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He also presents several appendixes with facts and data about the Gulf War, from lists of coalition and Iraqi forces in the war, to lists of prisoners of war and coalition members killed. In fact, the appendixes are so detailed; they take up more than half the pages of this book.
This book is much more than a promotional piece, it is a detailed and important history of the war, from start to finish, and it is a good reference for anyone wishing to dig deeper into the war and its outcome. He writes of the end of the war, President George Bush addresses the United States. He announces that 'Kuwait is liberated. Iraq's Army is defeated.' He further states that at 12 a.M. Eastern Standard Time 'all U.S. And Coalition forces will suspend further offensive combat operations.'"
One of the best features of the book are all the illustrations.…
Bush, George H.W. Address to the Nation on the Invasion of Iraq (January 16, 1991). Miller Center for Public Affairs. 2009. 1 April 2009. http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3428 .
Editors. The Gathering Storm. Naval Historical Center. 2009. 1 April 2009. http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/dstorm/ds2.htm .
Hutchison, Kevin Don. Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm Chronology and Fact Book. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Pike, John. Operation Desert Shield. Global Security.org. 2009. 1 April 2009. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/desert_shield.htm .
Starting at that point, Saudi Arabia became divided into the supporters of the U.S.-led coalition, which were the members of the royal family, and the anti-western views promoted by Osama bin Laden and other wealthy, but not royal Saudis. The opposition to the royal family viewed them as protecting their own interests and not being true Muslims. Religion was used by these extremist groups to justify the opposition towards the royal family and their status in Saudi Arabia.
Kostiner, Joseph, State, Islam and opposition in Saudi Arabia: the post desert storm phase, July 1997, found on http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/1997/issue2/jv1n2a8.html;
Margolis, Eric, bin Laden was right: Saudi royal family are "Traitorous American Stooges," August 8, 2005, found on http://edstrong.blog-city.com/bin_laden_was_right__saudi_royal_family_are_traitorous_ameri.htm;
ackground note: Saudi Arabia, ureau of Near Eastern Affairs, October 2006, found at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm;
Osama bin Laden, 2001, found on http://www.adl.org/terrorism_america/bin_l.asp;
Osama bin Laden, found on http://www.rotten.com/library/bio/crime/terrorists/osama-bin-laden/.
ackground note: Saudi Arabia, ureau of…
Kostiner, Joseph, State, Islam and opposition in Saudi Arabia: the post desert storm phase, July 1997, found on http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/1997/issue2/jv1n2a8.html ;
Margolis, Eric, bin Laden was right: Saudi royal family are "Traitorous American Stooges," August 8, 2005, found on http://edstrong.blog-city.com/bin_laden_was_right__saudi_royal_family_are_traitorous_ameri.htm;
Background note: Saudi Arabia, Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs, October 2006, found at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm ;
Osama bin Laden, 2001, found on http://www.adl.org/terrorism_america/bin_l.asp ;
The Effects of Operation Desert Storm on Human Behaviors, Human Expression and Ethics
In early 1991, the United States launched Operation Desert Storm in response to Saddam Hussein’s invasion and occupation of Kuwait while the American public held its collective breath to see whether Hussein’s threat to wage “the mother of all battles,” including threats to use chemical weapons of mass destruction, would come to fruition. Although the Iraqi military was never able to live up to their leader’s claims, the political and social fallout from this successful prosecution of this regional war by the United States had long-term implications for American political and military leaders alike. This topic is important to analyze today because the Middle East remains a global hotspot with the very real potential to erupt in other conflicts with Western powers in general and the United States in particular. To determine the facts, the overarching…
In 1990 Saddam Hussein invaded and annexed Kuwait, Iraq’s neighbor, over a dispute regarding oil production and debt. Iraq had protected Kuwait during the Iran-Iraq War the previous decade and Hussein wanted the debt owed by Iraq to Kuwait canceled. He also accused the U.S. and Israel of meddling and saw Kuwait as a puppet state of the West. Operation Desert Storm was coalition effort to push back Saddam Hussein and Iraqi forces to ensure Kuwaiti independence. George H. Bush declared that Iraqi soldiers were committing heinous atrocities in Kuwait (though these claims were later disproven). The war was thus based partly upon a fabricated narrative so that American forces could be used to drive Hussein out of Kuwait and prevent him from annexing the small state and becoming more powerful. While it was a brief war, lasting a little over a month, Desert Storm essentially laid the groundwork for…
AP. “Mission Accomplished.” 2003. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/arts/books-and-media/decision-points-by-george-w-bush/article1314721/
Bush, George. “Announces War Against Iraq.” Jan 16, 1991. Youtube, 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxFlsHiGyYA
Bush, George. “Victory speech,” The New York Times, Mar 7, 1991. https://www.nytimes.com/1991/03/07/us/after-war-president-transcript-president-bush-s-address-end-gulf-war.html
Crabb, Cecil and Kevin Mulcahy. “George Bush’s Management Style and Operation Desert Storm.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 25.2 (1995): 251-265.
Kellner, Douglas. “Bushspeak and the politics of lying: presidential rhetoric in the ‘war on terror’.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 37.4 (2007): 622-645.
Walton, Douglas. “Appeal to pity: A case study of theargumentum ad misericordiam.” Argumentation 9.5 (1995): 769-784.
A military end state refers to a number of vivid signs that signify all military goals have been accomplished. These signs are part of the standards used to indicate the end of a given military operation. They actually point out that the military is no longer the main device in the government’s hand in accomplishing further goals. As such, it is important for the military end state to be definite and straightforward. A number of easily determinable signs should be provided. The military should also be able to come to these signs in the course of its operations. With a distinct military end state, the key stakeholders are able to set major goals which can be mutually worked on. The stakeholders are also in a better position to plan similar operations in the future (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017).
In this case study, the military end state was…
This alliance brought an end to the illusion that the war in the Gulf was for humanitarian purposes and the restoration of democracy, since Assad, who killed 20,000 of his own citizens to quell an uprising in Hama, Syria, was comparatively more dictatorial than Saddam himself."(Fingrut, 1993)
In close connection with the geopolitical positioning of the kingdom of Kuwait and the regional alliances lay Western interests for oil. Head and Tilford noted in this sense that "the United States also feared a reduction in the flow of oil from Kuwait, especially for its Allies in Europe." (Head and Tilford 17) Indeed, it had become common knowledge that the Iraqi leadership had established the new foreign policy guidelines in terms of acquiring and controlling Kuwait's oil reserves. This attitude was determined by the acute economic crisis Saddam had led his country into, after the eight-year war with Iran. Therefore, his extensive…
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. (Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996)
Fingrut, David. Operation Desert Storm. Out right disinformation scheme. SEED Alternative School. Toronto, 1993. 23 March 2007. http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/Vietnam/gulf-war-fingrut.html#Bush
Head, William, and Earl H. Tilford, eds. The Eagle in the Desert Looking Back on U.S. Involvement in the Persian Gulf War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
IR Theory in Practice Case Study: The Gulf War, 1990-1991. (n.d) 23 March 2007. http://www.gulfweb.org/
The Galveston City is a narrow island adjoining the Galveston bay. Marked by its distinct geographical position its highest point is only 8.7 feet above sea level. This Gulf city was devastated by one of the worst ever storm to strike America on September 8, 1900 claiming the lives of more than 8000 people and total destruction of properties. (Estimated at $30 million in 1900). The hurricane created giant waves up to 8 to 15 feet high and the water from the swelling waves inundated the whole of the city and washed away everything on its path. In the book "Isaac's Storm" Erik Larson describes how Isaac Monroe Cline, a chief staff of the American meteorological department studied the progress of this devastating storm and how it had an destructive effect on the business climate of this once commercially vibrant city. Let us briefly analyze the effects the…
Erik Larson," "Isaac's Storm', Vintage Open Market Edition, May 2000
Texas Watch Online," 'Galveston Benchmark', Accessed on April 9th, 2003
3) University of Texas, "Galveston," Accessed on April 9th, 2003
" (Yates, n. d.)
3. Whether or not the U.S. military has overcome the fundamental obstacle to achieving force readiness prior to the commencement of combat operations
The U.S. army no doubt is capable of producing the desired results in the proper time as and when it is demanded to operate anywhere in the world operation Just Cause which by today's standard is remote proved that the army was capable of speed and efficiency but showed that after the initial attack there was a lack of coordination in bringing civil unrest and chaos under control. The war in the Persian Gulf - which in fact has two series of operations, first the 'Eagle' and later the "Desert storm' involved sophisticated weapons and systems across continents proved some of the weakness of the army. The fiasco of operation Eagle ought to make us question the current setup of having so many…
Adams, Thomas K. (1998) "U.S. Special Operations Forces in Action: The Challenge of Unconventional" Routledge
Brown, John. S. (2006, Sep) "Operation Just Cause: The Incursion into Panama"
Retrieved 20 February, 2008 at http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/Just%20Cause/JustCause.htm
De Toy, Brian M. (2004) "Turning Victory into Success: Military Operations after the Campaign" DIANE Publishing.
military readiness intrinsically declines the longer a military encounter is prolonged due to the wear and tear exacted by war. As such, it is important to gauge a country's level of military preparedness at the outset of any martial encounter to truly assess its readiness for protracted combat situations. There are a number of sources that attest to the fact that at the end of the 20th century, the United States' military preparedness -- which would soon be tested in the new millennium by a number of martial engagements, the most eminent of which include Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, were insufficient. A thorough examination of the results of the former operation (which is still ongoing) and certain key factors relating to military size, personnel availability and training, equipment, and most saliently funding, as compared to those near the end of the 20th century in Operation Desert Storm…
Kaufmann, W. (1994). "Hollow forces': Current issues of U.S. military readiness and effectiveness." The Brookings Institution. 12 (4): 24-29.
Kreisher, O. (2013). "U.S. military funding cuts are eroding readiness to a level that may be difficult to overcome." Naval Forces. 34 (3): 4. Retrieved from Paige, S. (2001). "Under siege one reason our military's readiness is down: We won't let them train." American Enterprise. 12 (7). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=3ccf5fe4-0b95-48eb-90aa-de33c85a6438%40sessionmgr111&vid=2&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=5151435
Ray, D. (2000). "Is the U.S. military prepared to fight?" Insight on the News. 16 (41): 18. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?sid=c1e995c8-da05-4b40-bcc4-1f5c7bb02e7c%40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bwh&AN=3740770
Spencer, J. (2000). "The facts about military readiness." www.heritage.org. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2000/09/bg1394-the-facts-about-military-readiness
Iraq invaded Kuwait. The invasion lasted a few days and on August 8th Iraq announced that Kuwait was its nineteenth province. The same day the invasion began, the United Nations denounced the attack and passed Resolution 660, which condemned the Iraqi invasion and called for immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. The United States began mobilizing its military on August 7th.
y the time the UN deadline arrived in January of 1991, The United States had amassed hundreds of thousands of troops in the Persian Gulf Region. The war began on January 17th with bombing sorties. Over the next month, 67,000 sorties would be flown over Iraq. Operation Desert Storm was launched on February 24th, and Coalition ground forces entered the fight. The war was won in less than four days. The cease-fire began on 8am, February 28th. Iraq was defeated and Kuwait was liberated.
In a strategic sense, Operation…
April Glaspie Transcript." What Really Happened. 1996. What Really Happened. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/ARTICLE5/april.html
Chronology of the Kuwait Crisis." The Kuwait Information Office. 2004. The Kuwait
Information Office. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.kuwait-info.org
Final Report to Congress: Conduct of the Persian Gulf War." Apr 1992. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html
Expeditionary Air ase
Tallil airbase in Iraq
Paper I.D.: 46255
Story of an Expeditionary Airbase
Tallil, Iraq Airbase
The purpose of this work is to research Tallil Air ase in Iraq providing a brief history of the base from the time of Operation Desert Storm to the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The question of how Tallil was built into OIF planning and when it was decided that Tallil would be a desired location for a base will be answered as well as why it was considered a key location and who initially took the base as to the military unit and whether it was a forcible entry. The questions of who secured the base, whether there was inter-service coordination, what was there when the U.S. military arrived to start building and how the base was then built will be answered as well. Finally the issues of whether there was…
Dobbins, John Col. (2004) Airpower 101: An Expeditionary Air Base Model Air & Space Power Journal September 2004.
Menon, Parvathi (2003) World Affairs: A Past in Peril Frontline Vol.20, Issue 7, 29 Mar - 11 Apr 2003 [Online at: http://www.flonnet.com/fl2007/stories/200304110 0020 6500 .html]
U.S. Department of State: International Information Programs (2003) Washington 05 April 2003 [Online at: http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/2003/04-05.htm ]
Budiansky, Stephen (2003) Air War: Striking In Ways We Haven't Seen 2003 April 6 [Online at: http://www.budiansky.com/Washpost0406.html
The Returning of Soldiers from Combat in America
Although Earnest Hemmingway's, "Soldiers Home" (187) was written in 1925, and the war at that time was different, there are several things in the story that still ring true today for servicemen. In "Soldiers Home" (187) Krebs, the main character in the story goes through some changes while he is away fighting in the Marine Corps. Krebs was a young man from Kansas who is in college at the time that he is drafted into the Marine Corps. So he leaves his friends and family to go overseas to fight for his country, as do the young men and women of todays armed forces. As told by the author Krebs fights in some of the toughest battles that were ever fought, "Belau ood, Soissons, Champagne St. Mihiel, and The Argonne Forrest" (187), he feels out of place when…
With Krebs not really trusting his parents, and his loss of love as well the author shows the reader several issues that can affect a soldier returning home from combat. Along with the loss of interest in relationships, and not having a reason to interact with the towns people or even listen to his parents, they all show some of the struggles facing returning servicemen and women then and today, and that they have faced upon their return from foreign places where they have been busily waging war for the entire twentieth century (Associated Content)
The problems with the American soldier returning home from combat are worse than people may think. They go a lot deeper than people may think. They can range from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, hearing loss, anxiety, depression, and even isolation. These are the problems that are unseen by society and have been written about since at least 1925. Hemingway's story is not prescient or "ahead of its tie" because it recognized and described the issues of coming home from war in ways that can be identified with modern diagnoses and that reflect modern experiences. Instead, it is the simple commonality of the experiences of warfare that existed in the First World War and that still exist in today's military conflicts that makes this work still relevant. The fact that Hemingway so accurately describes a case of post Traumatic Stress Disorder doesn't matter nearly as much as the fact that this disorder still exists, and for the same reasons it existed nearly a hundred years ago. Until mankind learns to end warfare, traumas like those experienced by Krebs and by real soldiers in ongoing wars will continue to lead to the development f psychological disorders like PTSD as described in "Soldier's Home" and by countless servicemen and servicewomen that have served honorably in places of combat today.
As Krebs returns home from war in 1919, he is faced with issues of being back in the civilian society. Whether a soldier fought in World War I, World War II, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Somalia, or Iraq and Afghanistan, the problems of the returning veteran are handled the same then as they are now personally, within the soldier and with the general public.
War Without Victory
Nominally, the United States achieved victory in the first Gulf War. However, the decades of fighting in the Middle East, punctuated by the second Gulf War demonstrate that the United States was not victorious in that war. However, equally clear is the fact that Iraq was not victorious. This paper examines the politics behind the Gulf War including deterrence, diplomacy, power struggles, and military and political implications to come to the conclusion that there was no victor in the Gulf War.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, ordered an invasion of Kuwait (A&E, 2013). This action alarmed other countries in the area, and these countries asked for intervention from other countries and from the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council responded by ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The United States, working with and through the United Nations, attempted to use deterrence…
A&E Television Networks. (2013). Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from History.com website: http://www.history.com/topics/persian-gulf-war
Morgan, P. (2012). The state of deterrence in international politics today. Retrieved May 5,
2013 from Contemporary Security Policy website: http://www.contemporarysecuritypolicy.org/assets/CSP-33-1%20Morgan.pdf
PBS. (2010). The Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from American Experience
Gulf War of 1991. The writer explores the history, the cause, and the war itself. The writer uses several sources to illustrate what the U.S. government bas dints decision to go to war on and how well received that decision was by the American public.
As the U.S. gears up for a probable attack on Iraq American minds turn back the hands of time to 1991 and the Gulf War. The war became nicknamed "Desert Storm" and that is exactly what it turned out to be. A storm that raged across the desert with such force it quelled any hope of defense from the Iraqi Army. Desert Storm was one of the shortest wars in history but it showed the world that the U.S. has not become a complacent party to wrongs committed by others. It demonstrated the strength and veracity by which America is capable of flexing its power…
Cary, Peter, Duffy, Brian (1992). A Desert Storm accounting., U.S. News & World Report, 03-16-1992, pp. 35-37.
Duffy, Brian (1993). Saddam Hussein: The Energizer bully., U.S. News & World Report, pp p. 58.
Duffy, Brian. (1992)The ground war., U.S. News & World Report, 01-20-1992, pp. 51-56.
Author not available (1992). The untold history of the war., U.S. News & World Report, pp p. 8.
General Norman Schwarzkopf
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. was born in Trenton, New Jersey on August 22 in the year 1934. He was named after his father, who was a est Point graduate and a decorated veteran of the Armed Forces, much like the younger Schwarzkopf has now become. General Schwarzkopf himself graduated from est Point in 1956 and has become one of our generation's most brilliant military leaders. He retired in the fall of 1991, shortly after successfully leading the Allied Troops into the Persian Gulf ar earlier that year.
Growing up as the youngest of three children, Schwarzkopf was taught from an early age that women were to be protected, that men were to protect them and that "Duty, Honor Country" would become the creed of his life. hen his father was called overseas during the onset of orld ar II in August of 1942, he became the…
Birnbaum, Jesse. THE GULF WAR: THE COMMANDER Stormin' Norman On Top. Time, 02-04-1991, pp.28
Duffy, Brian. A Desert Storm Accounting. U.S. News & World Report. 03-16-1992 pp.35-37
Fischer, Dean. THE GULF: The Desert Bear. Time, 10-15-1990, pp.52
Roberts, Tom. Viewpoint: Who Is Our Neighbor? National Catholic Reporter, 05-19-2000 pp.13
One of the great challenges the military faces is remaining current and preparing the current and future generations of soldiers for inevitable shifts to the geopolitical environment, technological changes, and shifts in both domestic and foreign policies. The importance of preparing officers for the new realities of unpredictable environments and non-state actors cannot be underestimated.[footnoteef:1] The roles and goals of the AMSP and SAMS have not changed. These educational programs provide the requisite advanced and specialized knowledge to foster critical thinking and strategic analysis among military leaders. What must be remembered, however, is the need for organizational awareness and the willingness to change. [1: Edward B. Bankston, Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.]
This analysis points out the importance of analyzing post-Cold War realities and adapting AMSP and SAMS programs accordingly to include such things…
Bankston, Edward B., Boards vs. Bureaucracies: Field Grade Officer Education in the United States Army, 1946-1985. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2013.
Beck, William T., Developing Army Leaders Through CGSOC/AMSP and BCTP. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Goble, Jeffrey J., Wants and Needs: SMAS' Relationship with the Army. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2008.
McKinley, Matthew R., An Assessment of the Army Officer Education System from an Adult Learning Perspective. School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, 2005.
Although the absolute magnitude of group differences on measures such as the BDI may appear moderate, the finding that 22% of troops deployed to the Persian Gulf reported at least mild levels of depression on the BDI compared to 9% of those who served stateside within the first year of such military duty is of clinical significance (p. 422)."
Amy B. Adler (1996), writing for Military Psychology, points out that soldiers experiencing the highest levels of combat stress were those exposed to dead troops and civilians, but exposure to their own fallen comrades, people with whom they had bonded, resulted in the highest levels of stress (p. 2).
The goals of the study were to identify the extent of PTS symptomatology following redeployment and to identify the relation between such symptoms and rank and type of traumatic exposure. It was hypothesized that soldiers who had been exposed to the most…
Adler, Amy B. "Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology among U.S. Soldiers Deployed to the Gulf War." Military Psychology 8.1 (1996): 1-14. Questia. 7 Mar. 2008
What all of the above makes clear is that, while Navy pilots may have played a smaller role in one-on-one combat than pilots from other service branches, naval support was critical to the victory in Gulf War I.
While it is easier to view war as a collection of nameless, faceless soldiers, the reality is that a war is really a collection of personal stories. On January 22, 1991, a downed American Navy pilot was rescued by an Air Force team. It was "the first successful such mission over hostile territory in the war with Iraq."
The pilot "had ejected after being hit by Iraqi ground fire, and had parachuted into a bleak, empty stretch of the Iraqi desert."
The operation to rescue him took eight hours, four of them in Iraqi territory. To rescue the downed pilot, members of the rescue crew had to destroy an Iraqi…
Atkinson, R. (1993). Crusade: the untold story of the Persian Gulf War: Chronology.
Retrieved October 3, 2009 from Frontline
Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/cron/
Marolda, E. (2001). The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf. Retrieved October 3, 2009
5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
OLE OF THE U.S. 5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
foreign aid to Bahrain, where the U.S. Fifth Fleet is centered, constitutes directly to the U.S. Government's aims to maintain safety in the Persian Gulf. Bahrain is the only Arab state that has led one of the Coalition Task Forces that move around the Gulf, and has issued to move its flagship in support of the formation counter-piracy mission. As suggested by Edward & Marolda (1998) U.S. aids assists Bahrain, which have no oil wealth of its neighbors, get the training and equipment it requirement to operate alongside U.S. air and naval forces. U.S. military access to Bahrain also uplifts the operations in Iraq,…
1. Michael A. Palmer, On Course to Desert Storm: The U.S. Navy and the Persian Gulf (Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1992), 122.
2. OPLAN 1019 Arabian Gauntlet," GlobalSecurity.org. Available from http://www. globalsecurity.org/military/ops/arabian-gauntlet.htm (accessed November 1, 2009).
3. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 33.
4. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 32-35.
Iraq War Summary
While the second Iraq War was extremely mixed in its results, outcomes and process, the first one was much more successful. Indeed, it made presiding General Norman Schwarzkopf a national hero. This report will cover the buildup of the forces, the ground force surge, the air campaign, an assessment of the battle overall and a conclusion that ties up all of the above. While everything could always be done better, the way in which the Coalition Air Campaign paralyzed the Iraqi forces and thus made it much easier for the ground forces to then win the war was done exquisitely well and it is the ground forces that truly won the day.
Buildup of Forces
The first war in Iraq, commonly referred to as the Gulf War, occurred in 1990 and 1991. The war was in response to the invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. Indeed, Iraq…
Ahmed, H.H. (1991). Iraq's conduct of the Gulf crisis: A critical assessment. Arab Studies Quarterly, 13(1/2), 11.
Cigar, N. (2014). Did Iraq expect a nuclear Desert Storm? Deterrence, paradigms, and operational culture in a weapons of mass destruction environment. War In
History, 21(3), 274-301.
Head, W. (2013). The Battle for Ra's Al-Khafji and the Effects of Air Power January 29-
At the time, Little had wondered how he could procure such a low cost weapon when cost estimates based on historical precedents placed the price at $68,000 (p. 2). In April 1994, the Joint System Program Office selected McDonnell Douglas in St. Louis, and Lockheed Martin in Orlando from five original competitors to design the tail kits and to submit proposals to win the development and follow-on production contracts, worth about $2 billion (Ingols & Brem, p. 1). When informed by Little that the price for the individual JDAM units might be higher than expected, General McPeak flatly informed him that, "By god, if it's one cent over, I don't want it" (quoted in Ingols & Brem at p. 9).
What are your recommendations for action?
There were some valuable lessons learned in the JDAM initiative that could be used to develop some useful best practices for similarly situated projects…
Frame, J.D. (2003). Managing projects in organizations: How to make the best use of time, techniques, and people. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ingols, C. & Brem, L. (1998, July). Implementing acquisition reform: A case study on Joint Direct Attack Munitions. Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Systems College Management.
Lorell, M., Lowell, J., Kennedy, M. & Levaux, H. (2000). Cheaper, faster, better? Commercial approaches to weapons acquisition. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Friedman also added that most of the countries which are least globalized don't trade in goods and services, pluralism or tolerance and ideas with other countries since they have no chance to interact freely or move freely without restrictions nor move their goods and services freely without being charged.
Friedman also argues that globalization has its advantages and disadvantages but for a country to succeed, it should approach it with the right institutions and governance so that it can get the best out of it .He also adds that those countries which have succeeded have globalized sensibly but steadily and they have ended up to open politically .
Friedman also added that in those countries that have globalized, some people prefer to go faster while some prefer to phase out currency controls and subsidize gradually leaving behind the west countries where some college students and academicians are still debating whether…
Thomas .L. Friedman, (2002). Globalization, Alive and Well. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/22/opinion/globalization-alive-and-well.html .
Jayan Nayar, (2007). People's Law: Decolonizing Legal Imagination. Retrieved November 8,
2011 from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/lgd/2007_1/nayar/
Stephen M. Walt (2010). Hawks, Doves and Realists. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://walt.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2010/07/28/hawks_doves_and_realists
Powell was unanimously approved by the Senate and became the first African-American to hold that position. His service as Secretary of State is a clear example of his reticence, yet readiness, for war. hile Powell is known for "the so-called Powell doctrine -- that U.S. military power only be used in overwhelming strength to achieve well-defined strategic national interests," (answers.com 3) he made a famous speech to the United Nations in which he voiced support for the war in Iraq. Although he clashed with the often "hawkish" members of the Bush hite House such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, "one of Powell's best known moments as secretary of state was his speech last year  to the U.N. Security Council in which he made a case for invading Iraq" (King 3). The initial invasion of Iraq was billed as necessary by the Bush hite House because of the threat…
Academy of Achievement. "Colin Powell Biography." January 11, 2006. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/pow0bio-1
America's Promise. "General Powell's Message to America." 2006. http://www.americaspromise.org/WhyHere.aspx?id=124
Answers.com. "Colin Powell." 2006. http://www.answers.com/topic/colin-powell
King, John; Koppel, Andrea; Malveaux, Suzanne; Labotte, Elise. "Powell resigns with three other Cabinet secretaries." http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/11/15/powell/
invading Iraq. The writer argues that an invasion at this time is not necessary or prudent when there are so many bigger threats facing the U.S. The writer discusses why Iraq is not a threat at this time and why an invasion would be inappropriate. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
For more than a decade the nation of Iraq has been at odds with the U.S. Saddam Hussein, who is the leader of Iraq, has alternately allowed then refused weapons inspections throughout the last decade, even though he had agreed to them following the Desert Storm War of 1991. More recently, the President of the United States has focused attention on a possible invasion of Iraq based on the current war against terrorism that the U.S. launched following the WTC attack of 9-11. President Bush has invested many hours and speeches in an effort to convince…
Author not available (2002). BRAZIL CALLS FOR U.S.-IRAQ DIALOGUE TO AVOID WAR., Xinhua News Agency, 09-12-2002.
Author not available (2002). WHY AREN'T SADDAM'S NEIGHBORS AFRAID OF HIM?., The Palm Beach Post, 08-02-2002, pp 19A.
Wallace, Richard (2002). U.S. warn Bush over war., The Mirror, 08-14-2002, pp
Diamond, John (2002). U.S. war planners waiting for Iraq to cross the line., USA Today, 07-12-2002, pp 05A.
Joplin Tornado Disaster
The Category EF-5 tornado that struck Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 devastated the region, killing 161 people and injuring over a thousand more (Smith, Sutter, 2013). In all, local, state and federal agencies and officials worked together to ensure a better response to the disaster, when compared to the debacle that was the response to Katrina; what was most notable about the disaster recovery in Joplin was that officials allowed the private sector "to lead the response and recovery (Smith, Sutter, 2013, p. 166). In other words, authorities from government agencies took a hands-off approach to the disaster response in Joplin and allowed non-profits and private organizations do the majority of the work. Volunteers took part in providing shelters and faith-based organizations rallied around the community to assist in the various needs using social media to help put out notices, organize and identify strategic aims; local organizations, churches…
After the Storm. (2012). Missouri's Commitment to Joplin. Retrieved from http://sema.dps.mo.gov/newspubs/publications/AfterTheStormMissouriCommitmentToJoplin.pdf
Bollin, S. (2011). The Day After: Recovery Efforts at St. John's Mercy Joplin.
Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiD0u7YwLnNAhVOdlIKHZZ6DOgQFggeMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iowadnr.gov%2FPortals%2Fidnr%2Fuploads%2Fwaste%2FP2%2520Workshops%2520Resources%2F11oct05joplin.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFte_zoIqgVi1RC6ZHbBYvNI_UGoQ&sig2=X0DPREp-8vdIIfHMvjjSkg
Joplin Proud. (2016). Joplin Disaster Recovery Summit. Retrieved from http://www.joplinproud.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/JoplinProud-SummitProgram-8.5x11-WEB.pdf
Many food companies have expressed an interest in the concept, Darsch says, although he notes that the material is not in wide use yet (Erickson, at (http://www.mercola.com/artcile/irradiated/irradiated_research.htm).
When Operation Desert Shield and the subsequent Desert Storm erupted, Darsch says, Natick was able to accelerate research on high heat stable chocolate bars. The resulting product, which can withstand temperatures as high as 120°F without compromising quality, arrived in the Persian Gulf prior to the end of the conflict, and Hershey Foods introduced the Desert ar to consumers Memorial Day weekend 1991 (Erickson, at (http://www.mercola.com/artcile/irradiated/irradiated_research.htm).This product's future has many applications in warmer climates, and in areas where air conditioning might not be prevalent.
Another food product developed initially for the military is shelf stable bread. Research indicates that the main ingredients in this product are no different from those found in Wonder read. The only difference is an emulsifier that has been…
Bishai, D. & Naluba, R. "Food Fortification Spurred by Military Purchases." John Hopkins
Public Health Magazine (2003).
Erickson, P. "Trickle Down Technology." New Technologies. 1992. Weeks Publishing
Company. 26 Mar. 2005 http://www.mercola.com/article/irradiated/irradiated_research.html .
The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:
- easily approachable
- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information
- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe
- the power for the user to remain…
Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02
Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA:
Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article: http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=432&trv=1
The Army's Special Forces, referred to as the legendary Green Berets, consist of a unique, unconventional combat arms organization, that are considered the most versatile Special Operations soldiers in the world. Their lineage dates back more than two hundred years of unconventional warfare, including predecessors such as Francis Marion of the Revolutionary ar, the orld ar II OSS Jedbourg Teams and Detachment 101 in Burma, and the Alamo Scouts.
According to Robert Andrews, principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict, it takes two years to train some of the enlisted personnel, and longer for officers. In fact, Special Forces units "continually train to conduct unconventional warfare in any of its forms - guerrilla tactics, evasion and escape subversion." In order to learn to fight in cold weather and mountainous environments, special operators attend a two-week course at the Army's Mountain arfare School in Jericho,…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2004 February 01). 'Black ops' shine in Iraq War: the scope of U.S. special operations in the Iraq War was the largest in American military history. VFW Magazine. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kennedy, Harold. (2002 February 01). Special ops equipment: Newest -- and Oldest.
National Defense. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Special Forces: History. Special Operations Recruiting Battalion. Retrieved July 02, 2006 at http://www.bragg.army.mil/specialforces/History.htm
Ohio Army National Guard consists of a plethora of people who are seeking to make a difference in the world they serve. They will honor and protect the United States in all aspects of their life. This is done by using ships and plane to prepare for war or to help others if an epidemic should arise. These individuals are brave individuals who believe in changing lives for the positive through their hard work with the army. One will discuss in more detail what is proposed to make this part of the army better through much research and analysis.
Imagine studying the practices of those who are in Human esources in the Army National Guard (Association of African Universities, 2011). What will one discover through this process? Is he or she able to find sufficient evidence through this process in which discrimination is taking place among those who are not…
Association of African Universities. (2011). The role of human resource and management development. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from Association of African Universities: http://www2.aau.org/wghe/gender/toolkit/Toolkit-module3.pdf.
Department of Labor. (2011). Equal employment opportunity is the law. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from Department of Labor: http://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/posters/pdf/eeopost.pdf .
Draper, M. (2010). Referral and selection certificate. Springfield: Ohio Army National Guard.
Mattke, E. (2010). Employer hiring practices that discriminate against women in the United States. Ethics and Critical Thinking, 1-40.
Air, Space, And Cyber Space Security
Air, Space, and Cyberspace Power Studies
"Since the birth of military aviation, airmen have claimed that airpower offered a new approach to warfare. Even in the earliest days of aviation, airpower's range of action, its ability to react and refocus quick across a wide area without having to consider the terrain or access, and its inherent above -- the surface perspective all pointed to a new era in warfare" ("AFDD 1, Air Force asic Doctrine"). Within the military, the United States air force has a great strength and makes a considerable contribution to the well-being and safety of citizens of the United States. As society progresses into a new technology age, where computers no longer take up entire rooms but can fit in the palm of our hands, the USAF must also change with the times. How is the air force going to keep…
"AFDD 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine." 2003.www.dtic.mil/doctrine_jel/service_pubs_afdd1.pdf (accessed August 22, 2011).
Boyne, Walter J. Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002.
Daniel, Lisa. "New Strategy Shows Importance of Space Domain, Lynn Says." February 16, 2011. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=62844 (accessed August 22, 2011).
Hess, Bill. "Senior officer stresses growing importance of cyber ecurity." June 12, 2011.http://www.svherald.com/content/news/2011/06/12/senior-officer-stresses-growing-importance-cyber-security (accessed August 22, 2011).
According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."
Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…
1. Article: online
Kim Zetter (February 3, 2010). Threat Level: Privacy, Crime and Security Online
Report Details Hacks Targeting Google, Others, (1), 1. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/02/apt-hacks/
2. Article Publication: online and hardcopy
This is another circumstance, however, that is likely to limit the use of this text in management courses, which is truly a disservice to American industry and consumers. It is ironic that in living up to the principles of clarity and directness that it espouses, this tome will probably be read most by simple admirers of Powell and self-help fanatics, rather than put to extensive practical use in the real world.
Where the book might be lacking in a sense of academic rigor and obfuscation, it is hugely successful in its primary attempt to bring a sense of accountability and nobility back to leadership in this country. The United States has been somewhat short on inspirational and honest leaders in the past decade, and though this book is now seven years old it remains a testament to the type of mentality that apparently still exists even when it has faded…
According to Hiro (2001), "During the Iran-Iraq ar it openly backed Baghdad, arguing that its defeat would lead to the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the region which would hurt estern interests. It was the French corporations that were building two nuclear reactors near Baghdad which were bombed by Israel in June 1981" (75). Approximately 1,000 French companies were active in Iraq, and 6-7,000 French specialists were based there by 1983. As much as 40% of total French military exports were destined for Iraq. Military cooperation between the two states had developed to the extent that the French government decided to lease to Baghdad five Super-Etendard warplanes originally meant for use by the French air force. This raised the more immediate lucrative prospect of selling scores of expensive Exocet missiles to Iraq to be used by Super-Etendards to hit Iranian oil tankers in the Gulf. These missiles proved devastatingly effective.…
Abdulla, Abdulkhaleq. 1994. "Gulf War: The Socio-Political Background." Arab Studies
Quarterly 16(3): 1-3.
Aydin, Mustafa and Damla Aras. 2005. "Political Conditionality of Economic Relations between
Paternalist States: Turkey's Interaction with Iran, Iraq, and Syria." Arab Studies
Kant stated that "the greatest problem for the human, to the solution of which nature drives man, is the achievement of a universal civic society which administers law among men" (Idea, 1963). Kant's premise on this statement is manifested with the existence of the United Nations whose roots came from the League of Nations that was established after World War 1. Both institutions are intended to prevent the escalation of conflicts to full blown wars. Unfortunately, however the United Nation failed to mitigate regional armed conflicts such as the Gulf War from taking place. Kant's notion of a universal civic society is quite difficult to achieve in the sense that sovereign states and other stakeholders in the international arena are actively pursuing their respective agenda and there is no entity, a cosmopolitan government that has the ability to reconcile conflicts among stakeholders and have the clout to enforce collective decisions…
Heywood, Andrew. 1999. Political Theories. Great Britain: McMillan Press Ltd.
Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point-of-View (1784). Translation by Lewis White Beck. From Immanuel Kant, "On History," the Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1963.
He explained that it was not popularity and looking good to others that should constitute success. It was what one struggled over and kept him thinking all night. He specifically spoke about President Truman's difficult decision to use nuclear weapons and his own military decision to risk lives (Roberts). According to him, the first rule about leadership is to take charge when in command (Saint 2001). The second rule is to always do what is right. He said that the challenge of leadership is to inspire others or followers to perform what they normally would not do. He described great leaders are "ordinary people in extraordinary times." According to him, great leaders are in history books because they responded adequately to the demand of extra ordinary times. He also said that leaders must take the time to train future leaders coming up through the ranks (Saint).
Schwarzkopf's adept leadership in…
Blumenson, M. (2004). Patton legend. 6 pages. Army: Association of the United States Army
Campbell, a (2007). Biography of General George S. Patton, Jr. 5 pages. Cape May County Herald. Retrieved on May 26, 2008 at http://www.generalpatton.com/biography.htm;
Carter, J.C. And Finer, M.S. (2004). A survey of leadership. 8 pages. Infantry Magazine: U.S. Army Infantry School
Fisher, K. And M. (2000). H. Normal Schwarzkopf. 4 pages. CarpeNoctem. Retrieved on May 27, 2008 at http://www.carpenoctem.tv.military/schwarzhopf.htm
In the 1999 report of William Cohen to the U.S. President and U.S. Congress reveals that the strategic vision sets out what the United States has on its agenda to accomplish in relation to technological and logistical strategies. Included in these strategies are modernization of intelligence processes as well as security, information operations, information assurance, and critical infrastructure protection. In a 2004 Department of Defense Submission - Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Inquiry into Australian-United States Defense Relations' report, it is stated that the alliance, now ongoing for approximately fifty-three years between the United States and Australia "has never been closer." (2004) it is stated that the ANZUS Treaty provides "shape, depth and weight to the Australia-U.S. alliance and remains today the foundation of a relationship that is one of our greatest national assets." (Cohen, 2004) the continued commitment of the United States to the Asia…
Transatlantic Interoperability in Defense Industries: How the U.S. And Europe Could Better Cooperate in Coalition Military Operations, September 2002.: http://www.europeaninstitute.org/pdf/IO.pdf
Engler, Alan; Glodowski, Al; and Lee, Rocky (2004) Coalition Operations: Politically Necessary Yet Operationally Challenging. 8 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.jfsc.ndu.edu/current_students/documents_policies/documents/jca_cca_awsp/Coalition_operations_4-5-04.doc
Cohen, William S. (1999) Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Secretary of Defense DOD report 1999. Online available at http://www.dod.mil/execsec/adr1999/index.html
Statement of Admiral Dennis C. Blair, U.S. Navy Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Command Before the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and Subcommittee on Middle East and South Asia on U.S. Pacific Command Posture (2002) 27 February 2002 Online available at http://www.fas.org/asmp/resources/govern/107_hircBlair.htm
Much oil is also used for heating, especially during winter. Therefore, new commitments toward researching, developing, and making available, on a large scale, alternative sources of heating must be made, and this time kept, as well.
To try seriously, however, to identify and describe one core "solution" to oil dependency; that is both untested and would nevertheless work, in this author's opinion, is (and especially given even the current extent of research and understanding into the gnarly depth of the problem and its myriad continuing causes) not only a fruitless exercise, but extremely naive. Instead, the answer lies in not one solution but combinations of many: starting with will; and continuing (perhaps indefinitely) with persistence, patience, personal and public sacrifice; and a loss of national hedonism; self-centeredness; arrogance, and a sense of personal and national entitlement. All of this, in combination, albeit gradually, could still, if the will were…
Bush, George W. State of the Union Speech, January 31, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:
eBXy3XnVdAMJ: www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/+bush%27s+oil+ dependency+speech&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1.html>
Gulf War." Wikipedia. December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: .
Hybrid Vehicle." November 28, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle.html
The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.
The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.
It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.
During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark
The narrative, reporting-driven style of this book also draws criticism for rarely making conclusions or passing judgment on the characters and actions that he recounts in such detail. Some of Woodward's critics accuse him of abandoning critical inquiry to maintain his access to high-profile political actors.
Others praise his detached and evenhanded style for allowing readers to absorb the facts and come to their own conclusions. From a factual standpoint, Woodward's balanced account of the events seems to agree with other sources, such as Ari Fleischer's Taking Heat.
No reporter has more talent for getting Washington's inside story and telling it cogently.
In a Washington Post review of the book, Fouad Ajami said in 2002, "Why Woodward's sources divulge to him the deep inner workings of government shall remain a mystery of the craft. He lives by the leak, and the leaks are here in ample supply - memos and…
Ajami, Fouad. "Bush at War' by Bob Woodward." The Washington Post. November 24, 2002.
Fleischer, Ari. Taking Heat: The President, the Press, and My Years in the White House. New York: William Morrow, 2005.
Michiko Kakutani. "Inside Bush's War Room." The New York Times. November 22, 2002. http://query.nytimes.com/search/full-page?res=9D00E1DF1539F931A15752C1A9649C8B63 .
S. It is now the Germans, the British, the Italians, the Swedes, and all of the European Union."
Over the last fifty years the American foreign policy has been characterized by "liberal internationalism and globalism"
During the period between 1781, which was the beginning of the confederation through the year 1941 the country was equal in unilateralist and isolationist in theoretical framework of international affairs. However in 1941 at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked oosevelt sold the theoretical stance of internationalism to the citizens of America as well as to the epublican Party. Isolationism stated that our neighbors were far away across vast oceans, so therefore, why bother with problems that far away from our homes. Stated by Kupchan (2003) is: " The unilateralism came from two things:
1) American exceptionalism, the sense that we were a new, unique nation, and we don't want to engage in the world,…
The Post Cold War Army Online at http://www.army.mil.cmh-pg/books/COS/34-42.htm.
Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Russia Country Analysis: A Country Report Online available at: Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Kupchan, Charles (2002) The End of the American Era: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-first Century - Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs Online available at http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID / 9/prmID/876
Both sides continued to develop experimental larger size tanks but for the most part the behemoths never entered into service.
Had any of these countries been willing to commit to the development of armored power, using dedicated designers and planning of strategies that included tanks it is very likely the wars may have gone to the loser. This is not to say military leaders have not used the lessons of the past and applied them to current warfare. One only has to look at the seamless integration of armored vehicles, both light and heavy with the addition of close air support and an essentially dismounted cavalry in HMVEE as scouts in Desert Storm to see how well technological applications can be used to commit and achieve military goals. The current conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan have again presented us with a war on terrain and in a manner with which…
Ogorkiewicz, R.M. Technology of Tanks. Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Information Group, 1991.
Macksey, K.M. And Batchelor, J.M, Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970
Washington Post (1 Oct, 2006) wrote: "Powell had thrown his considerable personal and professional reputation behind the administration's charges that Iraq possessed chemical, biological and perhaps even nuclear weapons, and posed an imminent threat to the United States. In a crucial speech to the United Nations Security Council six weeks before the invasion was launched, he had single-handedly convinced many skeptical Americans that the threat posed by Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was real." fully agree with the fact that Powell was an effective military leader. He won numerous awards and honors. But the question remains: do we need a military chief as a President or do we need a true statesman. Seeing the havoc wrecked by the military in last few decades around the world, my answer would be in favor of the latter option. We need a President who understands the significance of what's happening in the world around…
1) "Falling on His Sword" Colin Powell's most significant moment turned out to be his lowest Sunday, October 1, 2006; W12. Accessed online 16th Oct 2006:
I. Seeking to Define and Understand Joint Interoperability
There has historically been a challenge in attempting to properly understand in complexity in defining joint interoperability. This is related in the work of Faughn (2002) entitled: "Interoperability: Is it Achievable?" published by the Center for Information Policy Research at Harvard University. It is stated by Faughn that: "...the "shortfalls in operability among U.S. forces, first publicized by the press at the time of the Grenada invasion, became the catalysts for legislation and changes in defense policy, guidance, and procedures, and for numerous attempts to ensure joint interoperability. Despite tremendous planning and expenditure of funds, true interoperability, especially in the theaters with the greatest potential for conflict, continues to elude the Department of Defense (DOD)." (Faughn, 2002) Faughn relates that there are seven key factors that: "...hamper the achievement of interoperability." (p.7) These are stated to…
National Research Council, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, Committee to Review DOD C4I Plans and Programs, Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, December 1999), Chapter Two, 1, 2, [Online]. URL: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309064856/html/64.html
Hillman Dickinson, "Planning for Defense-Wide Command and Control," in Seminar on Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence, Guest Presentations, Spring 1982 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy, I-82-3, December 1982), 23, [Online]. URL: http://www.pirp.harvard.edu/pubs_pdf/dickinsdickins-i82-3.pdf
Snyder, Frank M. (1993) Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1993), 111.; as cited in Faughn (2002) p. 19
VADM Arthur K. Cebrowski, and John J. Garstka, "Network-Centric Warfare -- Its Origin and Future," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1998, pp. 28-35. VADM Cebrowski has since retired and is currently the Director of the Secretary of Defense's Office of Transformation; as cited in Roberts and Smith (2003) p.4.
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…
references to the political, economic and ideological interests/purpose of the U.S., ignoring the reasons stated by the Bush administration and the Blair government. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag
GmbH. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20100916742 .
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
World. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Roberts, J.E., & Army War College (U.S.). (2007). Winning the battle of ideas in the War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.
Military-Led econstruction and Fiedler's Contingency Theory
In light of the unfolding instability, violence and difficulty that characterized the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States military must reexamine its approach to the strategic invasion, occupation, reconstruction and power-handover that have evolved into a war-making template for the nation. Accordingly, the research conducted hereafter considers the need for a change in leadership orientation, using Fiedler's Contingency Theory as the lens for the literature review thereafter. The Findings drawn from the review of literature are presented in this account and, generally, provided confirmation of the pertinence of Fiedler's contingency theory to modern military strategy as well as the pertinence of Fiedler's Least-Preferred Coworker checklist to defining ideal military leadership. The reported findings connecting Fiedler's ideas with strategic and empirical documentation on applied military policy contribute to a number of policy recommendations. In particular, these policy recommendations revolve around two…
Conner, Maj. W.D. (2005). Understanding First in the Contemporary Operational
Environment. School of Advanced Military Studies; For Leavenworth Kansas.
Ellyson, L.M.; Gibson, J.H.; Nichols, M. & Doerr, A. (2012). A Study of Fiedler's
Contingency Theory Among Military Leaders. Allied Academies International
Great ar for Civilisation
Fisk begins chapter 14 Anything to ipe Out a Devil… with an account of the French invasion of Algeria in 1830 and it's subsequent ramifications. The author went to great lengths to parallel the French invasion of Algeria to the British and American invasions of Iraq. Both the British invasion of Iraq during I and the American invasion in 2003 was done under the guise of liberation, the same as the French; but all three encountered the problem of not being welcomed as liberators. Fisk then began to describe a man named Mohammed Bouyali, who fought against the French and then fought against the Algerian government that replaced the French. His story was a microcosm of the story of Algeria: Bouyali helped expel the French only to be disillusioned by the native Algerian secular government which replaced the French. He went on to form a group…
Fisk, Robert. The Great War For Civilisation. New York: Knopf. 2005. Print.
attacks of September 11, 2001, we, as Americans learned that our country is not as invincible as we thought it to be. The United States can and has been hurt within this past year. Therefore, President George . Bush's plan to attack Iraq seems to be justifiable so that America has a lesser change of getting bombed again. And, subsequently, being weakened further. By attacking Iraq, Bush's intends to protect America and possibly keep from having furthers attacks on our country in the future. However, some disagree with Bush about going forward with his plan to attack Iraq which poses a major conflict among the nation's government. Some of the nation's leaders believe that the plan will do more harm than good. It may cause Iraq to attack America with a lot of power which could do extreme damage due to previous attacks the country. And, by attacking that country,…
Fraser, T.G. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Korn, David A. The making of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242: Centerpiece of Arab-Israeli Negotiations.
Mitchell, Lena. "Locals support Bush's case for military action against Iraq." 9 October 2002 Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal http://www.djournal.com/djournal/site/articles/news/1289510.htm.
Crook, Olive. "Lets Give International Law All the Respect It Is Due." 15 October 2002. Atlantic Online http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/nj/crook2002-10-15.htm .
politics that suggests the making of the New World Order. his paper provides evidence for this statement between the lines. In addition, the paper discusses the foreign policies of United States towards Israel and Iraq within the historical and the current context.
Any country's foreign policy towards other states is symbolic of common goals of the two. Moreover, any foreign policy is shaped by a country's interests in that particular region which can range from economic to political. In addition to the above, a foreign policy towards a country is also influenced by the fear of some threat from the same. As a result of which, the policy can take any antagonistic form- legitimate or otherwise but largely negative that aims to dominate rather than collaborate. One example of the first kind of policy mentioned above is that of United States towards Israel. An example of the second…
The U.S. response to Iraq's invasion on Kuwait was, however an exception. Israel, so far has violated many more UN Security Council resolutions than any other nation but United States has never responded to those violations in the same manner. In fact the U.S. government has always supported Israel even in defiance of UN resolutions. Not only is Israel the "most extensive violator" but also the "largest recipient of U.S. military and economic aid" (Zunes, 2002) and "even before Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, Americans favored Israel over Arab nations by a wide margin -- 40 per cent to 19 per cent" (Eizenstat, 1990). For instance recently, Israel refused to accept the suggestions regarding peace out forward by the Arab League, literally in violation of UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 which are the basis for Middle East peace. Violation of other UN Security Council resolutions consist of resolutions 262 and 267 that ordered Israel to withdraw its forces from East Jerusalem, as well as those of the Fourth Geneva Convention. These violations came in the form of deportations, destruction of civilian homes, collective punishment, and capture of private property. In addition to the above, UN Security Council resolutions 446 and 465 require that Israel withdraw all of its forces from the illegal occupied Arab lands. In face of such violations, the United States continues to be mute or actively support if circumstances permit. For instance, the U.S. government argues that the outcome of the illegal Israeli settlements is a function of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations. Furthermore, "the Clinton Peace Plan of December 2000 would have allowed Israel to illegally annex most of these settlements and surrounding areas into Israel" (Zunes, 2002). Not only has the U.S. government been aiding the economy and military budgets of Israel generally, it has also funded Israel's construction of Jewish-only "bypass roads" in the occupied West Bank. By doing this, the U.S. has provided Israel with a way to connect the illegal settlements with itself. Not only has Israel violated UN resolutions but also the United States by breaching Article 7 of resolution 465, which disallows member states from helping Israel in its colonization drive.
US RESPONSE TO THE 1948 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
Apart from the recent examples of U.S. policy towards Israel, there have been historical instances as well. As early as the 1948 War of Independence, when Jews engaged in large-scale offensives against Arabs following the UN announcement of partition of Palestine, America has been its ally. After the battle at Deir Yassin, the partition of Palestine was confirmed and Israel the Jewish State, was born on May 14, 1948 (Bard, 1998). However the Arab countries of Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq wanted to save the Holy Land and hence a war began between these Arab armies and the Jews of Palestine. Though the combined forces of Arab armies were in smaller in number as compared to the Jewish forces, they had the advantage of terrain.
ethics of Tomahawk missile use. The writer explains what tomahawk missiles are and how they work. The writer than discusses the cost of those missiles and the ethics of using them in attacks against enemies. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
As tensions mount between the United States and the Middle East, it appears that there will be a war. Using force to make nations comply is something that has been going on since the beginning of time. Sometimes it is done to bully a nation into giving up its rightful land, while at other times it is done for the protection of groups of people as well as the standard of freedom for mankind around the world. egardless of the reason wars and attacks are experienced there have been increasingly advanced weapons involved in those movements. Technology in recent years has allowed the advancement of many…
Tomahawk® Cruise Missile (Accessed 1-30-2003)
How Cruise Missiles Work (Accessed 1-30-2003)
http://ads.specificpop.com/pop_code;gid=17,pid=90,bid=602 by Marshall Brain
Gulf ar I (1991) vs. Gulf ar II (2003)
The recent U.S. attack against Iraq reminds the world of a similar event not so long ago in the history of the world: in 1991, a U.S.-led attack against Iraq occurred, under the leadership of George H.. Bush. More than a decade later, a U.S. president, son of G.H.. Bush, led an offensive attack against Iraq on grounds of not following UN sanctions on the production of weapons of destruction. The war between the U.S. government and Saddam Hussein and his dictatorial government in Iraq has actually been going on for a decade now, although there are differences in the events that happened prior to each attack. This paper will analyze the differences and similarities that happened in the 1991 version of Gulf ar with this year's declaration of U.S. attack against Iraq.
The Gulf ar of 1991 occurred because of…
Barber, Greg. "Intervention in Iraq?" Online News Hour Web site. 18 April 2003 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/iraq/us_gulf.html .
Elliott, M. And J. Carney. "First Stop, Iraq." 31 March 2003. TIME Magazine, Vol. 161, No. 12. pp. 45-52.
Gulf War, The." 2001. In FRONTLINE: The Gulf War. Public Broadcasting Service Web site. 18 April 2003 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/cron/ .
McGeary, Johanna. "Inside Saddam's World." 13 May 2002. TIME Magazine, Vol. 159, No. 18. p. 27-8, 30.
Woman in the Military
Although their numbers are still disappointingly small, military women now serve with distinction in every service. The women who served in Operation Desert Storm flew planes into enemy territory, fired weapons, commanded combat support units, ferried troops in to the combat zone and carried them fuel and supplies. At the end of the war, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney applauded the women's performance: "They did a bang up job....They were every bit as professional as their male colleagues." He also noted that he "wouldn't be at all surprised to see the role of women in combat expanded in the year ahead." Yet, more than a decade later, women are still prohibited from direct combat. Recently, Jessica Lynch's actions on the battlefield in Iraq are once again fueling the debate over the role of women in the military. Many are in favor of letting women join men…
Active Duty Servicewomen by Branch of Service and Rank, 2001." Infoplease. 23 May 2003. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004600.html .
Hoar, William P. "Case Against Women in Combat." The New American. 8 Feb. 1993. Vol. 9,
No. 03. 23 May 2003. http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/1993/vo09no03/vo09no03_women_combat.htm .
Jones, Rebecca. "Women in the Face of War." Oak Park and River Forest. 23 May 2003. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:QX4Uem6XEmsJ:oprfhs.org/division/history/inter pretations/2000interp/Jones, Rebecca.doc+military+and+%22combat+exclusion%22+and repeal&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
current events and the war in Iraq. The writer discusses the importance of the events on a personal level and explains how they impact the life of the writer today.
I would be hard pressed to find anyone in America who does not know about the war going on in Iraq. The world was glued to the television as the war began and since that time there has not been a single day, in which the newscasters haven't discussed the events of the war, the future of Iraq, or the popularity ratings of President Bush. The war is important on many levels. It is the first step to letting terrorists know that they will no longer be tolerated. I support the war and the reason we began the battle, but hope we will continue to move forward in the effort to unseat terrorists and rebuild those nations which they have…
As the end of the year slowly approaches, there is an expected transition of power by the United States and its allies to allow the Iraqi people to govern themselves. The media has tried to convince us that we as a nation have liberated the country of Iraq from one of the most brutal dictators in the world's documented history. Saddam equated to a modern day Adolf Hitler. Saddam Hussein would surely have destroyed the American way of life by using his weapons of mass destruction that he had been stock piling for years. And if that was not bad enough, Saddam was also said to have supported the efforts of Al Qaeda's terroristic network. Our nightly news and all of the media hype may actually have us as a nation beginning to believe this, ah, stuff, for the lack of a better term. The war has had…
Al Qaeda. Ed. Frontline. PBS. 12 May 2004 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/alqaeda.html .
BBC World News. "Oil prices set new record highs." BBC Online UK Edition. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3713281.stm .
Blood for Oil? Ed. Taylor, Jerry. March 18, 2003. CATO Institute. 12 May 2004 http://www.cato.org/dailys/03-18-03.html .
Bush Administration. "National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction." White House Release (2002) 12 May 2004 http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/12/WMDStrategy.pdf .
powers of the presidency are listed and outlined in Article II of the Constitution of the United States. In a relatively brief explanation of the executive branch, the Constitution's framers present a vision of a president with very specific and limited powers. Those powers include the service of Commander in Chief of the nation's armed forces, thereby entrusted with the capability and responsibility of making key strategic decisions related to the behavior of the United States in all military matters. Additional roles played by the president include appointing Justices to the Supreme Court and other staffing decisions, which have major bearings on the political character and tenor of the nation.
Prior to the First and Second World Wars, the United States had remained relatively insular and isolationist in its approach to foreign policy. There were some strategic military engagements prior to that point, but as soon as the United States…
Congressional Record Proceedings and Debates of the 108th Congress (n.d.). Government Printing Office.
United States Constitution. Article II. Text retrieved online: https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/articleii
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…
The group of jurors brings out the best in them in terms of reaching a common target.
A group crisis is an event that has a high - impact and threatens the viability of the organization. Crisis/stress is a factor that helps group evolves from stage to stage, get through phases. Under conditions of crisis swift decision should be made and considered necessary.
The jury room turns into an emotional stage, the jury becomes a target for other frustrations members may be having in their family life. Juror number three makes the whole case very personal, he wishes to condemn the young boy because he believes that by doing this he will punish his own boy who deserted him.
The stress that they are stuck on a hot weather in a room and they can not get out because one of them is determined to change their votes makes them…
Ivanovich, M., & Matteson, T. (2002). Group behavior and work teams. Organizational behavior and management. McGraw-Hill Irwin
Wickipedia free encyclopedia, Last modified 24 November 2006. Website: http:/en.wikipedia.org/wicki/12_angryMen nationalserviceresources.org/filemanager/download/06_MultiState_Conf/D2E2stages_group_develop_2.pdf
Neill, J (2004). What are the stages of group development?. Website: http://www.wilderdom.com/group/StagesGroupDevelopment.html
The Internet Movie Database. Website: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0050083
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
This perspective suggests the necessity of distinguishing between the intended use (and real affordances) of an object and its perceived affordances. For instance, affordances presented by a knife are defined by the individual who uses it, not necessarily by its designer. More specifically, although a designer envisaged the knife as a cutting tool, the user might not utilize the knife for cutting. While Gibson (1979) suggests that the knife does not have any affordance on its own, except when an individual has attributed a meaning to it, Norman suggests that the designer's real or intended affordance for the knife was for cutting purposes. Although there are debates in the field of ecological psychology about the nature of affordances (distinction and overlays between intended and perceived affordances), affordance perspectives are a crucial area in the study of usability (Sadler & Given, 2007).
3. Pedagogical Affordance and ICT
Peter and osamund (2005)…
American Library Association 2006. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Retrieved on December 27, 2011, from http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.cfm
American Library Association 2007. Intro to Info Lit. Retrieved on December 27, 2011, from http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlissues/acrlinfolit/infolitoverview/introtoinfolit/introinfolit.cfm
Barrett, A. 2005. The Information-Seeking Habits of Graduate Student Researchers in the Humanities. Journal of academic librarianship, 31(4), 324-331.
Beile O'Neil, P.M. 2005. Development and validation of the Beile Test of Information Literacy for Education (B-TILED). Doctoral dissertation, University of Central Florida, Florida, United States. Retrieved December 27, 2011, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 3193465).
Children's literature can provide rich pictorials that appeal equally to adults as to children. David Wiesner is one author-illustrator that can be singled out for his talents at reeling in grown-ups. Some of his picture books are exactly that; containing few or no words, they feel more like surreal comic strips than children's literature. Wiesner's artwork, usually done in watercolor or colored pencil, is at once striking and subtle. The subject matter often seems eerie until the end of the story, which finishes on an upbeat note. Books like Sector 7, Tuesday, Hurricane, and The Three Pigs, all written and illustrated by David Wiesner, convey his mood and tone with pictures alone. Any accompanying text is ancillary to the illustrations and causes the reader to wonder whether the publisher demanded that some words be inserted for convention's sake (especially in Hurricane). Wiesner's illustrations tell the tale far better than any…
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html