Mississippi Quarterly. June 22, 1994. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved July 28, 2005 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/wf_rose.html 

Gilman1, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper (1899)." Retrieved July 29, 2005 at http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/wallpaper.html

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Why I Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper" 1913. Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/whyyw.html
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Treatment of Sex Offenders the

Words: 1625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9504329

When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.

As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).

As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…… [Read More]

References

Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.

Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
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depression and age related issues

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78887396

Depression in the Lifespan

Depression is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon affecting multiple age cohorts. It is therefore important to understand what differential age-related risk factors account for the manifestation of depressive symptoms, whether precipitating factors are genetic or environmental, also how specific treatment interventions might change depending on age-related needs or age-appropriate interventions. A developmental approach to depression can provide some insight into how clinicians can improve treatment interventions and promote a more nuanced and realistic understanding of the disorder. The symptoms of depression are also likely to be different for different age cohorts, in part due to developmental differences, but also to biological differences in brain structure and chemistry, life experiences and socialization. This topic is important to both clinical and counseling psychology because reframing depression from a developmental perspective can shed light on etiology and best practices.

eview of Literature

Literature has generally not focused on a…… [Read More]

References

Cicchetti, D., Nurcombe, B. & Garber, J. (1992). Developmental approaches to depression. Development and Psychopathology 4(1992): 1-3.

deMello, M.F., Mari, Jdj., Bacaltchuk, J. & Neugebauer, R. (2005). A systematic review of research findings on the efficacy of interpersonal therapy for depressive disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 255(2): 75-82.

Hyde, M., Hanson, L. M., Chungkham, H. S., Leineweber, C. & Westerlund, H. (2015). The impact of involuntary exit from employment in later life on the risk of major depression and being prescribed anti-depressant medication. Aging & Mental Health 1(5): p381-389.

Simmons, M., Wilkinson, P. & Dubicka, B. (2015). Measurement Issues: Depression measures in children and adolescents. Child & Adolescent Mental Health 20(4): 230-241.
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Depression and Metabolic Syndrome Is

Words: 2340 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85883804

A key strength of the study was that it was the first to show that major depression predicts increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. One of the key limitations of the study was that it only evaluated the role of depression in middle-aged women and not in men. This limits the external validity of the study. In addition, the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, or the measurement of depressive symptoms as opposed to clinical depression only provided indirect support for the link between depression and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

Although a majority of the research agrees that a clear connection exists between depression and metabolic syndrome, several sources disagree. Hildrum, Mykletun, Midthjell and associates (2008) are a key example of research that does not support the connection between depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome. This study used a cross sectional study of participants aged 20-89.…… [Read More]

References

Akbaraly, T.N., Kivimaki, M., Brunner, E.J., Chandola, T., Marmot, M.G. Ferrie,

(2009). Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Diabetes Care, 32, 499-504.

American Heart Association. (2010). Metabolic syndrome. Retrieved June3, 2010. From http://www.american heart.org/presenter,

Identifier+4756.
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Treatment of Heart Failure in Nursing Home Residents

Words: 1274 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18136259

Treatment of Heart Failure in Nursing Home Residents

Heart failure (HF) symptoms may occur because of systemic and pulmonary congestion, structural defects arising on account of HF, structural defects leading to HF, or from treatment complications. At first, studies addressing the issue of heart failure focused on HF patients and decreased left ventricular contraction. As a result, therapies were tested within this patient cluster. This patient cluster's agreed description is HF with LVSD (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) (NCGC, 2010).

In order to treat chronic HF, non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological therapy ought to be utilized for patients. While this condition is quite frequently witnessed among patients living in nursing homes, whether the suggestions put forward in the pharmacological therapy guidelines are implemented within this cluster of patients is unclear (Daamen, et al., 2016).

Issue

Owing to the lack of awareness of the precise prevalence of chronic HF, this phenomenon is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barents, M., Horst, V., Voors, A., Hillege, J., & Jongste, M. (2008). Prevalence and misdiagnosis of chronic heart failure in nursing home residents: the role of B-type natriuretic peptides. Neth Heart J., 123 -- 128.

Davidson PM, Cockburn J, Newton PJ, et al. (2010). Can a heart failure-specific cardiac rehabilitation program decrease hospitalizations and improve outcomes in high-risk patients? Eur J. Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17:393 -- 402

Dinkelaker S. (1999) Can A Nurse-Managed Medication Discharge Planning and Follow-Up Program Affect Readmission Rates of Patients with a Diagnosis of congestive Heart Failure?

Daamen, M., Hamers, J., Gorgels, A., Tan, F., Schols, J., & Rocca, H. (2016). Treatment of heart failure in nursing home residents. J Geriatr Cardiol., 44 -- 50.
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Depression or Oppression in The Yellow Wallpaper

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26583009

Depression or Oppression: The Yellow Wallpaper
\\"The Yellow Wallpaper\\" is an amazing piece about Charlotte’s descent into mental impairment. Presented in diary form, the text recounts the experiences of Charlotte who is diagnosed with a nervous condition (i.e. hysteria) and is advised by her physician husband that she ought to be exposed to minimal mental stimulation in her path to recovery. Towards this end, she is essentially barricaded in her bedroom – a room wrapped in yellow wallpaper. While Charlotte is at first diagnosed with depression and supposedly put on treatment for the same, what informs her descent into further mental impairment is oppression, as opposed to depression.
It is important to note that human beings happen to be social creatures. What this means is that they thrive on constant interactions with each other. Charlotte is isolated and the only persons she has access to are the nurse and her…… [Read More]

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Major Depression

Words: 4777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90936662

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be…… [Read More]

References

Abeles, Norman & Victor, Tara (2003) Unique Opportunities for Psychology in Mental Health Care for Older Adults, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice V10 N1

Denton, Donald D. (2003) Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1533-a-1534-a

Fink, Max (2003) Dealing With Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1365-1366

Frank, Ellen & Kupfer. David J. (2003) Progress in the Therapy of Mood Disorders: Scientific Support. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1207-1208
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Childhood Depression According to the National Alliance

Words: 493 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50734484

Childhood Depression

According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) "Studies have shown that on any single day (called "point prevalence" by epidemiologists) about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression." It is true then that this condition affects millions of children a year along with their families. Depression itself is mysterious and most likely a necessary function of our psyche, but for many this state of mind can lead to much disastrous and dangerous conditions.

The purpose of this essay is to present a 10-point program that helps parents understand several factors associated with depressive disorders. This essay will list these 10 ideas and provide a baseline of information that can help provide a firmer grasp on some of the more hidden qualities that are present within a depressive disorder.

Program

elax. Depression is common and can be treated. If…… [Read More]

References

Hoecker, J. (2010). Depression Treatment for Children: What Works? Mayo Clinic, May 2010. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/depression-treatment/expert-answers/faq-20057888

National Alliance on Mental Illness (nd). Depression in Children and Adolescents Fact Sheet. Viewed 15 Feb 2014. Retrieved from  http://www.nami.org/ Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=88551
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Exist on Kleptomania They May Include Treatment

Words: 2765 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64686264

exist on kleptomania. They may include treatment options, background on the disorders, or even how to identify a person suffering from kleptomania. New research however, has begun linking the disorder to others in hopes of better understanding what causes kleptomania and how to effectively treat it. Kleptomania has been linked to compulsive buying and binge-eating disorder. omen are known to suffer more from these disorders than men. This suggests these three disorders may have more in common than initially believed.

Prevalence

Kleptomania is a rare disorder found in both men and women with women producing higher occurrences than men. Shoplifting although similar to kleptomania, is not habitual nor does it produce the same effects that someone suffering from kleptomania would. The disorder is commonly characterized by a need to steal things, sometimes trivial things, in order to feel better or feel in control. Normally people who show symptoms of kleptomania…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chong, S.A., and B.L. Iow. "Treatment of kleptomania with fluvoxamine." Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 93.4 (1996): 314-315. Print.

Grant, Jon, Brian Odlaug, Liana Schrieber, Samuel Chamberlain, and Suck Won. "Memantine reduces stealing behavior and impulsivity in kleptomania: a pilot study." International Clinical Psychopharmacology 28.2 (2013): 106-111. Print.

Grant, Jon E., and Suck Won Kim. "An Open-Label Study of Naltrexone in the Treatment of Kleptomania." The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63.4 (2002): 349-356. Print.

Grant, Jon E., and Marc N. Potenza. The Oxford handbook of impulse control disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
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Adult Depression

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11330607

Adult Depression

It is common for everyone to feel sad for a period of time and such phases tend to phase away after some time. But when such a feeling of sadness and profoundly impacts the daily routine of an individual it is often defined clinically as depression. This form of mental illness tends to happen more in adults compared to children and needs treatment. The consequences of this illness can be serious and sometimes can even lead to suicides if left untreated.

There can be social, psychological, and biological factors behind the development of depression among adults. Stress and strain of daily life or some sad life events can drive an individual to depression. Depression also tends to set in among older adults due to loss of ability to live independently due to a number of factors like limited mobility, frailty, chronic pain or other physical or mental problems.…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, N., Heywood-Everett, S., Siddiqi, N., Wright, J., Meredith, J., & McMillan, D. (2015). Faith-adapted psychological therapies for depression and anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis.Journal Of Affective Disorders, 176, 183-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.019

Carter, M. & Reymann, M. (2014). ED use by older adults attempting suicide. The American Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 32(6), 535-540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2014.02.003

Griffin, A. (2012). Adult Depression and Anger. Philologia, 4(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.21061/ph.v4i1.94

Zivin, K., Wharton, T., & Rostant, O. (2013). The Economic, Public Health, and Caregiver Burden of Late-life Depression. Psychiatric Clinics Of North America, 36(4), 631-649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2013.08.008
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Psychology in Women Depression in

Words: 2562 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3417824



Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn.

Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81).

It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…… [Read More]

References

Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.

Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.

D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.

Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
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Depression Not Just a Bad Mood Mdd

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90318784

Depression: Not just a Bad Mood

MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood

The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.

Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York, NY: Plume.

Cornes, C.L., & Frank, E. (1994). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. The Clinical

Psychologist, 47(3), 9-10.

Cuijpers, P, van Straten, A, Hollon, S.D., & Andersson, G. (2010). The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=13&sid=568ccfe5-0fe6-4429-92a3- cb159b2e4044%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3
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Treatment and Counseling for Low Self Esteem

Words: 1010 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50138933

Anxiety and depression are the most commonly witnessed psychiatric disorders in adolescence. The prevalence of both anxiety disorder and depression increase in the adolescence period and progresses to young adulthood. The final result of these developments is low self-esteem. General prevalence measures for depression stand between 2 to 4%. Recurrence rates are placed at 70% in a span of five years. Point prevalence rates for anxiety disorders stand at 20% and show stability across one's life. Furthermore, anxiety and depression highly co-occur. They also occur along with other psychiatric complications (Lee & Hankin, 2009).

Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety

The CBT (2006) center describes self-image as a circus mirror which remolds the shape and size of a person into one that departs from the way one really looks like. These are perceptions of how we see and think of ourselves, how we think others see us, the beliefs about ourselves, our…… [Read More]

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Depression Has Been Known as a Result

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52116989

depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "... [an] affliction [that] laid its cause to supernatural intervention, primarily religious in nature. (insworth, p. 48) In the Hindu depression was noted as a struggle between good and evil in which evil would win and "victimize individual humans." (insworth, p.48) In texts from Babylonia and Egypt, gods punished transgressions in the hearts of people and placed on them the depressive curse. The early Hebrew texts allude to the belief that depression in humans reflects the displeasure of Yahweh.

But according to up-to-the-date research, we know that depression is an "innocuous-sounding word... that refers to a potentially disabling illness that affects many but is understood by few." (insworth p.1) Professor Patricia insworth, a leading psychologist on depression, further explains that sufferers often do not…… [Read More]

A variety of medical conditions can cause depression. These include dietary

1. http://www.nami.org / deficiencies in vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid. Degenerative neurological disorders may also be to blame such as Alzheimer's disease and strokes or through certain viral infections, such as hepatitis and mononucleosis.1

Depression typically cannot be shaken or willed away. (Becker, p. 187) An episode must therefore run its course until
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Treatment Modalities for Conduct Disordered Adolescent Males

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72411573

treatment modalities for conduct disordered adolescent males has primarily been focused on comorbidity. Adolescent males with conduct disorder typically receive individual and family therapy, but when overt behaviors are extreme, pharmacotherapy may supplant insight-based therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and social skills training are complementary approaches to intervention. Using an experimental approach, this study examines the impact of combined intervention approaches on perceived and observed improvement in the expression of problem behavior and life change strategies of adolescent males with conduct disorder.

Adolescents, across the board, experience a range of emotions. Negative impacts of these emotions include struggling with acceptance, self-esteem, isolation, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which can also be a result of instability at home (earight, et al., 2001). In addition to these social effects, many adolescents experience a distorted perception of reality (earight, et al., 2001). On occasion, this distortion may cause them to make poor choices, which demonstrates…… [Read More]

Subjects were adolescent males previously diagnosed as having conduct disorder (CD) and new to the family therapy milieu. The subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The treatment and control groups were as follows: (A) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) plus a placebo (B) Administration of Fluoxetine; (C) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) (Control Group). A total of 9 subjects were included in the study. All treatment took place in clinical settings and was configured to be individual or family therapy rather than peer-group treatment.

Instrumentation

The unit of analysis is the behavioral and cognitive processing performance changes in individual subjects (patients). Changes in the expression of problem behavior are noted by clinicians. Self-perception scores of the changes in cognitive processing were recorded on the surveys and two CBT instruments. The level of measurement is ordinal as dictated by the scales used in the formal CBT tools, and on the Likert scale used for the structured surveys. The Cognitive Therapy Awareness Scale (CTAS) and the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Supervision Checklist (CBTSC) will be used to measure the effectiveness of the treatment groups (Sudak, et al., 2001; Sudak,
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Depression

Words: 2302 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39910594

Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.

Unlike…… [Read More]

References

Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117 

Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673 

Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
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Treatment for the Homeless

Words: 5851 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27753025

Homeless Mental Health

Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…… [Read More]

References

Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.

Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,

S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women

With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-
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Socially Reactive Depression in African American Adolescents

Words: 2973 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95785604

Depression in African-American Adolescents

Etiology of Depression

Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…… [Read More]

References

Achenbach, T. etal. (22 December 2002). "Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: self, parent, and teacher reports. J of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Boyer, C. (2003). Interview.

Crawford, I. etal. "The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men." J. Of Sex Research 39 (3): 179-189.

Donnel, A. etal. (2001, Oct. 1). "Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance." Journal of Social Psychology 141 (5): 679-687.
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Treating and Preventing Clinical Depression

Words: 1428 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97988991

Depression

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013a) reported that in 2005/2006 an estimated 5.4% of all Americans over the age of 12 sought medical help for depression. Americans, however, are far from alone. Globally, 37% of lost life years due to disease have been attributed to mental illness (Insel, 2011). Of this 37%, depression is responsible for a full third. The economic burden of mental illness on a global scale is massive, representing $2.5 trillion dollars in 2010. By comparison, all health care spending worldwide in 2009 reached $5.1 trillion. These statistics suggest mental illness accounts for half of all health care spending globally and depression is responsible for approximately one-third. In addition, mental illness is expected to account for 35% of lost economic output within two decades. Given the substantial impact that depression has on society and the lives of individuals, this essay will review what is…… [Read More]

References

APA. (2013). Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/changes%20from%20dsm-iv-tr%20to%20dsm-5.pdf .

CDC. (2013a). Depression: Surveillance data sources. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/data_stats/depression.htm .

CDC. (2013b). Mental health: Depression. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/mental-illness/depression.htm .

Insel, T. (2011). Director's Blog: The global cost of mental illness. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2011/the-global-cost-of-mental-illness.shtml .
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Psychological Sociological Cultural and Biological Theories on Depression and Treatments That Take These Into Account

Words: 2590 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91688277

Depression Theories

Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments

Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]

Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47. ]

Conclusion

This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
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Understanding depression

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25909750

Depression is a term that has multiple meanings. In an economic context, it can mean a continued, long-term decline in economic activity in one or several economies. Depression can also mean a landform that is depressed or sunken below the adjacent area. This definition is for geology and can be used to describe sinkholes. However, the focus of the meaning of the term depression will be examined through the psychological perspective. As defined in psychology, depression is a mood disorder causing an ongoing feeling of loss of interest and sadness. Depression can affect how one feels emotionally and physically, often requiring long-term treatment. This report aims to understand the word depression, its roots, and why it is being used today to categorize a mood disorder.

The word depression has been used for quite some time. When examined as a noun, is was first seen in the late 14th century from…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Depression in Adolescents Group

Words: 3394 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83809960

Depression in Adolescents Group

Curriculum overview

This group aims at aiding participants in modifying their cognitions, maladaptive schemas, and behaviors. Participants acquire a grasp of how to be more relaxed and occupied in more pleasing activities. Such changes to behavior will trigger the succeeding profounder change levels. Participating individuals will be aided in altering their depressogenic and impractical thoughts as well, to thoughts that are more practical, successively decreasing their depression levels. In order to achieve true, longer-term change, as well as to lower the possibility of recurrence of depression, one needs to modify maladaptive schemas. The group is presented with the 'schemas' idea, group members are aided in distinguishing their respective schemas, and efforts are initiated towards altering schemas. However, one must bear in mind the fact that this process of schema transformation is time-consuming and won't be achieved by the time of the group's termination. Participants in the…… [Read More]

References

Association for Specialists in Group Work. (2007). Best practice guidelines 2007 revisions. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 33(2). doi: 10.1080/01933920801971184

Clabby, J. F. (2006). Helping Depressed Adolescents: A Menu of Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures for Primary Care. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 8(3), 131-141.

Corey, G., Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Myers, J.E., Willse, J.T., & Villalba, J.A. (2011). Promoting self-esteem in adolescents: The influence of wellness factors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 28-36. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00058.x
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Women and Depression

Words: 2214 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88717040

Women Depression

Women and Depression

Depression is among the most studied psychiatric disorders in the world. While it is known that every person will go through periods of mild, short-term depression (following a death, divorce, etc.), there is a growing number of individuals who are experiencing depression on a much more serious scale. Among the research findings is a curious finding that women suffer the condition at a much greater rate than men. Again, this means that women suffer clinical depression at a much greater rate than men. The research has tried to determine the causes, symptoms and treatments for the condition, and there has been some success in this endeavor. In this paper, depression's causes, symptoms and treatments modalities will be examined as they apply to women as a body.

Causes

It may seem necessary to discuss symptoms before causes since it is easier to delineate what the symptoms…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Edition). Washington, DC: Author

Cirakoglu, O.C., Kokdemir, D., & Demirutku, K. (2003). Lay theories of causes and cures for depression in a Turkish university sample. Social Behavior & Personality, 31(8), 795-799.

Craig, C.D. (2009). Depression, sociocultural factors, and African-American women. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 37(2), 83-91.

Grote, N.K., Bledsoe, S.E., Larkin, J., Lemay, E.P., Jr., & Brown, C. (2007). Stress exposure and depression in disadvantaged women: The protective effects of optimism and perceived control. Social Work Research, 31(1), 19-35.
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Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item

Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983

Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper

The…… [Read More]

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Childhood Depression

Words: 4442 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78449735

Childhood Depression

Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).

Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).

Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).

Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
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Psychiatric Disorder of Childhood Depression The Information

Words: 1390 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22681223

psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.

hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.

Depression

Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. "Major Depressive Disorder." 13 April 2003. http://allpsych.com/disorders/mood/majordepression.html

Mendlowitz, S., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., Shaw, B. "Cognitive Behavioral GroupTreatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v38, p1223. 1999.

National Institute of Mental Health. (Sept 2000). "Depression in Children and Adolescents." NIH Publication No. 00-4744. Available at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm.

O'Conner, Richard. Undoing Depression: What Therapy Doesn't Teach You and Medication
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Enforcement of Psychology Treatment for the Mentally Ill

Words: 8451 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95839705

Psychology Treatment

For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.

Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.

Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
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Prozac Non-Drug or Supplement Treatments

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73897579



Relevant Chapters

Textbook chapters most relevant to this particular component on the relevancy of cost utility and cost effectiveness as it relates to non-pharmacological or supplement treatment effectiveness in comparison to Prozac, will highlight in a balanced manner, the cost benefit of both interventions as evidenced by empirical study. Moreover, the side effects of flouxetine such as nausea, anxiety, insomnia, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of appetite should be taken into consideration when discussing the cost benefit to the client. In addition, any balanced discussion on the subject should include discourse with regard to the propensity for antidepressants to cause increased risk of suicidal ideations as compared to intervention via therapy such as rational emotive or cognitive behavioral therapy (Prigatano & Plinskin, 2003).

Summary

Flouxetine, or Prozac continues to be one of the most prescribed antidepressants for those clinically diagnosed with depression. Since its introduction some 20 years ago, Prozac has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). APA practice guidelines for major depressive disorder (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Antonuccio, D., Danton, W., & DeNelsky, G. (1995). Psychotherapy vs. medication for Depression: Challenging the conventional wisdom with data. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 6, 574-585.

Barrett, B., Byford, S., & Knapp, M. (2005). Evidence of cost-effective treatments for depression: The McSad utility measure for depression health states. Journal of Affective disordersI, 84, 1-13.

Chambless, D., & Hollon, S. (1988). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
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Porter Treatment and Support for June Porter

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62158693

Porter

Treatment and support for June Porter sufferer of Depression and Drug & alcohol

Depression

Drug

Alcohol

Support

The patients using excessive alcohol, drugs, or suffering from other mental and physical illness can only be treated according to the prescribed methods adopted by the doctors and physicians. The usage of drugs and alcohol is also one of the factors that hold the tendency to create a potential for depression. There are other multiple means of developing depression and related mental illnesses. The issues related to June Porter are discussed in the sections below with a solution provided in the concluding section.

Depression:

Depression is regarded as a one of the mental health issue which cannot be considered as a reaction to everyday normal events. The result of these events might be interpreted in terms of happiness or grief. There are multiple dimensional impacts of depression on human beings. It is…… [Read More]

References:

Mental Health Information Service (2010a).Dual Diagnosis. Retrieved From: http://www.mentalhealth.asn.au/

Mental Health Information Service (2010b).Depression.Retrieved from: www.mentalhealth.asn.au

National Health and Medical Research Council (2009).Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol.

National Health and Medical Research Council (2009).Australian guidelines to reduce health risksfrom drinking alcohol.Retrieved from: www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications
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Role of Depression and Medication

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97936366

Medication adherence is delineated as the magnitude to which patients take medications as recommended by their health-care providers. Correct and accurate adherence to a treatment plan, particularly taking medication on a regular basis and as recommended in the prescriptions is a shared clinical challenge not only for clinicians but patients as well. The population growth of older adults continues to magnify and increase with the baby boomer age group almost coming to their age of retiring. The inference of this is that there is an increasing necessity for enhancing healthcare results amongst patients suffering from heart failure. Self-care discrepancies have been established to be considerably linked with deleterious healthcare results amongst heart failure patients. It has been conveyed that patients with heart failure who show diminished self-care capabilities in undertakings like medication compliance have recurrent hospitalizations and dwindled quality of life (Britz and Dunn, 2010).

Medication adherence is a multi-faceted…… [Read More]

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Herbs as Treatment Treating Depression

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29754448



Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).

Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).

Other Natural Herbs

SAM-e…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/wellness_concerns/community_depression/treating_depression.php

Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.

Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of st. john's wort and imipramine for treating depression: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 321:536-539.
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Coping With Depression Could Be Well a

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18902043

Coping ith Depression

Depression could be, well, a depressing subject matter to deal with, over the course of an entire 158-page text. However, by emphasizing positive coping strategies that can be adopted by sufferers of depression and the friends and loved ones of those going through a depressed period in their lives, Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton. (Hazeldon, 1995), manages to avoid this potential stylistic pitfall. In fact, if anything, it errs on the side of excessive cheerfulness.

Part of the reason the book has such an upbeat tone is because this work is clearly intended for younger, rather than older adults. It attempts to explain the many causes of depression, the different potential courses of treatment for depression (from therapy to chemical remedies), how to personally manage the disease on a daily basis and how to cope if a family member or friend is clinically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carter, Sharon and Lawrence Clayton. Coping with Depression. New York; Hazeldon, 1995.

Depression may range in severity from mild symptoms to more severe forms that include delusional thinking, excessive somatic concern, and suicidal ideation, over longer periods of time. The DSM-IIIR requires the presence of at least five of the symptoms listed above for a diagnosis of major depressive episode.
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St John's Wort Depression in

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96325619

("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)

Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)

Another study, described in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/depression/causes.asp

Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical

Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11939866&query_hl=2
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Planning for Diagnosis and Treatment

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12197589

Diagnosis and Treatment Planning

Contemporary Approaches Used for Assessment and Diagnosis

The Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health relates screening tools used for screening for bipolar disorder to include the 'Mood Disorder Questionnaire' (MDQ); the 'Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale'; Differential Diagnosis of ipolar Disorder I & II vs. Major Depressive Disorders; and Obtaining a Family History Through the Use of a Genogram. The MDQ is designed for use as a tool to aid in screening for present and past incidences of mania and hypomania and includes 13 questions related to the symptoms of bipolar disorder in addition to items that assess the clustering of symptoms as well as any functional impairment. (CQAIMH, 2014, paraphrased) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale' can be used to make accurate identification of "both threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder." (CQAIMH, 2014, p. 1)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bipolar Disorder (2014) Mayo clinic. Diseases. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20027544

Bipolar Disorder (2014) University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from:  http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/bipolar-disorder 

Bipolar Disorder Screening (2014) Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health (CQAIHM). Retrieved from:  http://www.cqaimh.org/tool_bipolar.html 

Bipolar Disorder Treatment (2014) NHS. Retrieved from:  http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bipolar-disorder/Pages/Treatment.aspx
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Treating Depression with ACT

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65207672

Acceptance and Commitment Theory

It largely appears as though Jacob is experiencing signs of depression. There are a number of telltale signs which point to this assessment. One of these signs is he has recently experienced a life-altering event with the loss of his business. Such a loss is especially devastating for this individual because it was his sole source of income, which lends a degree of pragmatism to the sort of anxiety which can rapidly lead to depression (Cadigan and Skinner, 2015, p.293). This notion is compounded by the reality that he seems somewhat unilateral in his interests, claiming his former business was his sole hobby. As such, it appears he feels he has nothing else to turn to in such a time, which might heighten any feelings of depression. It is important to realize such perceptions on his part are likely aggravated by the frustration of being in…… [Read More]

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Stress and Depression Among Adolescents

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98170852



Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).

Conclusion

Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from  http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .

Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.

Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com.

Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
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Postnatal Depression Lit Review in

Words: 1318 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68432596

(Mason, ice & ecords, 2005, p.52)

The literature dealing with postnatal depression has sought over many years to understand the phenomena of postnatal depression and to find causal links to external and internal environments that could cause it in certain women. In Grote and Bledsoe the goal of the work was to study the influence of optimism and stress in the life and mind of the new mother and determine if there was a link between the negative and/or positive the led to or helped avoid postnatal depression. The results of this research correlated internal optimism with a reduced risk of postnatal depression but also found causal links between postnatal depression and life stresses. Though internal optimism was able to counter these effects it is clear that the lack of social support that can be linked with life stress still increased the incidence of depression in some women. (Grote &…… [Read More]

References

Clemmens, D.A. (2002). Adolescent Mother's Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm. Adolescence, 37(147), 551.

Conway, K.S., & Kennedy, L.D. (2004). Maternal Depression and the Production of Infant Health. Southern Economic Journal, 71(2), 260.

1995). Depression a Multimedia Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Frye, a.A., & Garber, J. (2005). The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(1), 1.
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Alzheimer's Treatment Alzheimer Disease Is

Words: 1104 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19392244

Therefore the cognitive performance wasn't improved significantly by the use of DHEA though in the 3 months period only a fleeting effect might have been observed (Wolkowitz et al., 2003, p.1073.)

Vitamin E

Vitamin is often prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. A large study which was funded by the federal government showed that the reduced ability to do daily activities is delayed slightly by the intake of vitamin E The useful aspects of vitamin E can be attributed to its antioxidant nature which helps in the protection of nerve cells from chemical deterioration. The physician supervision is necessary when someone takes vitamin E as an Alzheimer treatment. There were high doses of vitamin E used in the federal study and vitamin E when used with other medications can interact negatively including the ones used for preventing the clotting of the blood (Khachaturian, 1992, P.73).

Neurotransmitters

The…… [Read More]

References

Wolkowitz, O., Kramer, J., Reus, V., Costa, M., Yaffe, K., Walton, P., et al. (2003). DHEA

treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology, 60(7): 1071-1076. Retrieved April 1, 2010, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12682308 

Khachaturian, Z. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: new treatment strategies. New York: Wiley

Interscience.
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Screening for Depression in Prisoners Using the

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93936011

Screening for Depression in Prisoners Using the Beck Depression Inventory" by Boothby & Durham examines depression levels of a random sample of 1,494 prisoners admitted into the North Carolina state prison system between September 1995 and February 1997 using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (1999). The article first addresses its potential significance to the criminal justice and psychological fields; it states that incarceration is an event characterized by lack of control, undesirability, and threat. Situations involving these characteristics typically precede depressive symptoms. eactions to feelings of depression can lead to disciplinary infractions, assault, self-injury, and suicide, among other problems. Boothby & Durham argue that reducing these problems would not only alleviate suffering, but save prisons money. Furthermore, unlike Boothby & Durham's study, existing literature related to screening for depression among prison populations using the BDI focus on specific groups within the prison system, rather than a random, general sample. These…… [Read More]

References

Boothby, Jennifer L. & Durham, Thomas W. (1999). Screening For Depression in Prisoners

Using the Beck Depression Inventory. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 26: 107-124.

Eack, Shaun M., Singer, Jonathan B., & Greeno, Catherine G. (2008). Screening for Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: The Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories.

Community Mental Health, 44: 465-474.
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Counseling a Midlife Woman Depression a Person

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65795892

Counseling a Midlife Woman

Depression

A person only is in need of a counselor or a therapist when he or she cannot resolve their issues on their own. People who are undergoing psychosocial problems tend to depend and rely on the counselor too much. They have created this set idea in their mind that their counselor knows how to fix their problems and in doing so they develop a very dangerous dependency on the counselor. (Bond, 2010) It has been noted that sexual and romantic relationships between the client and the counselor have been going on since a long time. However, it was in the 1970s that the American Psychological Associated prohibited sexual intimacies with clients. (APA, 1977)

Transference basically means the past issues and feelings of the client project onto the counselor in the current relationship. Kahn (1991) stated that the client can merely not differentiate the difference and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (1977). Ethical principles of psychologists (rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Author

Bond, T. (2010). Standards & Ethics for Counseling in Action. 3rd ed. London: Sage publications.

Kahn, M. (1991). Between therapist and client. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Kennedy, E. And Charles, S. (1990). On becoming a counsellor. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.
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Self-Harm Treatment Self-Harm Classification and

Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27672759

' A cognitive behavioral therapist might ask, what will harming yourself do to improve your grades on the test? Cognitive therapies in general have been shown to be more effective than traditional supportive talk therapies when treating anxiety conditions because they offer concrete steps for self-improvement on a continuing basis (Reeves 2003, p1.). Patients are also asked to identify things they would like to do in which current behavior patterns prevent them from engaging, such as wearing short-sleeved shirts.

Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapy shows a higher success rate in anxiety disorders and OCD than traditional psychotherapy, likely because of its behavioral component. The fact that many DSH patients are diagnosed with BPD may complicate treatment, but BPT responds well in some instances to these therapies, too. BPT patients manifest disordered patterns of relationships, thinking, behavior, and coping mechanisms that contribute to unstable life patterns as well as contribute to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bland, Ann R., Georgina Tudor & Deborah McNeil Whitehouse (2007, October). Nursing care of inpatients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.

Retrieved from FindArticles.com on February 16, 2009 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3804/is_200710/ai_n21099913?tag=content;col1

Mangnall, Jacqueline & Eleanor Yurkovich. (2008). A literature review of deliberate self-harm.
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Physiological Effects and Treatments for

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68982866



Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. egularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…… [Read More]

References

1. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Pajusco B, Fornasiero a, Mezzelani P, Lechi a. [Clinical manifestations of cocaine abuse]. Ann Ital Med Int. Oct-Dec 2004;19(4):291-301; quiz 302-293.

2. White SM, Lambe CJ. The pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. J Clin Forensic Med. Mar 2003;10(1):27-39.

3. Velasquez EM, Anand RC, Newman WP, 3rd, Richard SS, Glancy DL. Cardiovascular complications associated with cocaine use. J La State Med Soc. Nov-Dec 2004;156(6):302-310; quiz 311.

4. Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Novel approaches to the treatment of cocaine addiction. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(1):13-25.
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Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2973543

Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and Anxiety in the Canine

Anyone who has ever owned a dog that was scared of certain events, objects or people can readily testify to how profound the fear can be in various breeds of canines. In fact, more than half of Americans own dogs today, and the number continues to increase. The symptoms of such fear and anxiety can range the entire spectrum from mild to life-threatening conditions, and pet owners, military and police dog handlers, veterinarians and others concerned about the welfare of their animals will need all of the help they can get when confronted with these types of conditions in their household dogs and other canines. To this end, this paper provides an overview of the problem including causes and symptoms of fear and anxiety in canines, followed by a critical analysis of the current and peer-reviewed literature concerning the pharmacologic treatment…… [Read More]