538 results for “Deviant Behavior”.
To be stigmatized by society for a disorder such as schizophrenia is truly unfair, due to the disorder not being the fault of the person afflicted with it. In all social situations, to be stigmatized would make the person an outcast, meaning that the person would be ostracized from all social activities that make up a "normal" lifestyle. In public places, the stigmatized individual would be shunned by everyone which would create much self-doubt and internal conflicts. For the schizophrenic, this would make his/her disorder even worse, for they would feel like social pariahs with some kind of horrible social disease that could inflict other persons, such as having tuberculosis or possibly AIDS.
For those persons who hold prejudices against mentally-ill individuals, the basis of their prejudice is mainly because of ignorance and being misinformed about various mental illnesses. Personally, I would tell these persons to place themselves in the…
Deviant Behavior in the Workplace
Counterproductive and Deviant Behavior in the Workplace
Deviant behavior in the workplace may seem like somewhat of a rarity, but it is actually relatively common. Part of the reason behind that is that there is a broad definition of what is deviant or counterproductive, and part of the reason is that many organizations either ignore the behavior or take care of it internally, so it doesn't make the news or come to light. It is possible for organizations to minimize deviant and counterproductive behavior in the workplace, but they cannot completely stop it from happening (Jones, 2009; Smithikrai, 2008; Wilkerson, Evans, & Davis, 2008). The reason behind this is that human nature cannot be curbed just because there are rules at a particular company or organization. It may not be in a particular person's nature to be deviant, but that may not be the case…
Jones, D.A. (2009). Getting even with one's supervisor and one's organization: relationships among types of injustice, desires for revenge, and counterproductive work behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 525-542.
Litzky, B.E., Eddleston, K.A., & Kidder, D.L. (2006). The good, the bad, and the misguided: how managers inadvertently encourage deviant behaviors. Academy of Management Perspectives, 20, 91-103.
Robinson, S.L., & O'Leary-Kelly, A.M. (1998). Monkey see, monkey do: the influence of work groups on the antisocial behavior of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41:6, 658-672.
Smithikrai, C. (2008). Moderating effect of situational strength on the relationship between personality traits and counterproductive work behaviour. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 253-263.
Potentially any individual who is gifted, if stifled and/or offered negative role models of behavior could become a negatively deviant individual in adulthood or childhood. It is important to point out that many experts conclude that these young people are often feared, due to their differences and the complications of helping such a child are many. (Winner, 1996, p. 2)
Deviant people -- whether atypical in personality, intellect, or both -- have always interested psychologists, especially if the deviance involves negative personality traits or severely limited abilities. We know far more about psychopathological aspects of personality than about ideal traits such as compassion, moral courage, or leadership ability. A similar focus on deficits can be seen in psychological studies of cognition. While standard journals in developmental psychology publish articles on retardation, they rarely publish studies of giftedness. Such articles are relegated to less prestigious journals that specialize in giftedness. This…
Bentham, S. (2002). Psychology and Education. New York: Routledge.
Pfuhl, E.H., & Henry, S. (1993). The Deviance Process (3rd ed.). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Winner, E. (1996). Gifted Children Myths and Realities. New York: BasicBooks.
In the United States, there are laws which determine the proper punishment for individuals who choose to commit crimes. If someone is under a certain age, then that individual is held less responsible for their choices than an adult who makes that same choice. However, if the crime is severe enough or if there is no appropriate remorse from the perpetrator, District Attorneys and prosecution may decide to try that person as an adult, even though they are under the age of eighteen. Theoreticians have argued about teenagers since the first stirrings of the psychoanalytic movement at the time of Freud. Can someone who is not yet a physical adult still make adult decisions and thus should their punishment fit their age or their action? Deviant behavior can manifest itself in three ways: power, money, and crime. Deviance in teenagers can be seen in all three categories.
Lundstrom, Marjie. "Kids are Kids -- Until They Commit Crimes." The Sacramento Bee. March
1, 2001. Print.
Sampson, Robert J. "Crime and Deviance Over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult
Social Bonds." Classics of Criminology. Ed. Joseph Jacoby. 3rd. Waveland. 2004. Print.
(Gunkel, 2001, p. 8)
It would seem, that the line that one oversteps to become deviant is the line that demonstrates the outsmarting of another to create chaos in ones system and potentially do real damage to materials and data. Of coarse this would include any hacking that results in crime, and especially theft and fraud.
acking in all intense and purpose is deviant behavior, that challenges the current cultural dependence of upon technology, as it challenges the trust of the system as well as many other issues, regardless of its real or potential damage. Yet, the current trend in cyberspace is to create systems that are safe from hacking, and elicit all possible protection for legitimate users and owners of the intellectual properties within. Another interesting trend includes creating hacker sites that require hacking to enter, potentially redirecting hackers to more positive sidelines. (Wible, 2003, p.1577) Such sites are…
Hacking in all intense and purpose is deviant behavior, that challenges the current cultural dependence of upon technology, as it challenges the trust of the system as well as many other issues, regardless of its real or potential damage. Yet, the current trend in cyberspace is to create systems that are safe from hacking, and elicit all possible protection for legitimate users and owners of the intellectual properties within. Another interesting trend includes creating hacker sites that require hacking to enter, potentially redirecting hackers to more positive sidelines. (Wible, 2003, p.1577) Such sites are even stressing the legitimacy of their works by barring criminal hackers from competitions and allowing hackers to anonymously offer information to authorities about hacking offenses and potentially helping authorities trace criminal hackers..
Strengthened penalties are meant to enfeeble the "black market" where participants might develop hacking expertise or put their skills to illicit uses. These measures could be strengthened by a "three strikes" rule. Hackers implicated in a specified number of offenses would not be able to compete. To prevent some hackers from being locked out entirely, a date could be set so that everyone would begin with a blank slate. Alternatively, hackers could take away a strike for each public interest job they do (as long as they do not add any new strikes), such as beefing up a site's security or turning state's evidence to prosecute other crimes. (Wible, 2003)
Though the tactic, does not eliminate the lure of hacking or eliminate it as a deviant behavior it does take the system, that hacking works within and bolster it to create positive deviance rather than negative deviance.
This is a widely debated issue in the social and legal debate regarding sexuality.
The more legalized an issue, such as in the case of heterosexual marriage the more accepted it is, and this is the underlying fear behind the legal challenges that have been waged both for and against homosexual unions in the present day. Marriage is a legal state, and has been for most of written history, it is therefore difficult for many to allow the legal definition of homosexuality to become one that is an accepted alternative to the broader world, through legislation. Legally homosexuality, is as socially defined by the act of choosing to establish a sexual partnership with a person of the same gender as one's self rather than with the opposite gender. Historically, the legal aspects of homosexuality must be addressed in order to come to an even partial understanding of the similarities and…
Baird, R.M. & Baird, M.K. (Eds.). (1995). Debating the Issues. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Barnett, L.D. (1993). Legal Construct, Social Concept: A Macrosociological Perspective on Law. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Johnson, P. (1995, January). God and the Americans. Commentary, 99, 25.
The Marriage Amendment. (2003, October). First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 14.
Erin Brockovich & orporate Ethics
Eric Brockovich, a film released in 2000, is a dramatization of a true story of a woman who became a legal assistant through the sheer force of her personality -- and after discovering evidence that people were being poisoned by toxins from a Pacific Gas and Electricity (PG&E) plant -- nearly single-handedly -- successfully brings a lawsuit against the company ("IMDB," 2011). The film provides a verstehen, or filtered understanding, of the embittered contest between the injured citizen and a large corporation with deep pockets ("IMDB," 2011). This paper will first briefly summarize the story. An analysis of the position of the prosecuting legal team follows. And finally, discussion will center on corporate deviance according to Glasser's hoice Theory and the relation of Kohlberg's theory of morality.
The story takes place in 1993, when following the loss of a personal injury…
The factor that drove the choice of deviance theory for this section of the analysis is that the crimes committed by PG&E were white collar crimes. No one in the corporation was experiencing threat to their basic needs -- this was not a crime of desperation driven by dire circumstances or a spontaneous reaction to an unanticipated context or even a crime of omission. The crimes committed by PG&E were planned and deliberated deceitful.
In view of this, a theory grounded in psychology rather than sociology, economics, or criminology seems most appropriated. William Glasser's choice theory is based on his 50-some years of practice as a counseling psychologist (Glasser, 2011). Choice Theory assumes that human behavior takes its form and direction from the satisfaction of five needs that are genetically driven, and are similar to those described by Abraham Maslow (Glasser, 2011). The needs are as follows: (1) Survival, which includes food, shelter, clothing, personal safety, and the like; (2) Belonging,
This sort of solitary behavior in and of itself is not necessarily anti-social. but, what is anti-social is the fact that this individuals fails to interact with people around him. One time I came in and asked him where my friend was and he stated loudly and harshly (without looking up from his computer) that he did not know. This sort of response has successfully negated any further attempts on my part to engage this person. My friend who lives with him says he does the same things to him. This person only communicates with people on the computer. Perhaps this is because he is a foreign exchange student whose friends and family are in another country. Still, by choosing to avoid talking to people in real life and fixating himself solely on his computer, this sort of antisocial behavior is deviant and not frequently found in contemporary society.
deviant behavior? Explain the role of norms and societal reactions. *According to Stark, what is wrong with defining crime as "actions that violate the law?"
Deviant behavior is any sort of conduct that goes against the norms of a specific community / culture. Norms serve to create and regulate a certain order in society; societal reactions keep these norms in check and modify them when appropriate (when the powerful functionaries of the society so decide).
What is differential association theory? According to the text, what are some aspects of deviance that are not consistent with differential association theory?
This is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland that states that offenders learn attitudes, values, strategies, modes of behavior, and motives for criminal behavior through interaction with peers and others in their community. It does not explain though why some individuals, growing up in a poor and violent-ridden community are resilient to…
Divergent Responses to Deviant ehavior
The objective of this study is to examine two theories of deviant behavior that represent today's changing trends. This work will additionally examine three theories that may be considered outdated including: (1) Sheldon's Theory of ody Types; (2) Lombroso's Theory; and (3) Y Chromosome Theory, and will explain why they have been discredited.
The positivist perspective views deviance as "absolutely or intrinsically real, in that is possesses some qualities that distinguish it from conventionality." (Pearson Higher Education, nd, p. 4) Deviant individuals are views as having specific characteristics that make them different from conventional individuals. It was held by criminologists around the turn of the last century that criminals were in possession of specific biological traits that were not present in individuals that were law-abiding. Included in these biological traits were "defective genes, bumps on the head, a longer lower jaw, a scanty…
Crossman, A. (2014) Biological Explanations of Deviant Behavior. Sociology. Retrieved from: http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Biological-Explanations-Of-Deviant-Behavior.htm
Gado, M. (nd) Bad to the Bone: All About Criminal Motivation. Crime Library. Retrieved from: http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/psychology/crime_motivation/4.html
Perspectives and Theories: Part I (nd) Pearson Higher Education. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205929915.pdf
Sheldon's Body Personality (nd) Changing Minds. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/explanations/personality/sheldon_personality.htm
Chapter 12 talks about drinking and alcoholism. This disease is more widely accepted by U.S. society, but it still holds some level of deviance, especially considering the fact that many alcohol abusers are underage. Thio talks about the probable causes of alcoholism and the effects of this disease on people in both the micro and macro forms. Controlling alcoholism has proven very difficult and Thio gives the reader some hope and understanding within this topic as well in Chapter 12. Alcoholism is often a tough subject to explore since many people have experienced it in one way or another. The author gives an excellent, comprehensive explanation of this disease and shows how it can lead to other diseases and disorders as well as working on concert with other known problems within the brain such as chronic addiction and other mental disorders.
Chapter 13 in Thio's book is entitled "White Collar…
As maintained in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association in Washington, D.C., there are a number of traits that distinguish the socially "normal" person from one with APD. Overall, such an individual continues to consistently "act in a way that disregards the rights of others and violates the rules of society," a pattern which is expressed by exhibiting at least three of the following maladaptive elements
1). The afflicted individual repeatedly does things that could result in being arrested.
2). The individual repeatedly fabricates, uses aliases and resorts to subterfuge or deceit for profit or for simply because it "feels good or is fun."
3). The individual is impulsive and fails to plan ahead for the future.
4). The individual repeatedly becomes involve in physical confrontations.
5). The individual possesses a reckless disregard for his/her own safety and for the safety of…
Bryant, Clifton D., Ed. (2001). Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant-Behavior: Vol. 2 -- Crime and Juvenile Delinquency. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
Clinard, Marshall B. (1992). The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. New-York: Harcourt-Brace Publishing Company.
Coleman, James W. (1998). Deviant Behavior and the Criminal Elite. New-York: W.H. Freeman & Company.
Collins, Phillip D. (2006). "Cultivating Criminality: The Centrality of Deviance to the Scientific Dictatorship." Illuminati. Internet. Retrieved from http://www.conspiracyarchive.
Deviance is a term used to refer to violation of social norms and used to understand human conduct. Deviance is expressed in various forms such as crime, mental disorders, suicide, and alcohol and drug addiction. the concept of deviant behavior is understood based on the sociological analysis of three dimensions of the social structure i.e. institutional, relational, and embodied structures. The modern society is characterized by numerous social changes due to rapid technological advancements and globalization. As a result, deviant behavior is multidimensional due to variance in cultural norms. This is supported by Structural Strain Theory, which suggests that cultural norms or goals shape institutional means, which in turn become the premise for determining human conduct and expected behavior. When people are prevented from realizing culturally-approved goals, they become frustrated and experience strain that results in deviant behavior.
There are two major problems relating to deviance in today’s society,…
On the other hand, this exposure to many different systems of morality can also be confusing, and can make any kind of deviant behavior seem acceptable in a relativistic fashion. hy obey the drug laws of the United States when in Amsterdam, there are no such regulations?
Setting standards of deviance and normalcy is a negotiation between the rights of the individual and the needs of the community. Sometimes, the rights of the individual will win out, other times the community's need for harmony will supersede these individual rights. This negotiation will vary from nation to nation, time to time, and place to place.
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant…
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant Behavior. 3rd Ed.
Furthermore, the label of deviance does not encourage society to question its supposed normalcy, although not so long ago, homosexuality or using birth control was labeled a criminal, deviant act. Finally, not all criminal acts are deviant per se, as speeding or drinking before the age of 21 and other actions that are technically violations of the law are often tolerated by the majority rather than the minority of society.
There are also crimes, like cheating on one's taxes, that may be clearly deviant, but are viewed as less pathological than crimes of violence. Understanding why so-called normal society views certain deviant acts with greater disapproval than other acts, or marginalizes certain individuals who are more likely to become criminals as a result might thus be a more important area of study.
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings…
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant Behavior. 3rd Ed.
All of these theories represent an idea that deviance is a socially constructed phenomenon, not an objectively defined part of reality.
The fourth chapter of Thio's work talks about specific forms of violence. These forms, killing, assault, and terrorism, are all examined under the microscope of different theories to help explain their existence and popularity among certain groups of people and individuals. This chapter is quite intriguing because it gives the reader certain insights into the deviants' minds when it comes to these acts. Each of these acts, for the most part, has been labeled as deviant by all cultures and society, and as such, are interesting and worthwhile examples to examine.
The Fifth chapter of Thio's book deals with rape and molestations. It talks about some of the more widely accepted reasons why these behaviors occur, and what people can do to try to re-tune their own perspective so…
In this example, it becomes evident that Anderson's underlying theory in conducting his analysis is the labeling theory. A product of the symbolic interactionist paradigm, labeling theory posits that "a response to an act and not the behavior that determines deviance...(it) is the recognition that some people or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others" (Schaefer, 1998:165). From this definition, Anderson's categorization of street people corresponds to the people's behavior and actions as they live a life of poverty. For the "criminal elements" of the society, deviance is a form of legitimacy for them to conduct more deviant acts, and thus, the continuous conduct of deviant actions reinforces the label "criminal element(s)." Similarly, there exist labels that determine people who lead double identities of being able to assimilate to both the normative and deviant groups. y resorting to "decent ways" of living, Anderson considers some…
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of inner city. NY W.W. Norton.
Schaefer, R. (1998). Sociology: a brief introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill Co.
The novel vividly illustrates this event, stated as follows:
The scorching blade slashed at my eyelashes and stabbed at my stinging eyes. That's when everything began to reel. The sea carried up a thick, fiery breath. It seemed to me as if the sky split open from one end to the other to rain down fire. My whole being tensed and I squeezed my hand around the revolver. The trigger gave; I felt the smooth underside of the butt; and there, in that noise, sharp and deafening at the same time, is where I tall started. I shook off the sweat and sun. I knew that I had shattered the harmony of the day, the exceptional silence of a beach where I'd been happy. Then I fired four more times at the motionless body where the bullets lodged without leaving a trace. And it was like knocking four quick times…
Bree, B. (Ed.). (1972). Camus. NJ: Rutgers UP.
Booker, (1993). Literature and domination: sex, knowledge, and power in modern fiction. Gainsville: Florida UP.
Camus, a. (1988). The Stranger. NY: Alfred a. Knopf, Inc.
Dupee, F.W. (1957). In Nabokov: a critical heritage. N. Page (Ed.). NY: Routledge.
An individual's behavior is labeled as "deviant" when the behavior goes against the prevailing norms that govern social life. These norms are generally unspoken rules designed to promote patterns in the social interactions between people. This gives rise to expectations about how people must act and behave. Those who do not conform to these expectations are therefore considered "deviant."
Generally, there are three main areas covered by unspoken social norms. The first area concerns appearance - one's clothing, hairstyle, personal grooming. This also extends to material possessions. In Western society, in particular, people reveal much about themselves by their choice of cars, houses and jewelry.
The second area of social norms concern manners. These include how we relate to others on an interpersonal as well as a group level. Personal manner norms concern areas like proxemics, the typical distances people maintain during face-to-face interactions. Group style norms are…
Foucault, Michel. 1967. "Illegalities and Delinquency." The Foucault Reader. Paul Rabinow, ed. New York: Pantheon Books.
Henslin, James. 1991. "The Survivors of the F-227." Down to Earn Sociology: Introductory Readings. 9th ed. James Henslin, ed. New York: The Free Press, 1997.
Jackson, Jesse. 2000. "The Death Penalty Discriminates against African-Americans." In Opposing Viewpoints in Social Issues. William Dudley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Dishion, Ha & Veronneau (2012), adolescent problem behavior tends to peak in middle and late adolescence, for reasons largely attributed to peer pressures combined with sexual maturation (Dishion, Ha & Veronneau, 2012, p.4). The hypothesis of this quantitative article was that the phenomenon of clustering would be observed in an analysis of deviant behavior: i.e., that clusters of specific problems would be observed amongst peer groups versus general deviance, supporting the idea that deviant behavior was at least partially social in nature. The specific focus of the study was sexual behavior, including early promiscuity and childbearing, although other potentially problematic behaviors were also studied, including arguing or talking back or aggressive behavior, as reported by parents and teachers.
The model of the study was longitudinal in nature. 998 participants were assessed at age eleven and at different developmental points throughout the next eleven years. Parent, student, and teacher self-reports were…
Dishion, T.J., Ha, T. & Veronneau, M.H. (2012). An ecological analysis of the effects of deviant peer clustering on sexual promiscuity, problem behavior, and childbearing from early adolescence to adulthood: an enhancement of the life history framework. Developmental Psychology. 48(3):703-17.
participation in deviant social structures. What makes people commit to a deviant identity? What makes people adhere to the social structures of deviant groups? Why are members of deviant groups so deeply loyal to each other and to the organization? The paper endeavors to offer insight into these questions and more as part of a quest to understand deviant behaviors, deviant organizations, and the construction of identity.
Exploring the Continuum of Deviant Organizations
For this essay, use Best & Luckenbill's continuum of deviant organizations as outlined in the textbook to explain how a person or group could become increasingly invested in his/her deviance. For example, consider how a youth from a gang-impacted area could move his/her way through from less organized to more organized deviant social organizations and imagine how this would ultimately impact his/her identity formation.
The higher the degree of deviant behavior demonstrated to serve and/or participate in…
Adler, P., & Adler, P. (2012) Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction. (7th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Best, J., & Luckenbill, D.F. (1980) The Social Organization of Deviants. Social Problems, 28(1), 14 -- 31.
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
In Orlando, when the group Food not Bombs decided to give away food in a local park:
Their well-intentioned efforts led to some negative side effects for nearby residents.
Police say that crime, along with reports of trespassing and lewd behavior, spiked after many of the large feedings, which often drew hundreds of homeless into some of the nicest parts of downtown. "I was having to pick up human waste from my yard and shoo people out from sleeping in my bushes," says obert Harding, a local attorney whose office is around the corner from Lake Eola Park. (Philips, 2006).
Clearly, there are deviant behaviors that are associated with panhandling, even if panhandling itself is not a deviant behavior. Moreover, the very serious and real life issues that contribute to homelessness and panhandling, such as addiction disorders, mental illness, and domestic violence, are all highly associated with criminal behavior. It…
National Coalition for the Homeless. (2006). Why are people homeless? Retrieved February
12, 2007 from the National Coalition for the Homeless.
National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. (2002). Panhandling criminalization:
Cildren are te future of uman civilization, and to tat extent, it is vital tat all communities, societies and governments pay attention to te growing problem of juvenile delinquency. Indeed, if society fails in its efforts to address te issue of juvenile delinquency, it will lead to a world of caos and disorder, placing in jeopardy millions of years of effort to work towards a civilization were individual citizens can be assured of a sense of socio-economic, psycological and emotional well-being. Bearing te importance of te issue in mind, it is te objective of tis researc paper, troug a review of selected literature, to examine: te nature and extent of te problem of juvenile delinquent beavior; te possible consequences to society if te problem is not redressed effectively; te range of underlying biological, psycological and social causative factors of juvenile delinquency; and suggested solutions and metods of reducing,…
Tappan, Paul W. Juvenile Delinquency. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1949.
Vedder, C.B. (1954). The Juvenile Offender: Perspective and Readings. New York: Random House.
Understanding why crime occurs requires an appreciation for the complexity of human behavior. Behavior is not determined by one factor, but rather influenced by a host of interrelated factors. Modern biological theories in criminology differ from previous theories in that they examine the entire range of biological characteristics, including those that result from genetic defects (those that are inherited) and those that are environmentally induced. In addition, theories developed since the 1980s do not suggest that biological characteristics directly cause crime. Instead, researchers argue that certain biological conditions increase the likelihood that an individual will engage in some antisocial behavior that can be defined as criminal (Fishbein, 1990). Modern theories increasingly focus on the interaction between biological characteristics and the social environment, rather than looking solely at the effects of biology.
his paper explores the research regarding genetic causes or pre-dispositions to criminal behavior and examines the evidence which…
Thornberry (1987) incorporates social learning theory, social bonding, cognitive theory, and social structure theories of criminal behavior to explain delinquency. Thornberry sees delinquency activities as changing over time. As youths enter adolescence, their bonds to their parents and social institutions are said to weaken. Peer groups become more important to them.
If these young people reside in socially disorganized environments, they are at high risk to have weak social bonds and peers who engage in deviance. Adolescents who are from more stable environments may engage in deviancy (they are, after all, adolescents), but their actions are better controlled by stronger social bonds and associations with peers who engage in more conventional behaviors.
Thornberry sees delinquent behaviors as influenced by age. As young people enter their late teens, the influence of peers gives way to perceptions of their roles in society. Thornberry
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.
Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…
Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K.A., Melhuish, E., & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team (2006). Neighborhood deprivation, school disorder and academic achievement in primary schools in deprived communities in England. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 127-136.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G.R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J.B. Reid, G.R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (p.123-145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapple, C.L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly,22, 89-106.
Causes of Criminal Behavior
Although crimes have been committed since times immemorial, a systematic study of the causes of criminal behavior (or why crimes are committed) is a relatively recent phenomenon. Various theories have been put forward and numerous research studies have been conducted to better understand the criminal mind in order to prevent or reduce crime. It is, perhaps, a tribute to the complexity of the human brain that most of these theories remain just "theories" with little evidence to support definite and irrefutable patterns of criminal behavior. This is not to suggest that all theories of "criminology" are worthless -- most of them do provide useful insight into the criminal mind and at least partially explain the reasons why crimes are committed by certain individuals. In this paper we shall explore some of the theories of criminal behavior that have attempted to throw light on the causes of…
Bardsley, Marilyn. "David Berkowitz"-Son of Sam. Crime Library. 2003.
Courtroom Television Network Website. November 28, 2003 http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/berkowitz_6.html
Bell, Rachel. "Ted Bundy -- A Time of Change" Crime Library. 2003
Courtroom Television Network Website. Courtroom Television Network Website. 2003
Merton stops short of addressing the core social institutions, values, and structures that reinforce anomie but his essay prompts sociologists to postulate which structures or value may be culprits.
The author does offer three "success prototypes" extant in American culture. First, all Americans are encouraged to strive for the same goals and those goals are believed to be possible for all. Second, any stumbling blocks along the way will soon transform into success. Hope is integral to the American Dream. Third, by aiming high, the only way a person can fail is to not participate or not play the game.
Merton also describes five types of individual adaptations to social goals. A person may shift from one of these adaptation patterns to another depending on the circumstance. The most common adaptation tool in stable societies is conformity. Innovation is another tool of adaptation in a culture like ours, in which…
Merton, Robert K. "Social Structure and Anomie." Excerpt in Social Theory. Charles Lemert (Ed.). p. 225-237.
STAIN THEOY AND HOW IT EXPLAINS CIME AbstractStrain theory proposes that pressure from social factors like a lack of income or education drives a person to commit a crime. The focus of most strain theories is disadvantaged groups where they struggle to attain common aspirations like realizing the American dream. The inability of these individuals to achieve common goals is considered the driving factor behind the crime. Some stressors increase the likelihood of crime. According to strain theory, crime will only occur when there are not enough legitimate opportunities for individuals to achieve normal success in society. A strain occurs when the goals and the means of achieving those goals are not in line leading the individual to crime. The American dream encourages people to work hard to achieve financial success. However, the means used by the individuals to achieve success are rarely in focus. The result is that people…
ReferencesAgnew, R. (2017). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Recent Developments in Criminological Theory, 311-354. Agnew, R., & Brezina, T. (2019). General strain theory Handbook on crime and deviance (pp. 145-160): Springer.Lee, Y., & Kim, J. (2018). Examining the gendered effect of experienced and vicarious victimization: A general strain theory perspective. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(2), 181-196. Lianos, H., & McGrath, A. (2018). Can the general theory of crime and general strain theory explain cyberbullying perpetration? Crime & Delinquency, 64(5), 674-700. Pedalono, J., & Frailing, K. (2018). General Strain Theory and Prescription Drug Misuse among Honors Students. Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council, 19(1), 85-103. Robinson, M., & Rogers, J. (2018). Applying Contextual Anomie and Strain Theory to Recent Acts of Corporate Deviance. Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, 10(2). Teijón-Alcalá, M., & Birkbeck, C. (2019). Victimization, crime propensity, and deviance: A multinational test of general strain theory. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 35(4), 410-430. Thaxton, S., & Agnew, R. (2018). When criminal coping is likely: An examination of conditioning effects in general strain theory. Journal of quantitative criminology, 34(4), 887-920.
The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.
The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…
Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska
Native Mental Health Research Journal .
Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
Hipster Consumer Behavior
Following the publication of Norman Mailer's essay, "The White Negro" in 1957, the term "hipster" has become part of the American lexicon. The image of hipsters has changed in fundamental ways since that time, though, and marketers interested in this segment are therefore faced with some significant challenges in fine-tuning their marketing mixes to appeal to young adults who define themselves as hipsters or who are attracted to the image for other reasons. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning hipster consumer behavior, including a background, a description of the lifestyle branding theoretical foundation that can be used to formulate marketing initiatives, and the findings that emerged from the research. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Although adults of any age may be regarded as "hipsters," this category is commonly regarded as…
Clark, L.S. (2007). Religion, media, and the marketplace. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Fabre, J. (2005). Smart nursing: How to create a positive work environment that empowers and retains nurses. New York: Springer.
Greif, M. (2010, November 15). A hipster's paradise: In the late 1990s, a down-at-heel 'hood in New York's Lower East Side became an enclave for rich white kids. New Statesman,
Psychosocial background of these rapists is inclusive of physical as well as verbal abuse which can be from both or one of the parents. Abuse-based background is seen in more than 56% of the rapists in this category. More than 80% of the rapists belong to divorced households; most of these are adopted or have spent their childhood in foster care. elationships of these rapists with women in the past have failed or did not work based on which hostile feelings have developed against the opposite sex.
Background profiling on rapists has shown that these normally are raised in single parent households with increased issues. Additionally they grow up being physically as well as verbally abused facing sexual deviances. The children facing these conditions are the ones that clearly show tendencies towards sexual promiscuity. In the case of adults, it has been seen that they are married later in…
Girod, J.R. (2004). Profiling the Criminal Mind: Behavioral Science and Criminal Investigative Analysis. Iuniverse Inc.
Holmes, M.R., and Holmes, S. (2002). Profiling violent crimes: an investigative tool. Edition 3. Sage.
Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal mind: how psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Reader's Digest.
Jacobs, D. (2011). Analyzing Criminal Minds: Forensic Investigative Science for the 21st Century: Brain, behavior, and evolution. ABC-CLIO.
Psychology Discussion: Psychopathology
Read the introduction to Reading 1: Beaver, Rowland, Schwartz & Nedelec (2011). The genetic origins of psychopathic personality traits in adult males and females: Results from an adoption-based study. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 426-432.
Characterise psychopathy: What are the defining features?
Psychopathy is a disorder of the personality that based on three prongs of traits: affective, behavioral, and interpersonal. Perhaps because they are so striking, are observed early in a person's life, or are reliably exhibited across people with psychopathy, the affective trait domain is key to identifying and measuring the incidence of psychopathy in a population. In particular, psychiatrists and psychologists look for callousness, absence of empathy, lack of feelings of guilt or remorse, reactive short-tempers, and indifference to punishment -- other than an association with revenge seeking.
State two findings from the reading that indicate that psychopathic personality traits are inherited.
Beaver, et al.…
"Approximately 27.5% of college women reported experiences that met the legal criteria for rape," even though some of them were not necessarily aware that the actions to which they were subjected satisfied such a definition (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ).
According to the FBI, which defines violent crimes as "murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault," an "estimated 1,246,248 violent crimes occurred nationwide" in 2010 (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ). There is obviously a great deal of overlap between the characteristics of populations that commit sexual assault and violent criminals, due to this definition. It should also be noted that although persons who commit violent crimes are disproportionately male and young (the example of stereotypes being validated by statistics); whites commit more such crimes -- 54% vs. 45% versus African-Americans. Also, "numbers also vary widely depending on the crime, with blacks responsible for more murders…
Bartol, C. & Bartol, a. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. Prentice Hall.
Family violence statistics. (2002). BJS. Retrieved:
Hodgins, S. & Muller-Isberner, R. (Eds.). (2000). Violence, crime, and mentally disordered offenders: Concepts and methods for effective treatment and prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Social Ordinance: A Means to Foster a Spirit of Community
There are usually a set of social features that are provided to man so as to regulate their behavior according to the norms and values that have been set. Some people in a community might fail to conform to these norms. The failure to conform to these norms that have been set within the community is termed as deviant behavior. In short, the violation of law that is in existence within the society is known as deviant behavior. Deviant behavior in a community includes criminal behavior, drug abuse, and gang membership and so on.
Description of changed deviant behavior
These deviant behaviors are not permanent as people who exhibit these behaviors change their ways at some point in their life. People end up changing their deviant behavior and become completely different people in the society. These people get tired of…
Kai T. Erikson (nd). On the Socialogy of Deviance. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from http://fasnafan.tripod.com/sociologyofdeviance.pdf
The Connexions Project, (2014). Deviance, Crime and Social Control. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/SOC101_Introduction-to-Sociology_Chapter-7.pdf
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.
Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.
Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…
Sociology and Req. For a Dream
ARequiem for a [email protected] takes sociological deviation to the extreme. Deviation is defined as behaviors which do not conform to significant norms held by most members of a society or group. This movie uses drugs as the deviation and shows how it destroys the four main character's lives. Harry and his girlfriend start out as ambitious young adults with dreams of starting their own clothing store. Tyrone just wants happiness with his girlfriend. Lastly Sara Goldfarb, Harry's mom wants to be on television. The three friends end alone, with nothing but their addiction to heroin and Sara is committed to an asylum because of the effects of the speed she uses to lose weight in order to be on TV. There are many specific sociological principles that apply to things that happen within deviant subcultures. This movie illustrates a good many of them in…
Inhalants refer to the ordinary household products that are sniffed or inhaled by individuals so as to get high. There are many household products that are misused as inhalants. Some of these products include gasoline, hair spray, fabric protector, air conditioner fluid, nail polish remover, and correction fluid, propellants in aerosol, cleaning fluids and cooking spray. These products are mainly bagged, sniffed, snorted so as one to get high. They can be sniffed directly from the containers. In most cases when an individual is under the influence of such inhalants one is likely to engage in anti-social or criminal behavior (Ksir, 2002). This report endeavors to explain the theoretical and empirical literature regarding theories of drug information and addiction.
The intoxicating inhalants that have volatile vapors are ingested through the trachea and nose. However, some inhalants are used for medical reasons as in the case of nitrous oxide. The inhalation…
Dick, DM & Bierut, LJ (2006). "The Genetics of Alcohol Dependency." Current Psychiatric Reports 8 (2): 151 -- 7
Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th Ed.). Boston
Morse, RM & Flavin, DK (August 26, 1992). "The definition of alcoholism, The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism." The Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (8): 1012 -- 4
1. Deviance is relative, and refers to behavioral deviation from established social norms within a specific community (Schaefer, 2016). Therefore, what is deviant in one period of time will become normative in another and vice-versa. Likewise, what is deviant in one culture may not be considered deviant in another. Although deviance is typically framed as maladaptive behavior that either leads to or is categorized as criminal, deviance can also be constructive, productive, and “positive,” (Hughes & Coakley, 1991, p. 307). In fact, athletes engage in what is known as “positive deviance,” in that their behaviors constitute a cohesive “sport ethic” that includes taking risks, pushing past personal limits, and making sacrifices for the greater good of the game (Hughes & Coakley, 1991, p. 307). The 2010 documentary I Am Alive is about the Uruguayan rugby team’s remarkable survival in the Andes, and is a perfect example of positive deviance in…
The ancient philosopher Plato claimed that all immoral behavior was the result of some disorder in the soul (Gert and Culver, 2009, p. 489). Although very few people now hold this view, deviant sexual behavior is often considered symptomatic of a mental disorder. However, not all deviant behaviors fit the clinical definition. For example, if a heterosexual man becomes aroused by dressing in women's clothing, it is considered by most people to be abnormal behavior. However, his behavior may be ego-syntonic, meaning that the man is not troubled by either the impulses or by acting them out. Such an individual would not seek treatment. He is not a danger to himself or to anyone else and unless there were objections on the part of his wife or significant other, there is no compelling reason, in the man's mind, to manage his impulses or behavior. As Bhugra and McMullen (2010,…
Bhugra, D., Popelyuk, D., and McMullen, I. (2010). Paraphilas across cultures: Contexts and controversies. Journal of Sex Research 47(2-3), pp. 242-256.
Gert, B., and Culver, C.M. (2009). Sex, immorality, and mental disorders. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy 34(5), pp. 487-495.
Gordon, H. (2008). The treatment of paraphilias: An historical perspective. Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health 18(2), pp. 79-87.
Hall, Ryan C.W., and Hall, Richard C.W. (2007). A profile of pedophilia: Definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes and forensic issues.
Etiology of Campus Binge Drinking
Drinking and Alcoholism
A Failed Experiment in Social Control
The consumption of alcohol has always been a focus of government efforts to limits its use, due to the potential for abuse, the financial burden imposed upon social programs, and its association with criminal activity. Between 1920 and 1934 the consumption of alcohol was outlawed in the United States, with the intention of addressing these social problems. During the first year following the enactment of Prohibition, alcohol-related deaths, psychosis, and arrests all declined by 20-40%, but between 1921 and 1927 these measures reveal a sharp increase to near pre-Prohibition levels (Miron and Zwiebel, 1991). By the end of Prohibition, which correlates with the start of the Great Depression, alcohol consumption leveled out at around 60-70% of pre-Prohibition levels despite costing three times as much for a drink. Given the infamous criminal activity that emerged around the…
Amethyst Initiative. (2008). Amethyst Initiative: Rethinking the drinking age. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://www.amethystinitiative.org/statement/
Beseler, Cheryl L., Taylor, Laura A., Leeman, Robert F. (2010). Alcohol-Use Disorder criteria and "binge" drinking in undergraduates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 418-423.
Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., and Beirut, Laura J. (2009). Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 692-702.
Leppel, Karen. (2006). College binge drinking: Deviant vs. mainstream behavior. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32, 519-525.
Abnormal Psychology is often misunderstood as a field of psychology because it deals with behavior that "creates a problem for an individual or society" -- and hence, the question immediately arises as to just what is "abnormal" and what is "normal"? The AP Psychology 7th Edition (Sharpsteen, et al., 2005) text suggests that abnormal behavior is "maladaptive or pathological behavior" and before determining whether a behavior is abnormal or not, the "total environment and impact of a person's behavior" must be taken into consideration. Moreover, abnormal psychology does not attempt to link "normal and abnormal" with the concepts of "good and bad," Kendra Cherry explains. Abnormal psychology deals with "psychopathology and abnormal behavior" covering a wide swath of disorders, including sexual deviation, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, to name a few (Cherry, 2008).
The History and Evolution of Abnormal Psychology into a Scientific Discipline
In 800 B.C., Homer believed that mental illness…
AS Psychology. (2009). Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality. Retrieved July 9,
2011, from http://as-psychology.pbworks.com.
Bennett, Paul. (2006). Abnormal and Clinical Psychology: An Introductory Textbook. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Cherry, Kendra. (2008). Psychology / What Is Abnormal Psychology? About.com. Retrieved July 8, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.
This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…
Santorck, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
In summary, observational preexperience had differential effects on the timing of subsequent contingency performance of infants (p. 693)."
This research supports the potential for vicarious learning as a pre-emptor to juvenile delinquency when the family, academic, and social conditions are reflective of the elements that reflect a lack of structure, participation in community, poverty, and poor education systems that are not financed to provide the infrastructure in a child's early years.
4. Explain your understanding of Baumrind's Typology of Parenting Styles. Based on your understanding of the parenting styles described by Baumrind, which style of parenting style is most effective? Which is the least effective style of parenting? Why? Be sure to support your answer.
Diana Baumrind discussed parenting types, the authoritarian parent, the permissive parent and the authoritative parent (Grolnick, W., 2003, p. 5). Baumrind's description of the parenting styles is:
The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and…
Barron, M.L. (1954). The Juvenile in Delinquent Society (1st ed.). New York: Alfred a. Knopf. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6360952 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042
Brannigan, a. (1997). Self-Control, Social Control and Evolutionary Psychology: Towards an Integrated Perspective on Crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 39(4), 403-431. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022432
Grolnick, W.S. (2003). The Psychology of Parental Control: How Well-Meant Parenting Backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022435 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319
Rook, L. (2006). An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behavior. Journal of Economic Issues, 40(1), 75+. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001116573
29, p > 0.5).
This study set out to test the hypotheses that people from Eastern cultural backgrounds compared to those from Western backgrounds would make fewer dispositional attributions about the behavior of fictitious characters that the read about and would also demonstrate a more collective attitude towards themselves.
With respect to the first hypothesis, that Western participants would make a greater number of dispositional attributions that would participants with Eastern cultural heritages, that hypothesis was supported. However, there are a few caveats that need to be mentioned with regards to this. First, the scenarios that were presented to the participants only provided two alternatives to explain the behavior of the person. One alternative was a negative dispositional explanation, the other was a situational explanation could have been interpreted as far-fetched in some cases. Miller (1984) found that the tendency for Westerners to make internal attributions was higher for…
Chiu, C-y., Morris, M.W., Hong, Y-y., & Menon, T. (2000). Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 247 -- 259.
Choi, I., Dalal, R., Kim-Prieto, C., & Park, H. (2003). Culture and judgment of causal relevance.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 46 -- 59.
Jones, E.E. & Harris, V.A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 3, 2-24.
Neighborhood atches have been criticized for not attempting to integrate members of the community who are at a high risk of committing crimes, like juveniles, by incorporating after-school programs for at risk youths into the watch, but it could be argued that the sense of community conveyed by being on the side of the law, as opposed to against it, has an unintended positive effective of diminishing the attractiveness of committing crimes amongst citizens within the community.
Another component to deterrence is "Hardening Up" or Target Hardening, another frequent part of Neighborhood atches ("hat is a Crime Alert: Target Hardening," 2007, Business Crime Direct). This involves making the community less attractive for criminals by adding alarm systems to homes, adding surveillance recording devices to businesses, and even simply upgrading bolts and locks or adding shutters to houses. Hardening up is also one way to potentially reduce the volume of complaints…
About Neighborhood Watch." (2007).
USAOnWatch Website. Sponsored by the U.S.Department of Justice in Partnership with the National Sheriffs' Association. Retrieved 15 Apr 2007 at http://www.usaonwatch.org/AboutUs/AboutNeighborhoodWatch.php
O'Connor, Tom. "Classical & Positivist Schools of Criminology." Last Updated:
Oct 2005. Retrieved 15 Apr 2007 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect02.htm
The term psychology comes from two Greek words: psyche, which means "soul," and logos, "the study of." These root words were first combined in the 16th century, at a time when theorists were just beginning to see that there might be a connection between the mind and body, even though they were unable to actually understand and capture the essence of "thought." Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind. The actual definition is comprised of three major elements:
Psychology is a scientific method. It obtains knowledge through the use of systematic and objective methods for empirical (observable) research and experimentation to validate ideas and hypothesis.
Psychology is concerned with behavior -- behavior is any action that can be observed and measured in some empirical manner.
Psychology is also concerned with the way the mind works, not necessarily focusing on the brain as a biological organism, but…
Hothersall, D. (2004). History of Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.
Kohler, W. (1992). Gestalt psychology: An Introduction to New Concepts in Modern Psychology. Boston, MA: Liveright Publishing.
Lycan, W.G., ed. (1999). Mind and Cognition. London: Blackwell.
Papini, M. (2008). Comparative Psychology: Evolution and Development of Behavior. Minneapolis, MN: Psychology Press.
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.
Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy
There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…
Antidote. 2008. Campaign for Emotional Literacy. Available at http://www.antidote.org.uk
Bastian, V.A., Burns, N.R. And Nettelbeck, T. 2005. Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, but not as well as Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, pp. 1135-45.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, a.Y.C. And Caputi, P. 2000. A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, pp. 1101-13.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Deane, F.P. And Anderson, S. 2002. Emotional Intelligence Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Mental Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, pp. 197-209.
Shelter Service Utilization of Domestic Violence Victims.
Shelters have proven to be useful for women who have been domestically abused and for their children in numerous capacities. Yet it has been found that only approximately one out of four women use them. The question then is why some women choose to use them and others not even though, by not using them, they will be harmed further. The ecological model (or systems theory) is used for understanding this conundrum.
Systems theory posits that people operate within a system of interacting spheres that affect one another. These spheres operate on the individual, family, and societal level. These spheres also have their boundaries which impact how open or closed they are as well as influencing the mode of the individual's behavior.
An open system means that individuals have extended contact to people (and organizations) in the outside world through the resources within…
Role of Deviance in Societies
Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).
Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…
Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance."
Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."
High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…
Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.
Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.
Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.
Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.
Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?
ACF Questions and Answers Support. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://faq.acf.hhs.gov/cgi-bin/acfrightnow.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_sid=qnPNlL5i&p_lva=&p_faqid=68&p_created=1001610478&p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9ncmlkc29y dD0mcF9yb3dfY250PTEzJnBfc2VhcmNoX3RleHQ9JnBfc2VhcmNoX3R5 cGU9MyZwX2NhdF9sdmwxPTEwJnBfY2F0X2x2bDI9MzAmcF9zb3J0X2J 5PWRmbHQmcF9wYWdlPTE*&p_li =
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cfm
Crime Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from NCWC. Web site: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm
Overview of Labeling Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/labeling.html
Perhaps the most major and identifiable sociological theorist is Emile Durkheim. He literally helped formulate the ideas and theories of modern sociology, and many of the criminal justice theories are based on his ideas. Durkheim developed many of the modern theories of criminality, such as cultural disintegration, which can lead to an individual's gradual disassociation from society, with no bonds or commitments to a society that is dissolving around him or her. Durkheim felt this could help lead to deviant behavior and even suicide (Geiger & Fischer, 1995, p. 72). He also felt crime in society is normal, and it can even lead to desirable social reforms, ideas that were very revolutionary when he lived and worked in the late 19th century. Many later theorists used Durkheim's models, including social theorist Travis Hirschi, an expert in social control theory and delinquency.
Travis Hirschi is not the father of the…
Geiger, B., & Fischer, M. (1995). Family, justice, and delinquency. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hirschi, T. (2002). Causes of delinquency. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Books.
Thornberry, T.P., Krohn, M.D., Lizotte, a.J., Smith, C.A., & Tobin, K. (2003). Gangs and delinquency in developmental perspective. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:
Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).
Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…
Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.
Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.
Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
If his father had been violent with him, Jeremiah would have that experience to draw upon in order to solve problems. He may have seen violence as the only way out of the situation. Moreover, Jeremiah's extreme insecurity led him to be fully engaged in conditioned thinking, which compelled him to assert the validity of his worldview by any means necessary. In this instance, that meant resorting to murder in order to prove that he was right.
Where do these feelings of insecurity originate from? According to POM, insecurities are not a result of circumstances or life events. On the contrary, POM suggests that the source of insecure feelings exists within the mind of the offender and occurs as a function of different mood states (Kelley, 1996). The reason why a certain person may have feelings of insecurity in one instance but not in another, even under identical circumstances, stems…
Adams, M.S., Robertson, C., Gray-Ray, P., Ray, M. (2003). Labeling and delinquency. Adolescence, 38(149), 171-86.
Dishion, T.J., Nelson, S., Bullock, B., Winter, C. (2004). Adolescent friendship as a dynamic system: entropy and deviance in the etiology and course of male antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(6), 651-63.
Doucette, P.A. (2004). Walk and talk: an intervention for behaviorally challenged youths. Adolescence, 39, 373-88.
Flom, P.L., Friedman, S., Kottiri, B., Neaigus, A., Curtis, R. (2001). Recalled adolescent peer norms towards drug use in young adulthood in a low-income, minority urban neighborhood. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(2), 425-43.
An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.
OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…
Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain
Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.
Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction
Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).
elating Theory to Social Issue
elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.
The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…
Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.
Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.
Pawlak, Rebecca (1993) Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
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In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development. Therefore, while…Read Full Paper ❯
11). Perhaps the most major and identifiable sociological theorist is Emile Durkheim. He literally helped formulate the ideas and theories of modern sociology, and many of the criminal justice…Read Full Paper ❯
Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures: Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of…Read Full Paper ❯
If his father had been violent with him, Jeremiah would have that experience to draw upon in order to solve problems. He may have seen violence as the only…Read Full Paper ❯
An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P.…Read Full Paper ❯
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" One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of…Read Full Paper ❯
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