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You covered a number theories child development term, theories understand developmental process birth adolescence. Piaget, Erikson, Vygotsky, Kohlberg, attachment theory, nature vs. nurture, influence SES, cultural implications major theories concepts.
Developmental stage: Adolescence -- ages 13 to 18
Adolescence is often characterized as a 'liminal' period in Western society: a stage that is neither childhood nor adulthood. During this period of time, most adolescents experience puberty or sexual maturation. They also begin to establish social identities outside of their family roles. Their peer relationships may become temporarily more important than their family relationships. Many adolescents self-identify as part of particular 'tribes' or 'cliques.' They may also question common familial and cultural norms in an attempt to eke out an identity for themselves.
Although they may achieve sexual maturity, in our cultural context adolescents are not considered to be fully mature. While some adolescents do marry and have children…
Chen, C., & Farruggia, S. (2002). Culture and adolescent development. In W.J. Lonner, D.L.
Dinnel, S.A. Hayes, & D.N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 11, Chapter 2), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA. Retrieved from:
Cherry, K. (2013). Erik Erikson's psychosocial stages. About.com. Retrieved from:
Jean Piaget described the developmental stages for children as the "Sensorimotor Stage" (infancy), "Pre-operational Stage" (Toddler and Early Childhood), "Concrete Operational Stage" (Elementary through early adolescence), and "Formal Operational Stage" (later adolescence and adulthood). Piaget also described the emotional, social, intellectual and physical changes that took place at each stage. Early childhood teachers must understand these stages if they are to provide developmentally appropriate activities for the children in their charge.
The Sensiomotor Stage is important to early childhood educators because in some preschools, they will have children enrolled who are still in this stage while approaching the Pre-operational (toddler) Stage. At the beginning, infants display only simple biological reflexes related to strong biological needs, such as sucking. At the end of this stage, however, the children have begun to show pride in accomplishments, are becoming independent from their parents and even developing the beginnings of self-control (World…
Huitt, W., and Hummel, J. 2003. "Stages of Cognitive Development. Piaget identified four stages in cognitive development, from Educational Psychology Interactive. January. Accessed via the Internet 5/21/04. http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html
Staff writers. 2004. "Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development," from What Every Parent Should know. Accessed via the Internet 5/21/04. http://www.eagle2.american.edu/~gb3107a/piaget.htm
World Bank. 2002. "Early Childhood Development," from World Bank. Accessed via the Internet 5/21/04. http://www.worldbank.org/children/what/stages.htm
Developmental Stage: Adolescence
Hormonal changes trigger puberty, and it often affects behavior and moods.
Puberty lasts for about four years, girls experience it earlier as compared to boys, and stops when an individual can reproduce. A global trend with regards to early attainment of sexual maturity and height in adulthood started more than 100 years ago, possibly due to the improvements recorded in standard of living.
During puberty, a growth spurt in adolescents is experienced by both boys and girls. Major sex behaviors emerge and the reproductive organs get bigger and fully mature accompanied by the appearance of the secondary sex organs. The major signs of sexual maturity for males is sperm production, while that of females is menstruation. Sperm-ache takes place at the age of 13 while Menarche takes place between the ages of 12 & 13 in the U.S.
The psychological impacts of late…
Carr, A. (2015). The handbook of child and adolescent clinical psychology: A contextual approach. Routledge.
Moshman, D. (2005). Adolescent psychological development: Rationality, morality, and identity. Psychology Press.
Shaffer, D., & Kipp, K. (2013). Developmental psychology: Childhood and adolescence. Wadsworth Publishing.
Psychology Developmental Stages Using Freud, Erikson, Or Maslow's Theories
Development Stages of Life
Prenatal and Infancy
Liberace was born in West Allis, Wisconsin on May 16th, 1919. Liberace's mother was of Polish descent Frances Zuchowaska and his father Salvatore Liberace, was an immigrant from Formia, Italy. Liberace was born with a twin who died at birth and also had a caul on his head. Many cultures believe caulbearers bring good omens and luck with their births and cannot drown. How and why people are born and developing into adults going through all the growing pains have been argued for many centuries. This paper will discuss the life and times of one well know, publically troubled individual, Liberace.
According to Ellis and Hartley (2004)and Berk (2004)the theories of life development are explored by various researches and it is observed that…
Ellis, J.R., & Hartley, C.L. (2004). Nursing in today's world: trends, issues & management. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Hartson, J., & Payne, B. (2007). Creating effective parenting plans. Amer Bar Assn.
Berk, L.E. (2004). Development through the lifespan. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Robinson, M. (2010). Understanding behavior and development in early childhood: a guide to theory and practice. USA: Routledge.
Marie's Developmental Stage
Marie is a 63-year-old female who has exhibited the properties of one stage for the last several years of her life, but she is now entering another developmental stage due to her illness. A person in middle to adulthood stage, according to Erikson is working out the dichotomy of generativity vs. stagnation (Watts, Cockcroft & Duncan, 2009). About this stage, Erikson says
"the fashionable insistence on dramatizing the dependence of children on adults often blinds us to the dependence of the older generation on the younger ones. Mature man needs to be needed, and maturity needs guidance as well as encouragement from what has been produced and must be taken care of" (Watts, Cockroft, & Duncan, 2009, 305).
This points out the difficulty that Marie is currently facing. She has been the matriarch of the family and has fostered the successful development of three daughters…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview, (Seventh ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Watts, J., Cockcroft, K., & Duncan, N. (2009). Developmental psychology, (Second ed.). Cape Town: UCT Press.
Well, once took my older brother's baseball mitt to school, because knew he wouldn't miss it. But it's really not fair that he won't let me use it. Mom says we're supposed to share each other's stuff.
Let's say there are two children. One boy breaks five plates helping his mother put away the dishes. The other boy is mad because his mom won't let him watch TV and he breaks one plate. Which little boy deserves to be punished: Five plates is a lot of plates -- my mom would kill me if broke five dishes! He mustn't have been being very careful.
s it always wrong to tease someone? t is wrong if it hurts the other person's feelings.
What makes a good friend? Someone who is nice who you can talk to about things.
At Stage 2 of "individualism and exchange" in their moral development, "children recognize…
Is it always wrong to tease someone? It is wrong if it hurts the other person's feelings.
What makes a good friend? Someone who is nice who you can talk to about things.
At Stage 2 of "individualism and exchange" in their moral development, "children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities," even though they still see themselves as individuals, not as members of society (Crain 1995). This child was beginning to show signs of rationalization of individual moral circumstances -- stealing a baseball mitt temporarily from his brother was not seen as bad as stealing from a store, for example, and he ascribed motivation to the child who broke the plates. He also shows signs of caring about other people's feelings (such as not teasing people), and social relationships (a friend is "someone you can talk to"). He acknowledges the fact that some behaviors are applicable in certain situations
Developmental Analysis: Childhood-Adolescence
Childhood and adolescence are two developmental stages in a life where the young ones are growing into young adults. For that reason, they have their own psychological and social needs for wholesome growth and advancement. Each group has its own basic universal needs that need to be addressed depending upon their personal, cultural, and social factors. Childhood requires care and protection, while adolescence demands attention and guidance. The goal of this paper is to use developmental theories and concepts to analyze their developmental processes focusing on childhood and adolescence.
Personal Introduction of Childhood-Adolescence
My name is XYZ, and I was raised to attend Sunday school. My mother, uncle, and my stepfather were involved in my raising, and they were also my support system. I was a bright learner in school and was considered as an honor roll student. My support system rewarded me for my achievements. I…
Psychological Analysis: Save the Last Dance (2001)
Save the Last Dance (2001) delineates the complex relationships of two adolescents who are negotiating an interracial romance. Adolescence is a time of self-definition for young people. According to the developmental theorist Erik Erikson, "During adolescence (age 12 to 18 yrs), the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. The individual wants to belong to a society and fit in" (McLeod 2013). The central protagonist of the film, a high school girl named Sara, is attempting to redefine her identity as a dancer. She simultaneously seeks a sense of security, due to the fact her mother recently passed away, while fashioning an independent identity from her surviving family. Sara begins the film uncertain of who she is and what her purpose in…
McLeod, S. A. (2013). Erik Erikson. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
Solomon, N. (2009). Facing identity conflicts, black students fall behind. NPR. Retrieved from:
Developmental Stage/Age Group: Infancy and toddlerhood (0 - 3 years)
Erickson maintains that the first human developmental stage involves an individual’s interactions with his/her surroundings, normally the baby’s immediate social and physical environment, which is made up of home and family (Levinson, 1986). Especially important at this point (i.e. infancy) is the mother- baby relationship – the very first social bond one forms. Receptive mothers sensitive to the distinctive requirements of their baby will help cultivate a sound sense of self- worth within the baby, facilitating the development of a sound, all- round physical, emotional and psychological constitution, which happens between 0 and 18 months (Thomas et.al 2000).
Babies experience a feeling of uncertainty/insecurity when it comes to the world they are born into. For resolving this insecurity, they rely on their mother (primary caregiver) to acquire stable, consistent care. Hope arises from success at this point. The…
Limitations of Great Theories
The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)
ejection of the free will
Lack of scientific support
Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory
Case studies were subjective
Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
Does not consider biology
The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches
The ecological validity of the experiments is low
There is subjective introspection
Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
It is misplaced to compare humans and animals
It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects
There is little free will
Dismisses meditational process
The Surprises from Harlow's experiments
Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…
Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe: http://jolliffereadingtheory.blogspot.in/
KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.
Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.
Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.
Third, increased cognitive demands in school challenge the adolescent. Fourth, the adolescent must develop more mature verbal communication skills. Fifth, the teenager will develop an ego separate from the parents, whereas in childhood the ego remained closely linked to that of the parents. Sixth, the adolescent formulates clearer career goals. The seventh task of adolescent development comprises the psychological detachment from the parents, often entailing interpersonal conflicts and difficulties relating to authority figures. Eighth, the adolescent develops stronger relationships with peers that help him or her formulate a sense of self. The ninth task of adolescence relates to the development of the sexual self: the teenager also comes to terms with gender issues. Tenth, the adolescent develops a personal system of values that may remain with the individual throughout the lifetime. The eleventh and final state regards controlling immature impulses and becoming a more mature manager of instincts and behaviors.
Developmental Milestones Unit
Developmental Milestones: Birth to Age Two
CE114-(add your course section)
Birth to Age 1
Age 1 to Age 2
Physical and Motor
Moves head at 90 degree angle. Strategy; allow child flexible movement.
Purposeful Grasp: Strategy: Allow child to play with graspable toys.
Crawling: Strategy: Allow child free space to roam and encourage movement.
Walking: Child needs to be encouraged to walk.
Climbing Stairs. Strategy: safely allow child to explore stairs.
Toilet Training: Strategy: eward child for using poddy training materials instead of diapers.
Social and Emotional
Cries when comfortable: Strategy; reinforce non-crying behaviors.
Hugs and kisses others. Strategy: babies should want to hold other people.
Expresses anger; Children should begin expressing anger at this age.
Child expresses loneliness. Strategy: Allow periods of solitude.
Laughing; Strategy: Encouraging laughter with fun and games.
3. Expresses love for his family. Strategy. Provide a loving environment.
Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D.A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
Martinez-Beck, I., & Zaslow, M. (2006). Introduction: The Context for Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development. Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Nair, M.K.C., & Rekha.
Radhakrishnan, S. (2004). Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements. Indian pediatrics, 41(3), 227-238.
Change: Developmental Levels, Systems, and Diversity
The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of Domestic Abuse related to the change management and diversity. According to Burnett & Brenner (2011) domestic violence is the result of the victimization of a person with whom "the abuser has or has had an intimate, romantic, or spousal relationship." Traditionally it includes a pattern of behaviors that attempt to coerce adults or youths that are ordinarily competent, into behaviors that establish the abuser as the power figure, so that they maintain control over other members of the party in question. Behaviors of patterns that proffer control often build upon each other, setting a stage for "future violence" (Burnett & Brenner, 2011). Psychological abuse, stalking, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and isolation are all forms of domestic abuse resulting in annual economic costs exceeding $8 million dollars according to the CDC (Burnett & Brenner,…
Burnett, Lynn Barkley, MD, EdD, Brenner, Barry E. MD, PhD, et. al. (2011 April) Domestic
Violence. Medscape, Retrieved July 18, 2011: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805546-overview
Hall, D.T. & Chandler, D.E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 26, 155-176.
A relatively recent phenomenon in the American family is the increase in young adults living at home. This development changes the conditions of midlife for many parents who expected an empty nest at this stage of their lives (Birren & Schaie, 2001).
elationships between parents and their adult children also are changing at this time because the "children" are now adults so they relate to their parents on a different level. For example, Colleen told me that her oldest son has even shared with her some intimate details about his love life. She said it was almost as if they were two women friends talking about their relationships. Where their conversations used to consist of talk about homework cleaning their rooms, now they talk to each other on a much more even playing field.
Attitudes toward this stage in life are changing as well. The impact of the "empty nest"…
Birren, James E. & Schaie, K.W. (2001) Handbook of the psychology of aging, 5th ed. Academic Press
Erikson, E. (1950), Childhood and Society., New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Gould, R.L. (1998). Transformations: Growth and development in adult life. New York: Touchstone Books
Lachman, M.E. (2001) Handbook of midlife development, Wiley & Sons
Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model
A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).
Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…
ReferencesTop of For
Top of F
Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic
Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
family is, the stages in the development of a child into an adult, the benefits of early education for a child, and how he develop as a result of this program. Further the paper shall also deal with the eight stages of life as defined by famous psychologists, and how one pass through them; how can an adult feel empowered and in full control of himself; what has he learnt within an early education program, and how can this be coordinated with his family life as such.
'Family' is a social unit that lives together sometimes under one roof, sometimes under several different roofs, but all united by blood ties or familial ties. The primary social group of a family is a set of parents and their children. (Definition of family on the web) There are several issues that are related to the family as a unit, and primary among…
Definition of family on the web. Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:familyAccessed on 28 January, 2005
Ollhoff, Laurie. Ages, Stages and Growth. Retrieved at http://www.afterschool.gov/docs/Ages_stages_and_planning.doc. Accessed on 28 January, 2005
Critical issue: Organizing for effective early childhood programs and practices. Retrieved at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea100.htm. Accessed on 28 January, 2005
Erikson's eight stages of human development. Retrieved at http://psychology.about.com/library/weekly/aa091500b.htm . Accessed on 28 January, 2005
How will my career and life goals fit in with the life of another person, whether a loved one, a close friend, or even my family? "Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another," in friendships and in love relationships ("Erik Erikson and psychosocial development," E-ssortment, 2007). Finding the right balance of intimacy and isolation from others, meeting my own goals but still caring about the needs others still feels like a challenge. I know who I am, but I sometimes find it difficult to make that 'I' fit into the worlds of others I care about, whether it is to strike a good balance between studying and going out with friends, or to show love and caring without putting myself last around loved ones and relatives.
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental Theories
Anna Fitzgerald was given a life so that she could keep another person alive, her seriously ill older sister Kate. On the surface that seems terrible cruel and wholly unfair. Looking deeper into the issues surrounding the Fitzgerald family, Anna and her older sister Kate, it is more unfair and cruel than it appears on the surface. There are important ethical issues involved in this novel by Jodi Picoult, but there are also developmental issues that cry out to be addressed. Hence, this paper will review the developmental theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, and use instances and circumstances from Picoult's book to link to concepts in the developmental theorists' work. The terribly inequitable theme of this book will be juxtaposed at the outset with what would be considered a "normal adolescent development" for a girl just reaching her…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001). Facts for Families: Normal
Adolescent Development. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.aacap.org .
Harder, Arlene F. (2008). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online,
Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.learningplaceonline.com .
Devel/Family Cycle Theory
Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:
Leaving home: single young adults
The joining of…
Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.
Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.
VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from http://freedownload.is/pdf/family-life-cycle-theory-3553375.html
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
psychology interview project. In this project a total of 4 students from different levels will be interviewed. These students will be from preschool, elementary school, middle school, and high school. A total of 5 questions will be asked from them and all 4 students will be asked the same questions. At the end there will be a summary given regarding each student based on the answers given by them for those 5 questions.
The growth stage that the humans go through from their time of conception up to their time of death is known as human development. The basic purpose of the scientific study of human development is to understand why and how people change during their lives. All areas such as emotional, physical, intellectual, perceptual, personality and social development are a part of the human growth (Cherry). It is not just psychology but the scientific study of development is…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). What Is Development? Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentecourse
20 Question to Ask Kids. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://www.minds-in-bloom.com/2010/01/20-question-to-ask-kids.html
Egan's skilled helper model is a 3-stage model that is designed to help people become self-empowered. Very similar to oger's famous counseling system, the model is client-oriented, refers to the client as individual who leads the process and structures his goals and is used on the context of the recent past and future. The ogerian guides, too, of empathic listening, unconditional judgment, and respect are its fundamentals.
The Egan model addresses three primary questions
What is going on?
What do I want instead?
How might I get to what I want?
Stage 1: What is going on Each person perceives his or her particular life narrative in her own specific way. Similarly, too, does one accord one's challenges a personal interpretation. Egan encourages the helper to allow the client to articulate his perspective of the account and to fully listen to that account. Articulation of the story frames the narrative…
Birmingham City Univ. Counseling skills: Egan's skilled helper model. Continuing Professional Development Unit.
Egan, G. & Cowan, M.A. (1979) People in systems: A model for development in the human services and professions. CA: Brooks.
Six key developmental tasks (Flamholtz & andle 2012: 11-18)
Identify a market and create a niche
egardless of whether the market niche is small or large, it is essential for an emergent organization to define the needs of the customer base to distinguish the new product from its competitors. Getting to know the target customer (and the target customer's price point) is an essential component of this stage.
Develop products and services
Defining market needs is only the first step: an appropriate product or service that the likely consumer will desire and can actually use must also be created.
Engage in resource management
As well as producing suitable products and services, the firm must be able to engage in cost-effective production techniques and deploy the resources used in production to their maximum capabilities. This also includes effective use and management of human as well as material resources.
Flamholtz, E. & Randle, Y. (2012). Growing pains: Transitioning from entrepreneurship to a professionally managed firm. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Reh, J. (2014). Professional vs. entrepreneurial management. About.com. Retrieved from:
Texas Subs. (2014). INC. Retrieved from: http://www.inc.com/profile/texas-subs
hree developmental theories that provide interesting research for those seeking knowledge concerning this particular field of study include the theory of nature vs. nurture, continuous vs. discontinuous development and critical and sensitive periods of development during those periods in life when either critical or sensitive development is taking place. Comparing and contrasting these three developmental theories should lead the researcher to a better understanding of not only the three theories, but a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the field as well.
For instance, a recent study determined that "genetic and environmental factors provides a potential explanation of the individual differences in responses to environmental influences" (Wermter, Laucht, Schimmelmann, Banaschweski, Sonuga-Barke, Rietschel, Becker, 2010, p. 200). Additionally, the study determined that children exposed to an environment stressor known to increase risk for a certain psychiatric disorder (e.g. high family adversity) are at a higher risk for that disorder…
This is another study that provides data on both spectrums and seems to come to no strong resolution regarding whether the critical or sensitive theory is more viable than the other.
Wermter, A.K.; Laucht, M.; Schimmelmann, B.G.; Banaschweski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Rietschel, M.; Becker, K.; (2010) From nature vs. nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene x environment interaction in mental disorders, European Child and Adolescent Pscyhiatry, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 199-210
This article assists the researcher in understanding that the field is moving beyond the theory of nature vs. nurture and that it is growing into a field that understands that it just might be nature in conjunction with nurture that can be the most positive, or negative (as the case may be) of influences.
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…
Piaget's Stages Of Cognitive Development
Child Behavior Evaluations using Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
I was working at the library when two 15 to 16-year-old girls sat down at my table. Remembering that I had to do this assignment, I tried to pay attention to their behavior without seeming to. One of the girls opened up her laptop and began to work on what appeared to be homework, while the other girl sat down and quietly waited for her friend to finish the assignment. The homework seemed to require searching for information online in order to complete the assignment. Her patient friend seemed politely bored while waiting. At one point, the girl doing her homework apologized to her friend and stated that she was "… really sorry for taking so long." The girl doing the homework also received several text messages, which she silenced and ignored so that she could…
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…
Developmental Evidence for Contemporary Law
Criminal behavior is unfortunate at any age. Yet, when the one committing the crime is a child, society tends to not know how to digest the actual acts as they unfold. Children are supposed to be so innocent, yet they can be capable of heinous acts. Much of this is learned through exposure to such acts, making the act itself reflexive in that the child weighed its potential success. However, it is clear that the undeveloped cognitive abilities of a child, especially at the age of six, makes that child void of responsibility of criminal acts because they lack the proper fully developed cognitive structures to understand the very real consequences for their actions.
It is true; children are a lot smarter than we often think they are. They are true sponges, in that they absorb what they see and then reenact that behavior to…
Berger, Kathleen. The Developing Person through the Life Span. 8th ed.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.
The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…
Mothers and newborns are often separated shortly after delivery, and preterm infants are isolated from their mothers even more than full-term mothers. Some physicians stress that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotional attachment as a foundation for optimal development in years to come.
The extreme form of the bonding hypothesis-that the newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally-simply is not true. Nonetheless, the weakness of the bonding hypothesis should not be used as an excuse to keep motivated mothers from interacting with their newborns. Such contact brings pleasure to many mothers and in some mother-infant pairs-including pretem infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers from disadvantaged circumstances-early close contact may establish a climate for improved interaction after the mother and infant leave the hospital.
Birt is the complete expulsion or extraction…
At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school,…
Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.
Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/stage4.HTML
There are many similarities and differences that an individual experiences with the transition into high school and with the transition into college. Both of these experiences can be considered something of a rite of passage that many individuals go through in the course of their education and their social development. Each step could be generalized by describing an individual who is entering a new place with a new opportunity to be exposed to various source of knowledge. However, at the same time these periods in one's life are quiet unique. This analysis will highlight some of the similarities and differences that can be found in these similar but different transitory periods in one's life.
The High School Experience
The high school experience is fraught with new opportunities and exposures to many new thoughts and people for the first time. At some point in the high school experience students…
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
These things may be additionally provoked by past history associated with unknown and altering individual and specialized functions and associations, unforeseen and improved levels of duties and responsibility that are incapable to be given to the new nurses in the course of their undergraduate knowledge, and opportunities that they will relate to everyday work conditions clinical information that has frequently been untried, is simply unidentified.
It is believed that the ingredient of revelation is a significant causal issue in the knowledge of transition shock. Even as growing substantiation begins to be seen about the consequence of a variety of direction and transition facilitation agendas on the function socialization procedure of the new nurse, there is not a lot of journalism that expresses an association between pre-graduate alteration training and the practice of transitioning into a professional nursing function. The diminished capacity of information in regards to professional tasks alterations in…
Duchscher, Judy E. Boychuk. (2009). Transition shock: the initial stage of role adaptation for newly graduated Registered Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(5), p.1103-1113.
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…
Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS
Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.
Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…
When students can see and manipulate objects, they can be asked to describe them and put objects in visual and verbal terms that they can relate to, in their current developmental stage. Piaget observed students relate to objects at this age by touching what is concrete, describing objects and an object's location in space.
How well did Jenny follow constructivist guidelines? What could she have done differently to make the lesson more constructivist?
Jenny made use of group activities, and socially engaged forms of learning, although a strict constructivist would have wanted her to begin with such group activities.
Discuss constructivism in terms of the constructs defined and discussed by both Piaget and Vygotsky in the text. What is the basic difference between the approaches of these two theorists?
Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next, while Vygotsky stressed the need…
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…
Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Balanced Spelling Program
Unique spellings are created by the children as they are developing their skills of spelling development referred to as invented spellings. Based on the knowledge of phonology that the children have, spelling creation is a unique phenomenon in the children. In most of the cases, it is seen that the children use letters for spelling words and consonants rather consistent usage of sounds. Some of the main examples include night (NIT), girl (GL) and TIG (tiger). There are five main stages of spelling development in children. 1st stage, emergent spelling, is known for the scribbling of letters, letter like forms, and scribbles and children do no associate marks with phonemes (Tompkins, Campbell, and Green, 2011), p. 168). This stage represents a more natural expression of alphabets along with many language related concepts. Second stage, letter name alphabetical setting is represented by the representation of phonemes along with…
Cowen, J.E. (2003). A Balanced Approach to Beginning Reading Instruction: A Synthesis of Six Major U.S. Research Studies. International Reading Assoc.
Lacina, I., and Silva, C. (2010). Cases of Successful Literacy Teachers. SAGE.
McLaughlin, M., and Allen, B.M. (2002). Guided Comprehension: A Teaching Model for Grades 3-8. International Reading Assoc.
Moss, B., and Lapp, D. (2009). Teaching New Literacies in Grades 4-6: Resources for 21st-Century Classrooms, Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy. Guilford Press.
The book Autobiography of My Dead Brother also deals with the identity crises of youth. It begins with three teenagers attending a funeral of their friend who died in a drive-by shooting. The main characters, Jesse and Rise, are not actually blood brothers, but they consider themselves brothers because of their close friendship. However, over the course of the book, the two young men began to become estranged. Rise becomes more and more interested with making a living on the street, selling drugs and living the life of the sort of people who killed Bobby, the boy whose funeral both young men attend at the beginning of the book. Rise justifies this because Bobby played by the rules and still died -- but in contrast, Jesse finds himself growing apart from his brother and instead finding refuge in art rather than violence. Defining his own values in contrast to those…
Crain, W.C. "Chapter 7: Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Evolution. From Theories of Development.
Prentice-Hall, 1985. pp. 118-136. 10 Jun 2008. http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Cutter, Chris. Whale Talk. New York: Dell, 2001.
Harder, Arlene. "The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson." The Learning Place. 10 Jun 2008. http://www.learningplaceonline.com /stages/organize/Erikson.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Features of Late Adulthood and the Psychosocial Factors that Impact Individuals at this Developmental Stage
A number of psychologists such as Erikson, Levinson and Kohlberg and others have suggested that most humans develop along certain developmental stages during their lives, during which certain key features emerge and various challenges and obstacles must be overcome in order to successfully advance to the more advanced stages (Shaver & Tarpy, 1994). While the authorities may not agree of the precise components of the various stages, it would seem that most people do in fact experience a number of developmental features that provide for some fairly accurate generalizations; these issues as they apply to the key features of late adulthood and the impact of psychosocial factors during this period of life are discussed further below.
Key Features of Late Adulthood. According to Erik Erikson's stages of development, late adulthood occurs during the seventh stage,…
Adams-Price, C.E. (1998). Creativity and successful aging: Theoretical and empirical approaches. New York: Springer.
Austrian, S.G. (2002). Developmental theories through the life cycle. New York: Columbia
Coupland, J., & Nussbaum, J.F. (2004). Handbook of communication and aging research.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Furthermore, Vgotsky's held that the bond between word and meaning is a bond that is associative in nature and is established through the repeated simultaneous perceptions of a certain sound and a certain object.
Most of the children in this class had good motor skills and followed instructions very well. Furthermore the children used "please" and "thank you" in their interactions with teachers. Also observed was the fact that Tarek, a student, acts like group-leader among other students and the children in the class try to please him. Tarek is very considerate and caring. This shows early development on the part of the children, which can be expected, in "advanced curriculum" preschool programs.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) contended that children and adults both pass through stages of moral development in their reasoning ability via judgments of a moral nature. Kohlberg's theory is called the "cognitive-developmental theory and suggests a tri-level sequence…
CEU Station - Child Development - Introduction and Theory Theoretical Framework for Child Development [Online available at: http:/ / www.ceus tation.com / childdeve lopment1.html
Vgotksy: Thinking and Speaking, Thought and Word Online at: http://www .marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/works/words/vygotsky.htm
PIAGET vs. VYGOTSKY
Compared: Piaget and Vygotsky
Piaget vs. Vygotsky: The role of language in cognitive development
Jean Piaget's theory of human development is fundamentally a biological one: Piaget believed that all human beings go through a series of developmental stages, and the ability to understand certain concepts such as volume and mass is determined by the biological and developmental stage of the brain, more so than culture. If the child is not yet ready to learn certain spatial principles, he cannot do so, even with the best of teachers. The child interacts with the environment and is shaped by its contents to some extent, but there are natural constraints based upon the child's mentality.
In contrast, "unlike Piaget's notion that children's development must necessarily precede their learning," Lev Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological functions" (McLeod…
Kristinsdottir, Solrun B. (2001). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from:
McLeod, S.A. (2007). Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
Mechanisms of Aging
Mechanism of Aging
Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)
Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on…
Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.
Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.
Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
Children in this stage lack conceptions of size, volume, and mass so teaching a child about something like portion sizes of food in a discussion of nutrition would be ineffectual at this stage.
Concrete Operational Stage (ages 7-11)
During this stage, children can understand the concept of multiple stages or aspects of a problem, the concept of transferable size and volume, and also reversibility of things like numbers or steps of an action. A child at this stage can understand, for example, that a large plate of fries and a small plate of fries have the same amount of food, even though the portion looks smaller on the large plate. Also, the child at this stage is no longer egocentric. The child can understand that he or she must undergo a difficult treatment, even though it hurts, because the family wants the child to get well, or that he or…
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The traditional classroom environment is no longer supportive of student learning and it is critically necessary that educators address the current classroom environment as well as their instructional practice in the classroom if students are to be effectively prepared through education to take their rightful place in a global society characterized by information technology and networked business systems. The classroom environment that is characterized by different learning activities, cooperative and inclusive learning will provide a solid base in learning to prepare students for entrance into the world as effective and functionally adept individuals.
urgstahler, Sheryl (2002) Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab. Washington Education Staff webpage. Online available at http://staff.washington.edu/sherylb/univ_pacer.html.
Riddle, Elizabeth (1999) Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory. Helen a. Kellar Institute for Human Disabilities. Online available at http://chd.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/constructivism/vygotsky.htm.
10 Design Ideas for Schools of the 21st Century (1998) American School & University. 1…
Burgstahler, Sheryl (2002) Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab. Washington Education Staff webpage. Online available at http://staff.washington.edu/sherylb/univ_pacer.html .
Riddle, Elizabeth (1999) Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory. Helen a. Kellar Institute for Human Disabilities. Online available at http://chd.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/constructivism/vygotsky.htm.
10 Design Ideas for Schools of the 21st Century (1998) American School & University. 1 January 1998. HMRH Architects. Online available at http://asumag.com/mag/university_top_design_ideas/ .
Armstrong, Thomas (2000) Multiple Intelligences - Online available at http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm .
Psychological Movie Interpretation: Ordinary People
On the surface, the movie Ordinary People is a movie about loss. It focuses on a family that is recovering from the death of its oldest son. The older son, Buck, and the younger son, Conrad, are portrayed as stereotypical golden boys, with lifetimes full of promise ahead of them. Both boys are strong swimmers on the swim team, however, while out together, without any parents, on a boat, they get into a boating accident. Buck is unable to save himself. Perhaps more significantly, Conrad is unable to save Buck. Conrad spirals into a significant depression and attempts to commit suicide. He is hospitalized in a mental institution because of his suicide attempt. The movie opens after Conrad returns home from the mental hospital and focuses on Conrad's attempts to reintegrate into his family and his suburban environment. Conrad's father, Calvin, is distraught about Buck's…
Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's psychosocial stages summary chart. Retrieved October 15, 2013
from About.com website: http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm
Erikson, E. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.
Harder, A. (2012). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved October 15, 2013
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
The experience I had accumulated in my secondary days as a supervisor in mathematics also assists me in my place of work.
I also had experience as a supervisor in my workplace, which enhanced my development level as a supervisor. My development level as a supervisor also continues in my workplace before getting admission into the university. Before I got admission in into the university, I had worked in series of companies notably manufacturing companies. For example, I worked with Toyota Company for 5 years as an assistant supervisor. My working experience in the company has assisted my development level as a supervisor. In my working experience, I understand that it is critical for a supervisor to build working relationships with supervisees. Typically, supervisory-supervisees relationships enhance mutual alliance between the two parties. The supervisor and supervisees share responsibility of developing empathy, genuineness, warmth, emotional and reliability engagement to develop key…
Arthur, M.E. (2012). Application of the Discrimination Model of Supervision for Residency Education, Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education,18 (1):32-37.
Bernard, J.M. (1979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19, 60-68.
Bernard, J.M., Goodyear, R.K. (1992). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009).Fundamentals of clinical supervision, (4th Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Integrating the Field of Developmental Psychology: A Review of the Literature
Developmental Stage/Age Group: Infancy and toddlerhood (0 - 3 years)
In the development stage of infancy to toddlerhood, the child is changing and responding to its environment and social setting. As Levinson (1986) notes, the home is the child’s immediate social and physical environment. The mother tends to be the child’s source of security and the child grows in confidence through connection to the mother. Between the ages of one and two the child is like a “young scientist,” according to Piaget in the sense that the child explores and demonstrates cognitive development (Thomas, Warner & Foster, 2000). According to Freud, the child is developing a sense of pleasure, first through oral stimulation which is connected to feeding initially but also through relief by way of bowel movements and urination. According to Erickson, the child is developing trust during…
Such a limited gathering of data suggests that perhaps a different outcome may have occurred had a truly careful and representative collection and analysis of data actually been performed.
Other significant limitations to this study exist. In fact, the sample of women and children was generally comprised of low risk and only primiparous mothers. Accordingly, the findings as generally stated may not accurate with regard to high risk and/or multiparous populations. Additionally, the sample itself was underpowered to actually detect the nuances between the different treatment groups. Admittedly, the research undertook to examine several different types of therapies and treatment amongst several different sets of women; and, a fastidious review of subtle differences between treatment groups was not completed. Furthermore, of the indicators that revealed a positive outcome, these indicators were based upon data from mothers which was subjective in nature as it was solely based upon the mothers' assessment…
Human Development and Education Theory
Behavioral psychologists and developmental theorists have traditionally categorized various periods of childhood and adolescence that correspond to VEY specific stages of cognitive and emotional development. While various experts differ widely in their characterization and analyses of the human developmental stages, modern educators recognize the importance of certain elements of behavioral and emotional development as equally important to early education as age-related cognitive stages of purely intellectual growth.
Traditional primary and secondary education programs are based on teaching methods and concepts designed in the nineteenth century and earlier. While the academic curricula expanded considerably during the course of the last hundred years' of American education, many of the methods still relied upon by modern educators mirror the principles designed primarily just to teach elementary reading and writing skills, which was the main (if not the sole) focus of the early education even well into the twentieth…
Smith, M.K. (2002) Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences.
The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Accessed July 6, 2004 at http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm .(Last updated: 2/14/04)
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2001) Psychology and Life 16th ed.
Allyn & Bacon, New Jersey
According to the Kohlberg theory, the post-conventional level is when a person develops social contract orientation and becomes principled. I believe I felt that I owed society an obligation to work and try to make it better, so I sought public welfare work (Fowler, p. 56).
Eventually, a better job opportunity came to me in the form of a state job in the Department of Youth and Family Services, so I decided to leave the school system. I transferred from my city job and was able work in my chosen field. Between working there and at Families Matter, New Jersey, I learned quite a bit. I would spend hours with parents who did not have the skills to help themselves and children who were in crisis. This motivated me even more to finish my bachelor's degree. This experience made me realize how lucky I was to have supportive family and…
Colby, a and Kohlberg, L. (1987). The Measurement of Moral Judgment, Vol 2. Standard Issue Scoring Manual. Cambridge University Press.
Fowler, J.T., Hennesey, T. (ed.) (1976) "Stages in faith: the structural developmental approach," Values and Moral Development. New York: Paulist Press.
Harder, a.F. (2002). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.com. Retrieved August 8, 2007 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com /stages/organize/Erikson.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
By praising a child every time they do something correctly instead of reprimanding him every single time he does something wrong, can better his self-esteem and show him that he is in control of his actions and feelings. A program that gives rewards for every accomplishment in form of tokens or tickets which can then be redeemed for things such as movie tickets or restaurant vouchers (something that is practical and useful) can be a motivator in children with mood disorders. A goal of a certain number or tickets could be set so that the child is often motivated to behave appropriately in order to attain the desired prize. Tickets or tokens should never be taken away or revoked since previous desired behavior has already earned them the current number of tokens or tickets, but not giving the redeemable tickets or tokens will be a better option. Ignoring his attention…
Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.L., & Wilson, D. (2009).
Maternal Child Nursing Care. Mosby. 4th Edition.
kbarlowe. (2010, July 7). 5- to 12-year-old, mood disorder NOS...help! Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from http://www.bpkids.org/connect/forums/general-discussion/5-yr-old-mood disorder-noshelp
Flanagan, Dr., Samantha, Psy. D. (2011) University of Maryland. Department of Psychology.
children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.
rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…
Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press