Differential Association Theory Essays (Examples)

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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John

Wiley & Sons.

Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…… [Read More]

References

Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf

Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf

Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
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Delinquency Theories Edwin Sutherland --

Words: 1026 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10717935

Just as parole programs typically restrict contact between offenders, a Differential Association-oriented delinquency prevention program would endeavor to prohibit the formation of deviant groups and criminally-prone gangs.

The specific mechanisms for intervention would include sentencing juvenile offenders to mandatory suspension of social relationships deemed capable of precipitating delinquent or criminal conduct in lieu of harsher penalties. Another mechanism might be the strict enforcement of particular municipal codes, such as ordinances prohibiting the public assembly of groups of individuals or the promulgation of such legislation for that purpose where existing legislation is lacking in that regard.

Likewise, the strict enforcement of other commonly overlooked activities technically prohibited by ordinance, such as the timely vacating of parks promptly at closing time, loitering on private commercial property adjacent to convenience stores, and truancy statutes would all be incorporated into a Differential Association-oriented approach to delinquency prevention.

More generally, that concept of delinquency prevention…… [Read More]

References

Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Allyn

and Bacon.

Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology 9th Ed New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
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Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from  http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.

Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications

Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Conference Theories to Support Conference

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89997042

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.

eferences

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA

Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…… [Read More]

References

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
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Crime Theories Comparison Social Organization

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7198572

Unlike the previous theories, social process theories explain criminal behavior on more microsociological terms. The emphasis of social process theories are not on the institutions, but on the relationships formed between individual family members, peer groups, teachers, church leaders and other agents of socialization.

The key concept of all social process theories is based on learning. Sociologists have believed that individuals learn social values and norms from agents of socialization. Thus, if those agents engage in behavior that is deviant or criminal, then there is a greater chance for an individual to engage in similar behavior.

Edwin Sutherland, the father of American criminology, is one of the greatest exemplars of social process theory. Though his theory of differential association was devised largely to explain white collar crime, many of the pronouncements are also applicable to violent crime. In response to psychologists who tried to explain criminal behavior in terms of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, C. & H. McKay. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: Univ. Press.

Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Socialization Theories

Words: 869 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9283169

Homelessness in America has been a problem for a very long time. The homeless are a vulnerable population therefore something has to be done to make sure that the situation is either controlled or improved. One suggestion I would make is putting the homeless up in a local shelter and tries to re-integrate them back to the society very rapidly. The shelter encourages the people to look out for themselves by requiring that the homeless take part in the upkeep of the shelter if they want to stay. The second suggestion would be enabling these homeless people at these shelters go back to work. Social workers can help the homeless get their birth certificates or proof that they are citizens and a social security card hence they can be bale to get work. These ideas can make the homeless more responsible and hence they can be able to stand out…… [Read More]

Reference

Rebecca Bay, (2014). Testing for the Chivalry Hypothesis within the Central Nebraska Drug Court System. University of Nebraska at Kearney. Retrieved July 24,2014 from  http://www.lopers.net/student_org/SSRP/papers/pdf/crj_bayr.pdf
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Looking Into Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1872 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64006820

Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.

Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.

Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
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Analyzing Low Self Control Theory

Words: 2356 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29114176

Low Self -Control Theory

This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.

Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
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Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62195901

Crime

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).

According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…… [Read More]

References

Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from  http://www.crime.hku.hk/rb-crimetrends.htm 

Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from http://asiancorrespondent.com/17054/why-i-think-juvenile-offenders-are-getting-younger/

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.

Retrieved from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
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Field Experiment on the Interactive Perspective of Deviance

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66312090

Behavior Experiment

The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.

eactions

The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…… [Read More]

Reference

Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska

Native Mental Health Research Journal .

Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
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John Rommel Case Study Why Would John

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37303748

John ommel Case Study

Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?

Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.

2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.

British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…… [Read More]

References

Kessel, DH (n.d.). Sociological theoretical perspectives. Retrieved from  http://www.angelfire.com/or/sociologyshop/soctheopers.html
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Gang Activity Please See Notes

Words: 3398 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36646386

This becomes further complex as economic ties blur between the poor and middle classes and the expectations each has about the definition of materialistic success. By belonging to a subculture, however, one can feel part of something larger, insulated a bit from the criticisms and unattainable messages of the upper middle class, and certainly a way to belong and feel important with one's own environment (Siegel and Welsh, 2009, 130-1).

Contemporary Urban Issues- in the United States, the National Gang Center estimates that there are almost 800,000 active street gang members, most concentrated in Los Angeles County and the greater Chicago area. Demographically, Hispanics account for almost 50% of gang members, African-Americans 30%, Caucasians 13%, and Asians 6% (Carlie, 2002). Unfortunately, Native American communities are also being overrun by gang violence and drug trafficking. Most tribal communities, in fact, have significant gang activity; contributing also to the continued economic downturn…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gangs in America. (2003). The National Center for Victims of Crime. Retreived January 2011, from NCVC.org:

http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32352

The Gang Threat - Get Educated. (2009, February 6). Retrieved January 2011, from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2009/february/ngta_020609

Adamoli, Di Nicola, Savona and Zoffi. (1998, March). Orgqanized Crime Around the World. Retrieved January 2011, from University of Helsinki: http://www.heuni.fi/uploads/mmadzpnix.pdf
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Teens Get Involved in Gangs

Words: 1776 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 238085

al, 1994). Furthermore, the role of police in a community has to change from merely trying to suppress gang activity to actively trying to prevent gang activity. (Spergel, et. al, 1994).

The proliferation of gangs is one of the most pressing social problems facing modern America. While the primary purpose of gangs may be to engage in criminal activity, they serve other social functions that attract teens as gang members. Each teen who becomes involved in a gang runs a significant risk of not being able to participate in normal, non-criminal society. Therefore, it is important to understand how teens become involved in gangs and to focus efforts on prevention. Although no one theory seems capable of entirely explaining how and why teens become involved in gangs, the various criminological theories and the social disorganization theory are capable of giving insight into why children feel attracted to gangs. These theories…… [Read More]

References

Cantillon, D., Davidson, W., & Schweitzer, J. (2003). Measuring community social organization: sense of community as a mediator in social disorganization theory.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 321-339.

Jones, D. et al. (2004). Street gangs: a review of theory, interventions, and implications for corrections. Ottawa: Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada.

National Youth Gang Center. (2006). National youth gang survey analysis. Retrieved November 2, 2006 from National Youth Gang Center
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Criminology Critique the Central Aim

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68055632

The environment extends beyond the family to friends and neighborhood. Neutrality has no effect on development of criminal behavior.

Concept

In order to understand the authors reasoning it is important to understand the concepts of behavior development, i.e. how observation of a behavior leads to development of that behavior. It is also important to understand the dynamics in various groups to understand why behaviors may be imitated from some sources and not others.

Assumptions

The author is working on the assumption that there are no other factors which develop criminal behavior. For example the assumption is that if criminal behavior develops then the criminal will undertake criminal activity at any possible opportunity. The theory does not explain why some children grow up in an environment which promotes crime and yet does not develop these behaviors and vice-versa.

Implications

If the reasoning of the author were to be accepted it has…… [Read More]

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Abnormal Psychology Theories Issues Diagnosis

Words: 2437 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61912524

The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.

Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at  http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html 

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University

of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at  http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
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Relational Theory

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70142966

elational Theory

Assumptions and Implications of the elational Theory

elational theory aligns with traditional views of social work. This theory has special significance on relationships and the settings that women attest to. In the recent times, researchers and psychologist have perceived the dissimilarities in mental development between men and women (Saari, 2005). A key conclusion is that women strongly emphasize on relationships whereas men lay emphasis on individuation (Quinn and Grumbach, 2015). One of the main assumptions of the relational theory is the intrinsically and innately social nature of human beings. Based on the belief that people are socially founded and instituted by associations, relational theory seeks to understand the complication behind the formation of relationships (Mccauley, 2013). In particular, the relational theory puts forward that the relational nature of us as human beings' steers and instigates us to grow and develop through and in the direction of connection. As…… [Read More]

References

Comstock, D. L., Hammer, T. R., Strentzsch, J., Cannon, K., Parsons, J., & II, G. S. (2008). Relational-cultural theory: A framework for bridging relational, multicultural, and social justice competencies. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3), 279-287.

Firestone, L. (2013). How Your Attachment Style Impacts Your Relationship: What is your attachment style? Psychology Today.

McCauley, M. (2013). Relational-Cultural Theory: Fostering Healthy Coexistence Through a Relational Lens. Beyond Intractability. Retrieved from:  http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/relational-cultural-theory 

Quinn, C. R., &Grumbach, G. (2015). Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 24(3), 202-218.
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Gang Prevention Program Gangs Contain

Words: 5590 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76787344



George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.

Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs

Suppression techniques may be one of the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009

from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx

ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.

Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
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Drug Alcohol Abuse Drug and Alcohol

Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76887406

Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)

Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…… [Read More]

References

Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.

Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance

Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.

Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
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Criminology Robert Merton Was the Brain Behind

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42378183

Criminology

obert Merton was the brain behind Anomie Theory. This theory majors on deviance. The theory's major preoccupation is why rates of deviance differ from one society to the other and from one subgroup that come from one society to the other. Merton's work emphasizes cultures' unifying aspects and how it can create deviance and disunity within a society. Cultural norms, according to this theory, break down as a result of rapid changes that take place. The theory attributes occurrence of Anomic suicide to the occurrence of major economic depression that makes people not to achieve the goals they had learned to pursue (Siegel, 2008). Anomic suicide can also occur when there is an economic boom. In such circumstances people fail to limit their goals and be satisfied with their achievements. There can be lack of fit with regard to culture's norm about what constitute success in life and the…… [Read More]

References List

Abadinsky, H. (2004). Organized Crime. Belmont, California: Thomson Wadsworth.

SAGE (n.d.). Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches in Criminology. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/50621_ch_7

Siegel, L.J. (2008). Criminology: The Core. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
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Sociology - Hirschi & Delinquency

Words: 813 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90051962

In those cases, "deviance" from socially accepted values would be considered a positive response rather than "delinquency" in an objective sense.

Alternate ideas, such as differential association formulated by Sutherland (Pfohl

1994), in particular, demonstrate that even in contemporary American society, social values are extremely subjective and that specific populations - most notably, incarcerated prisoners - form their own societal norms and shared values that contradict those of larger society and that those mores are as powerful and likely to shape future behavior among adolescents exposed to them for long periods (Scmalleger 1997).

Similarly, modern criminologists (Pinizzotto, et al. 2007) detail the extent to which violent criminal street gangs fulfill the same role as families of origin in many

American communities. Furthermore, many Baby Boomers of the so-called hippie generation also would seem to contradict Hirschi's theory in that, especially when viewed retrospectively, behavior that was considered "deviant" or "delinquent"…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)

Psychology and Life 18th Ed.

New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Kerik, B.B. (2002) the Lost Son: A Life in Pursuit of Justice. New York: Harper Collins Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Pfohl, S. (1994). Images of Deviance and Social Control. New York: McGraw-Hill
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Perplexing Questions About Human Psychology

Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42540057

The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…… [Read More]

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Social Lives I Interviewed My

Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26453774

I wanted to talk to my grandmother about this, moving away from our own family context. She believed strongly that the family is the central unit of social control, with the parents as strong disciplinarians who teach their children social norms and enforce those norms. I made the point that while many people believe this view is true, there are a lot of examples of people who grow up in non-traditional households that turn out not to be delinquents. I turned out fine, and many of my friends who grew up in non-traditional families were able to find their social norms from other sources. I think the family does play an important role, but it is not necessary to have a traditional family in order to instill values. My grandmother respectfully disagreed.

e talked a little bit about how family contributes to one's success as an adult. e both agreed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Boss, P. (2009). Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. New York: Springer Science.

Chee, K. & Elder, G. (2009). Mother's employment demands, work-family conflict and adolescent development. International Journal of Sociology of the Family. Vol. 35 (2) 189-202.

Church, W., Wharton, T. & Taylor, J. (2009). An examination of differential association and social control theory. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. Vol. 7 (1) 3-15.

Crosnoe, R., Leventhal, T., Wirth, R., Pianta, R. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and consistent environmental stimulation in early childhood. Childhood Development. Vol. 81 (3) 972-987.
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Criminology the Beginnings of Criminology

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26108099



VI. DURKHEIM'S ANOMIE

Another theory in criminology is known as 'Durkheim's Anomie' which was conceived by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist who first introduced the anomie in the work entitled: "The Division of Labor in Society" in which the anomie was utilized in provides a description of a "condition of deregulation that was occurring in society." (Criminological Theory, 2001) This anomie was used to describe how that the mores' of behavior in society was unclear and due to this breakdown in a code of proper social behavior resulting was the 'anomie' or the failure to know what to expect between individuals. It was posited by Durkheim that: "...societies evolved form a simple, nonspecialized form, called 'mechanical' toward a highly complex, specialized form, called 'organic. In the former society people behave and think alike and more or less perform the same work tasks and have the same group-oriented goals. When societies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Demelo, Diane (2008) Criminological Theory. Online available at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/Diane_Demelo/diane.pdf 

Perkins, Douglas D.; Hughey, Joseph and Speer, Paul W. (2002) Community Psychology Perspectives on Social Capital Theory and Community Practice. Journal of the Community Development Society. Vol. 33 No. 1. Online available at http://www.people.vanderbilt.edu/~douglas.d.perkins/JCDS.02.pdf

Cowling Mark (2006) Postmodern Policies? The Erratic Interventions of Constitutive Criminology. Internet Journal of Criminology. 2006. Online available at  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Cowling%20-%20Postmodern%20Policies.pdf 

Aim of Criminology
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Understanding Criminal Behavior

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99511338

particular behaviors tend to cross into the realm of crime when they become obsessive and are actually acted upon. Apparently, many individuals within a society may actually think about committing crimes, but never take the actual physical steps to commit it in the flesh. Those who take precautionary measures and anticipate actions that represent the actual physical acting out of their thoughts is when behavior biases can become actual crime. One of the most appropriate schools of thought in criminology to explain this phenomenon is the theory of differential association. Originally described by Edwin Sutherland, differential association aims to explain deviance and how people go from thinking about criminal acts to actually committing criminal acts. Essentially, this theory believes that criminal acts and thoughts are learned through experience with crime. Criminal acts thus become a repercussion of intense motives, drives, and attitudes that have been learned by the individual through…… [Read More]

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Individual-Level Attributes or Aggregate Characteristics

Words: 950 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59108871

, 2011). Instead, social control theories suggest that neighborhoods are somewhat informally self-regulating (Sampson et al., 2011). This lack of criminal self-regulation may stem from a feeling of being disenfranchised, as if the criminal laws have been created without reference to the needs of that community. In fact, in the United States, there is a definite cultural conflict regarding criminal codes (Sutherland & Cressey, 2011). Perhaps the most famous example of this conflict is the differential sentencing for crack and powder cocaine offenses.

The result of this disenfranchisement is that some communities may actually positively reinforce criminal behavior. Therefore individuals, particularly those individuals predisposed to criminal behavior may engage in criminal behavior "because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law" (Sutherland & Cressey, 2011). Moreover, it is important to realize that in violent communities criminality may not be maladaptive; in…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, E. (2011). The code of the street. In F.T. Cullen & R. Agnew (Eds.), Criminological

theory: Past to present fourth edition. (pp.143-154). New York: Oxford University Press.

Caspi, a., Moffitt, T., Silva, P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R., & Schmutte, P. (2011).

Personality and crime: Are some people crime prone? In F.T. Cullen & R.
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Failure of America's Prisons the

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51383898

238). Furthermore, prison stigmatizes convicts, and, upon release many people, particularly employers, are reluctant to take a chance on someone with the stigma of a prison record (Macionis, p.238). Prison also breaks social ties between the prisoner and non-criminal friends and family, weakening the very type of community ties that are believed to help deter criminal behavior (Macionis, p.238). Therefore, if one of the goals of the tough-on-crime stance is to reduce criminal activity, it is clear that American prisons simply are not accomplishing that goal.

In addition, over the past two decades, "the American prison population has climbed from 300,000 to more than two million- roughly equal to the combined population of Austin, Denver, Nashville, and ashington, D.C." (Silverstein, p.1). In addition, "largely because of racially-biased drug sentencing laws, about half of America's prison population is African-American and one-quarter of all black men are likely to be imprisoned at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Macionis, John J. Sociology. 13th ed. City of Publication. Prentice Hall, 2009.

Silverstein, Ken. "Introduction." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.

Tara Herivel and Paul Wright. New York. Routledge, 2003.1-5. Print.

Street, Paul. "Color Blind." Prison Nation: The Warehousing of America's Poor. Eds.
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Domestic Violence

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85995013

theories listed, the relative deprivation theory and the general strain theory best explain domestic violence, as well as the high rate of recidivism, despite punishment. However, we should mention in the very beginning that each theory listed best explains a certain category of people, generally divided by income and level of education. The two I have selected are a match for the highest percentage of women batterers.

The relative deprivation theory believes that domestic violence occurs when there is a significant difference in the achievements of each of the members of the couple. In general, in my opinion, these tend to be professional achievements and the theory is best exemplified by those couples where the husband is unemployed or having a job that is not satisfying, while the wife is earning much more than him and is the one contributing most to the family budget.

The relative deprivation theory was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Harmon, Patricia Anne. Why do men batter women? Assessing empathy, self-regard and narcissism levels, and attitudes toward women, men's roles and family of origin experiences among middle to upper class male batterers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(12-B), 2002. pp. 6023. U.S.: Univ Microfilms International

2. Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor

Chapter 5: Social Structure Theory: Because they are poor. Page 143

Ibid.
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Analysis of Murderers Alex and Derek King

Words: 1622 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33619072

Criminology

Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)

Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control

One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…… [Read More]

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Sociology - Sex & AIDS

Words: 1710 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51173182

In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.

eferences

Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…… [Read More]

References

Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
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Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special

Words: 4423 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67221345

Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.

Stratification.

Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.

Literature eview

Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.

According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…… [Read More]

References

Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.

Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from  http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280 

Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.

Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
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Psychology Models Since Sigmund Freud

Words: 2736 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77173873

Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.

Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.

Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.

Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253

Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
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Bowers Park Crime Program in

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25350549



Schools are a good place to capitalize on this tendency, helping students to form group ties through shared group activities. These could include sports clubs such as Little League, academic clubs such as Mathletes and extra-curricular activities like a daily or weekly student newspaper.

These activities will help young people form friendships with other dedicated students, instead of potential delinquents.

Fourth, Robert Sampson believed that communities could address rising crime rates through a concept he calls "collective efficacy."

This means that Bowers Park residents, young and old, should feel safe when congregating in public areas, and the first step is establishing safe public areas to begin with. Residents will have to provide resources - monetary or volunteered time - to provide places where young people can congregate. This could include places such as skate parks, community gardens and public libraries.

Fifth, since the programs that work best are fun, the…… [Read More]

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Mental Retardation in Adults Mental

Words: 1735 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11878955

The severity of mental retardation covers a wide spectrum, as discussed before, and variation in ability of individuals within this spectrum is wide (Tammi, 2006). In order to understand and to assist such persons, it is important to know the category in which they fall and the possible causes of the condition. In most cases, a little psychological instability leads to a mental retardation and therefore psychological interventions can be very effective in solving such cases. The notion of viewing mental retardation as a case of pure medical condition should be changed in order to find means of reducing such situations.

eferences

Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental etardation.

etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html

Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental etardation.

etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html

Gotiesrnati, .L. (s.f.).…… [Read More]

References

Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental Retardation.

Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician:  http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html 

Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation.

Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
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Reinforcement the Post-Reinforcement Pause a

Words: 1854 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57030583

They inserted a small electrode in the brain of the rat. The rat had access to a lever that was connected to the electric supply of the electrode. Every time the rat pressed on the lever, there was a low voltage current that would stimulate the reward center and therefore the rat was reinforced to press the lever again and again. This is the way through which the researchers got to know more about the neuromechanics of reinforcement.

When neuromechanics were studied specifically with respect to the learning curves in animals, like monkeys, it was noted that at the beginning of learning the release of dopamine is greater. As the period of learning proceeds, the learning curve declines along with the decline in the production of dopamine. The researchers, during this experiment, also suggested that different reinforces should be given to the animals in which one wants to improve learning.…… [Read More]

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Meagans Law Meagan's Law Questions

Words: 5402 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92231459



Step 3: Discuss the Precipitating Event

After relationship is recognized, the emphasis goes to the family insights of the condition, the sequence of proceedings leading up to the predicament, and the issue that started out the sequence of events (Graham-Bermann, S.A., 2002). Consultations inspect when and how the disaster happened, the causal conditions, and how the family endeavored to covenant with it.

Step 4: Assess Strengths and Needs

The Family valuation of strengths and needs start right after and the goes on throughout crisis intervention. The crisis worker will start to draws conclusions that will regard the family's needs and strengths that are related to the present disaster and, with the family, assesses the prospective for recovery (Edleson, J.L.,1999). Client strong suit are tapped in order to make self-esteem better, while also providing skills and energy that is for problem-solving.

Step 5: Formulate a Dynamic Explanation

This next step really…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Appel, a.E., & Holden, G.W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-599.

Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterer's treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023-1053.

Beeman, S.K., Hagemeister, a.K., & Edleson, J.L. (1999). Child protection and battered women's services: From conflict to collaboration. Child Maltreatment, 4, 116-126.

Bragg, H.L. (2003). Child protection in families experiencing domestic violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 3, 2005, from http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/profess/tools/usermanual.cfm
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Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Displayed by

Words: 10021 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93835103

Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities

The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]

references, and favorites)

Child and Family Assets

(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)

Functional and Meaningful Interactions

(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
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Issues in the Field of Neuroscience

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46472615

.....neuroscience is one of the most common scientific field of study that basically involves study of the nervous system. Most of the jobs in neuroscience involves dealing with some problems that do not necessarily involve working in the lab. An example of such jobs that interests me is neuropsychology, which is an area in neuroscience that focuses on the science of brain-behavior relationships. I find clinical neuropsychology as an interesting field of neuroscience since it combines concepts of psychology in the study of the nervous system, particularly brain-behavior relationships. Given the combination of neuroscience and psychology, clinical neuropsychology will enable me to feel empathy for my patients/clients when addressing their issues (Ogden, 2012). In light of my passion for this field, brain functions and neuroscience that I find interesting are neurobiological theories that explain dysfunctions in language, behavior networks, vision, memory, and emotion. These brain functions and neuroscience are interesting…… [Read More]

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Equal Employment Opportunity and Anti-Discrimination Laws

Words: 6496 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52089066

features of a major area of law. The second part of the scholarly paper presents a thorough review of an organizational problem based on the rules and regulations presented in the first part of the research paper.

The reference page appends twelve sources in APA format.

Equal Employment Opportunity and Anti-discrimination Laws

The academic world as well as the world of profession and occupation offers uncountable options in the form of innumerable areas of study, review and critique. The world where we live in thus needs to provide equal opportunity to all for this is the world where souls thrive and excel by being successful in different areas of study. Apart from various areas of study and scrutiny including psychology, physiology, chemistry, biology, botany, physics, general science, general knowledge, computer sciences, management, marketing, mathematics and several languages, law is one of the most thriving, ancient and popular as well as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

U.S. EEOC: An Overview. Report from the Office of Communications and Legislative Affairs (1998). Retrieved July 18, 2003 at http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/overview.html

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act 1964 (1997). Retrieved July 18, 2003 at http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/vii.html

Facts about religious discrimination (2002). Retrieved July 18, 2003 at http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-relig.html

Facts About Race/Color Discrimination (2002). Retrieved July 18, 2003 at  http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-race.html
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Facial Expression and Emotion

Words: 6566 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15077023

FACIAL EXPESSION & EMOTION

Psychology

From the perspective of many psychologists, there is no set formal definition for emotion. We know that emotion is universal insofar as all humans experience and express emotion. There have been many studies, specifically over the past several decades that demonstrate that some emotions are expressed universally across time and culture. Just because there is not a universal definition for emotion, does not mean that there are not working definitions of what is emotion is, as a means to do the job in the meantime, until the global psychological field comes to a more overall agreement. On a very basic level, emotion is an affective change from a person's previous emotional state as a result of a huge spectrum of stimuli. There are a number of physical representations of emotion in the human body. Emotion occurs on a neurological level. Emotions show up in parts…… [Read More]

References:

Abelson, R.P., & Sermat, V. (1962). Multidimensional scaling of facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(6), 546-554.

Adolphs, R. (2002). Recognizing Emotion From Facial Expressions: Psychological and Neurological Mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1(1), 21 -- 62.

Browndyke, PhD, J.N. (2002). Neuropsychosocial Factors in Emotion Recognition: Facial Expressions. Telepsychology Solutions, Web, Available from: www.neuropsychologycentral.com. 2012 December 04.

Dimberg, U., Thuberg, M., Elmehed, K. (2000). Unconscious Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions. Psychological Science, 11(1), 86 -- 90.
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Emotional Labor Annotated Bibliography Alderman

Words: 3946 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14105475

motional labor is an important aspect of what people do in their jobs, as Grandey rightly points out. Also considered, though, is the regulation of emotion within the workplace, because there have been workplace shootings, cases of rage, rapes, killings, and all kinds of problems. These are rare, but they do happen, and it is believed that they will become more common in the future because society is going more global and workers are under increasing pressures today.

Grandey, a., Fisk, G.M., & Steiner, D.D. (2005). Must "service with a smile" be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 893-904.

Having control is an important concept in the business world. People must be able to maintain control over themselves when they deal with other employees and with customers that may or may not be happy. As Grandey, Fisk, and…… [Read More]

Emotional labor and the discomfort that it can bring are discussed by Tracy. The idea of emotional labor is a relatively new one, and a lot of people still try to overlook or ignore it. However, it is not something that can be wished away. It is important to understand this discomfort so that people who need help with the work that they do and the way that they feel about that work can get some assistance. Without getting help, individuals can spiral out of control emotionally, which is an unfortunate consequence of too much dissonance and discord in a person's life. It was originally thought that these kinds of dissonance problems only happened in social and personal lives, but the business world has changed so much that these issues are starting to appear there, as well.

Tracy, S.J., & Tretheway, a. (2005). Fracturing the real-self, fake-self dichotomy: Moving toward "crystallized" discourses and identities. Communications Theory, 15, 168-195.

For most people in the business world, there is a fake self and a real self. The real self is who a person is when he or she is completely alone. The fake self is who that same person is when he or she is out there in the world, trying to cope with work, other people, and the hustle and bustle of life that so many people both loathe and take for granted at the same time. There is a way, say Tracy and Tretheway, to take the fake self and the real self, and merge them into a self that is 'real' in the larger picture of things. By doing this, there is less of a problem with feeling fake around others or feeling as though he or she has to perform in a certain way, and this can help a person feel much more meaningful and real overall, both in the business world and in his or her personal life.
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Implicit Factors and Love Change

Words: 5676 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12932290

They were not informed of the reason for the code. They were asked "(a) How similar do you think this person is to you? (1 _ not at all similar to 11 _ very similar) and (b) How much do you think this person will like you? (1 _ not at all to 11 _ very much)" and other like preliminary questions to see if subliminal likes were noticed and present (Jones, p. 672).

Students were then asked to remember their "partner's" code number and dismissed.

First, the birthday-association manipulation was modestly associated with anticipated liking, _ _.15, t (107) _ 1.64, p _.10. Second, a multiple regression analysis showed that anticipated liking did predict partner liking, even after controlling for birthday association, _ _.61, t (107) _ 8.23, p _.001. Finally, the same regression analysis showed that the birthday-association effect was eliminated after controlling for anticipated liking, _ _.04,…… [Read More]

References

Berg, J.H. And McQuinn, R.D. (1986). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 50, No. 5.

Fry, R. (1999). Biology of love. The Health Report. 6 Sep 1999. The effect of love on the chemical state of our brains. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s49793.htm.

Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. www.biopsychiatry.comAbstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.

Geher, G. (2005). Motivational underpinnings of romantic partner perceptions: Psychological and physiological evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 22, No. 2, 255-281.
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College Worth It ' Weighs on

Words: 2549 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30049514

To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.

However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).

Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.

Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,

2009):36.

Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
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What Has Led to the Change in Custom Jewelry in Last 5 Years

Words: 13278 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23005687

Change

This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.

Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…… [Read More]

References

Adams, R.J., 2002. Retail pro-tability and sweatshops: a global dilemma. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 147-153.

Alexander, C., 1964. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Alexander, M., Young, D., 1996b. Outsourcing: where is the value? Long-Range Planning 29 (5), 728-730.

Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., Kerr, S., 1995. The Boundaryless Organization. Breaking the Chains of Organizational Structure. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.
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Self-Regulation Issues in Children and Adolescents With ADHD ODD and OCD

Words: 6305 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39399907

Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD

Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…… [Read More]

References

Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from  http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php 

Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/ 

Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.

Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
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College Students and Alcohol Use

Words: 5292 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74738903

Psychosocial factors, such as depression, anxiety and social support, also induce drinking. This study confirmed that social cognitive factors drove college students to report on their own drinking. Psychosocial motives drove them to do so only at 1%. Social support was the only significant psychosocial predictor. The awareness of both the positive and negative consequences of drinking was quite likely behind the willingness of college students to report on their own drinking. This implied that drinking was a deliberate and conscious decision on their part. Heavy drinkers viewed their drinking as something negative in that they perceived themselves as having reduced control over it. Peer norms were also found to be an important predictor of drinking as a perceived norm and behavior, which supports drinking. Parental drinking norms also surfaced, although not as strong as the preceding predictors (Kuther & Temoshin).

Environmental Policies

Many new studies attempted to determine if…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barnett, N. et al. (2008). Profiles of college students mandated to alcohol intervention.

Journal of Studies on Alcohol: Alcohol Research Documentation, Inc. Retrieved on May 20, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6378/is_5_69/ai_n29473218/?tag=content;col1

Black, J.M.; Ausherman, J.A.; Kandaka, T.L.; Lam, E.T. C; and Jurjevic, S. C (2004).

Urban university students' knowledge of alcohol and drinking. American Journal of Health Studies: University of Alabama Department of Health Services. Retrieved on May 20, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOCTG/is_2_19/ai_n6361765/?tag=content;col1
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Disordered Eating in College Students

Words: 5808 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39021106

Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.

Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa

Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.

Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
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Moche Food Most of the

Words: 4718 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77174953

For example, the possibility exists that one site was a specialized food production area; it remains unknown if the occupants were farmers, herders or involved in a variety of activities. Similarly, another site may be a specialized elite compound. Evidence of food processing in rooms located at the bottom of the mound and storage jars in the center of the building, indicate that the elite may have fulfilled more than one function or specific individuals had access to certain areas of the building for food processing.

In addition, the elite and farmers were dependant on each other. The theory is if one of these sites produced food daily for the other, elites most likely had the means to ensure that food supplies were provided. Thus, it can be supposed, notes Dionne (2002) that the elite power was based on a redistribution system and exchanged services or resources against food. That…… [Read More]

References

Barth, Fredrik

1969 Introduction. In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, edited by Fredrik Barth, pp. 9-38. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.

Bawden, Garth

1996 the Moche. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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Roots of Psychopathology

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97410854

Freud was ight, Peter Muris discusses Freud's analysis of abnormal behavior. He acknowledges that Freud's research methods were flawed because he focused on case studies rather than empirical analysis to try to determine causation. Despite that, Muris suggests that Freud's theories about the etiology of psychological disorders and abnormal behavior being rooted in childhood and showing emerging behavior in children and adolescents may be supported by what is known of abnormal psychology. This does not mean that Muris believes that Freud's explanations for abnormal behavior, specifically his Oedipal theories, explain abnormal behavior; he does not believe that abnormal behavior is necessarily rooted in sexual impulses towards parents as Freudian theories would explain. However, he does believe that Freud's studies began to explain the origins of abnormal human behavior and may provide insight into helping those who engage in abnormal behavior.

Muris believes that many patterns of abnormal adult behavior have…… [Read More]

References

Muris, P. (2006). Freud was right…about the origins of abnormal behavior. Journal of Child

and Family Studies, 15(1), pp.1-12. doi: 10.1007/s10826-005-9006-9.
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Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

Words: 3934 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22341787

Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture

On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).

Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…… [Read More]

References

Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.

Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.

Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.

Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
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Teaching That Play a Role

Words: 9261 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69308031



Multicultural education researchers and educators agree that preservice teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and understandings are important: foci in multicultural education coursework (Cochran-Smith, 1995; Grant & Secada, 1990; McDiarmid & Price, 1993; Pohan, 1996). Teacher attitudes and beliefs influence teaching behaviors, which affect student learning and behavior (Wiest, 1998)."

1996 study used 492 pre-service teachers to try and gauge the attitudes and beliefs among the group when it came to understanding diversity and cultural differences in students (Wiest, 1998).

A decade earlier leading education experts Hollingsworth was able to identify a method for helping students of teaching to challenge their convictions and apply them to their careers.

Many advocates of multicultural education suggest that field experiences be included in preparing teachers to work with diverse student populations (Pohan, 1996; Sleeter, 1995; Tellez, Hlebowitsh, Cohen, & Norwood, 1995). Sleeter (1995) describes some investigations, such as miniethnographies, that her students conduct: I regard extended…… [Read More]

ZEICHNER, K.M., & GRANT, C.A. (1981) Biography an social structure in the socialization of student teachers, Journal of Education for Teaching, 7, pp. 298-314.

Assessing the consistency between teachers' philosophies and educational goals.

Education; 9/22/1995; DeSpain, B.C.
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Henderson a Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven

Words: 3439 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12843400

Henderson

A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan

Theories of Counseling

Coun510_D04

This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.

New York: The Guilford Press.

Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
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Generational Differences in Social Media Usage

Words: 2329 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31623145

The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.
Introduction

Background statement

What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…… [Read More]

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Gender Race and Constitutional Change

Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83041050

The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)

Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at  http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html 

Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),

Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)

Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
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Spouse Are Beginning the Search

Words: 4065 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50315345

Moreover, recent welfare reforms have focused on work requirements and lifetime limits on public assistance, which increasingly necessitate the provision of childcare to low-income families. The state distinguished 27 classes of child care service, based on age of child, hours of care per day, and size of the child care provider. For each of seven geographic areas in the state, a maximum subsidized fee for one day's care for each class of service was specified. If a provider's fee was less than this amount the state paid the fee, while if a fee exceeded this maximum, the state paid the maximum and the client was responsible for the difference. Eligible households had their choice of child-care providers. Although the subsidy payment was often made directly to a provider, the subsidy was on behalf of a particular client. Many clients were required to provide a co-payment, which depended on family income…… [Read More]

References

Brennan, M. (2007). Beyond Child Care-How Else Could We Do This? Sociocultural Reflections on the Structural and Cultural Arrangements of Contemporary Western Child Car. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(1), 1+.

Goodfellow, J. (2003). Grandparents as Regular Child Care Providers: Unrecognized, Under-Valued and Under-Resourced. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 28(3), 7+.

Hall, a.H., & Cassidy, D.J. (2002). An Assessment of the North Carolina School-Age Child Care Accreditation Initiative. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 17(1), 84+.

Hernandez, M., & Hodges, S. (2003). Building upon the Theory of Change for Systems of Care. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(1), 19+.
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Role of Private Investment on

Words: 14411 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 672069

This also implies inadequacies in fiscal sustainability, which influences investments in private sectors.

The second channel happens through the level, composition and quality involved within the public investment, which shows the level at which the public investment replaces the private investments (Schmidt- Hebbel, Serven, & Solimano, 1996).

The final channel regards the level of taxation on the corporate earnings and the rules applicable in depreciations.

There have been arguments that fiscal policy and public expenditure reduces the private investments in two different manners. These include increasing the interest rates or lowering the private funds involved in financing the investments.

According to the neoclassical theory, the interest rate is also an imperative variable in finding the level of investment. Consequently, it results into a negative effect because it upsurges the interest payable in investments. Concurrently, McKinnon and Shaw, contends that this is likely to cause a positive relationship between the investment…… [Read More]

References

Shrestha, M.B. (2005), "ARDL Modelling Aproach to Cointegration Test," Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of New Zealand Association of Economists, Paper

No. 13, Wellington, July 2005.

Keynes, J.M. (1936). General Theory on Employment, Interest and Money., London,

Macmillan.
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Market Driven Management

Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32150042

Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.