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Differential Association Theory
Voyeurism is viewing some form of nudity or sexual activity, accompanied by sexual arousal, characterized by observing unsuspecting individuals, usually strangers, who are naked or engaging in sexual activity, for the purpose of seeking sexual gratification. The perpetrator may masturbate during the act of voyeurism or, more commonly, afterwards in response to the memory of what they observed. In current society a certain amount of voyeurism is considered normal, such as watching x-rated movies, as well as graphic magazines. Some may even be sexually aroused when they accidentally see someone who was undressing, naked, or having sex. The key factor is when these experiences are searched for; it is considered a deviant behavior.
In collaboration with the Differential Association Theory, the individual may see family, friends and neighbors take part and enjoy the act of voyeurism. Therefore, by being subjected to it, they are learning the act.…
Warlords have apparently been in the process of financing their various struggles against the Western States in two different contexts. One is that which occurs in the several drug producing countries of the world, that is, those that come under the so called 'Golden Triangle', and the struggles that occur in the various different drug trafficking routes, like for example, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there has been a complete erosion and fall of the central and the state authorities in military and in economic and in political areas. All these drug warlords in fact preside over anarchy, while at the same time attempting to manage the chaos in which they are forced to live. (Segell, 1997)
Therefore, the drug warlord becomes an individual who is a parochial militarist, and one who thrives on the lack of central authority on the one hand, while on the other, makes several attempts to…
Alonso, A; Rutan J.S. (November, 1984) "The impact of object relations theory on psychodynamic group therapy" The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol: 141; No: 11; pp: 1376-1380.
Buckley, Peter. (2003) "Revolution and Evolution - A Brief Intellectual History of American
Psychoanalysis During the Past Two Decades" American Journal of Psychotherapy. Vol: 57; No: 1; pp: 1-17
Bulmer-Thomas, Victor. (2003) "Britain and Latin America, a changing relationship"
Sociological Theories of Crime
There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.
Social Control Theory
According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…
Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley & Sons.
Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
Just as parole programs typically restrict contact between offenders, a Differential Association-oriented delinquency prevention program would endeavor to prohibit the formation of deviant groups and criminally-prone gangs.
The specific mechanisms for intervention would include sentencing juvenile offenders to mandatory suspension of social relationships deemed capable of precipitating delinquent or criminal conduct in lieu of harsher penalties. Another mechanism might be the strict enforcement of particular municipal codes, such as ordinances prohibiting the public assembly of groups of individuals or the promulgation of such legislation for that purpose where existing legislation is lacking in that regard.
Likewise, the strict enforcement of other commonly overlooked activities technically prohibited by ordinance, such as the timely vacating of parks promptly at closing time, loitering on private commercial property adjacent to convenience stores, and truancy statutes would all be incorporated into a Differential Association-oriented approach to delinquency prevention.
More generally, that concept of delinquency prevention…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Allyn
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology 9th Ed New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Homelessness in America has been a problem for a very long time. The homeless are a vulnerable population therefore something has to be done to make sure that the situation is either controlled or improved. One suggestion I would make is putting the homeless up in a local shelter and tries to re-integrate them back to the society very rapidly. The shelter encourages the people to look out for themselves by requiring that the homeless take part in the upkeep of the shelter if they want to stay. The second suggestion would be enabling these homeless people at these shelters go back to work. Social workers can help the homeless get their birth certificates or proof that they are citizens and a social security card hence they can be bale to get work. These ideas can make the homeless more responsible and hence they can be able to stand out…
Rebecca Bay, (2014). Testing for the Chivalry Hypothesis within the Central Nebraska Drug Court System. University of Nebraska at Kearney. Retrieved July 24,2014 from http://www.lopers.net/student_org/SSRP/papers/pdf/crj_bayr.pdf
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Low Self -Control Theory
This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong
Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong
The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).
According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…
Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.crime.hku.hk/rb-crimetrends.htm
Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from http://asiancorrespondent.com/17054/why-i-think-juvenile-offenders-are-getting-younger/
Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.
Retrieved from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.
The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…
Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska
Native Mental Health Research Journal .
Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
John ommel Case Study
Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?
Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.
2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.
British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…
Kessel, DH (n.d.). Sociological theoretical perspectives. Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/or/sociologyshop/soctheopers.html
al, 1994). Furthermore, the role of police in a community has to change from merely trying to suppress gang activity to actively trying to prevent gang activity. (Spergel, et. al, 1994).
The proliferation of gangs is one of the most pressing social problems facing modern America. While the primary purpose of gangs may be to engage in criminal activity, they serve other social functions that attract teens as gang members. Each teen who becomes involved in a gang runs a significant risk of not being able to participate in normal, non-criminal society. Therefore, it is important to understand how teens become involved in gangs and to focus efforts on prevention. Although no one theory seems capable of entirely explaining how and why teens become involved in gangs, the various criminological theories and the social disorganization theory are capable of giving insight into why children feel attracted to gangs. These theories…
Cantillon, D., Davidson, W., & Schweitzer, J. (2003). Measuring community social organization: sense of community as a mediator in social disorganization theory.
Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 321-339.
Jones, D. et al. (2004). Street gangs: a review of theory, interventions, and implications for corrections. Ottawa: Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada.
National Youth Gang Center. (2006). National youth gang survey analysis. Retrieved November 2, 2006 from National Youth Gang Center
The environment extends beyond the family to friends and neighborhood. Neutrality has no effect on development of criminal behavior.
In order to understand the authors reasoning it is important to understand the concepts of behavior development, i.e. how observation of a behavior leads to development of that behavior. It is also important to understand the dynamics in various groups to understand why behaviors may be imitated from some sources and not others.
The author is working on the assumption that there are no other factors which develop criminal behavior. For example the assumption is that if criminal behavior develops then the criminal will undertake criminal activity at any possible opportunity. The theory does not explain why some children grow up in an environment which promotes crime and yet does not develop these behaviors and vice-versa.
If the reasoning of the author were to be accepted it has…
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…
Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University
of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
Assumptions and Implications of the elational Theory
elational theory aligns with traditional views of social work. This theory has special significance on relationships and the settings that women attest to. In the recent times, researchers and psychologist have perceived the dissimilarities in mental development between men and women (Saari, 2005). A key conclusion is that women strongly emphasize on relationships whereas men lay emphasis on individuation (Quinn and Grumbach, 2015). One of the main assumptions of the relational theory is the intrinsically and innately social nature of human beings. Based on the belief that people are socially founded and instituted by associations, relational theory seeks to understand the complication behind the formation of relationships (Mccauley, 2013). In particular, the relational theory puts forward that the relational nature of us as human beings' steers and instigates us to grow and develop through and in the direction of connection. As…
Comstock, D. L., Hammer, T. R., Strentzsch, J., Cannon, K., Parsons, J., & II, G. S. (2008). Relational-cultural theory: A framework for bridging relational, multicultural, and social justice competencies. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3), 279-287.
Firestone, L. (2013). How Your Attachment Style Impacts Your Relationship: What is your attachment style? Psychology Today.
McCauley, M. (2013). Relational-Cultural Theory: Fostering Healthy Coexistence Through a Relational Lens. Beyond Intractability. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/relational-cultural-theory
Quinn, C. R., &Grumbach, G. (2015). Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 24(3), 202-218.
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
obert Merton was the brain behind Anomie Theory. This theory majors on deviance. The theory's major preoccupation is why rates of deviance differ from one society to the other and from one subgroup that come from one society to the other. Merton's work emphasizes cultures' unifying aspects and how it can create deviance and disunity within a society. Cultural norms, according to this theory, break down as a result of rapid changes that take place. The theory attributes occurrence of Anomic suicide to the occurrence of major economic depression that makes people not to achieve the goals they had learned to pursue (Siegel, 2008). Anomic suicide can also occur when there is an economic boom. In such circumstances people fail to limit their goals and be satisfied with their achievements. There can be lack of fit with regard to culture's norm about what constitute success in life and the…
Abadinsky, H. (2004). Organized Crime. Belmont, California: Thomson Wadsworth.
SAGE (n.d.). Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches in Criminology. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/50621_ch_7
Siegel, L.J. (2008). Criminology: The Core. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
In those cases, "deviance" from socially accepted values would be considered a positive response rather than "delinquency" in an objective sense.
Alternate ideas, such as differential association formulated by Sutherland (Pfohl
1994), in particular, demonstrate that even in contemporary American society, social values are extremely subjective and that specific populations - most notably, incarcerated prisoners - form their own societal norms and shared values that contradict those of larger society and that those mores are as powerful and likely to shape future behavior among adolescents exposed to them for long periods (Scmalleger 1997).
Similarly, modern criminologists (Pinizzotto, et al. 2007) detail the extent to which violent criminal street gangs fulfill the same role as families of origin in many
American communities. Furthermore, many Baby Boomers of the so-called hippie generation also would seem to contradict Hirschi's theory in that, especially when viewed retrospectively, behavior that was considered "deviant" or "delinquent"…
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Kerik, B.B. (2002) the Lost Son: A Life in Pursuit of Justice. New York: Harper Collins Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Pfohl, S. (1994). Images of Deviance and Social Control. New York: McGraw-Hill
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…
I wanted to talk to my grandmother about this, moving away from our own family context. She believed strongly that the family is the central unit of social control, with the parents as strong disciplinarians who teach their children social norms and enforce those norms. I made the point that while many people believe this view is true, there are a lot of examples of people who grow up in non-traditional households that turn out not to be delinquents. I turned out fine, and many of my friends who grew up in non-traditional families were able to find their social norms from other sources. I think the family does play an important role, but it is not necessary to have a traditional family in order to instill values. My grandmother respectfully disagreed.
e talked a little bit about how family contributes to one's success as an adult. e both agreed…
Boss, P. (2009). Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. New York: Springer Science.
Chee, K. & Elder, G. (2009). Mother's employment demands, work-family conflict and adolescent development. International Journal of Sociology of the Family. Vol. 35 (2) 189-202.
Church, W., Wharton, T. & Taylor, J. (2009). An examination of differential association and social control theory. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. Vol. 7 (1) 3-15.
Crosnoe, R., Leventhal, T., Wirth, R., Pianta, R. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and consistent environmental stimulation in early childhood. Childhood Development. Vol. 81 (3) 972-987.
VI. DURKHEIM'S ANOMIE
Another theory in criminology is known as 'Durkheim's Anomie' which was conceived by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist who first introduced the anomie in the work entitled: "The Division of Labor in Society" in which the anomie was utilized in provides a description of a "condition of deregulation that was occurring in society." (Criminological Theory, 2001) This anomie was used to describe how that the mores' of behavior in society was unclear and due to this breakdown in a code of proper social behavior resulting was the 'anomie' or the failure to know what to expect between individuals. It was posited by Durkheim that: "...societies evolved form a simple, nonspecialized form, called 'mechanical' toward a highly complex, specialized form, called 'organic. In the former society people behave and think alike and more or less perform the same work tasks and have the same group-oriented goals. When societies…
Demelo, Diane (2008) Criminological Theory. Online available at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/Diane_Demelo/diane.pdf
Perkins, Douglas D.; Hughey, Joseph and Speer, Paul W. (2002) Community Psychology Perspectives on Social Capital Theory and Community Practice. Journal of the Community Development Society. Vol. 33 No. 1. Online available at http://www.people.vanderbilt.edu/~douglas.d.perkins/JCDS.02.pdf
Cowling Mark (2006) Postmodern Policies? The Erratic Interventions of Constitutive Criminology. Internet Journal of Criminology. 2006. Online available at http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Cowling%20-%20Postmodern%20Policies.pdf
Aim of Criminology
particular behaviors tend to cross into the realm of crime when they become obsessive and are actually acted upon. Apparently, many individuals within a society may actually think about committing crimes, but never take the actual physical steps to commit it in the flesh. Those who take precautionary measures and anticipate actions that represent the actual physical acting out of their thoughts is when behavior biases can become actual crime. One of the most appropriate schools of thought in criminology to explain this phenomenon is the theory of differential association. Originally described by Edwin Sutherland, differential association aims to explain deviance and how people go from thinking about criminal acts to actually committing criminal acts. Essentially, this theory believes that criminal acts and thoughts are learned through experience with crime. Criminal acts thus become a repercussion of intense motives, drives, and attitudes that have been learned by the individual through…
, 2011). Instead, social control theories suggest that neighborhoods are somewhat informally self-regulating (Sampson et al., 2011). This lack of criminal self-regulation may stem from a feeling of being disenfranchised, as if the criminal laws have been created without reference to the needs of that community. In fact, in the United States, there is a definite cultural conflict regarding criminal codes (Sutherland & Cressey, 2011). Perhaps the most famous example of this conflict is the differential sentencing for crack and powder cocaine offenses.
The result of this disenfranchisement is that some communities may actually positively reinforce criminal behavior. Therefore individuals, particularly those individuals predisposed to criminal behavior may engage in criminal behavior "because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law" (Sutherland & Cressey, 2011). Moreover, it is important to realize that in violent communities criminality may not be maladaptive; in…
Anderson, E. (2011). The code of the street. In F.T. Cullen & R. Agnew (Eds.), Criminological
theory: Past to present fourth edition. (pp.143-154). New York: Oxford University Press.
Caspi, a., Moffitt, T., Silva, P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R., & Schmutte, P. (2011).
Personality and crime: Are some people crime prone? In F.T. Cullen & R.
238). Furthermore, prison stigmatizes convicts, and, upon release many people, particularly employers, are reluctant to take a chance on someone with the stigma of a prison record (Macionis, p.238). Prison also breaks social ties between the prisoner and non-criminal friends and family, weakening the very type of community ties that are believed to help deter criminal behavior (Macionis, p.238). Therefore, if one of the goals of the tough-on-crime stance is to reduce criminal activity, it is clear that American prisons simply are not accomplishing that goal.
In addition, over the past two decades, "the American prison population has climbed from 300,000 to more than two million- roughly equal to the combined population of Austin, Denver, Nashville, and ashington, D.C." (Silverstein, p.1). In addition, "largely because of racially-biased drug sentencing laws, about half of America's prison population is African-American and one-quarter of all black men are likely to be imprisoned at…
Macionis, John J. Sociology. 13th ed. City of Publication. Prentice Hall, 2009.
Silverstein, Ken. "Introduction." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.
Tara Herivel and Paul Wright. New York. Routledge, 2003.1-5. Print.
Street, Paul. "Color Blind." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.
theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.
The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.
The relative deprivation theory was…
1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International
2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor
Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143
Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)
Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control
One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280
Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.
Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Schools are a good place to capitalize on this tendency, helping students to form group ties through shared group activities. These could include sports clubs such as Little League, academic clubs such as Mathletes and extra-curricular activities like a daily or weekly student newspaper.
These activities will help young people form friendships with other dedicated students, instead of potential delinquents.
Fourth, Robert Sampson believed that communities could address rising crime rates through a concept he calls "collective efficacy."
This means that Bowers Park residents, young and old, should feel safe when congregating in public areas, and the first step is establishing safe public areas to begin with. Residents will have to provide resources - monetary or volunteered time - to provide places where young people can congregate. This could include places such as skate parks, community gardens and public libraries.
Fifth, since the programs that work best are fun, the…
The severity of mental retardation covers a wide spectrum, as discussed before, and variation in ability of individuals within this spectrum is wide (Tammi, 2006). In order to understand and to assist such persons, it is important to know the category in which they fall and the possible causes of the condition. In most cases, a little psychological instability leads to a mental retardation and therefore psychological interventions can be very effective in solving such cases. The notion of viewing mental retardation as a case of pure medical condition should be changed in order to find means of reducing such situations.
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
Gotiesrnati, .L. (s.f.).…
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
When they see the library staff in this light, teachers are more willing to work with others in improving the effectiveness of their lesson planning (by incorporating more tools and techniques). (Gregory, 2003, pp. 100-109)
Task 4: Change can be difficult for some. Think about a change you would like to see in your educational or work environment. How would you implement this change? Consider and discuss the possible resistance that you may encounter from your professional community. How would you support them throughout the change process? How would you overcome any resistance to the change?
A change that can be implemented inside an educational environment is to unify the approach educators are using in reaching out to students. What normally happens is most teachers have different theories and practices they are following. This can be problematic as some of the most experience educators may be reluctant to alter their…
Adams, C. (2006). Differeniating Instruction. Waco, TX: Puff Rock Press.
Bender, W. (2009). Differentiating Math Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Demmitt, C. (2007). Evidence-Based Counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Dryer, W. (2007). Team Building. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
They inserted a small electrode in the brain of the rat. The rat had access to a lever that was connected to the electric supply of the electrode. Every time the rat pressed on the lever, there was a low voltage current that would stimulate the reward center and therefore the rat was reinforced to press the lever again and again. This is the way through which the researchers got to know more about the neuromechanics of reinforcement.
When neuromechanics were studied specifically with respect to the learning curves in animals, like monkeys, it was noted that at the beginning of learning the release of dopamine is greater. As the period of learning proceeds, the learning curve declines along with the decline in the production of dopamine. The researchers, during this experiment, also suggested that different reinforces should be given to the animals in which one wants to improve learning.…
Step 3: Discuss the Precipitating Event
After relationship is recognized, the emphasis goes to the family insights of the condition, the sequence of proceedings leading up to the predicament, and the issue that started out the sequence of events (Graham-Bermann, S.A., 2002). Consultations inspect when and how the disaster happened, the causal conditions, and how the family endeavored to covenant with it.
Step 4: Assess Strengths and Needs
The Family valuation of strengths and needs start right after and the goes on throughout crisis intervention. The crisis worker will start to draws conclusions that will regard the family's needs and strengths that are related to the present disaster and, with the family, assesses the prospective for recovery (Edleson, J.L.,1999). Client strong suit are tapped in order to make self-esteem better, while also providing skills and energy that is for problem-solving.
Step 5: Formulate a Dynamic Explanation
This next step really…
Appel, a.E., & Holden, G.W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-599.
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterer's treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023-1053.
Beeman, S.K., Hagemeister, a.K., & Edleson, J.L. (1999). Child protection and battered women's services: From conflict to collaboration. Child Maltreatment, 4, 116-126.
Bragg, H.L. (2003). Child protection in families experiencing domestic violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 3, 2005, from http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/profess/tools/usermanual.cfm
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
.....neuroscience is one of the most common scientific field of study that basically involves study of the nervous system. Most of the jobs in neuroscience involves dealing with some problems that do not necessarily involve working in the lab. An example of such jobs that interests me is neuropsychology, which is an area in neuroscience that focuses on the science of brain-behavior relationships. I find clinical neuropsychology as an interesting field of neuroscience since it combines concepts of psychology in the study of the nervous system, particularly brain-behavior relationships. Given the combination of neuroscience and psychology, clinical neuropsychology will enable me to feel empathy for my patients/clients when addressing their issues (Ogden, 2012). In light of my passion for this field, brain functions and neuroscience that I find interesting are neurobiological theories that explain dysfunctions in language, behavior networks, vision, memory, and emotion. These brain functions and neuroscience are interesting…
FACIAL EXPESSION & EMOTION
From the perspective of many psychologists, there is no set formal definition for emotion. We know that emotion is universal insofar as all humans experience and express emotion. There have been many studies, specifically over the past several decades that demonstrate that some emotions are expressed universally across time and culture. Just because there is not a universal definition for emotion, does not mean that there are not working definitions of what is emotion is, as a means to do the job in the meantime, until the global psychological field comes to a more overall agreement. On a very basic level, emotion is an affective change from a person's previous emotional state as a result of a huge spectrum of stimuli. There are a number of physical representations of emotion in the human body. Emotion occurs on a neurological level. Emotions show up in parts…
Abelson, R.P., & Sermat, V. (1962). Multidimensional scaling of facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(6), 546-554.
Adolphs, R. (2002). Recognizing Emotion From Facial Expressions: Psychological and Neurological Mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1(1), 21 -- 62.
Browndyke, PhD, J.N. (2002). Neuropsychosocial Factors in Emotion Recognition: Facial Expressions. Telepsychology Solutions, Web, Available from: www.neuropsychologycentral.com. 2012 December 04.
Dimberg, U., Thuberg, M., Elmehed, K. (2000). Unconscious Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions. Psychological Science, 11(1), 86 -- 90.
motional labor is an important aspect of what people do in their jobs, as Grandey rightly points out. Also considered, though, is the regulation of emotion within the workplace, because there have been workplace shootings, cases of rage, rapes, killings, and all kinds of problems. These are rare, but they do happen, and it is believed that they will become more common in the future because society is going more global and workers are under increasing pressures today.
Grandey, a., Fisk, G.M., & Steiner, D.D. (2005). Must "service with a smile" be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 893-904.
Having control is an important concept in the business world. People must be able to maintain control over themselves when they deal with other employees and with customers that may or may not be happy. As Grandey, Fisk, and…
Emotional labor and the discomfort that it can bring are discussed by Tracy. The idea of emotional labor is a relatively new one, and a lot of people still try to overlook or ignore it. However, it is not something that can be wished away. It is important to understand this discomfort so that people who need help with the work that they do and the way that they feel about that work can get some assistance. Without getting help, individuals can spiral out of control emotionally, which is an unfortunate consequence of too much dissonance and discord in a person's life. It was originally thought that these kinds of dissonance problems only happened in social and personal lives, but the business world has changed so much that these issues are starting to appear there, as well.
Tracy, S.J., & Tretheway, a. (2005). Fracturing the real-self, fake-self dichotomy: Moving toward "crystallized" discourses and identities. Communications Theory, 15, 168-195.
For most people in the business world, there is a fake self and a real self. The real self is who a person is when he or she is completely alone. The fake self is who that same person is when he or she is out there in the world, trying to cope with work, other people, and the hustle and bustle of life that so many people both loathe and take for granted at the same time. There is a way, say Tracy and Tretheway, to take the fake self and the real self, and merge them into a self that is 'real' in the larger picture of things. By doing this, there is less of a problem with feeling fake around others or feeling as though he or she has to perform in a certain way, and this can help a person feel much more meaningful and real overall, both in the business world and in his or her personal life.
They were not informed of the reason for the code. They were asked "(a) How similar do you think this person is to you? (1 _ not at all similar to 11 _ very similar) and (b) How much do you think this person will like you? (1 _ not at all to 11 _ very much)" and other like preliminary questions to see if subliminal likes were noticed and present (Jones, p. 672).
Students were then asked to remember their "partner's" code number and dismissed.
First, the birthday-association manipulation was modestly associated with anticipated liking, _ _.15, t (107) _ 1.64, p _.10. Second, a multiple regression analysis showed that anticipated liking did predict partner liking, even after controlling for birthday association, _ _.61, t (107) _ 8.23, p _.001. Finally, the same regression analysis showed that the birthday-association effect was eliminated after controlling for anticipated liking, _ _.04,…
Berg, J.H. And McQuinn, R.D. (1986). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 50, No. 5.
Fry, R. (1999). Biology of love. The Health Report. 6 Sep 1999. The effect of love on the chemical state of our brains. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s49793.htm.
Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. www.biopsychiatry.comAbstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
Geher, G. (2005). Motivational underpinnings of romantic partner perceptions: Psychological and physiological evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 22, No. 2, 255-281.
To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.
However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).
Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational…
Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.
Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,
Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.
Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…
Adams, R.J., 2002. Retail pro-tability and sweatshops: a global dilemma. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 147-153.
Alexander, C., 1964. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Alexander, M., Young, D., 1996b. Outsourcing: where is the value? Long-Range Planning 29 (5), 728-730.
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S., 1995. The Boundaryless Organization. Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
For example, the possibility exists that one site was a specialized food production area; it remains unknown if the occupants were farmers, herders or involved in a variety of activities. Similarly, another site may be a specialized elite compound. Evidence of food processing in rooms located at the bottom of the mound and storage jars in the center of the building, indicate that the elite may have fulfilled more than one function or specific individuals had access to certain areas of the building for food processing.
In addition, the elite and farmers were dependant on each other. The theory is if one of these sites produced food daily for the other, elites most likely had the means to ensure that food supplies were provided. Thus, it can be supposed, notes Dionne (2002) that the elite power was based on a redistribution system and exchanged services or resources against food. That…
1969 Introduction. In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, edited by Fredrik Barth, pp. 9-38. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.
1996 the Moche. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Multicultural education researchers and educators agree that preservice teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and understandings are important: foci in multicultural education coursework (Cochran-Smith, 1995; Grant & Secada, 1990; McDiarmid & Price, 1993; Pohan, 1996). Teacher attitudes and beliefs influence teaching behaviors, which affect student learning and behavior (Wiest, 1998)."
1996 study used 492 pre-service teachers to try and gauge the attitudes and beliefs among the group when it came to understanding diversity and cultural differences in students (Wiest, 1998).
A decade earlier leading education experts Hollingsworth was able to identify a method for helping students of teaching to challenge their convictions and apply them to their careers.
Many advocates of multicultural education suggest that field experiences be included in preparing teachers to work with diverse student populations (Pohan, 1996; Sleeter, 1995; Tellez, Hlebowitsh, Cohen, & Norwood, 1995). Sleeter (1995) describes some investigations, such as miniethnographies, that her students conduct: I regard extended…
ZEICHNER, K.M., & GRANT, C.A. (1981) Biography an social structure in the socialization of student teachers, Journal of Education for Teaching, 7, pp. 298-314.
Assessing the consistency between teachers' philosophies and educational goals.
Education; 9/22/1995; DeSpain, B.C.
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture
On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).
Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…
Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.
Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.
Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.
Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.
What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…
The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)
Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…
Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html
Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),
Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)
Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
This also implies inadequacies in fiscal sustainability, which influences investments in private sectors.
The second channel happens through the level, composition and quality involved within the public investment, which shows the level at which the public investment replaces the private investments (Schmidt- Hebbel, Serven, & Solimano, 1996).
The final channel regards the level of taxation on the corporate earnings and the rules applicable in depreciations.
There have been arguments that fiscal policy and public expenditure reduces the private investments in two different manners. These include increasing the interest rates or lowering the private funds involved in financing the investments.
According to the neoclassical theory, the interest rate is also an imperative variable in finding the level of investment. Consequently, it results into a negative effect because it upsurges the interest payable in investments. Concurrently, McKinnon and Shaw, contends that this is likely to cause a positive relationship between the investment…
Shrestha, M.B. (2005), "ARDL Modelling Aproach to Cointegration Test," Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of New Zealand Association of Economists, Paper
No. 13, Wellington, July 2005.
Keynes, J.M. (1936). General Theory on Employment, Interest and Money., London,
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
Moreover, recent welfare reforms have focused on work requirements and lifetime limits on public assistance, which increasingly necessitate the provision of childcare to low-income families. The state distinguished 27 classes of child care service, based on age of child, hours of care per day, and size of the child care provider. For each of seven geographic areas in the state, a maximum subsidized fee for one day's care for each class of service was specified. If a provider's fee was less than this amount the state paid the fee, while if a fee exceeded this maximum, the state paid the maximum and the client was responsible for the difference. Eligible households had their choice of child-care providers. Although the subsidy payment was often made directly to a provider, the subsidy was on behalf of a particular client. Many clients were required to provide a co-payment, which depended on family income…
Brennan, M. (2007). Beyond Child Care-How Else Could We Do This? Sociocultural Reflections on the Structural and Cultural Arrangements of Contemporary Western Child Car. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(1), 1+.
Goodfellow, J. (2003). Grandparents as Regular Child Care Providers: Unrecognized, Under-Valued and Under-Resourced. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 28(3), 7+.
Hall, a.H., & Cassidy, D.J. (2002). An Assessment of the North Carolina School-Age Child Care Accreditation Initiative. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 17(1), 84+.
Hernandez, M., & Hodges, S. (2003). Building upon the Theory of Change for Systems of Care. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(1), 19+.
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…
Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.
Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,
Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography
In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
Adolescent Behavioral Traits
The 'era of the genome' officially began on April 12, 2003 when the entire human DNA sequence had been declared completed (Gannet, 2008). Although there was considerable resistance to the project from the beginning, the subsequent boom in medical and genetic advances are hard to ignore. For example, BAE and colleagues (2013) recently published a genome-wide association study that searched for and found specific DNA sequences significantly associated with agreeableness and long life spans. This study would not have been possible in the pre-genome era.
Despite these remarkable advances, however, genetic research has been going on for decades in the behavioral sciences, thereby laying a foundation upon which more recent genome era discoveries can be based. To better understand this foundation, a selection of studies examining the gene-by-environment influences on child and adolescent behavior will be reviewed and discussed in this essay.
Genetic Determination of…
Bae, H.T., Sebastiani, P., Sun, J.X., Andersen, S.L., Daw, E.W., Terracciano, A. et al. (2013). Genome-wide association study of personality traits in the long life family study. Frontiers in Genetics, 4(65), 1-9. Doi: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00065.
Feinberg, M.E. & Hetherington, E.M. (2000). Sibling differentiation in adolescence: Implications for behavioral genetic theory. Child Development, 71(6), 1512-1524.
Gannet, L. (2008). The human genome project. In E.N. Zalta (ed.) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition). Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/human-genome/ .
Heylens, G., De Cuypere, G., Zucker, K.J., Schelfaut, C., Elaut, E., Bossche, H.V. et al. (2012). Gender identity disorder in twins: A review of the case report literature. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9(3), 751-757.