Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
rown lists 'labor intensive' strategies for differentiation to include those as follows:
Assessment, data analysis, and diagnosis;
Differentiated learning encounters;
Independent study. (rown, nd)
The work of Jahnine losser (2005) entitled: "Unit of Lessons: Safety in the Secondary Science Classroom" states that there is "a growing need to make all students understand science and the relevancy of science to their lives." losser notes that "many students learn differently from others and need a different instruction or enhanced instruction." (2005) losser states that a single classroom may contain "students who can read and comprehend at college level as well as those who have trouble simply decoding words." (citing Tomlinson, 1995) ecause of this it is "paramount that teachers use different strategies to reach and challenge all learners. Differentiated instruction can help a teacher do this." (losser, 2005) losser states that differentiated…… [Read More]
In many ways, the concepts of separating out individuals that are different has been fostered by the construction of the educational format. Tomlinson notes the fallacy of such an arrangement and provides some excellent advice with regard to classroom inclusiveness. "A classroom is -- or at least ought to be, in my opinion -- a microcosm for the world we live in. It is a community of individuals in which the good of each and the good of all continually seek a balance." (Tomlinson, Sharing 189) Of course, to assume that the mere make-up of classrooms to inclusive rather than exclusive would change prevailing prejudices is to overestimate the influence of such a measure. But education should not be endorsing such outmoded concepts as segregation and differentiated instruction helps to provide an environment wherein individuals of varying skill levels and learning potentials can see the value that other members of…… [Read More]
Thus, the idea of inclusion was born, an idea that suggests students with special needs be paired alongside students who are gifted, students with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and students who have different modes of learning (Tomlinson et al., 2003).
Despite this, evidence exists to suggest that the self-contained special education classroom still serves the needs of many students with special needs, suggesting that fears related to special education students' inferior treatment may not related to this particular classroom arrangement. Zigmond et al. (1999) found that students with learning disabilities did not show optimum academic results when integrated into the inclusion classroom. The authors write that students with learning disabilities are often placed in special education for a reason -- because they do not benefit from traditional education. However, the authors do contend that determining where to place such students is never easy. In his brief comparison of education…… [Read More]
Teachers should not try to do everything at once but start with highest priority first and work with a collaborative team to set goals.
The best advice is for teachers to reflect on what it will take to incorporate differentiated instruction. Next, teachers need to evaluate the curriculum with a survey including what students should know, what most know, and what standards they must be held accountable for. Furthermore, analyzing groups and individual students to determine readiness, interests, preferences, strengths, and needs is warranted. Subsequently, designing research-based lessons that include diverse teaching strategies would prove beneficial. The teacher would allow for student response through dry boards, choral responses, cooperative learning groups, class-wide peer tutoring and assistive technology such as, books on tape and manipulatives. Honing in on the data by using diagnostic assessments, such as checklists, interviews, surveys, observations to collect data on student interests, thinking styles, and…… [Read More]
Teachers may provide introductory discussions to the entire class and follow this up with smaller working groups that are coached by members and the teacher. ased on the results, content and projects, grouping and regrouping should be a dynamic process to meet objectives.
4. How do we differentiate and evaluate products?
ransford, rown, and Cocking (2000) advise that the use of tools in the classroom provides no guarantee that student learning will improve unless that are part of a coherent learning approach. The authors suggest the avoidance of tools that are driven by the game and play market and to select only those tools that have been developed with a full understanding of principles of learning. Tools that are interactive make it easy for students to revisit specific parts of the environments to explore them, to test ideas, and to receive feedback. Noninteractive environments should be avoided because they are…… [Read More]
Iaquinta (2006) explains "Guided reading is a teaching approach used with all readers, struggling or independent, that has three fundamental purposes: to meet the varying instructional needs of all students in the classroom, enabling them to greatly expand their reading powers; to teach students to read increasingly difficult texts with understanding and fluency; to construct meaning while using problem-solving strategies to figure out unfamiliar words that deal with complex sentence structures, and understand concepts or ideas not previously encountered" (p. 414). Guided reading is an approach that combines small group instruction with ongoing observation and systematic assessment to meet the needs of learners of various abilities. According to Iaquinta (2006), it is important that grouping remain dynamic, flexible, and varied to allow students to support one another as readers as well as to make them feel part of a community of readers.
A study conducted by Ford & Opitz (2008)…… [Read More]
" T. he following illustration provides the characteristics of 'fully differentiated' and 'not differentiated' instruction in programs and classrooms.
Differences in Programs and Classrooms that are Differentiated and those which are not Differentiated
Source: Walker (nd) U.S. Department of Education Publication
Therefore, differentiated instruction may take many forms and may utilize various instructional methods in differentiation of instruction and includes those listed in the table above under the heading 'Differentiated'. Flexibility is 'key' in this pursuit and instruction that is 'reactive', 'fixed', or 'closed' is not differentiated because differentiated instruction is never characterized by any of these three elements. The work of aum and Nichols (2007) states that there are four keys to differentiation. Those four keys are as follows:
The teacher should know their students and themselves in their role of teacher;
The teacher should know their curriculum;
The teacher should develop effective differentiation strategies; and the teacher should…… [Read More]
differentiated instruction necessary in the math class?
The reasoning behind endeavoring to find different behaviors for the math classroom education is to address the individual difficulties to learn math and differentiate the math learning disorders such as discalculia. Dyscalculia (i.e., mathematical blindness) is a specific learning disability in comprehending mathematics. The disorder could be classified as; (1) developmental dyscalculia (DD), generally described as a disorder in mathematical abilities, presumed to be due to a speci-c impairment in brain function or inherited from the family, (2) post lesion dyscalculia, caused by brain damage and head injury, (3) Pseudo-dyscalculia, environmentally caused mathematical inabilities for example uncomforting environment, having been instructed incorrectly. Most of the children and adults suffering from DD have normal social functions and abilities to deal with other subjects and succeed in the life. For example, Einstein had early difficulties with arithmetic. Benjamin Franklin passed all the subjects but mathematics…… [Read More]
Differentiated Instruction is an approach to education that is increasingly taking hold in the earlier stages of primary education. This proceeds from the understanding that all individuals learn, integrate and apply knowledge differently. This is true of learners at all ages.
The lesson plan here employs such strategies as they apply to a classroom of 3rd graders. The average age of students here is 9 and most students are believed to be of generally proficient learning capability.
Goals of the Lesson:
The lesson plan laid out here is contextualized by the Geography discipline with a specific focus in this unit on the 50 States. The primary goals of the lesson are to: teach students to identify all 50 States; to teach students to identify their geographical arrangement; and identify states according to key landmarks or other identifying symbols. The overarching goals is to help students connect the geographical and cultural…… [Read More]
Cooperative Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Cooperative learning, which often includes students teaching other students or groups of students working in teams, can enable stronger students to act as a support structure for their less apt colleagues. Students need to feel willing and able to ask for help, and creating a cooperative learning environment normalizes seeking help. Students do not feel 'stupid' when they need assistance when they realize making mistakes is part of the learning process. Cooperative learning uses the natural desire of students to feel connected to their peers and channels that impulse to create a learning environment.
From a student perspective, cooperative learning is valuable because it enables weaker students to keep pace with stronger colleagues, so they do not fall behind. This is particularly critical in a subject area like math, in which learning must build upon previous learning. Without a foundation, the learning structure of the class…… [Read More]
How can the use of differentiated instruction decrease the achievement gap for culturally, linguistically, ethnically, and economically diverse groups?
b. What are the benefits of using differentiated instruction?
c. What researches have been conducted on differentiated instruction?
Overview of Methodology
a. Practitioner inquiry
elevance of the Study
Ways structure lessons differentiated by readiness, interest, and learning profile.
a. Differentiating content of lessons, process used in learning, and products of learning
b. Ways to manage choice in the differentiated classroom
Implication of esearch
Articulate techniques for differentiating content, process, and product based on student readiness, interest, and learning profile.
a. Implement key instructional strategies and explore effective classroom management.
b. Understand the rationale and essential principles of differentiation and utilize strategies that help insure student access to the curriculum.
Aronson, J., & Good, C. (2002). educing the effects of stereotype threat on African-American college students by shaping theoties…… [Read More]
Differentiated instruction is corresponding instruction to meet the dissimilar needs of learners in a given classroom. The array of instructional need within one classroom can be very large. In order to accommodate these instructional needs, it is suggested that teachers plan for:
small group, differentiated instruction sufficient student practice chances
Differentiated instruction is put into practice during the chosen block of time for reading instruction. Typically, entire group instruction is provided, and then classrooms and instruction are planned (Kosanovich, et al., n.d.). Two different types of differentiated instruction that are often used in the classroom are small group instruction and curriculum compacting.
Small Group Instruction
Small-group reading is a supported literacy practice in which the teacher supports and directs the students with text on their instructional level. The teacher helps students develop an understanding of the text while prompting them to use strategies they will require in…… [Read More]
In the most traditional format of co-teaching, the one-teach, one-support method, there is a single teacher responsible for most of the content in the class while the other teacher (or teaching assistant) provides support when needed, such as when students are working independently or if a student with special needs requires support for a disability, such as ASL interpretation. This co-teaching model, however, can also be used with two teachers in a tag-team format, when one teacher has more knowledge than the other about specific content areas. For example, two primary school classrooms could be combined for a special unit on art history, if one of the teachers had greater knowledge in this subject area while the second teacher provided instruction in studio art ("5 co-teaching formats," 2015). The aide or co-teacher can also work with small groups while the main lesson is being taught, if these groups…… [Read More]
Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation
Differentiated instruction and assessment recognizes that the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of students must drive learning (Wormeli, 2007). Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success. Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas.
Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students. However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning (Dobbertin, 2012). Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material (i.e., one student may explore a learning center, while another may conduct an online search for information).…… [Read More]
Students would be graded upon their own, individual contributions, but they could not let down their fellow group participants. They would have to complete their task, and as the task was within their framework of ability, this would not seem too daunting. Another suggested method of behavior management to ensure student compliance with assignments is to instate a points system, whereby a student can earn a maximum number of points for performing specific diverse tasks relating to a unit, which they can select themselves and tailor to their own interests and levels of ability (Childs, 2007).
To teach a reading unit to a third grade class making us of the popular E.B. White classic Charlotte's Web, a teacher might assign a vocabulary list to the students, from which they would be tested. However, students would only have to look up words they did not know. Students could be…… [Read More]
Differentiated Content: Complexity, Resources, And Environment
Differentiated instruction through complexity relates to providing different levels of difficulty in the material used by to students, based upon their needs and abilities. In teaching a differentiated math class, for students on a very low level, doing drills or exercises that teach them the basic mechanics of doing fractions might be appropriate, for example. Higher-level students might have exercises with more complex problems, and gifted students might engage with word problems or even create their own mathematical problems using the concept. All students are learning about the same subject area, but in a manner which addresses their different levels of ability and levels of preparedness.
As well as different levels of ability, the principles of differentiation also acknowledge that students have different kinds of 'intelligences' through using different resources. Some students learn best kinesthetically while other students learn best visually. For students who…… [Read More]
eading 4.6 b.(collecting information, using resources from media centers online, print and other media resources)
Using the media center, the children will find information on the Great
Depression -- what caused it, how it affected the people of the United States and in other places of the world.
Grade level: 4th
a) allow students to learn skills to help them find information about topics that they need to research. This will help them immensely as they go through school.
So much information is found online these days, giving students the tools to answer their own questions is a very important aspect of learning.
Character Principles: Discipline -- "And that you study to be quiet, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, as commanded you" (I Thessalonians 4:11). Work ethic -- "But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he…… [Read More]
Differentiated instruction is defined as the teaching learning of philosophy whose emphasis is students. Since students are different, differentiated instruction emphasizes that one teaching style can not accommodate all the students particularly when the teachers' style does not match the students' style. The article points out that this style allows teachers the option of varying learning activities, assessment modes, content demands and the environment in the classroom so that they can meet the needs of all students. Differentiated instruction has been in use for years with students who are gifted but is now being used in regular classrooms.
The no child left behind act and individuals with disabilities education improvement act teachers are now faced with a diversity of students within their classrooms. There is no longer mainstreaming and inclusion was the order of the day. When children who have diverse disabilities and those with ELL ruling are included…… [Read More]
However, the emphasis on community involvement could be yet improved by creating a more actionable activity at the lesson plan's resolution such as the creation of a community garden. This will give students a greater opportunity to see their efforts actually improve the availability of green space and may reflect more current and realistic measures to making policy progress than contacting remote public officials.
That said, aspects of the lesson plan that ask students to surmise reasons that sufficient green space may be lacking are distinctly valuable in helping them to refine problem-solving abilities. By applying these to a set of issues that are not just bound to the classroom but which have implications that are socially, culturally and economically far-reaching, the lesson plan has the added attraction of being likely to capture both the excitement and imagination of students. It seems that a greater emphasis is likely in the…… [Read More]
Differentiated Coaching for eading and Literacy
One approach to professional development that is gaining widespread acceptance among reading leaders is differentiated coaching. This paper examines how reading leaders can better engage in differentiated coaching for teachers of reading to meet the learning and culturally diverse needs of reading students in an elementary school, including the existing degree of comfort at my school with this tool, the readiness of the school's culture to implement this tool and a recommend approach for carving out time to use differentiated coaching in my school. Finally, a discussion concerning what type of data might be collected while using differentiated coaching concludes the paper.
What is the degree of comfort that exists with differentiated coaching at your school?
Although my school has used peer mentoring in the past, there has been no effort to employ the differentiated coaching model so the degree of comfort is currently…… [Read More]
Dramatic eading for ESL
Differentiated eading with 10th Grade EFL Students
ESL literature is replete with studies focused on optimal learning environments and enhancements to student motivation (Lazaraton, 1886). Some of this literature parallels earlier work by linguists, psychologists (Harter, 1981), and educators (ichards & odgers, 2001), and early childhood researchers (Vygotsky, 1986) who specialize in language acquisition. Indeed, there is a plethora of anecdotal information about how to use visuals, games, music, and drama to increase ESL students' engagement in their learning. However, formal research about the effectiveness of drama as context for teaching English as a second language is not readily found in the literature.
This case study offers a discussion of the use of drama as part of a differentiated reading strategy to teach literature to 10th grade ESL students. Although the highlighted strategy is generally applicable, the literature used in this exercise is Of Mice and…… [Read More]
Experts agree that education is a determining factor to the overall wealth of an individual in merican society. s the income disparity between the wealthy and middle class becomes more profound, more education will be subsequently needed (Breaden, 2004). The problem of educational inequality has been a difficult aspect for mericans in general to overcome. larming statistics provide an illuminating perspective in regards to frican-merican and Latino children. For one, they are lacking behind their sian and White counterparts in most metrics of academic success (Greene, 2002). Many children, especially those within the frican-merican and Latino do not have access to the same quality educational facilities and teacher as do their white counterparts. Extensive tests reveal that in many subjects many sian students both abroad and domestically are outperforming their merican counterparts ("Department of Education" 2009). This is in part due to the fact that sian countries are collectivistic in…… [Read More]
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) governs how the U.S. states offer special education services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of the children with disabilities from birth to age 21, and involves more than a dozen specific categories of disability. Congress has reauthorized and amended IDEA several times, most recently in December 2004. Although historically, students with disabilities have not had the same access to the general education curriculum as their peers, IDEA has changed the access and accountability requirements for special education students immeasurably (NCTM, 2011).
The challenges for meeting the needs of students with disabilities and ensuring their mathematical proficiency, confront teachers of mathematics every day. Teachers must use the results of all assessments, formative and summative, to identify the students whose learning problems have gone unrecognized, and monitor the progress of all students. Regardless of the level or method of assessment used, teachers…… [Read More]
Mathematics Instruction in English on ELL Second Grade Students
J. Elizabeth Estevez
Educ2205I-Content Research Seminar
Mathematics is a powerful tool for interpreting the world. Research has shown that for children to learn how to use mathematics to organize, understand, compare, and interpret their experiences, mathematics must be connected to their lives. Such connections help students to make sense of mathematics and view it as relevant. There has, however, been controversy with regard to children from non-English backgrounds and the best ways to get them to make those connections. Questions are raised regarding how to instruct these children who are referred to as English language learners (ELL's). Should they initially be taught in their native language with gradual exposure to English in language classes, or should they be immersed in English as early as possible. Based upon ideas presented in research studies and my own ideas as a former bilingual teacher,…… [Read More]
Technology & Education
There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.
Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…… [Read More]
Secondary Teaching Strategies
Utilize an engaging curriculum -- Doing will keep students focused on learning. Domain I Competency 004 F. "Enhances learning for students by providing age-appropriate instruction that encourages…higher-order thinking skills."
Establish classroom procedures -- These will get students familiar with routines and acceptable behavior. Domain I Competency 006 A. "Analyzes the effects of classroom routines and procedures on student learning…"
Use group work -- This approach fosters an aspect of collaborative, integrative learning that is engaging. Domain I Competency 005 B. "Establishes a classroom climate that emphasizes collaboration."
Models positive behavior -- Doing so provides a model for other students to follow. Domain II Competency 006 I. "Demonstrates awareness of appropriate behavior standards…."
Curb inappropriate behavior immediately -- Doing so redirects attention back on learning. Domain II Competency 006 J. "Applies effective procedures for managing student behavior."
Remove distractions from students -- This provides…… [Read More]
Parents think school is the best place for a child to learn and to grow. People often believe traditional schooling is an effective way for a child to learn and grow. However, in recent times people have discovered traditional schooling may not be as effective as one believed. Colombo, Cullen and Lisle discuss in their book the pitfalls of formal classroom instruction. Formal classroom instruction may be useful for some students, but may be detrimental to others, especially in today's technology driven society.
Chapter one of Rereading America discusses formal classroom instruction and how it may stifle natural intelligence and creativity.
…on one level, Americans tend to see schooling as a valuable experience that unites us in a common culture and helps us bring out the best in ourselves; yet at the same time, we suspect that formal classroom instruction stifles creativity and chokes off natural intelligence and enthusiasm. (Colombo,…… [Read More]
life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.
Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can help in the creation and the use of technical means with constant interrelation to life,…… [Read More]
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…… [Read More]
Simply because a teacher treats all students 'the same' does not mean that all of his or her students are being treated fairly. For example, expecting a child with dyslexia to read an assignment as quickly, without support, as his or her non-dyslexic peers, does not promote the child's ability to learn. This is why differentiated instruction is so essential. "Differentiation is a philosophy that enables teachers to plan strategically in order to reach the needs of the diverse learners in the classrooms today to achieve targeted standards. As individuals come to school with varying learning styles and numerous intelligences, differentiated instruction becomes a means of addressing the learning needs of everyone in the classroom" (Assessment strategies, 2011, BOE). Differentiated instruction requires teachers to use a variety of strategies and have a flexible lesson plan.
Teachers must have many different pedagogical 'tools' on hand to teach. For example,…… [Read More]
Philosophy and Morality
INSTRUCTIONS The exam consists essays. Please essays document. Please plagiarize. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation ( footnotes) a reference page.
John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience,"
A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance. The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers (Lyons 479). John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…… [Read More]
Direct Instruction: The Effect on Special Education Students
Direct Instruction Overview
Direct instruction is an increasingly popular and supported education technique that has been utilized for several years. Direct instruction has historically been used as a method of instruction for special education students (Goral, 2001). Many educators have claimed that direct instruction has helped students regardless of their learning capability or any defined learning disabilities (Goral, 2001). Direct instruction is based on the idea that a teacher led classroom that involves active participation and well choreographed lesson plans and learning instruments is a more effective learning environment than a less involved or student led learning situation.
Kozloff (2002) a firm proponent of direct instruction suggests that it provides an effective method for instruction by helping students learn to organize and activate knowledge. Further Kozloff suggests that direct instruction shifts the emphasis of teaching to mastering and acquiring proficiency of tasks…… [Read More]
Internet and K-12 Schools
The history and effects of internet
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
History of the Internet in K-12 Schools
Interactive Websites and Games as Computer-Aided Instruction
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
Creating and sustaining a literate nation capable of democracy, self-government and continuous improvement of quality of life has been a dominant and critical aspect of public education throughout America's history (Ferguson & Huebner, 1996). The amount of information available to students has grown exponentially in recent years. The Internet is a broad and vast territory of information that many children are not equipped to navigate. Now more than ever students need the skills to wade through the waters of information. The current essay is aimed at exploring the history and…… [Read More]
It is difficult to differentiate in the cookie business, as there are a lot of good cookies in this world, and a lot of very creative cookie makers. Cookie Craze is going to differentiate at least on part on the basis of the brand. But the cookies will be unfathomably good, and that is part of the appeal of Cookie Craze. The flavors of the cookies will be key. ith all due respect to grandmother, chocolate chip simply is not going to get it done in a competitive market today. Consumers take their cues from the food porn they watch on television, where chefs dazzle with unique, exciting flavors and that is exactly the kind of Craze we are aiming for. Exotic ingredients -- things not considered normal for cookies -- and a gooey, chewy base dough will form the key differentiating factors. That there will be a…… [Read More]
The Relevance and Significance of Mathematical Knowledge in Teachers
Hill, H.C., Rowan, B., and Ball, D.L. "Effects of Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge
for Teaching on Student Achievement." American Educational Research
Journal; (Summer 2005), Vol. 42, No. 2: 371-406.
In a similar study, the importance of non-pedagogical mathematical content knowledge among teachers was evident. This study highlights the practical implications and difficulties of teacher improvement programs whose purpose is to implement the conclusions about the importance of certain aspects of mathematics competency in teaching. It also relied partially on the evidence that certain aspects of mathematics competency in teachers corresponds to better learning and achievement even in the elementary grades where mathematical concepts are insufficiently complex to allow any knowledge difference in teachers to manifest itself in learner achievement.
According to this study, the recognition of correspondence between teacher knowledge of or academic achievement in mathematics and student benefit is largely useless…… [Read More]
When they see the library staff in this light, teachers are more willing to work with others in improving the effectiveness of their lesson planning (by incorporating more tools and techniques). (Gregory, 2003, pp. 100-109)
Task 4: Change can be difficult for some. Think about a change you would like to see in your educational or work environment. How would you implement this change? Consider and discuss the possible resistance that you may encounter from your professional community. How would you support them throughout the change process? How would you overcome any resistance to the change?
A change that can be implemented inside an educational environment is to unify the approach educators are using in reaching out to students. What normally happens is most teachers have different theories and practices they are following. This can be problematic as some of the most experience educators may be reluctant to alter their…… [Read More]
The Cricket Eats
The Cricket Lives
The Cricket Does
The Cricket Has
Helps: Quote memory, rewrite text, apply information, apply extra materials to book.
Part 7- riting Activity -- Pick one setting in Cricket in Times Square and write a 1-2 paragraph explanation of why that setting was used and your description of it (e.g. city, etc.). Be sure to develop concepts like: hat do you see? hat do you smell? Are there lots of people there? hy? Is it calm or busy? Is it dangerous? Imagine that you are in this setting and seeing it from the Cricket's point-of-view.
Part 8 - Fluency Activity
Part 1 -- Comparative and Superlative Adjectives (example questions, this from Chapter 13):
1. Chester stayed up most of the night
a) playing for the animals
b) learning new musical pieces
c) talking to Tucker and Harry
d) because he was too excited to…… [Read More]
Differentiated instruction offers the possibility for all students to meet their own personal and optimal potential in the learning environment of the classroom.
ellai, Mariann (2008) Professional Development Plan. Schenectady City Schools. Online available at: http://www.schenectady.k12.ny.us/ProfessionalDevelopment/ProfDevPlan08.pdf
Corley, Mary Ann (2005) Differentiated Instruction: Adjusting to the Needs of All Learners. Focus on asics Vol. 7 Issue C. March, 2005. National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.
Differentiated Instruction (2007) Council for Exceptional Children. News & Issues. Arlington, Virginia. Online available at http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Differentiated_Instruction&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=24&ContentID=4695
Empowering Students to Succeed (2007) Title II Professional Development Plan. Dekalb County School System 2006-2007. Online available at: http://www.dekalbk12.org/TitleIIplan.doc
Heacox, D. (2002). Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: How to reach and teach all learners, grades 3-12. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Moore, etty (2008) Using Assistive Technology, Differentiated Instruction and Professional Learning Teams. CODE Chronicles, Issue No. 1, 2006 November.
Tomlinson, C. (1999). The…… [Read More]
Imagine that you are providing professional development on these topics. Which strategies from your reading would you use? Which strategies would you omit if time constraints did not permit you to use all of them? How would you assess their understanding and implementation of the training?
Adjustable assignments, compacting and grouping are used in conjunction with one another to improve the quality of education. This is accomplished through using each method to increase the student's comprehension of key concepts. In differentiated instruction, this is addressing individual styles of learning through various formats. (Gregory, 2007, pp. 71- 86)
Adjustable assignments are when there is a focus on understanding different skill sets of the student and identifying potential strengths / weaknesses. The way that this can be implemented, is by pre-assessing individual capabilities through: quizzes and other formats. Compacting is when specific curriculum is presented to the student that will address their…… [Read More]
The most notable include:
What is the impact of these strategies on the class?
Is there any kind of immediate changes in the individual attitudes?
Are there any students who are continuing to struggle? Why is this happening? What could they do differently to perform better and become more motivated?
How will potential challenges be dealt with in the future?
How will each student be evaluated?
What is the timeframe when these transformations should be occurring?
How can educators deal with a potential student that is disruptive?
What can teachers do to help increase motivation when the content could be very dry for the individual?
These different questions will focus educators on objectively analyzing these changes. It is at this point when someone can be able to make adjustments that will address any kind of issues while they are small. This is the key when utilizing any of differentiated strategies.…… [Read More]
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-sustainable-development/cultural-diversity / (UNESCO)
This is information about cultural diversity in education, particularly in education for sustainable development found on UNESCO's website. UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and I found the information about education on their website particularly interesting because it addresses education in a global, multicultural environment.
The first important aspect on their website is the institutional framework in which the educational segment operates at UNESCO, which particularly reflects cultural diversity. This is the Johannesburg Declaration, from 2002, which stipulates that "Our rich diversity . . . is our collective strength." Moving from this declaration, it proposes three general principles that link ESD to cultural diversity. These include the fact that the educational process (ESD, as UNESCO refers to it) has to be "locally relevant and culturally appropriate," but also that ESD requires "intercultural understanding."
According to UNESCO, the educational process has…… [Read More]
performed by the student. The case study took place in the classroom environment, as part of the students part time job in Early Childhood Education, where there are normative and special education students present. The case study objectives involved problem solving, strategy implementation, and differentiated instruction. The specific area of focus in the case study is difficulty with literacy or reading.
This was a challenging situation because the case study took place in an Early Childhood Education setting. At this stage, there is not much evidence of literacy. At this point in development, most of the students are emerging as readers. That is not to say that there is no evidence of literacy, as literacy does begin with the identification and memorization of letters. In the classroom where my case study took place, there were a total of fifteen students on any given day. There was usually one leader teacher,…… [Read More]
esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.
Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…… [Read More]
Classrooms are diverse environments, characterized by students from varying backgrounds, and with varying needs and skill levels. It is from this diversity and the recognition of how it contributes to the richness of a learning environment that the concept of differentiated instruction arises. Through differentiated education, students representing diversity have the opportunity to learn in environments that promote inclusion, unity, and understanding. An investigation into the effects of differentiated instructional curriculum for a fifth-grade science class demonstrated that both teachers and students reported a significantly higher degree of satisfaction with methods and materials used in differentiated instruction as opposed to typical instruction (McCrea et al., 2009). Similar results were found in a study that investigated the effectiveness of differentiated instruction in the realm of physical education curriculum (Kriakides & Tsangaridou, 2008).
Developing and putting into practice differentiated instruction curricula involves shifts in planning, execution, and assessments that require flexibility and…… [Read More]
diversity of learning styles and needs represented in a typical 21st century classroom. As the United States continues to see an increase in multi-ethnic, multinational populations, the children of immigrants that bring diverse cultures and ethnicities to American shores are represented in the classroom. This presents a serious challenge for the educator, since the diversity of students reflect a wide range of competencies, skills and levels of intellectual comprehension. Within the context of that diversity the instructor must embrace a pivotal 21st century learning challenge -- meeting the learning needs of students who may fall behind without one-on-one instruction and the learning needs of more advanced students seeking to surge ahead while many students in the classroom may be struggling simply to stay up with the assignments.
In order for students to reach their optimum level of academic achievement, the system must change and the philosophy of instruction must change…… [Read More]
The teachers were given professional development instruction solely to deal with students with special (remedial) needs. Teachers were told to identify the gifted and talented if they felt a student showed a unique aptitude but were not given specific instruction as to how to do so.
For students who had tested as Advanced Proficient on the NJASK, teachers staid they did strive to make their instructional plan more challenging, enlightening, and intriguing to gifted and talented students. They said they tried to group students of similar ability together and give the gifted students more challenging work and when assigning individual projects such as reading novels and open-ended math problems. They said they gave the gifted work that was above grade level, in contrast to the student's peers.
While the teachers claimed to differentiate instruction and said that this was adequately met by in-class tracking, they also admitted to feeling overwhelmed…… [Read More]
Furthermore, some resistance to the new direction is expected, since it is a substantial departure from the traditional instruction provided at the school up to the present. However, with adequate leadership, this should be made possible, especially if the implementation is sufficiently gradual.
In the classrooms themselves, the strategy will therefore start with an assessment of what students needs. For grade 7, this will begin with simple activities in each subject, where the ability of each student in the subject is measured. This will then be used to plan subsequent activities and group work to help students arrive at the predetermined goals for the grade level. Hall, Strangman and Meyer (2011) note that the attitude of teachers should shift from the punitive to the supportive. Hence, these assessments should be handled with the appropriate level of tact and sensitivity, so that no student is made to feel penalized for "lesser"…… [Read More]
Analysis of Three Different Educational ebsites
Homepage (University of Phenoix, 2014)
The University of Phoenix is the largest school in terms of its total student population. The school offers both in-class instruction as well as online education.
"Today, our students study at more than 100 locations, as well as through online programs available in countries around the world. Not only will you attend classes that are convenient for you, you'll earn your degree on your terms (University of Phenoix, 2014)."
The locations are spread out throughout the United States as well as in a select few international locations. However, most of the universities students are registered for online classes. The University of Phoenix has been a pioneer in the online classroom development and has an advanced portfolio…… [Read More]
promotion of more inclusive education. Up until recently, the practice of separating students with special education needs from general education students was commonplace. However, this practice often resulted in special education students not having access to the same caliber and quality of education as general students. This was recognized by the United Nations Convention on the ights of Persons with Disabilities, which recently published reports and recommendations, demonstrating the merit and value of inclusive education for students with different needs and abilities at all levels (Ernest et al., 2011). Furthermore, the importance of identifying students with special needs early in order to provide appropriate education was suggested through research by Buffum et al. (2010). This is described as the premise underlying esponse to Intervention (TI), and differentiated instruction may be effectively used to provide special needs students with appropriate access to curriculum and support (Buffum et al., 2010).
There has…… [Read More]
leader within the educational sector, it is critical that that qualities of good leadership be reflected upon the entire course of ones career.The management and leadership of academic institution is in deed a challenge that often results in poor performance in our contemporary schools (Schmoker,2001). In this paper, we present an elaborate reflection of my views on educational leadership principles that I have explored in the context of your MAED program and my career, and offer a summary of how my development as a professional educator has informed my practice that led to completion of the Capstone Project and my overall degree program.
Educational leadership principles
The very first principle of quality leadership practice is the evidence of candidate learning. This means that all the educational programs must provide enough evidence that the candidates have indeed learned and comprehended the educational curriculum.In order to do this, it was necessary for…… [Read More]
Though extrapolating these results to public K-12 programs is somewhat premature, especially given the difference in resources between the average university and the schools that comprise the Mobile County school system, it seems reasonable that developing techniques of ESL instruction within mainstream classes could be beneficial to all.
Indeed, the standardization of expectations and benchmarks for academic success have proven an effective means of designing and implementing programs, as well. Both ESL standards developed by various educational organizations and agencies as well as overall academic standards for performance and achievement have, when applied to ESL students in proper settings, led to greater student improvements and teacher performance (Nunan 2007). The overriding principle of the Mobile County ESL program is to develop the same level of achievement for ESL students as exists for all students in the system, meaning that some sort of standards-based instruction is already present in this program,…… [Read More]
Best practices that help students with learning disabilities consistently focus on early intervention not only for educational benefit, but also because early intervention promotes greater social skills ability and development among children (Wong & Donahue, 2002). The sooner a child is integrated into the mainstream system and learns to "cope" with any perceived "deficits" the more likely they are to build healthy and long-lasting friendships that will help them as they age to become contributing members of society (Wong & Donahue, p. 93).
Personnel Implementing Plan
The key school personnel to implement this plan include the parents of the student, who must reinforce the actions taken by educational authorities to enhance student learning; the teacher of the student, who must be aware of what a student's needs are, and of special educational resources, so he or she may integrate the two curriculum's without disturbing any student's learning; and administrators, who…… [Read More]
Not at all. It simply means that, in the case of my high school, every learner has a different need for information and processes it differently. So teachers should provide educational strategies that facilitate learning for all students. In my class, there were those (including myself) who could have been given extra credit assignments because we were ahead of many other students.
My colleague had some similar experiences in high school, but not in all of his classes. In fact in some of his classes there were progressive teachers that helped minority students (some with English as a second language) from low-income homes by assigning advanced students to tutor those struggling students during homeroom periods. That wasn't exactly differentiated instruction, but in a way it was. He was one of the better students, and he was thrilled to be asked to work with some of the students struggling in math…… [Read More]
keeping up with the rest of the students, probably because of some disabilities. In this case, the students love taking risks, but all this is limited by the physical disability of epilepsy. It is crucial that the teacher comes up with differentiated methods of study for her if there is a chance of educating her normally. Differentiated studies should not be taken as a burden to the instructor because it offers some benefits in the end. For one, student will have the ability to focus on one area of expertise that she feels is best and most suitable (Mel 2005). A telling example is in a social studies class where the expectation is that the student will learn a few concepts on geography and history. If the teacher offers to differentiate instructions for this girl, then she can focus on her own area while at the same time learning new…… [Read More]
Urgency of International Mindedness in Education
There are existences when statistical information can enact profound changes upon people leading to social change of historical proportions. One such instance of deeply affecting statistics is the article "If the World was a Village." In a world of information abundance, consumers' sense of scale and gravity of situations often is diminished or disproportionate. There are those 21st century consumers that are bombarded and overloaded with information, data, facts, and figures. Information deluge can interfere with a person's sense and perception of a situation; just as there are arguments that excess violence in media representations numbs consumers of violent media to actual violence, information overload numbs consumers to statistics. The approach of the article is simple and effective. Instead of presenting information about the world's population with actual figures in the millions and billions, the author scales the world down to the size…… [Read More]
While each student will respond to school and education differently, all can discover their personal aptitudes in academics, athletics, or the arts. School also provides key socialization functions that helps students learn and grow. As a teacher it is my responsibility to understand the process of socialization and social development in my students. As students become more aware of their personal power, they can apply what they learn in school to outward expressions such as community service, creative endeavors, or athletic performance.
Teachers learn as much from their students as our students learn from us. Students challenge us, and encourage us to change and grow just as they do. By keeping up-to-date on my profession, and the subject matters that I teach, I can provide my students with the best quality education. Incorporating current events and popular culture into my lessons will help students understand how education has a direct…… [Read More]
integrate evaluation techniques in your daily work routine to improve your job performance? (Answer taken from PDF uploaded - Program_Evaluation_-_Overview_and_Definitions_PowerPoint)
Gredler explains that evaluation is the structural accumulation of any and knowledge that helps to make informed and profitable choices and corporate decisions M.B. Dignan further adds that all basic evaluations are procedural assessments of the results and overall functionality of any and all programs. P.D. Sarvela and a colleague R.J. Mcdermott gave a more detailed explanation in 'Health Education Evaluation and Measurement' by saying that basic evaluation was the utilization of a number of processes that were used to understand and decipher if a program had been functionalized in accordance to the aim with which it was created. Hence, basic assessment of a program is to highlight whether or not the program was able to practically attain the objectives it had originally theoretically set. Research procedures on the other…… [Read More]
Gardner's Seven Intelligences - Implications for Differentiated Language Instructions in the Classroom
Multiple intelligence theory, found by Howard Gardner, had created a challenge, as well as a hole to fix in classroom practical approaches. Previously, public only related and judged intelligence from one's ability to perform mathematic aspect, ability to memorize. Even schools commonly assess students' intelligence and put grades based on these types. In fact, human brain is more complex and each person develops unique approach in learning.
Gardner's Multiple-Intelligence Theory
Gardner had developed different conception against intelligence, which he believed to be integration of all elements of human thinking skills or one's capability to "solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting" (Gardner & Hatch, 1989 as cited in Brualdi, 1996). ithin this definition, human should see intelligence as an active effort of human brain to contribute various aspects while thinking…… [Read More]
Working with the individual child in my case study was definitely enlightening in terms of understanding the struggling reader more generally. I think probably the most salient fact I learned about Jake -- the one which really occasioned the most generalized breakthrough in terms of my own understanding about this sort of educational difficulty -- was to observe specifically and intimately the differences in Jake's experience.
Vlach and Bursie (2010) emphasize the importance of "narrative" in for students in Jake's position -- my close observation really brought their conclusions home to me in an unexpected way, as it revealed the importance of narrative for educators as well. To clarify, "narrative" in this sense refers to the individual student's narrative, the way in which the story of the student's own process of learning to overcome reading difficulty is described and indeed internalized by the student himself or herself. The importance of…… [Read More]
Diffentiation in Learning
It does seem to be elementary in the eleventh year of the 21st century that differentiating curriculum and instruction for different students needs to be justified by neurological research. However, this is the case. For reasons outside the boundaries of this short essay, the politicos of the time still feel that "one size fits all" in the classroom and we must bring out the neurological data to challenge the status quo. Indeed, one might laughingly rank it up with trying to teach evolutionary theory to a class of creationists. One just does not know where they went wrong when they are so very much in the right.
The authors of Differentiation and the Brain: How Neurosciene Supports the Learner-Friendly Classroom makes just this point that for these diverse learners, increased effort is required to differentiate the instructional approaches, to personalize our support for our students and increase…… [Read More]