Developmental Stage Essays (Examples)

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Developmental Theories

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99069675

Developmental Theories

Limitations of Great Theories

The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)

ejection of the free will

Lack of scientific support

Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory

Case studies were subjective

Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

Does not consider biology

The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches

The ecological validity of the experiments is low

There is subjective introspection

Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

It is misplaced to compare humans and animals

It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects

There is little free will

Dismisses meditational process

The Surprises from Harlow's experiments

Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…… [Read More]


Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe:

KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.

Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.

Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.
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Developmental Tasks of Adolescence Robert

Words: 323 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25734287

Third, increased cognitive demands in school challenge the adolescent. Fourth, the adolescent must develop more mature verbal communication skills. Fifth, the teenager will develop an ego separate from the parents, whereas in childhood the ego remained closely linked to that of the parents. Sixth, the adolescent formulates clearer career goals. The seventh task of adolescent development comprises the psychological detachment from the parents, often entailing interpersonal conflicts and difficulties relating to authority figures. Eighth, the adolescent develops stronger relationships with peers that help him or her formulate a sense of self. The ninth task of adolescence relates to the development of the sexual self: the teenager also comes to terms with gender issues. Tenth, the adolescent develops a personal system of values that may remain with the individual throughout the lifetime. The eleventh and final state regards controlling immature impulses and becoming a more mature manager of instincts and behaviors.… [Read More]

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Stages of Growth

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53660091

Developmental Milestones Unit

Child Development

Developmental Milestones: Birth to Age Two

CE114-(add your course section)

Birth to Age 1

Age 1 to Age 2

Physical and Motor

Moves head at 90 degree angle. Strategy; allow child flexible movement.

Purposeful Grasp: Strategy: Allow child to play with graspable toys.

Crawling: Strategy: Allow child free space to roam and encourage movement.

Walking: Child needs to be encouraged to walk.

Climbing Stairs. Strategy: safely allow child to explore stairs.

Toilet Training: Strategy: eward child for using poddy training materials instead of diapers.

Social and Emotional

Cries when comfortable: Strategy; reinforce non-crying behaviors.

Hugs and kisses others. Strategy: babies should want to hold other people.

Expresses anger; Children should begin expressing anger at this age.

Child expresses loneliness. Strategy: Allow periods of solitude.

Laughing; Strategy: Encouraging laughter with fun and games.

3. Expresses love for his family. Strategy. Provide a loving environment.

Cognitive and…… [Read More]


Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D.A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.

Martinez-Beck, I., & Zaslow, M. (2006). Introduction: The Context for Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development. Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Nair, M.K.C., & Rekha.

Radhakrishnan, S. (2004). Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements. Indian pediatrics, 41(3), 227-238.
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Impacts on Change Developmental Levels Systems and Diversity

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52517433

Change: Developmental Levels, Systems, and Diversity

The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of Domestic Abuse related to the change management and diversity. According to Burnett & Brenner (2011) domestic violence is the result of the victimization of a person with whom "the abuser has or has had an intimate, romantic, or spousal relationship." Traditionally it includes a pattern of behaviors that attempt to coerce adults or youths that are ordinarily competent, into behaviors that establish the abuser as the power figure, so that they maintain control over other members of the party in question. Behaviors of patterns that proffer control often build upon each other, setting a stage for "future violence" (Burnett & Brenner, 2011). Psychological abuse, stalking, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and isolation are all forms of domestic abuse resulting in annual economic costs exceeding $8 million dollars according to the CDC (Burnett & Brenner,…… [Read More]


Burnett, Lynn Barkley, MD, EdD, Brenner, Barry E. MD, PhD, et. al. (2011 April) Domestic

Violence. Medscape, Retrieved July 18, 2011:

Hall, D.T. & Chandler, D.E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling Journal

of Organizational Behavior, 26, 155-176.
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Psychosocial and Developmental Assessment of

Words: 1878 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48279234

A relatively recent phenomenon in the American family is the increase in young adults living at home. This development changes the conditions of midlife for many parents who expected an empty nest at this stage of their lives (Birren & Schaie, 2001).

elationships between parents and their adult children also are changing at this time because the "children" are now adults so they relate to their parents on a different level. For example, Colleen told me that her oldest son has even shared with her some intimate details about his love life. She said it was almost as if they were two women friends talking about their relationships. Where their conversations used to consist of talk about homework cleaning their rooms, now they talk to each other on a much more even playing field.

Attitudes toward this stage in life are changing as well. The impact of the "empty nest"…… [Read More]


Birren, James E. & Schaie, K.W. (2001) Handbook of the psychology of aging, 5th ed. Academic Press

Erikson, E. (1950), Childhood and Society., New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Gould, R.L. (1998). Transformations: Growth and development in adult life. New York: Touchstone Books

Lachman, M.E. (2001) Handbook of midlife development, Wiley & Sons
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Psychodynamic Model the Model's Developmental Processes and

Words: 2966 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1938969

Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model

A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).

Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…… [Read More]

ReferencesTop of For

Top of F

Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic

Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
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Child Care Developmental Observation of Five-Year-Old Statement

Words: 2762 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63516728

Child Care

Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old

Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.

Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.

Planning Stages:

My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.

Introductory Visit:

The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.

Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…… [Read More]


Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003

Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.

Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004.
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Family Is the Stages in the Development

Words: 3596 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15587240

family is, the stages in the development of a child into an adult, the benefits of early education for a child, and how he develop as a result of this program. Further the paper shall also deal with the eight stages of life as defined by famous psychologists, and how one pass through them; how can an adult feel empowered and in full control of himself; what has he learnt within an early education program, and how can this be coordinated with his family life as such.

'Family' is a social unit that lives together sometimes under one roof, sometimes under several different roofs, but all united by blood ties or familial ties. The primary social group of a family is a set of parents and their children. (Definition of family on the web) There are several issues that are related to the family as a unit, and primary among…… [Read More]


Definition of family on the web. Retrieved at on 28 January, 2005

Ollhoff, Laurie. Ages, Stages and Growth. Retrieved at Accessed on 28 January, 2005

Critical issue: Organizing for effective early childhood programs and practices. Retrieved at Accessed on 28 January, 2005

Erikson's eight stages of human development. Retrieved at Accessed on 28 January, 2005
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Early Childhood the Stages of

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28832528

In this regard, there is a clear sociological agenda which initiates with the expectation that boys will be attracted to certain features in their toys and that girls will be attracted to certain other, divergent features.

Ultimately, this denotes that it will fall upon the shopping parent to determine which type of toy is more valuable to his or her child. To my perspective, those toys which lack an apparent sociocultural agenda do so because they are inherently flexible to the innumerable needs and ambitions of the developing child.


Paper Clips (2004) is a compelling documentary in which the children of an elementary school in hitwell, Tennessee have been engaged in a project designed to better conceptualize and put into perspective the enormity and horrors of the Holocaust. The class would center on teaching the students tolerance, and would prove directly well-suited to the adolescent stage experienced by most…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall.

Harder, A.F. (2002). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.
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Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58056191

How will my career and life goals fit in with the life of another person, whether a loved one, a close friend, or even my family? "Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another," in friendships and in love relationships ("Erik Erikson and psychosocial development," E-ssortment, 2007). Finding the right balance of intimacy and isolation from others, meeting my own goals but still caring about the needs others still feels like a challenge. I know who I am, but I sometimes find it difficult to make that 'I' fit into the worlds of others I care about, whether it is to strike a good balance between studying and going out with friends, or to show love and caring without putting myself last around loved ones and relatives.

orks Cited

Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t… [Read More]

Works Cited

Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t
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Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental

Words: 1567 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24900791

Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental Theories

Anna Fitzgerald was given a life so that she could keep another person alive, her seriously ill older sister Kate. On the surface that seems terrible cruel and wholly unfair. Looking deeper into the issues surrounding the Fitzgerald family, Anna and her older sister Kate, it is more unfair and cruel than it appears on the surface. There are important ethical issues involved in this novel by Jodi Picoult, but there are also developmental issues that cry out to be addressed. Hence, this paper will review the developmental theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, and use instances and circumstances from Picoult's book to link to concepts in the developmental theorists' work. The terribly inequitable theme of this book will be juxtaposed at the outset with what would be considered a "normal adolescent development" for a girl just reaching her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001). Facts for Families: Normal

Adolescent Development. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from

Harder, Arlene F. (2008). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online,

Retrieved July 9, 2011, from
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Devel Family Cycle Theory Successful Completion of Developmental

Words: 849 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6630771

Devel/Family Cycle Theory

Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:

Leaving home: single young adults

The joining of…… [Read More]


Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.

Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.

VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from
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All Stages of the Interviews

Words: 1792 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55154483

psychology interview project. In this project a total of 4 students from different levels will be interviewed. These students will be from preschool, elementary school, middle school, and high school. A total of 5 questions will be asked from them and all 4 students will be asked the same questions. At the end there will be a summary given regarding each student based on the answers given by them for those 5 questions.

The growth stage that the humans go through from their time of conception up to their time of death is known as human development. The basic purpose of the scientific study of human development is to understand why and how people change during their lives. All areas such as emotional, physical, intellectual, perceptual, personality and social development are a part of the human growth (Cherry). It is not just psychology but the scientific study of development is…… [Read More]



Cherry, K. (n.d.). What Is Development? Retrieved January 28, 2015, from


20 Question to Ask Kids. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2015, from
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Egan's Skilled Helper Model Is a 3-Stage

Words: 1846 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33689585

Egan's skilled helper model is a 3-stage model that is designed to help people become self-empowered. Very similar to oger's famous counseling system, the model is client-oriented, refers to the client as individual who leads the process and structures his goals and is used on the context of the recent past and future. The ogerian guides, too, of empathic listening, unconditional judgment, and respect are its fundamentals.

The Egan model addresses three primary questions

What is going on?

What do I want instead?

How might I get to what I want?

Stage 1: What is going on Each person perceives his or her particular life narrative in her own specific way. Similarly, too, does one accord one's challenges a personal interpretation. Egan encourages the helper to allow the client to articulate his perspective of the account and to fully listen to that account. Articulation of the story frames the narrative…… [Read More]


Birmingham City Univ. Counseling skills: Egan's skilled helper model. Continuing Professional Development Unit.

Egan, G. & Cowan, M.A. (1979) People in systems: A model for development in the human services and professions. CA: Brooks.
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Developmental Psychology Case Study

Words: 2618 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37820346

Human Behavior Theories

Developmental psychology entails the changes that occur to human beings and their lives. Originally, it was concerned with children and infants: the field's expansion currently covers the entire life span of children. This field focuses on a range of topics such as psycho-physiological processes including motor skills. It also entails cognitive development involving areas such as moral understanding, language acquisition, problem solving, identity formation, emotional development, self-concept, and conceptual understanding. Developmental psychology examines the extent of development through the stage-like development vs. gradual accumulation of knowledge, and the extent to which children learn or born with innate mental structures. This report endeavors to describe the psychological, biological and socio-development of Isagani aged five years old in terms of developmental milestones and neurobiology. This study uses various theories to elucidate the degree in which a child meets expectation of normal development. It will analyze the socio-cultural and environmental…… [Read More]


Conger, J.K., & Kramer, L. (2010). "Introduction to the Special Section: Perspectives on Sibling Relationships: Advancing Child Development Research"

Freud, S. (1923). "The Ego and the id." Norton and Company

Goldstein, E.G. (1995). "Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice" The Free Press 2nd Edition.

Hall, C.S. (1954). A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Book.
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Stage I Stage II an Stage II Companies

Words: 798 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6485289

Long-Term Success

Six key developmental tasks (Flamholtz & andle 2012: 11-18)

Identify a market and create a niche

egardless of whether the market niche is small or large, it is essential for an emergent organization to define the needs of the customer base to distinguish the new product from its competitors. Getting to know the target customer (and the target customer's price point) is an essential component of this stage.

Develop products and services

Defining market needs is only the first step: an appropriate product or service that the likely consumer will desire and can actually use must also be created.

Engage in resource management

As well as producing suitable products and services, the firm must be able to engage in cost-effective production techniques and deploy the resources used in production to their maximum capabilities. This also includes effective use and management of human as well as material resources.

Develop…… [Read More]


Flamholtz, E. & Randle, Y. (2012). Growing pains: Transitioning from entrepreneurship to a professionally managed firm. New York: Wiley & Sons.

Reh, J. (2014). Professional vs. entrepreneurial management. Retrieved from:

Texas Subs. (2014). INC. Retrieved from:
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Behavior Development Three Developmental Theories That Provide

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49446206

Behavior Development

hree developmental theories that provide interesting research for those seeking knowledge concerning this particular field of study include the theory of nature vs. nurture, continuous vs. discontinuous development and critical and sensitive periods of development during those periods in life when either critical or sensitive development is taking place. Comparing and contrasting these three developmental theories should lead the researcher to a better understanding of not only the three theories, but a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the field as well.

For instance, a recent study determined that "genetic and environmental factors provides a potential explanation of the individual differences in responses to environmental influences" (Wermter, Laucht, Schimmelmann, Banaschweski, Sonuga-Barke, Rietschel, Becker, 2010, p. 200). Additionally, the study determined that children exposed to an environment stressor known to increase risk for a certain psychiatric disorder (e.g. high family adversity) are at a higher risk for that disorder…… [Read More]

This is another study that provides data on both spectrums and seems to come to no strong resolution regarding whether the critical or sensitive theory is more viable than the other.

Wermter, A.K.; Laucht, M.; Schimmelmann, B.G.; Banaschweski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Rietschel, M.; Becker, K.; (2010) From nature vs. nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene x environment interaction in mental disorders, European Child and Adolescent Pscyhiatry, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 199-210

This article assists the researcher in understanding that the field is moving beyond the theory of nature vs. nurture and that it is growing into a field that understands that it just might be nature in conjunction with nurture that can be the most positive, or negative (as the case may be) of influences.
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Piaget's Stages

Words: 1049 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26622096

Piaget's Stages Of Cognitive Development

Child Behavior Evaluations using Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

I was working at the library when two 15 to 16-year-old girls sat down at my table. Remembering that I had to do this assignment, I tried to pay attention to their behavior without seeming to. One of the girls opened up her laptop and began to work on what appeared to be homework, while the other girl sat down and quietly waited for her friend to finish the assignment. The homework seemed to require searching for information online in order to complete the assignment. Her patient friend seemed politely bored while waiting. At one point, the girl doing her homework apologized to her friend and stated that she was "… really sorry for taking so long." The girl doing the homework also received several text messages, which she silenced and ignored so that she could…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Starting Age

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19195806

Cognitive Changes

Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.

Developmental and cognitive changes

The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).

Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]


Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.

Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.

Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...

Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
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Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91164991

He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.

Assessments of the Student

Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices

Guided reading

Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up

Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .

Student Evaluation

The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)

His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's

Connection to Theory

Make up this info

Culture Connection

Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…… [Read More]

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Development of Children Under 7

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37421488

Developmental Evidence for Contemporary Law

Criminal behavior is unfortunate at any age. Yet, when the one committing the crime is a child, society tends to not know how to digest the actual acts as they unfold. Children are supposed to be so innocent, yet they can be capable of heinous acts. Much of this is learned through exposure to such acts, making the act itself reflexive in that the child weighed its potential success. However, it is clear that the undeveloped cognitive abilities of a child, especially at the age of six, makes that child void of responsibility of criminal acts because they lack the proper fully developed cognitive structures to understand the very real consequences for their actions.

It is true; children are a lot smarter than we often think they are. They are true sponges, in that they absorb what they see and then reenact that behavior to…… [Read More]


Berger, Kathleen. The Developing Person through the Life Span. 8th ed.
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Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task

Words: 13216 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93148396

" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)

The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]


Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at

ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at

Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.

Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Clinical Implications of Levinson's Stage

Words: 2168 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69843208

Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.

The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…… [Read More]

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Birth Stages in the First

Words: 1812 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9050375

Mothers and newborns are often separated shortly after delivery, and preterm infants are isolated from their mothers even more than full-term mothers. Some physicians stress that during the period shortly after birth, the parents and newborn need to form an emotional attachment as a foundation for optimal development in years to come.

The extreme form of the bonding hypothesis-that the newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally-simply is not true. Nonetheless, the weakness of the bonding hypothesis should not be used as an excuse to keep motivated mothers from interacting with their newborns. Such contact brings pleasure to many mothers and in some mother-infant pairs-including pretem infants, adolescent mothers, and mothers from disadvantaged circumstances-early close contact may establish a climate for improved interaction after the mother and infant leave the hospital.


Birt is the complete expulsion or extraction…… [Read More]

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Erikson's Stage 4 Middle Childhood

Words: 427 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32705578

At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.

Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at
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Two Stages There Are Many Similarities and

Words: 978 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10436411

Two Stages

There are many similarities and differences that an individual experiences with the transition into high school and with the transition into college. Both of these experiences can be considered something of a rite of passage that many individuals go through in the course of their education and their social development. Each step could be generalized by describing an individual who is entering a new place with a new opportunity to be exposed to various source of knowledge. However, at the same time these periods in one's life are quiet unique. This analysis will highlight some of the similarities and differences that can be found in these similar but different transitory periods in one's life.

The High School Experience

The high school experience is fraught with new opportunities and exposures to many new thoughts and people for the first time. At some point in the high school experience students…… [Read More]

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Development of 18-Month-Old Child

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20300054

Developmental Checklist

Intelligence in Infancy


The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.


The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.


The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych:

CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: 

Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology:

Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
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Transition Shock The Initial Stage

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53696497

These things may be additionally provoked by past history associated with unknown and altering individual and specialized functions and associations, unforeseen and improved levels of duties and responsibility that are incapable to be given to the new nurses in the course of their undergraduate knowledge, and opportunities that they will relate to everyday work conditions clinical information that has frequently been untried, is simply unidentified.

It is believed that the ingredient of revelation is a significant causal issue in the knowledge of transition shock. Even as growing substantiation begins to be seen about the consequence of a variety of direction and transition facilitation agendas on the function socialization procedure of the new nurse, there is not a lot of journalism that expresses an association between pre-graduate alteration training and the practice of transitioning into a professional nursing function. The diminished capacity of information in regards to professional tasks alterations in…… [Read More]


Duchscher, Judy E. Boychuk. (2009). Transition shock: the initial stage of role adaptation for newly graduated Registered Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(5), p.1103-1113.
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Group Stage of Development Individual

Words: 2146 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55806480

The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).

The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.

Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…… [Read More]


Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS

Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.

Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
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Family Life Cycle the Stage

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13285302

In a study conducted in rural China, where an emerging trend for leaving home in adolescence is challenging the environment an, ertig & Liu discuss their findings:

In summary, we found that (1) a person's tendency toward individualism is primarily impacted by his/her parents and perceived resource availability, with little impact from peers. This is somewhat inconsistent with findings in Western countries. (2) a person's attitudes towards leaving the parental home (an issue more specific than individualism) are primarily shaped by his/her tendency toward individualism, and perceived adverse effects. This conclusion is consistent with the findings of Gierveld et al. (1991). Parental attitude and behavior have insignificant impacts on adolescents' attitudes, while peers' behaviors have opposite influences on men and women. (3) a person's intention to leave the parental home and live independently is more complex, depending on both his/her preferences / attitudes and the perceived resource availability for so…… [Read More]

Martantz Henig, R. (Aug. 18-2010) Why are so many people in their 20s taking so long to grow up? New York Times Magazine. Retrieved Feb10, 2011 at

Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2006) Leaving Home or Still in the Nest? Parent -- Child Relationships and Psychological Health as Predictors of Different Leaving Home Patterns Developmental Psychology 42, (5) 864 -- 876. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.864

Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2009) Leaving-Home Patterns in Emerging Adults the Impact of Earlier Parental Support and Developmental Task Progression European Psychologist 14(3) 238 -- 248. DOI 10.1027/1016-9040.14.3.238
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Teaching Properties the Properties of

Words: 1392 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23399341

When students can see and manipulate objects, they can be asked to describe them and put objects in visual and verbal terms that they can relate to, in their current developmental stage. Piaget observed students relate to objects at this age by touching what is concrete, describing objects and an object's location in space.


How well did Jenny follow constructivist guidelines? What could she have done differently to make the lesson more constructivist?

Jenny made use of group activities, and socially engaged forms of learning, although a strict constructivist would have wanted her to begin with such group activities.

Discuss constructivism in terms of the constructs defined and discussed by both Piaget and Vygotsky in the text. What is the basic difference between the approaches of these two theorists?

Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next, while Vygotsky stressed the need…… [Read More]

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Health Prevention Programs

Words: 2666 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64756401

Health Promotion Lesson Plan

The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.

Prevention has become a major issue…… [Read More]

References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web.
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Interview Psychology the Physical Cognitive

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61602866

I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.

Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…… [Read More]


Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
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Elements of a Balanced Spelling Program

Words: 1653 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94418458

Balanced Spelling Program

Unique spellings are created by the children as they are developing their skills of spelling development referred to as invented spellings. Based on the knowledge of phonology that the children have, spelling creation is a unique phenomenon in the children. In most of the cases, it is seen that the children use letters for spelling words and consonants rather consistent usage of sounds. Some of the main examples include night (NIT), girl (GL) and TIG (tiger). There are five main stages of spelling development in children. 1st stage, emergent spelling, is known for the scribbling of letters, letter like forms, and scribbles and children do no associate marks with phonemes (Tompkins, Campbell, and Green, 2011), p. 168). This stage represents a more natural expression of alphabets along with many language related concepts. Second stage, letter name alphabetical setting is represented by the representation of phonemes along with…… [Read More]


Cowen, J.E. (2003). A Balanced Approach to Beginning Reading Instruction: A Synthesis of Six Major U.S. Research Studies. International Reading Assoc.

Lacina, I., and Silva, C. (2010). Cases of Successful Literacy Teachers. SAGE.

McLaughlin, M., and Allen, B.M. (2002). Guided Comprehension: A Teaching Model for Grades 3-8. International Reading Assoc.

Moss, B., and Lapp, D. (2009). Teaching New Literacies in Grades 4-6: Resources for 21st-Century Classrooms, Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy. Guilford Press.
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Children's Development Early Childhood Language

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89179616

esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]


Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at 

This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.

Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at 

This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
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Late Days

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42446640

Features of Late Adulthood and the Psychosocial Factors that Impact Individuals at this Developmental Stage

A number of psychologists such as Erikson, Levinson and Kohlberg and others have suggested that most humans develop along certain developmental stages during their lives, during which certain key features emerge and various challenges and obstacles must be overcome in order to successfully advance to the more advanced stages (Shaver & Tarpy, 1994). While the authorities may not agree of the precise components of the various stages, it would seem that most people do in fact experience a number of developmental features that provide for some fairly accurate generalizations; these issues as they apply to the key features of late adulthood and the impact of psychosocial factors during this period of life are discussed further below.

Key Features of Late Adulthood. According to Erik Erikson's stages of development, late adulthood occurs during the seventh stage,…… [Read More]


Adams-Price, C.E. (1998). Creativity and successful aging: Theoretical and empirical approaches. New York: Springer.

Austrian, S.G. (2002). Developmental theories through the life cycle. New York: Columbia

Coupland, J., & Nussbaum, J.F. (2004). Handbook of communication and aging research.

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Displacement in Whale Talk and

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95655397

The book Autobiography of My Dead Brother also deals with the identity crises of youth. It begins with three teenagers attending a funeral of their friend who died in a drive-by shooting. The main characters, Jesse and Rise, are not actually blood brothers, but they consider themselves brothers because of their close friendship. However, over the course of the book, the two young men began to become estranged. Rise becomes more and more interested with making a living on the street, selling drugs and living the life of the sort of people who killed Bobby, the boy whose funeral both young men attend at the beginning of the book. Rise justifies this because Bobby played by the rules and still died -- but in contrast, Jesse finds himself growing apart from his brother and instead finding refuge in art rather than violence. Defining his own values in contrast to those…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crain, W.C. "Chapter 7: Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Evolution. From Theories of Development.

Prentice-Hall, 1985. pp. 118-136. 10 Jun 2008.

Cutter, Chris. Whale Talk. New York: Dell, 2001.

Harder, Arlene. "The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson." The Learning Place. 10 Jun 2008.
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Bioecological Theory Bioecological Model Differs From Others

Words: 2639 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71801296

Bioecological Theory

Bioecological model differs from others in that it charts and describes the development of the human and the group over the spectrum of the life course, through successive generations both past and present.

The model consists of four principal components and the prime dynamic, interactive element that guides them. The four processes are:

the forms of interaction between organism and environment, usually called 'proximal processes that due to interaction between organism and environment effect human development

Persons -- the individual who is effected by the processes (proximal process)

the environment (socio-geo-historical etc.) in which the proximal processes occur and impact

Time -- the period in which the proximal processes occur.

Characteristics of the person can shape the proximal process and there are three key typologies that are actually predominant. These are:

Dispositions -- these set the processes in motion in a particular direction and sustain their trajectory

2.…… [Read More]


Adamsons, K., O'Brien, M., & Pasley, K. (2007). An ecological approach to father involvement in biological and stepfather families. Fathering, 5, 129 -- 147.

Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, PA (2006). The bioecological model of human development, Handbook of Child Psychology, 1, 793-828

Hetherington, D. & Parke, G. (1999) Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill

McAlister AL, Perry CL, & Parcel GS. (2008) How Individuals, Environments, and Health Behaviors Interact: Social Cognitive Theory. In: Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice 4th Edition. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Preschool Children in a Group

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98684549

Furthermore, Vgotsky's held that the bond between word and meaning is a bond that is associative in nature and is established through the repeated simultaneous perceptions of a certain sound and a certain object.

Most of the children in this class had good motor skills and followed instructions very well. Furthermore the children used "please" and "thank you" in their interactions with teachers. Also observed was the fact that Tarek, a student, acts like group-leader among other students and the children in the class try to please him. Tarek is very considerate and caring. This shows early development on the part of the children, which can be expected, in "advanced curriculum" preschool programs.

Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) contended that children and adults both pass through stages of moral development in their reasoning ability via judgments of a moral nature. Kohlberg's theory is called the "cognitive-developmental theory and suggests a tri-level sequence…… [Read More]


CEU Station - Child Development - Introduction and Theory Theoretical Framework for Child Development [Online available at: http:/ / www.ceus / childdeve lopment1.html

Vgotksy: Thinking and Speaking, Thought and Word Online at: http://www
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Compare Piaget and Vygotsky

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80452078


Compared: Piaget and Vygotsky

Piaget vs. Vygotsky: The role of language in cognitive development

Jean Piaget's theory of human development is fundamentally a biological one: Piaget believed that all human beings go through a series of developmental stages, and the ability to understand certain concepts such as volume and mass is determined by the biological and developmental stage of the brain, more so than culture. If the child is not yet ready to learn certain spatial principles, he cannot do so, even with the best of teachers. The child interacts with the environment and is shaped by its contents to some extent, but there are natural constraints based upon the child's mentality.

In contrast, "unlike Piaget's notion that children's development must necessarily precede their learning," Lev Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological functions" (McLeod…… [Read More]


Kristinsdottir, Solrun B. (2001). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from: 

McLeod, S.A. (2007). Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
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Mechanism of Aging

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27707348

Mechanisms of Aging

Mechanism of Aging

Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)

Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on…… [Read More]

Works cited

Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.

Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.

Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
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Teaching -- Piaget Teaching Through

Words: 913 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34085734

Children in this stage lack conceptions of size, volume, and mass so teaching a child about something like portion sizes of food in a discussion of nutrition would be ineffectual at this stage.

Concrete Operational Stage (ages 7-11)

During this stage, children can understand the concept of multiple stages or aspects of a problem, the concept of transferable size and volume, and also reversibility of things like numbers or steps of an action. A child at this stage can understand, for example, that a large plate of fries and a small plate of fries have the same amount of food, even though the portion looks smaller on the large plate. Also, the child at this stage is no longer egocentric. The child can understand that he or she must undergo a difficult treatment, even though it hurts, because the family wants the child to get well, or that he or…… [Read More]

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Secondary Classroom Environment Design Classroom

Words: 1523 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68942513


The traditional classroom environment is no longer supportive of student learning and it is critically necessary that educators address the current classroom environment as well as their instructional practice in the classroom if students are to be effectively prepared through education to take their rightful place in a global society characterized by information technology and networked business systems. The classroom environment that is characterized by different learning activities, cooperative and inclusive learning will provide a solid base in learning to prepare students for entrance into the world as effective and functionally adept individuals.


urgstahler, Sheryl (2002) Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab. Washington Education Staff webpage. Online available at

Riddle, Elizabeth (1999) Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory. Helen a. Kellar Institute for Human Disabilities. Online available at

10 Design Ideas for Schools of the 21st Century (1998) American School & University. 1…… [Read More]


Burgstahler, Sheryl (2002) Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab. Washington Education Staff webpage. Online available at .

Riddle, Elizabeth (1999) Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory. Helen a. Kellar Institute for Human Disabilities. Online available at

10 Design Ideas for Schools of the 21st Century (1998) American School & University. 1 January 1998. HMRH Architects. Online available at

Armstrong, Thomas (2000) Multiple Intelligences - Online available at
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Psychological Movie Interpretation Ordinary People on the

Words: 1704 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60550806

Psychological Movie Interpretation: Ordinary People

On the surface, the movie Ordinary People is a movie about loss. It focuses on a family that is recovering from the death of its oldest son. The older son, Buck, and the younger son, Conrad, are portrayed as stereotypical golden boys, with lifetimes full of promise ahead of them. Both boys are strong swimmers on the swim team, however, while out together, without any parents, on a boat, they get into a boating accident. Buck is unable to save himself. Perhaps more significantly, Conrad is unable to save Buck. Conrad spirals into a significant depression and attempts to commit suicide. He is hospitalized in a mental institution because of his suicide attempt. The movie opens after Conrad returns home from the mental hospital and focuses on Conrad's attempts to reintegrate into his family and his suburban environment. Conrad's father, Calvin, is distraught about Buck's…… [Read More]


Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's psychosocial stages summary chart. Retrieved October 15, 2013

from website:

Erikson, E. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.

Harder, A. (2012). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved October 15, 2013
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Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality Compared to

Words: 2886 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4005352

Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?

Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Carl ogers

Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…… [Read More]


Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging

Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.

DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.

Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
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Supervision Portfolio Personal Philosophy and Supervision Forms

Words: 2593 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37659791

The experience I had accumulated in my secondary days as a supervisor in mathematics also assists me in my place of work.

I also had experience as a supervisor in my workplace, which enhanced my development level as a supervisor. My development level as a supervisor also continues in my workplace before getting admission into the university. Before I got admission in into the university, I had worked in series of companies notably manufacturing companies. For example, I worked with Toyota Company for 5 years as an assistant supervisor. My working experience in the company has assisted my development level as a supervisor. In my working experience, I understand that it is critical for a supervisor to build working relationships with supervisees. Typically, supervisory-supervisees relationships enhance mutual alliance between the two parties. The supervisor and supervisees share responsibility of developing empathy, genuineness, warmth, emotional and reliability engagement to develop key…… [Read More]


Arthur, M.E. (2012). Application of the Discrimination Model of Supervision for Residency Education, Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education,18 (1):32-37.

Bernard, J.M. (1979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19, 60-68.

Bernard, J.M., Goodyear, R.K. (1992). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009).Fundamentals of clinical supervision, (4th Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
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Applied Theory to Application With Teachers

Words: 1102 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8502367

Human Development and Education Theory

Behavioral psychologists and developmental theorists have traditionally categorized various periods of childhood and adolescence that correspond to VEY specific stages of cognitive and emotional development. While various experts differ widely in their characterization and analyses of the human developmental stages, modern educators recognize the importance of certain elements of behavioral and emotional development as equally important to early education as age-related cognitive stages of purely intellectual growth.

Traditional primary and secondary education programs are based on teaching methods and concepts designed in the nineteenth century and earlier. While the academic curricula expanded considerably during the course of the last hundred years' of American education, many of the methods still relied upon by modern educators mirror the principles designed primarily just to teach elementary reading and writing skills, which was the main (if not the sole) focus of the early education even well into the twentieth…… [Read More]


Smith, M.K. (2002) Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences.

The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Accessed July 6, 2004 at updated: 2/14/04)

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2001) Psychology and Life 16th ed.

Allyn & Bacon, New Jersey
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Murray L Cooper P J Wilson

Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43223771

Such a limited gathering of data suggests that perhaps a different outcome may have occurred had a truly careful and representative collection and analysis of data actually been performed.

Other significant limitations to this study exist. In fact, the sample of women and children was generally comprised of low risk and only primiparous mothers. Accordingly, the findings as generally stated may not accurate with regard to high risk and/or multiparous populations. Additionally, the sample itself was underpowered to actually detect the nuances between the different treatment groups. Admittedly, the research undertook to examine several different types of therapies and treatment amongst several different sets of women; and, a fastidious review of subtle differences between treatment groups was not completed. Furthermore, of the indicators that revealed a positive outcome, these indicators were based upon data from mothers which was subjective in nature as it was solely based upon the mothers' assessment…… [Read More]

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Moral Reasoning Is it Taught Through Children Literature

Words: 3473 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30688923

Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis

Introduction and Field Research Background

My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brynildssen, Shawna. "Character Education through Children's Literature."

ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication. Bloomington,

IN: Family Learning Association Bloomington IN. March 2003. ED469929.

Hartman, Holly. "Charlotte's Web: Spotlight on a Children's Classic." Fact
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Piaget Theory

Words: 1280 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77734361

theorist Jean Piaget. The writer uses two case studies, a nine-year-old and a 14-Year-old, and provides the reader with the results of the study conducted on the children.

Throughout history theorists have studied human behavior to try and determine what it is that makes people react the way they do. There have been many theories tossed about regarding the behavior of mankind and the impact the behaviors have on the world. One important theorist in the history of psychology was Jean Piaget. Piaget focused his work on children and believed the complete developmental process of life occurs during childhood. Piaget developed different stages of development that he believed occurred at recognizable ages and with repeated patterns. This theory has been tested again and again and in many cases has held itself to be true. This paper presents case studies of two children who are held against their Piaget age groups…… [Read More]

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Personal Portrait the Course of

Words: 2852 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14401293

According to the Kohlberg theory, the post-conventional level is when a person develops social contract orientation and becomes principled. I believe I felt that I owed society an obligation to work and try to make it better, so I sought public welfare work (Fowler, p. 56).

Eventually, a better job opportunity came to me in the form of a state job in the Department of Youth and Family Services, so I decided to leave the school system. I transferred from my city job and was able work in my chosen field. Between working there and at Families Matter, New Jersey, I learned quite a bit. I would spend hours with parents who did not have the skills to help themselves and children who were in crisis. This motivated me even more to finish my bachelor's degree. This experience made me realize how lucky I was to have supportive family and…… [Read More]


Colby, a and Kohlberg, L. (1987). The Measurement of Moral Judgment, Vol 2. Standard Issue Scoring Manual. Cambridge University Press.

Fowler, J.T., Hennesey, T. (ed.) (1976) "Stages in faith: the structural developmental approach," Values and Moral Development. New York: Paulist Press.

Harder, a.F. (2002). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Retrieved August 8, 2007 at

Kohlberg, Lawrence (1973). "The claim to moral adequacy of a highest stage of moral judgment." Journal of Philosophy. 70: 630-646.
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Children Cannot Help but Notice About Certain

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96966509

children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.

rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…… [Read More]

Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press
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Behavioral Modification Description of the

Words: 1221 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37711055

By praising a child every time they do something correctly instead of reprimanding him every single time he does something wrong, can better his self-esteem and show him that he is in control of his actions and feelings. A program that gives rewards for every accomplishment in form of tokens or tickets which can then be redeemed for things such as movie tickets or restaurant vouchers (something that is practical and useful) can be a motivator in children with mood disorders. A goal of a certain number or tickets could be set so that the child is often motivated to behave appropriately in order to attain the desired prize. Tickets or tokens should never be taken away or revoked since previous desired behavior has already earned them the current number of tokens or tickets, but not giving the redeemable tickets or tokens will be a better option. Ignoring his attention…… [Read More]


Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.L., & Wilson, D. (2009).

Maternal Child Nursing Care. Mosby. 4th Edition.

kbarlowe. (2010, July 7). 5- to 12-year-old, mood disorder! Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from disorder-noshelp

Flanagan, Dr., Samantha, Psy. D. (2011) University of Maryland. Department of Psychology.
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Teens and the Media One

Words: 4544 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39988476

The extreme power of this new cultural tool is the very nature -- it depends on nothing but an electronic connection. it, like many things in the modern world, is instantaneous, satisfying the 21st century need to have both dependence and independence based on our own decision or whim. Therein lies the confusion for many -- just how real is an electronic friendship that can exist without really "knowing" the person physically? How robust are virtual relationships except in the mind of those participating? and, how do we know with whom we are actually chatting or forming a bond -- could the mother of three living in Scotland be something quite different on the Internet? and, specifically, what impact might these social networks from a psychological perspective? (Gross, 2004).

Besides community, technology has changed entertainment for teens. Violence in the entertainment genre is not something that is new to the…… [Read More]


Ahn, J. (2011). Digital Divides and Social Network Sites: Which Students Participate in Social

Media. Jounral of Educational Computing Research, 45(2), 147-63.

Anderson-Butcher, D., (2010). Adolescent Weblog Use: Risky or Protective. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 27(2), 63-77.

Anderson, B. (1999). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Publications.
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Importance of Family in the Health of Our Society

Words: 1133 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37820327

Family in Health of Our Society

The Family System as a Tool to Promote Health

Family is vital to the health and well being of our society. Only recently have researchers and healthcare providers began realizing that families work as a system to help promote health among family members. Families are more a whole than the sum of individual parts (Friedman, Bowden & Jones, 2003). Thus what affects one family member will ultimately affect others. The health or behaviors of one family member may directly or indirectly affect the health and well being of other family members.

Because families are more widely recognized as systems that can create a healthy or unhealthy environment, nursing researchers are suggesting a more integrative and holistic approach to care that focuses on families as system. Integrative practice suggests that nurse practitioners consider families as systems and work with families in this regard to help…… [Read More]


Denham, S.A. (2003 -- May/June). "Familial research reveals new practice model."

Holistic Nursing Practice, pp. 143- 151.

Friedman, M.M, Bowden, V.R. & Jones, E.G. (2003). Family Nursing Research, Theory

and Practice. Prentice-Hall.
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People You Meet in Heaven Each Was

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40970266

people you meet in heaven. Each was in your life for a reason. You may not have known the reason at the time, and that is what heaven is for. For understanding your life on earth.

The Five People You Meet in Heaven is a story of a lifetime of self misperception, potential waste of spirit, and ultimate redemption.

Eddie gave his all to the war and now works in a meaningless job at the Ruby Pier amusement park. In a heroic gesture, he gives his life saving a child sitting under a falling ride. Waking in a cotton candy-like heaven, he meets with five people -- some strangers and others well-known -- who guide him on a visual and illuminating journey through his life, theoretically proving that not everything is revealed during the time on earth.

The intended purpose for the five interactions is bi-directional; the communicants are seeking…… [Read More]


Dychtwald, K. & Flower, J. (1989). Age Wave: The Challenges of Opportunities of an Aging Society. Troy, AL: JP Tarcher

Lerner, R.M., Easterbrooks, M.A., Mistry, J. & Weiner, I.B. (eds) (1982). Handbook of Developmental Psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall

Reimer, J., Pritchard-Paolitto, D. & Hersh, R. (1979) Promoting Moral Growth: From Piaget to Kohlberg. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press
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Levinson Part Two Examination of

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18172594

Tenet of the theory

2. Another tenet of this theory (and one that is connected to certain clinical practices such as those of Rogerian therapy) is that humans are generally inclined to try to achieve greater levels of self-fulfillment, which in turn is linked to greater levels of insight and self-awareness.

Methodological assumptions of this model

. This question is a little more difficult to answer since a model or epistemological framework since the methodological connections to a theoretical framework are strong but not absolute. Any methodological approach to test the validity of Levinson's developmental framework would have to be qualitative since the model reflects complex, subjective states that are not discernible through statistical analyses.

Some of the most interesting potential research topics that could be devised around Levinson's model would be how subjects interpret their own status in terms of where a researcher assesses them to be. Levinson's model…… [Read More]

3. The theory is based on the tenet that individuals, when given an overview of the model, will be able to determine for themselves with accuracy (that is, they would be in agreement with an external observer) where they are positioned in terms of their development.

One study that examines Levinson's model is Dannefer (1984, Feb.) "Adult Development and Social Theory: A Paradigmatic Reappraisal" (American Sociological Review 49(1): 100-116). Dannefer's work, which reflects on theoretical and clinical work produced in a range of fields, argues that Levinson's model is deeply flawed because it ignores the primacy of social relationships as primary influences on an individual's development.

A second very different study (Rush, J.C., Peacock, a.C. & Milkovich, G.T. (1980). Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model of life/career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior 16(3): 347-359) examines the relationship between Levinson's model and career development, surveying people as to whether they saw a connection between Levinson's model and their self-assessment of their position in their career path. The subjects were 759 managerial, professional, and technical employees randomly selected from levels and departments of a major public sector employer in the midwest United States. These employees did not connect their own life experiences with Levinson's stages: "Only moderate support for the theory was found with little or no evidence to support the age-linked notion of these stages."
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Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not

Words: 5056 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15688478

Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not

Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).

Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…… [Read More]


Ajzen, I. (2010). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2006). Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 2005. MMWR 2006, 55.

Cicero, T.J., Inciardi, J.A., & Munoz, A. (2005). Trends in abuse of OxyContin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004. The Journal of Pain, 6, 662-672.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Prescription pain medications: Frequently asked questions and answers for health care professionals and law enforcement personnel. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 19(1), 71-104.
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Ainsworth Conducted an Experiment Dubbed 'The Strange

Words: 840 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89869390

Ainsworth conducted an experiment dubbed 'The Strange Situation' in which one-year-old children and their mothers were observed in an unfamiliar surrounding. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the babies' reactions to separation from and reunification with their mothers. Based on their responses, Ainsworth placed the children into one of three categories: securely attached infants, insecure-avoidant infants, and insecure-resistant infants. The securely attached infants used their mothers as a base from which to explore the unfamiliar setting. When the mothers left, the children were sometimes plainly distressed; however, when the mothers returned, the babies became placid and resumed exploration of the novel surrounding. The insecure-avoidant infants ignored their mothers and immediately began to explore their surroundings. When their mothers exited the room, they appeared unaffected; moreover, these children did not acknowledge their mothers' return and even tended to avoid their contact. The insecure-resistant infants were reluctant to explore whatsoever.…… [Read More]


Morris, Charles & Maisto, Albert. Psychology: An Introduction. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
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psychological development in people

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90827170

Psychologists, such as Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, theorize that humans go through stages in their development throughout life, growing from infancy to old age. Piaget outlined stages of thinking, referred to as cognitive development; Erikson described stages of personality, referred to as psychosocial development. How can you use this information to better understand your own life? hat stages of cognitive and psychosocial development have you gone through since you were an infant? hich stages will you encounter during adulthood and old age?

Piaget and Erikson both took a systematic approach to trying to determine what the different stages of human development. However, both individuals used different perspectives and formulated models that were inherently different. Piaget was interested in trying to determine the way children begin to develop various mental capacities to understand things such as numbers, time, causality, justice, etc. and he considered his work to be the realm…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from Simple Psychology:

McLeod, S. (2017). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from Simply Psychology:
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Mind Overview and Proposed Experiment

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5236368

39). However, because of translating different cultural concepts, cross-cultural studies such as those of the Baka can prove problematic: "How can one know whether similar behaviors have similar meaning across cultures capacity," when designing experiments? (Gauvain 1998, p.40). It is particularly difficult to elicit responses regarding what a subject things 'another' feels. Thus cross-cultural definitions of a theory of mind are difficult to determine, given that the child's experience is culturally marked by languages and concepts from the start of life. Lillard contends that it is simply not tenuous to claim that the child has core understandings about other people that exist outside of culture, given the degree to which language, manners, rituals, and folk psychological understandings of others are shaped by cultural constraints. (Lillard 1998, p. 44).

Specifically regarding her inquiry about 'folk' psychological understanding in cultures, Angelina Lillard refers to the apparent tendency in other cultures to attribute…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, M. (2005). Culture in development. In M.H. Bornstein & M.E. Lamb (Eds.),

Developmental science: An advanced textbook (5th ed., pp. 45-101). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gauvain, Mary. (1998) Culture, development, and Theory of Mind: Comment on Lillard.

Psychological Bulletin. 123. 1: 37-42.
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Ni Observed a Five-Year-Old Female Playing at

Words: 834 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12216124

NI observed a five-year-old female playing at a playground. The tasks I witnessed included seeing the child running, playing on a slide, ascending stairs and climbing on playground equipment.

The child is in Erickson's third stage of development where play is an important component of learning. This is why the child had a tendency to mimic the actions of the other older children on the playground. She was so amused by her brother that she started to copy his actions and called to her mother to watch her perform this amazing feat. The child was proud once she was able to accomplish the task and looked for parental praise. Her play allows her to work out the male/female relationship parameters (Harder).

The two children interacted not only on the playground slide, but also through different areas of the playground as well. Motor skills are very important in child social interactions.…… [Read More]


Harder, Arlene F. "The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson." Learning Place Learning Place Online, 2009. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .
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Psychoanalysis From a Psychoanalytic Perspective

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93994351


Humanistic psychology is primarily associated with existentialism and the belief in the innate goodness of all human beings. The concept of transpersonal psychology falls within this category, as it emphasizes personal experiences that transcend the typical human experiences, and enter a spiritual dimension. Transpersonal psychology shares the humanistic goal of "self-actualization" put forth by Abraham Maslow (1970). From Maslow's perspective, self-actualization is achieved when one has progressed through developmental stages that increase personal enlightenment and individuality with each step. Therefore, Lamanda would become self-actualized after progressing through the hierarchy that begins with basic needs such as shelter and sustenance, progresses through needs of safety, belonging and esteem, and ultimately ends up with reaching her full potential in both her career and her social life.

Carl Jung has also influenced the development of transpersonal psychology, not only because he coined the term "transpersonal" when referring to consciousness, but also because…… [Read More]


Aronoff, J. & J.P. Wilson (1985) Personality in the social process, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Erikson E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.

Goldstein, E.G. (1995). Ego psychology and social work practice. 2d ed. New York: Free Press.

Kohlberg, L. (1971). From is to ought. In T. Mischel (ed.), Cognitive development and epistemology. New York: Academic, pp. 151-165
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Adolescent Growth and Development Huebner

Words: 347 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28304557

The lessons teens learn during this potentially idealistic period are lessons the teens can remembers throughout their lives, and hopefully use to become more involved and concerned adult citizens.

Set limits for behavior, but show respect for teens. Demand respect from teenagers, this article counsels both patents and educators. But also show respect for teens. Just as, for example, a parent ought to hold fast to a curfew, a teacher should hold fast to deadlines and try to create good habits that will last the adolescent for the rest of his or her lifetime. Requirements should be reasonable, and developmentally appropriate, but they should not infantilize the teen. Rather, teachers must treat adolescents as adolescents, not as children or as adults. Ideally, using the teen's developing self-awareness as social consciousness to create a more positive identity and role for the adolescent as a student and citizen should be the goal…… [Read More]

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Piaget's Theory of Development

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43553699

perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .

Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Santrock, John W. (2006). "Life-Span Development (10th ed.)" McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Smith, Leslie, (2002). "Critical Readings on Piaget." Routledge.
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Applied Projects

Words: 2110 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88837604

Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs

When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.

A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…… [Read More]


Drugs Of Abuse Present In 40% Of Newborns (2002). Aphrodite Women's Health. Retrieved from


Jaudes, P.K., & Ekwo, E.E. (1997). Outcomes for Infants Exposed in Utero to Illicit Drugs, Child Welfare. 76(4).

Ornoy, A. (2000).The Effects of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs on the Human Embryo and Fetus. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 39(2).
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Communication Is an Essential Part

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7738379

This became a major roadblock for the project with opposing views on the problem.

Finally, the manager spoke to the client and explained the situation. They agreed to extend the due date by a couple of months and the developers and testers felt that time was good enough to make the changes. So, communication helped to clear this stand-off between the team members.

Leadership style of the manager

The manager followed a democratic style of leadership. According to Daft (2007, p.44), "A democratic leader delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates' knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence." This is the exact approach that was followed by my manager and it proved to be effective. He could manage the entire project and could communicate easily with those located in different parts of the world.

Such a style of leadership was comfortable for all…… [Read More]


Daft, Richard. L. (2007). The Leadership Experience. Publication: Cengage Learning.

Hartley, Peter. Bruckmann, Clive. G. (2002). Business Communication. Publication: Psychology Press.
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Psychological Counseling Session for Wile

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81127921

Likewise, it seems that the patient may also have sublimated repressed his anger at and maybe a perpetual rivalry with at his father by dedicating his entire life to achieving the one accomplishment that his neither his father nor any of his siblings ever achieved: catching a road runner.

Furthermore, it would seem that the patient is mainly driven by ego-based issues; specifically, he has devoted his life to fulfilling the definitions established by his father and family of origin of personal worth. Consequently, he has over-valued the goal of catching the road runner far beyond its actual worth as a meal. The fact that much of the ridicule to which he was exposed during his psychosocial developmental stages occurred during the anal phase is consistent with his rigid focus and his obsession with perfection in the form of the achievement of a hunting goal.

The patient has also apparently…… [Read More]