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Soft and hard targets and defined and discussed as well as the need for population defense and the idea that with a coordinated, comprehensive response plan and team implementation, the disaster related damage can be minimized. This chapter is devoted to covering the terrorism aspect of disaster, and helps to tie together the previous two chapters.
Chapter 12 deals with mass casualties and evacuation. This chapter also ties in closely to the previous chapters regarding terrorism weapons of mass destruction. Large-scale evacuations have their own set of challenges, as do dealing with huge numbers of casualties. And because this is not a very common scenario, many fire departments and local authorities are not well prepared for these types of emergencies. Kramer discusses the dire necessity of proper planning and execution of disaster relief efforts during these specific times of crisis. The National Disaster Medical System is discussed as well as…
Context of the movie 'American History X'
American culture is arguably less racist than it was 80 years ago. It is certainly less racist that it was 150 years ago. At least most people would like to think so. America currently has its first black president, something that was inconceivable even at the time of the passing of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Jim Crow Laws are no longer a part if of the legal framework of the nation. e no longer have officially segregated schools, but it can be argued that schools are still segregated culturally. The movie American History X it makes the rhetorical argument that even though America would like to believe that it has shed its racist skin, in fact racism is still a very real part of the American fabric.
In his 1998 film American History X, director Tony Kaye, makes the rhetorical…
American Nazi Party (2012). Who We Are. Retrieved from http://www.americannaziparty.com/about/index.php
Antifa.cz (2012). The Big Neo-Nazi Crib. Retrieved from http://www.antifa.cz/content/big-neo - nazi-crib
CivilRights.org (2012). The State of Hate: White Supremecist Groups Growing. Retrieved from http://www.civilrights.org/publications/hatecrimes/white-supremacist.html
Egbert, R (1998). American History X. 30 October 1998. Retrieved from http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19981030/REVIEWS/810300301/1023
A Review of Crisis and Disaster Prevention Literature
Disasters strike weekly, sometimes daily, all around the world. Crises happen, simply because humans create and perpetuate them. his is why nations and the leaders within them, just as companies and their leaders, ought to be ready for any eventuality. Crisis and disaster prevention thus becomes, not a need, but a vital fact of reality, and those who want to survive implement comprehensive disaster planning early on, for longevity's sake. his literature review will discuss the importance of such planning, as well as detail different types of crisis and disaster prevention and recovery strategies.
he FEMA Outlook
Before beginning any crisis prevention plan, an enterprise must understand that there are clear emergency management techniques that must be put in place at the very outset of any endeavor. here has been a great literature written on emergency management, for it is…
The next study focuses on the importance of communication as mentioned above as well, but stresses the role of ethics in organization crisis management, which according to the piece, has received limited attention. Furthermore, the study aims to not only fill the gap aforementioned, but also prove a relevance for contingency plans, especially in today's ever-changing times, and make note of the fact that signal detection and uptake in organizational prevention is vital. The study also highlights implications for prevention, and takes in consideration such disasters as the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger in order to best see how further research and detail could prevent such disasters from happening.[footnoteRef:11] [11: Simola, S. 2005. Concepts of Care in Organizational Crisis Prevention. Journal of Business Ethics 62(4), pp. 341-353. ]
This paper has focused on analyzing what today's brightest minds say about disaster planning both within nations and within companies, and what strategies are best to avoid failure, for a business, when a crisis does happen. This literature review, though comprehensive, has shown some gaps, especially in discussing potential ways in which to handle today's most important threats, such as terrorism, and ways in which to move forward quickly after a disaster has taken place. Furthermore, there is little literature showing how businesses can best adapt to these circumstances, as they are relatively novel, especially given the uniqueness of many businesses. It is thus recommended that further research be undertaken with specific case studies in mind.
.Additional batteries are also needed, however, not the rechargeable batteries or flashlight. To help full the numerous lists of "necessary" items to prepare for an emergency disaster the army/navy retailer is generally not the best place to purchase batters; bottled water; etc.. These stores do on the other hand provide emergency water filtration and purification products. They also market field food prep kits and portable cooking accessories. Other items readily available at these stores include: "Shelter -- military surplus blankets, cots, sleeping bags, tents, duffels, shovels... outerwear are very practical, well-made and inexpensive components of any home disaster preparation kit. Military-style inflatable lifeboats and vests are great for flood use." Gas masks, on the other hand, are not a particular item needed for emergency disaster planning and as Hawver contends, "best promoted as Halloween items rather than as effective for use in emergency situations." In the same sense, helmets, chemical…
Bauer, Jim. (2005). "How To: Survive A Natural Disaster." 19 November 2006. http://www.askmen.com/fashion/how_to_200/206_how_to.html .
Boston, Gabriella. "Shelter from disaster; Homes should be stocked with food, first-aid kit for emergencies.(FAMILY TIMES)," The Washington Times, March 7, 2004.
Brewer, E. Cobham. (1898) "[Scornful Dogs will eat dirty Puddings.]." Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus, 1898; Bartleby.com, 2000. 23 November 2006. http://www.bartleby.com/br/81.html .
Bubny, Paul. "Survival & emergency gear: a state of readiness: hurricane season is a good time to emphasize survival and emergency gear, but disasters can strike any time of year.," ANSOM (Army, Navy, Supplies, Outdoor Merchandise), July 15, 2006.
As Nielsen and Lidstone (1998) note,
It is ironic that the public demands safety yet a number of cost-effective and feasible measures to mitigate disasters are not adopted by many... Such a failure of the public to adopt disaster mitigation measures has a long record in Australia
(Nielsen and Lidstone 1998)
This attitude is one of the reasons given for the greater emphasis on public education. In theoretical terms, the view is put forward that an educated public will be able to deal with emergencies and disasters more effectively and that this should form an integral part of emergency and disaster management and planning. This in turn has resulted in a "...renewal of focus, at both a national and global level, upon public education as a means to disaster mitigation" (Nielsen and Lidstone 1998). To this end the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States (FEMA) has collected data…
Asghar S. et al. Dynamic integrated model for decision support systems. I. j. Of simulation 6. (http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/EMA/rwpattach.nsf/viewasattachmentpersonal/(85FE07930A2BB4482E194CD03685A8EB)~Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf/$file/Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf. (Accessed July 15, 2008).
D'Ercole, R. 1994. "Les Vulnerabilites des Societes et des Espaces
Urbanises: Concepts, Typologies, Mode d'Analyse." Revue de
Geographie Alpine 32 (4): 87-96.
In the modern era, it is important that government from the federal to the local level have risk management plans in place for natural disasters, man-made issues and of course, terrorism. Generally speaking, risk management helps identify, prioritize and put plans in place regarding areas of risk that can impact the community. The overall purpose of risk management is so that agencies can be proactive in their identification and implementing plans for disasters and risks since in the modern world these plans involve numerous agencies and complex coordination. Thankfully, standards have been developed that organize risk management by looking at six general paradigms: 1) Identifying risks in the context of the area (e.g. flood planning is less important in Arizona than in Louisiana); 2) Planning a process to mitigate the situation (who is in charge); 3) Mapping the objectives of stakeholders (who will be involved); 4) Developing a…
Colorado Division of Emergency Management. (2013). News, Info and Preparedness.
Retrieved from: http://www.coemergency.com/
Drabek, T., et.al.. (1991). Emergency Management: Principles and Practices for Local Government. International City Management Association.
Frenkel, M., Hommel, U., & Rudolf, M. (Eds.). (2005). Risk Management - Challenge and Opportunity. New York: Springer.
There is a modern emphasis, which has resulted from the experience of the economic impact of disaster, on a more extensive and 'distributed' mode of thinking about disaster recovery. This is an important factor that should be stressed as it has direct implications in terms of the economic aspects of disaster recovery planning in an increasingly networked and technologized contemporary working environment. This aspect is cogently expressed in a White Paper on this issue.
Many organizations have strong business recovery plans for their mainframe and mini-computer systems. but, as more and more critical applications are migrated to distributed systems, companies are becoming concerned about how they can protect these systems in the event of a disaster. Chances of a disaster increase significantly as systems are moved away from traditional central computer facilities that have hardened security and environmental controls.
(Disaster ecovery - a White Paper)
This emphasizes a cardinal issue…
Bielski, L. (2002). Thinking the Unthinkable: Often Dismissed as Mere "Insurance," Disaster Recovery Ought to Be Considered Part of the Lifeblood of Any Business. ABA Banking Journal, 94(1), 44+.
This article focuses on the subject of disaster management in the banking industry. It provides insight into actual situations where disaster recovery plans were effective in preventing large-scale economic loss. It also provides examples of what can occur when there is a poor or recovery plan. This is also a good background study that provides insight into the economic effects and implications of disaster in the it context.
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+.
This was a very useful article in that it provided an extensive and well written overview of issues surrounding disaster recovery and management. The article was particularly focused on the effects and implications in economic terms of the failure of disaster management planning. These aspects were compared to the effect of good and well thought out disaster planning.
Hurricane Floyd was deemed to be a Category 4 storm with 145 mph winds. It was also seen to be bigger than the hurricane Andrew, which had struck south Florida in 1992. Andrew caused a huge disaster and left 26 dead, 160,000 homeless, and property damage of $25 billion. Floyd was determined to be bigger and potentially more dangerous than Andrew, which caused people to panic. Officials had reported by Sunday night Floyd could become a Category 5 hurricane with winds exceeding 155 mph, which led to the officials deciding to evacuate the residents who were most likely to be affected by the storm. However, hurricane Floyd bypassed the state completely with its 140 mph winds skirting the peninsula off the coastline. Floyd did not make landfall and the evacuation orders issued were not necessary.
The issue hurricane Floyd presented was one to do with communication on who should evacuate.…
Hurricane Katrina and the Plan Efforts to educe elated Disaster Impacts in Future
The hurricane Katrina is one of the deadliest hurricanes to occur in the United States. The hurricane hit Louisiana, Florida, and New Orleans amongst other places. It led to losses, evacuation of people, loss of lives and many businesses came to stand still. New Orleans had flood preparedness systems, which did not help, and floods persisted for weeks. The tragedy was contributed to by the lack of risk preparedness systems. Scientists have estimated lower storm surges and small coverage of wetlands in the 20th century. The winds, surges, and wetlands help to weaken the powerful winds. The areas are still vulnerable to hurricanes and storms in the future due to the geographic location. New Orleans city is also sinking geologically rapidly. Lessons learned from the hurricane Katrina should be used for disaster preparedness.
Department Of Homeland Security Appropriations. (2008). New York: DIANE Publishing.
Daniels, R.D. (2006). On Risk And Disaster Lessons From Hurricane Katrina. New York: University of Pennslyvania.
Huddow, G.J. (2010). Introduction To Emergency Management. Atlanta: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Jenkins, O. (2009). National Preparedness. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Disasters and Their Management
egional Disaster Analysis
Both natural and human caused disasters have been an issue in the safety of human beings all over the world. Fortunately, there are international agencies that are created for the purpose of mitigation purposes and assist in the prevention of disaster effects that would be more adverse. State governments also have the obligation of adopting the right preventive and counter actions to assist in cushioning citizens from the effects of disasters. This paper, therefore, analyzes the types of disasters in Africa, and the theoretical approaches in the management of the disasters. Under management of disasters, different factors are discussed including response, preparedness and recovery and mitigation practices. There is also a review of both the International Agencies and Local Governments, relating to their preparedness in responding to disasters. Finally, there is an analysis on the partnership relationships between public and private…
Christopher, M. & Tatham, P. (2011) Humanitarian Logistics: Meeting of Challenge of Preparing for and Responding to Disasters. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Congress (2006) congressional Record, V. 149, Pt.2, January 21, 2003 to February 11, 2003. Congress.
Holden, S. (2003) AIDS on the Agenda: Adapting Development and Humanitarian Programs to meet the challenge of HIV / AIDS. New York: Oxfam Publishers.
Oniang'o, R. (2009) Food and Nutrition Emergencies in East Africa: Political, Economic and Environmental Associations. New York: International Food Policy Restoration Institution.
The author of this report will be answering several questions that relate to disaster pre-planning and post-planning. To be specific, there will be a focus on the documents and plans that are created for both. The author of this report will elaborate on the differences that exist between the planning that exists for both pre-disaster and post-disaster scenarios. The author of this report shall use personally gleaned examples to make the case. Finally, there will be the answering of whether pre-planning or post-planning is more important in the grand scheme of things. While post-disaster reactions in terms of documentation are very important, planning for the disasters in advance and knowing what to do and why when the time comes is much more important.
When it comes to the three differences between pre-disaster planning and post-disaster planning, there are easily more than three differences but the author of…
DHS. (2015). Denver UASI All-Hazards Regional Recovery Framework (pp. 1-154). Denver, CO: Department of Homeland Security.
Fairfax County. (2012). Fairfax County Pre-Disaster Recovery Plan. Fairfax, VA: Office of Emergency Management.
Guarino, M. (2010). Would New Orleans levees hold for a second Katrina?. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 14 September 2015, from http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2010/0829/Would-New-Orleans-levees-hold-for-a-second-Katrina
Schwab, J. (2014). Planning Post-Disaster Recovery (pp. 4-197). Chicago, IL: American Planning Association.
Emergency Planning and Disaster ecovery: Technological and Managerial Solutions
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a body that is entrusted with alerting, evacuation coordination and managing disaster situations. Their website http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas deals with emergency issues and how response to disasters are usually undertaken by the agency. This portal in particular covers the use if technology to advance alert systems to the general public during and impending disaster. The alert system that is used by the agency and several other bodies will be focus of the paper and a detailed look at how successful these alert systems described in the FEMA website are and how they can be improved to ensure a much higher success rate in the future.
The approaching disaster alert system described in the FEMA website is known as the Emergency Alert System (EAS). This is a system that is used by the alerting authorities to…
FEMA, (2012). Emergency Alert System. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas
Disaster recovery refers to the IT components of the business that, in times of a disaster, need to be safeguarded so that business can be continued. Disaster recovery is more a preventive plan set in motion prior to the organization and implementation of the business than a series of actions that are followed once the disaster hits the company. Given that most companies are, to a large extent and in many ways, reliant on their IT system, and that collapse of IT system has ramifications beyond the company, disaster recovery has become a significant part of planning to today's organization.
Disasters can be classified into two areas:
Natural disasters -- for example floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes where mitigation measures ahead of time can work towards avoiding or reducing data loss and IT cessation.
Man-made disasters -- such as terrorism where surveillance and avoidance planning can also work towards mitigating and…
Bahan, C. The Disaster Recovery Plan. SANS Reading Room, 2003
Bell, Judy. Why Some Recovery Plans Won't Work. Disaster Recovery
Journal. Spring 2003
Disaster Preparedness Plan:
Georgia has been an area threatened by some of form of natural disaster that has a huge negative impact on the well-being of its residents and the personnel and financial resources of the emergency response agencies. The most common natural disaster that occurs in this area is tornadoes that have terrorized both the rural and urban areas while making everyone in danger of their perils. In the recent years, Georgia experienced deadly tornadoes that caused harm, damages, and deaths in approximately 15 counties within the state. Give the nature of these tragedies, residents of this state need to be prepared and planned on how to respond to such emergencies.
Tornadoes in Georgia:
Tornadoes are regarded as nature's most violent storms since they can generate wind speeds of over 250 mph and appear from nowhere with little warning ("March Marks Start of Active Tornado," n.d.). These natural disasters…
"Defining the Need." (2002). Georgia Amateur Radio Emergency Service. Retrieved January 31,
2012, from http://www.gaares.org/ARESPlan/potential_disasters_in_georgia.html#tornadoes
"Georgia Emergency Operations Plan." (2010, August). GEMA / Homeland Security.
Retrieved from Georgia Emergency Management Agency / Homeland Security website: http://www.gema.ga.gov/content/atts/prepare/Plans%20and%20Maps/Plan%20Library/GEOP2010.pdf
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
The Code also allows for one accessory building, a storage shed, fences, walls, and landscape screens. These screens are not to exceed seven feet in height. They should also be adjacent to the rear and side property lines. At the front, they should not exceed three feet in height. Private swimming pools are also subject to Code specifications.
The Code is aimed at the comfort and well-being of residents, in terms of which domestic animals are also taken into account. The Code does not require specific provisions for domestic animals such as dogs or cats, apart from the fact that they are required to remain inside the fenced area of their residence. If livestock were to be held on a property, the provision is one animal per ten thousand squire feet of the lot area. If these animals are held on a property, they are required to be in a…
Avoid dangerous spots near a window, hanging objects, mirrors, or merchandise fixtures
If you take cover under a piece of furniture, be sure to hold onto it. If the furniture moves be prepared to move and navigate along with it
Hold the position until the aftershock abates and it's safe to proceed further.
A pandemic or other people disaster has struck, and people resources (employees) have been impacted.
Being located in South Florida, heavy rains will undoubtedly occur. These rains coupled with the high prevalence of winds increases the likelihood of a flood. This problem is further compounded as the hurricane season is south Florida is predicated with high winds and rain. Floods can be troublesome for XYZ personnel as merchandise is damaged, the threat of electrical damage is increased, and the water damage to the facility can be substantial (United States Department of Commerce, 2006). In…
1) Amanda Ripley. "Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare. "Time. August 28, 2006.
2) Burgos, Jr., Nestor P. (11/07/2010). "Iloilo power firms asked to explain brownouts." Philippine Daily Inquireir. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/regions/view/20101107-301974/Iloilo-power-firms-asked-to-explain-brownouts. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
3) Dobson et al. Blackout Mitigation Assessment in Power Transmission Systems. System Sciences 2003. July 20, 2011
4) Petroski, Henry (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground. 94. American Scientist. pp. 7 -- 18..
For example, the company could consider placing the data recovery system in the desert between West Texas and Nevada. In general, these areas are not subject to tornados or hurricanes. You could then choose, to place the location for all backup servers in a facility that will protect it against the weather such as: placing it underground. Once the facility is complete, you want to ensure that there is key staff to monitor and address any kind of issues that arise. Using such a system, will allow you to reduce the overall amounts of lost data that can occur at a particular location (due to weather / terrorist related activity).
Emergency Operations Center
The next issue that is going to be faced by the company / location is: establishing an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). In general, an EOC will serve as a place where the company can effectively coordinate a…
Great Britain Intelligence and Security Committee." Report into London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005." London:
Stationary Office. 2006. Print.
Hoffer, Jim. "Backing Up Business - Industry Trend or Event." Health Management Technology, 12.9, (2001): 79
In the second hypothesis of the proposed research project, disaster management and emergency response are critical areas which can be explored further in terms of the United States' current performance in this area, applied in the context of national security. he second hypothesis of the study states that, there is a significant relationship between performance/competence in disaster preparedness and emergency response capabilities and the successful implementation of homeland security in the United States.
o test this hypothesis, the important variables that must be taken into consideration are (1) performance or competence in terms of disaster management and emergency response and (2) successful implementation of homeland security in the U.S. o measure performance or competence in terms of disaster management and emergency response, specific measures that could help determine this variable are the following: competency of individuals in agencies and departments responsible for disaster management and emergency response (on…
This journal article explores the disaster preparedness of the government in terms of a medical emergency response in the event that a disaster or attack (such as the September 11 attack) occurs in U.S. territory. One of the identified issues in medical emergency response is the lack of resources (staff and capacity in hospitals) necessary for an effective emergency response to be implemented in hospitals (i.e., from a medical perspective).
Waeckerle, J. (2000). "Domestic preparedness for events involving weapons of mass destruction." Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 293, No. 2.
The article discusses the importance of frequent and intensive trainings as an effective mitigation plan in disaster management and emergency response planning. The discussion centers on preparedness in terms of responding to emergencies related to attacks with weapons of mass destruction or WMDs. The model introduced by the author proposed subsistence to the following steps in curtailing or preventing a WMD attack from escalating, such as: establishment of a surveillance system; specific training for health care personnel; and a central federal coordinating office responsible for spearheading an effective emergency response program, which would include the state and local representatives of law enforcement, fire services, emergency managers, and healthcare professionals.
("About FEMA," 2007)
The method followed by FEMA is to lead the country in cases of a disaster, in a risk-based comprehensive emergency management system that would have as its important tenets preparedness, protection, response and recovery, and finally, mitigation of the losses that the people have suffered. These are some of the plans that FEMA has in place, and for which it recruits trainees: the National esponse Plan, strategic Plan, and Annual Agency Performance Plan. The National esponse Plan encompasses a sort of a complete and all hazards approach to the management of domestic incidents. Some of the protocols that the National esponse Plan have established are: to save lives and also to effectively protect the lives and the health and safety of the public, the responders to the calamity, and to the health care and rescue workers at the scene, while at the same time making sure that…
Auerhahn, Elliot. (2006, Jun) "Broward's new Hurricane Ready Decal
Program Helps Residents Identify Businesses That Will Be Open after a Hurricane" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://bcegov2.broward.org/newsrelease/viewscreen.asp?MessageID=1168
Brunelli, Mark. (2003, Jun) "Data Center Futures: More companies seeking to create internal disaster recovery centers" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchwebservices.techtarget.com/tip/0,289483,sid26_gci905212,00.html
Hickey, Andrew R. (2006, Oct) "Disaster Recovery centre focuses on network management" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid103_gci1222603,00.html
In the wake of a disaster, a business is likely to suffer from a reduction of revenue, until the normal business climate returns. In some cases, the normal business climate may take years to return, and the loss of business will be prolonged. The loss of business can be insured against to some degree, but there are also systemic steps that can be taken to mitigate the damage. Having a low debt level can help a business to survive a post-disaster slowdown, because the business will still be able to meet its financial obligations even with reduced revenue streams. Diversification, in particular geographic diversification, can help as well. A small restaurant operator with three restaurants in Miami is more susceptible to business failure post-hurricane than a restauranteur with three locations spread between Miami, Tampa and Orlando, since any given hurricane will only close one restaurant in the group instead of…
Accenture. (2010). Business continuity and disaster recovery planning. Accenture. Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://www.accenture.com/Global/Technology/Technology_Consulting/Security-Solutions/Services/ContinuityDisasterRecover.htm
Momani, N. (2010). Business continuity planning: Are we prepared for future disasters. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration. Vol. 2 (3) 272-279.
One cannot anticipate every possible bad -- or good -- scenario. Yet as cataclysmic as 9/11 proved, the recession that followed did not come from one cause -- planning and examination provided earlier hints of a slow down. One could argue that the overconfidence that the market could only go up during the heady days of the 90's tech boom, and the refusal to consider other possibilities not only contributed to 9/11's impact but sowed the seeds for recession just as much as the unexpected. Thus planning is still key, and planning if done efficiently can still be part of a speedy implementing strategy. One must always first look at what's important to a company and decide where the company needs to go. A company must identify business needs before deciding what the practices will be to satisfy those needs, and develop and implement an effective active plan only after…
Kaelin, Mark. (13 Dec 2004) "Resources for designing, planning, and implementing." Tec Republic. Retrieved 26 Jan 2005. http://techrepublic.com.com/5100-6228_11-5479908.html
Lockwood, Gary. (1999) "Annual planning." Management Science. Retrieved 26 Jan 2005 http://www.bpubs.com/Management_Science/Strategic_Planning
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
In your opinion what were the main issues expressed by the States
Concerning Homeland Security and states rights at the 2002 State Emergency esponse Commission Conference? Please justify your position.
Most of the states attending the 2002 State Emergency esponse Conference expressed an overall sentiment that in relation to security, things are going to vary from state to state based on the capabilities of the emergency response agencies in each state, as well as the types of hazards that states are likely to face in addition to WMD's i.e. For example, states have to take into consideration whether they have chemical facilities, nuclear facilities and similar hazardous materials to address. State also has to take into consideration whether or not they have highways that are used to transport hazardous or nuclear waste materials.
Colorado made the point that secrecy regarding Homeland Security measures will not…
Analysis for the Homeland Security Act." (2003). Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/analysis/index.html
Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma
Homeland Security Act" (2003). Retrieved November 21, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/bill/index.html
Homeland Security Act of 2003." Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.theorator.com/bills108/hr1389.html
he article goes on to list and discuss many other areas of important consideration when it comes to planning for a disaster and thus carrying to an effective response when a disaster actually strikes. Proper staffing levels need to be maintained at all times, and contact information for additional staff should be organized according to distance from the hospital in order to bring in as many staff members as possible as soon as they can be made available in the unit (Ashcraft 2001, p. 51). Prioritizing inpatient care in the manner that allows for the most effective and efficient use of resources and ensuring that proper follow-up appointments and symptom/pain management techniques are effectively communicated are both essential tasks of acute nursing staff during a disaster response, as well (Ashcraft 2011, p. 51-2). Having procedures in place to speed up standard admissions procedures during a disaster response is also highly…
The actual disaster response plan that Ashcraft helped to develop in her own nursing unit, and which she advocates in the article, consists of the following elements: purpose, function, chain of command, notification, personnel, and admission responsibilities (Ashcraft 2001, p. 49-50). The author also stresses the importance of getting and maintaining accurate data, spelling out certain procedures for nurses recording data as a means of keeping administrators and other relevant personnel informed; the need to "identify potential discharges" to make room for more patients in acute care is also discussed (Ashcraft 2001, p. 50). By keeping track of the minute details, the bigger picture in a disaster can be more easily dealt with.
The article goes on to list and discuss many other areas of important consideration when it comes to planning for a disaster and thus carrying to an effective response when a disaster actually strikes. Proper staffing levels need to be maintained at all times, and contact information for additional staff should be organized according to distance from the hospital in order to bring in as many staff members as possible as soon as they can be made available in the unit (Ashcraft 2001, p. 51). Prioritizing inpatient care in the manner that allows for the most effective and efficient use of resources and ensuring that proper follow-up appointments and symptom/pain management techniques are effectively communicated are both essential tasks of acute nursing staff during a disaster response, as well (Ashcraft 2011, p. 51-2). Having procedures in place to speed up standard admissions procedures during a disaster response is also highly recommended by the author (Ashcraft 2001, p. 52).
Being prepared for an emergency or disaster is important for any medical facility and all medical personnel, including nurses in an acute care unit. It might even be all the more important fro acute care nurses to develop an implement a disaster preparedness plan, as they are very likely to be underutilized and underprepared in the event of a disaster unless they take this initiative themselves (Ashcraft 2001). Without proper planning and preparation, inefficiencies and improperly used resources can cost lives very quickly, and there is simply no way to prepare for a disaster after it has struck. With preparation comes a greater ability to help (Ashcraft 2001, p. 52).
Federal disaster recovery assistance has long been taken for granted in the United States, embedded in federal laws such as the Stafford Act and the Flood Insurance Act. Federal disaster recovery efforts have been further supported by key organizations including those directly involved in crisis scenarios, such as FEMA. Moreover, a number of ancillary national organizations directly or indirectly provide disaster relief assistance, including the United States Department of Transportation, and most notably the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, which offers Community Development Block Grants for Disaster ecovery (Schwab, 2014). If the federal government should one day determine that its role no longer supported disaster relief services, then a number of regional, state, and local organizations would step up to fill the void in resources and management. Some of those organizations would be from the private sector and others from the public sector. In fact, a situation in…
Anderson, M.B. & Woodrow, P.J. (1998). Rising from the Ashes. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.
Partnership for Disaster Resilience (2007). Post-Disaster recovery planning forum: How-to guide. Retrieved online: http://www.crew.org/sites/default/files/Post-Disaster-Recovery-Planning-Forum_UO-CSC.pdf
Rodriguez, H., Quarantelli, E.L., et al. (2007). Handbook of Disaster Research. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. New York: Springer Science
Schwab, J.C. (2014). Planning for post-disaster recovery: Next generation. American Planning Association.
Loss of Life
A recent disaster event that occurred in this region has apparently contributed to significant loss of life. A review of the organization's response plan demonstrates the lack of a plan to deal with significant loss of life though the plan is ready for implementation. Actually, the plan does not provide any details regarding any treatment of how the response team should address the psychological challenges of dealing with significant loss of life. In light of the impact of the recent disaster, it is increasingly important for responders to have specific instructions and guidance on how to deal with the psychological challenges associated with handling significant loss of life.
The inclusion of this element in the disaster response plan is crucial towards developing and implementing a coordinated response to emergency situations that have the capability of resulting in significant loss of life. Without the inclusion of these guidelines…
Miskel, J.F. (2008). Hurricane Katrina. In Disaster response and homeland security: what works, what doesn't (chap. 6). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Srivastava, K. (2010, June). Disaster: Challenges and Perspectives. Indian Psychiatry Journal,
Legal Book Review: The Buffalo Creek Disaster
The Buffalo Creek Disaster was one of the costliest preventable tragedies in the history of American coal-mining. An impoundment dam burst in a coal mining est Virginia town, precipitating a deadly flood that killed or injured more than a thousand people, and left many more residents homeless. The dam had been declared sound shortly before it burst by a federal inspector. The owner of the dam, the Pittston Coal Company initially only offered a very small settlement to the victims. "Over 125 people perished immediately. Most were women and children unable to struggle out from under the thick black water choked with crushed and splintered homes, cars, telephone poles, railroad tracks, and all manner of other debris. There were over 4,000 survivors, but their 1,000 homes were destroyed as well as most of their possessions" (Stern ix-x). Survivors of the incident experienced post-traumatic…
Stern, Gerald. The Buffalo Creek Disaster. Vintage, 1977.
There are several kinds of scenarios. However, in this paper, we limit our discussion to the decision-driven and vision-driven scenarios as proposed in the work of Courtney (2003). We however extend this discussion to involve the three levels of performance as proposed by ummler and Brache (1995).
The argument of course is based on the general consensus that the vision-driven scenarios are best suited for issues occurring at the organizational level while the decision-driven scenarios are best suited for decision and process level issues.
The concepts of scenarios and scenario planning
Several definitions exist of the terms scenarios and scenario planning. According to Porter (1985) "A scenario is an internally consistent view of what the future might turn out to be -- not a forecast, but one possible future outcome" (p.63) while Schwartz, (1991, p. 45) noted that a scenario is a tool used for the ordering of one's perceptions…
Brodie, M., Weltzien, E., Altman, D., Blendon, R.J., & Benson, J.M. (2006). Experiences of Hurricane Katrina evacuees in Houston shelters: Implications for future planning. American Journal of Public Health, 96(8), 1402 -- 1408.
Chermack, T.J. (2005). Studying scenario planning: Theory, research suggestions and hypotheses. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 72(1), 59-73.
Courtney, H. (2003). Decision driven scenarios for assessing four levels of uncertainty. Strategy and Leadership,
Due to the Act North Carolina implemented a program known, as Advance Infrastructure Mitigation (AIM).It is a program designed to assist North Carolina's counties develop an infrastructure mitigation plan. This plan is now a requirement for counties following adoption of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 by Congress and Senate Bill 300 an Act to Amend the Laws egarding Emergency Management, by the North Carolina General Assembly. (NCDEM, 2000)
This act helped insure that everyone is making viable efforts towards having emergency plans in place, by implement consequences for failure to comply with these regulations gives further support, and stresses the importance of having a current plan in place.
North Carolina Division of Emergency Management (2000). Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000. etrieved June 16, 2007, at…
North Carolina Division of Emergency Management (2000). Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000. Retrieved June 16, 2007, at http://www.dem.dcc.state.nc.us/PA/dma_2000_detail.htm
isk Management: Disaster ecovery
In essence, disaster recovery has got to do with protecting an organization against events of a negative nature and their effects/impact. Such events include, but they are not limited to, failure of equipment, serious cyber attacks, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. All these put the operations of the organization at risk. This text concerns itself with practical risk management. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, address the need for disaster recovery and highlight the key components of a disaster recovery plan.
The Need for Disaster isk Management
The relevance of disaster risk management cannot be overstated. This is particularly the case given that disasters put the continued operations of an enterprise at risk. It is important to note that in the past, many businesses have had to contend with huge losses when disasters strike. This is more so the case when…
Doig, J. (1997). Disaster Recovery for Archives, Libraries and Records Management Systems in Australia and New Zealand. Wagga, NSW: Center for Information Studies.
EC-Council. (2010). Disaster Recovery. Clifton Part, NY: Cengage Learning.
Rodriguez, R., Quarantelli, E.L. & Dynes, R. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.
Snedaker, S. (2013). Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning for IT Professionals (2nd ed.). Waltham, MA: Elsevier.
disaster recovery plan outlining several strategies that must be taken into consideration. The paper will further take into consideration the e-commerce as well as the brick and mortar operations. The reference page appends three sources in APA format.
Disaster Recovery Plan
When unprepared organizations are hit by disasters, the consequences are not only dire but often prolonged thereby robbing the companies of not only financial stability but also their hard earned established brand name and image. Since RJ compressors have an unwavering reputation for their high quality products and its compressors are known worldwide for their reliability and durability, it has to be prudent in making plans and formulating strategies in order to keep its reputation and established brand name intact. This is because, every firm entering the global market and wanting to stay there for generating handsome profits must not leave room for risks, disasters and threats in all…
Bagneris B, Galas D. Hudson J.M. (2003) SPHR. EBUS 520 - e-Law and Risk Management
Tufano P. (1996) - Harvard Univ. Graduate School of Business Administration, How Financial Engineering Can Advance Corporate Strategy., Harvard Business Review, 01-01
How to create a disaster recovery plan;
http://archive.devx.com/enterprise/articles/drecovery/DRPlan/DRPlan-1.asp (July 3, 2003)
Joplin Tornado Disaster
The Category EF-5 tornado that struck Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 devastated the region, killing 161 people and injuring over a thousand more (Smith, Sutter, 2013). In all, local, state and federal agencies and officials worked together to ensure a better response to the disaster, when compared to the debacle that was the response to Katrina; what was most notable about the disaster recovery in Joplin was that officials allowed the private sector "to lead the response and recovery (Smith, Sutter, 2013, p. 166). In other words, authorities from government agencies took a hands-off approach to the disaster response in Joplin and allowed non-profits and private organizations do the majority of the work. Volunteers took part in providing shelters and faith-based organizations rallied around the community to assist in the various needs using social media to help put out notices, organize and identify strategic aims; local organizations, churches…
After the Storm. (2012). Missouri's Commitment to Joplin. Retrieved from http://sema.dps.mo.gov/newspubs/publications/AfterTheStormMissouriCommitmentToJoplin.pdf
Bollin, S. (2011). The Day After: Recovery Efforts at St. John's Mercy Joplin.
Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiD0u7YwLnNAhVOdlIKHZZ6DOgQFggeMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iowadnr.gov%2FPortals%2Fidnr%2Fuploads%2Fwaste%2FP2%2520Workshops%2520Resources%2F11oct05joplin.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFte_zoIqgVi1RC6ZHbBYvNI_UGoQ&sig2=X0DPREp-8vdIIfHMvjjSkg
Joplin Proud. (2016). Joplin Disaster Recovery Summit. Retrieved from http://www.joplinproud.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/JoplinProud-SummitProgram-8.5x11-WEB.pdf
UK resilience website and the London preparedness website both offer informative guidelines on what risks and threats face the country/city and how people can prepare for them. For example, on the UK Resilience site, a document entitled "Preparing for emergencies" can be downloaded. It addresses the risks that one should plan for, how to prepare for emergencies, how to prepare one's business for emergencies, and how to prepare one's community for emergencies. It is a succinct and cohesive guide because it does not just address one's own self or home but also one's workplace and one's community, which gives a great deal of comfort to users of the site as they can feel that they are not only safeguarding their own families but their own neighborhoods as well, creating the impression that there is strength in unity, numbers and people working together.
The London site is equally helpful in that…
The value of this case study is demonstrative. It demonstrates how contingency planning can be used, but it says nothing of the results.
A quasi-experimental design was used by Chermack & Kim (2008) to explore the effect of scenario planning on decision-making styles. It was found hat participants in scenario planning have a tendency to make a mental shift towards intuitive-based decision-making styles after their participation in the scenario planning process. This study used a limited sample from a single company. However, the study demonstrates that this might be an area of interest for future studies. It examined the effect of the scenario planning process on individuals, rather than on the firm as a whole. This study was unique in its approach to scenario planning. A majority of the studies found in this literature review approached scenario planning from the standpoint of the entire organization and its affects on the…
Barker, V. & Duhaime, I. (1997). Strategic Changes in the Turnaround Process: Theory and Empirical Evidence. Strategic Management Journal. 18 (1): 13-38.
Caress, J. & Miskel, J. (2007). Take Your Third Move First. Harvard Business Review. 85 (3): 20-21.
Caughron, J., & Mumford, M. (2008). Project Planning: The Effects of Using Formal Planning Techniques on Creative Problem-Solving. Creativity and Innovation Management. 17 (3): 204-215.
Chermack, T. & Kim, N. (2008). The Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Decision-Making Style. Human Resource Development Quarterly (1044-8004). 19 (4): 351-372.
Toms iver Township is a hub of the Jersey Shore. On October 29, 2012, "superstorm" Sandy hit the area, leaving widespread damage to property and infrastructure. A month after the storm hit, most of Toms iver homes are uninhabitable and businesses are far from returning to their "usual" operations. The mayor has been working closely with the state of New Jersey and federal agencies like FEMA, but requires the assistance of an experienced NGO like Acme Disaster Support Services (ADSS).
Goals of recovery include debris removal, restoration of infrastructure, essential services, and core structures, and returning the community to a livable state as soon as possible so that residents and business owners may return. ADSS serves in a support and organizational role, focusing primarily on facilitating communication and coordinating recovery efforts and activities. While ADSS does not supply actual funding or resources, we will help the township understand how to…
Katz, A. (2012). One month after Sandy: Where the storm came ashore. Time. Nov 29, 2012. Retrieved online: http://nation.time.com/2012/11/29/one-month-after-sandy-where-the-storm-came-ashore/
NOAA (n.d.). Toms River, NJ: Community Profile. Retrieved online: http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/read/socialsci/pdf/NJ/toms%20river-nj.pdf
O'Neill, E. (2013). A year after Sandy, Toms River officials say dunes are top priority. New Jersey.com. Retrieved online: http://www.nj.com/ocean/index.ssf/2013/10/toms_river_sandy_one_year_later.html
Spoto, M.A. (2014). Hurricane Sandy recovery is slow but steady in Toms River, mayor says. New Jersey.com. Retrieved online: http://www.nj.com/ocean/index.ssf/2014/10/hurricane_sandy_recovery_is_slow_but_steady_in_toms_river_mayor_says.html
Tax Deductions Based on Falling Home Value
In any natural disaster where there were extreme losses to nearby homes, a house's value can fall dramatically. Ultimately, this raises home owner's insurance and sets the stage where the value of the home is lowered because of the potential for future damage. It is important to understand tax structures in order to try to compensate for some of these losses.
Although the house was not damaged itself, it was in an area where there was severe damage. The house next door was completely destroyed. This has severely impacted the value of the home. Not only is the value impacted by the fact that there is potential for future damage, it is also impacted by the damage caused by neighboring properties. The look of damaged property and the future construction that will be needed around the home will ultimately continue to keep a…
IRS. (2014). Topic 515: Casualty, disaster, and theft losses. Tax Topics. Web. http://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc515.html
Perez, William. (2013). Casualty & theft losses. Tax Planning: U.S. Web. http://taxes.about.com/od/deductionscredits/qt/CasualtyTheft.htm
Turbo Tax. (2014). About casualty deduction for Federal Income Tax. Tax Deductions and Credits. Web. https://turbotax.intuit.com/tax-tools/tax-tips/Tax-Deductions-and-Credits/About-Casualty-Deduction-for-Federal-Income-Tax/INF14772.html
ecovery: Disaster and Crisis
Disaster recovery has become an important aspect of a company's strategic plan. The main reason for an increased concern can be attributed to the fact that integration and alliances at an international level have increased so that there are more linkages and higher interdependencies that have increased the exposure of people to international risk. This also means that companies are more prone to be affected by a force majeure impacting a vendor located in another part of the world. Some cases that have recently come to light in the spate of the Japanese Earthquake are the impact on General Motors leave alone Nissan. Moreover, giants such as Sony have been impacted in the wake of natural disasters in Thailand where a Tsunami impacted the Integrated Chip provider, making it difficult for Sony to continue to manufacture its products.
In light of these vulnerabilities it…
Jones, V.A. (2011). How to Avoid Disaster:RIM's Crucial Role in Business Continuity Planning. Information Management Journal .
Keenan, G. (2011). After a year of disasters, Japan's auto sector fights back. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from CTV News: http://www.ctv.ca/generic/generated/static/business/article2284601.html#ixzz1k0x14zsf
Momani, N.M. (2010). Business Continuity Planning: Are We Prepared for Future Disasters . American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 272-279.
Omar, A., Alijani, D., & Mason, R. (2011). Information Technology Disaster Recovery Plan: Case Study. Academy of Strategic Management Journal .
Planning Across Levels of Government: Federalism and the Planning for the esponse to Emergencies
This paper will be in the form of a governmental response plan to the natural disaster: Hurricane Katrina.
Early morning, on the 29th of August, 2005, USA's Gulf Coast was hit by the Hurricane Katrina. When it reached land, it was identified as having "Category 3" intensity, on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, bringing continuous winds of speeds between 100 and 140 miles/hour and stretching across for about 400 miles (Hurricane Katrina - Facts & Summary - HISTOY.com, n.d). While the storm was damaging enough by itself, the aftermath was utterly devastating. Firstly, massive flooding resulted from levee breaches. Furthermore, a large number of individuals claimed that the government didn't respond in a timely manner to take care of victims' needs. Several thousands of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi inhabitants suffered displacement from home. It has been…
(n.d.). History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. Hurricane Katrina - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.history.com/topics/hurricane-katrina
Luntz, T. (2009, July 17). Science News, Articles, and Information - Scientific American. Hurricane Protection for New Orleans Debated - Scientific American. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/hurricane-protection-for-new-orleans/
(n.d.). Occupational Safety and Health Administration - Home. Hurricane Preparedness and Response - Preparedness. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.osha.gov/dts/weather/hurricane/preparedness.html
Reese, M. (2012, April 23). Carolina Fire Rescue EMS Journal: Your Source for Fire, Rescue and EMS News and Reviews. - The National Response Framework: Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.carolinafirejournal.com/articles/article-detail/articleid/2071/the-national-response-framework.aspx
However, the issue of informal settlement, which includes squatter areas, cannot be overlooked, as it is a common problem especially in developing countries. These forms of settlement are more prone to both the natural and human disasters, which deny the people living in those areas their rights as human beings. Poor regional planning is to blame for this, and it is for this reason that the study seeks to find out how regional planning can be used to curb these problems and why it has been difficult to do so.
The purpose for carrying out this study is to get an understanding of the role of regional planning in disaster management through re-planning of disaster prone squatter regions. The research paper will center on identifying the way in which modern technologies can be applied to come up with solutions that are lasting and helpful. The case study will…
Abubakar, a.S., Kuta, G.I., Salihu, S.O. & Mairo, M. (2012). An Assessment of Some Environmental Effects of Squatter Settlement in Dutse Alhaji, Bwari Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Advances in Natural Science, 5(1), p. 10-28.
Caputi, P. (2012) Personal construct methodology. Malden, MA, Wiley.
Guangyao D., Wenji Z., Zhuowei H., and Dan F. (2011) an improved model of regional flood disaster risk assessment based on remote sensing data. 19th International Conference on Geoinformatics, p. 1-6.
Neuwirth, R., (2007) Squatters and the cities of tomorrow. City, 11(1), p.71-80. Available at: http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.1080/13604810701200797&magic=crossref .
Disasters that can critically compromise the accessibility of knowledge include floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, employee sabotage, computer viruses, and theft. The effects of disasters can lengthen even after the restructure of physical damage. Simply, the earlier a business recovers from a disaster; it will experience lesser wide-ranging continuing effects of the disaster. Not only the thrashing of sales during a disaster is destructive for the company, "the loss of customers, vendors, inventory and employee records extend recovery times from weeks and months to years" (Carlson & Parker, 1998). However, if a company has a premeditated disaster recovery plan (DP), it can reduce the nuisance of a disaster, whereas inappropriate preparations can result in a business experiencing liquidation of its bank accounts (Carlson & Parker, 1998).
In the Information Technology industry, Disaster ecovery (D) security issues occur repeatedly. The critical security measures in the environment are frequently covered by…
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001370062
Disaster Recovery Security: The Importance of Addressing Data Security Issues in DR Plans. (2011, January). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/feature/Disaster-recovery-security-The-importance-of-addressing-data-security-issues-in-DR-plans
O'Sullivan, K. (2010, September 23). Knowledge Continuity: Strategies, Approach & Tools. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://star-knowledge.com/websites/star-knowledge/skblog/?p=70
Planning menus may on the surface seem rudimentary, but upon further inspection, one should realize a thorough and prudent approach is required. Menus are an essential component to any business irrespective of the industry. They are the foundation by which the customer can interpret the value proposition offered by the business. In planning the menu, the owner should focus on two primary concepts: culture and technology. With culture, the franchise can better determine its target market and demographic. This enables the company to formulate a menu to cater specifically to this target market. Technology as it stands today, will impact the menu and subsequent product offerings. Due to its ubiquitous nature, the internet provides the consumer with a litany of options. Thus, when designing the menu, technological advances should be utilized.
The first aspect of the menu design should be that of culture, target markets and demographics. Knowing this…
1. McGrory, Brian (September 19, 2004). "$28.95 for that?." The Boston Globe (Boston.com). http://www.boston.com/news/globe/magazine/articles/2004/09/19/2895_for_that/ .
2. Goodale, Gloria (October 19, 2007). "At fast-food joints, try the secret menu." Boston: Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1019/p13s01-lifo.html .
3. Clines, Frances X. (1994-01-16). "Building the Szechuan Empire." The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/01/16/nyregion/new-yorkers-co-building-the-szechuan-empire.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm . July 31, 2012.
4. Erikson, Chris (2010-06-28). "The Chinese Menu Wars." The West Side Spirit. http://westsidespirit.com/2010/06/28/the-chinese-menu-wars/ . Retrieved August 1, 2012.
Nursing Intervention in Disaster
The possibility of occurrence of disasters is a reality. With this in mind there should be efforts made to prevent any upcoming or potentially disastrous events. These efforts are what are known as disaster prevention. Disaster prevention therefore refers to efforts put in place to ensure that adverse effects of events that are potentially disastrous are prevented even when the disaster cannot be controlled. Disaster prevention is done at various levels of the society and is undertaken so as to prevent all types of disasters. Nurses are involved to a large extent when it comes to the prevention and mitigation of disasters. Nurses are involved in institutions that can influence change and due to the unique skills that they posses they can make interventions in disasters. To perform efficiently, a nurse must be always prepared to make changes in plan actions at any time and at…
Harden, E.G., (2004). The role of nursing in disasters. Retrieved march 22, 2013 from http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jdi018e/2.html
Rittenmeyer, L., (2007). Disaster preparedness: Are you ready? Retrieved march 22,2013 from http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp?tid=726331
Wolters Kluwer Health, (2007). LWW Journals - Beginning with A. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://journals.lww.com/smajournalonline/fulltext/2007/09000/spiritual_issues_in_the_aftermath_of_disaster.32.aspx
Presidential Disaster Declaration Process
Preparedness and Mitigation from Disasters in the Twentieth Century
Numerous disasters have always brought intensive destruction to the environment and human lives over the years. The twentieth century, however, has experienced rather greater disasters, which have called for intervention through ensuring mitigation and preparedness. The presidential disaster declaration process is aimed at fulfilling the ambitions of preparing for disasters. These disasters include both the man-made and natural ones, ranging from the outbreak of fires, contagious diseases that need extreme control, earthquakes and hurricanes, the nightmare of global warming, political instability and many others. The essay evaluates analytically, the need for preparedness through the presidential disaster declaration process, which is a strategy to getting assistance. The evolution of the process in the twentieth century to strengthen hazard management is also discussed in the content.
I. What is the presidential disaster declaration (PDD) process?
Bellamy, J.S. (2009) Cleverland's Greatest Disasters!: 16 Tragic True Tales of Death and Destruction: New York: Gray and Company.
Ec-Council (2010) Disaster Recovery: New York, Cengage Learning.
Kapucu, N. & Alpaslan, Z. (2011) Managing Emergencies and Crises: MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing.
Oliver, J. & Aldcroft, H.D. (2007) Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century: New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Emergency Preparedness Planning: Denver, Colorado
Emergency Preparedness: Denver
The City of Denver is located in the state of Colorado, on the western edge of the Great Plains and the eastern boundary of the ocky Mountains (City-Data.com, 2009). The city is 5,332 feet above sea level and covers 153 square miles. The climate is sunny, semiarid, and the mountains to the west protect it from most severe weather events.
The Denver-Aurora Metropolitan area is much larger, encompassing 8,387 square miles (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). The population has rapidly increased between 2000 and 2008 (30.7%) and the most recent estimate suggests 2.5 million people make the Denver Metropolitan area their home. By comparison, the City of Denver had close to 600,000 residents in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). In terms of residents with special needs, close to 10% of the metropolitan population was over the age of 65 in 2008, 252,000 had…
City-Data.com. (2009). Denver: Geography and Climate. City-Data.com. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/Denver-Geography-and-Climate.html .
OEMHS (Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver). (2010). Mayor's Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security 2010 Recap Report: City and County of Denver. Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/428/documents/OEMHS_2010RecapReport.pdf .
FEMA (U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration). (2010). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101, Version 2.0. U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?=&id=5697 .
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2010, 7th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
DNC Forensics Workgroup Planning
It is the duty of this committee to set up sufficient security and forensic measures, while still ensuring "that the event continues safely and at the same time respect Constitutional rights, including freedom of speech and assembly" (Connors, 2007). Because of the highly controversy own nature of politics in the United States today, this will be a calculated effort. Undoubtedly, there will be issues with law enforcement dealing with protesters. The forensics task force must then be fully equipped to investigate any crimes committed sufficiently to produce evidence that can convict individuals later in a court of law.
To get started, it is important to understand what agencies are per feeding and how they will need to contribute their services at the time of the event. For planning purposes, it is important to set these responsibilities as early as possible to ensure that those responsible for…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
" Of these respondents, over 50% of them stated that they lack a disaster recovery plan (Anthes, 1998). However, most of the problems stem from the lack of communication at the corporate level. (Hawkins, et al., 2000).
Business Continuity Plans (BCP) and other forms of strategic planning are no longer a luxury, but a must-have factor and an important element of any organisation's risk management system. Organisations are increasingly dependent upon it systems and infrastructure and eventually subjected to many risks, so business is inherently risky. How long can your organisation afford system downtime? How long does it take to recover a disaster; and, what does it cost? These kinds of questions are the ones that have to be addressed for BCPs. Also important, however, is using strategic planning to look toward the future and determine where a business wants to be at a specific point, so that plans to…
Bolman, LG & Deal, TE (1997). Reframing Organisations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership, 2nd ed, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Bowden, P (1985). Organisation and Strategy, McGraw-Hill, Roseville.
Byrne, JA. (1996, August 26). Strategic Planning. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/1996/35/b34901.htm .
GIS: Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
Based on the oskin article how does decision-making affect span of control during a disaster or emergency?
Decision making affects span of control directly during a disaster or emergency. How effective decision making is depends on the ability of the decision maker to adequately assess a threat and determine what forces or equipment must be utilized to moderate or defeat the threat before explosive damage can occur (Smith, 1997). A decision maker is more likely to maintain control during a disaster or emergency if his team of subordinates is well trained and well motivated. Such a team is more likely to respond in a positive and efficient manner when under the direction of a commander.
The decision-maker must adjust the level of control necessary during a disaster or emergency based on the severity of the emergency and the likelihood that widespread disaster will result.…
European Commission. (2003). "Guidelines for Best Practice User Interface GIS." ESPRIT/ESSI, European Commission. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.gisig.it/best-gis/Guides/chapter1/chi1.pdf
Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma
Harrington, Andrew. "Field Experiences Highlight Mobile GIS Benefits." GeoPlace. Retrieved November 23, 2003, http://www.geoplace.com/gw/2003/0306/0306mgis.asp
Smith, Dan. August 1997. "CDI and QDR." The Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information. Volume XXVI, No. 5 Washington, DC. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.cdi.org/dm/1997/issue5/
Formulating a disaster and risk management is necessary for this jurisdiction. This is based on the knowledge that risk management is a demanding initiative that requires an appropriate and responsive. Satellite units are professionally trained to meet global demands. The Lynchburg, Virginia security system has met federal requirements of quality, and as a result, the system has proved suitable to respond to various hazards experienced in this jurisdiction. This report will attempt to present the Homeland Security apparatus of this jurisdiction. The report will assess the current situation of possible hazards and actual preparedness whilst presenting the elements of disaster management at Lynchburg. This section is a critical analysis of how disaster is managed within this jurisdiction compared to the critical disaster management measures in the United Kingdom.
Homeland Security stakeholders
The Lynchburg Homeland Security system is comprised of stakeholders like administrators, first responders, and the local law…
Agostino, D.M., & Jenkins, W.O. (2011). Catastrophic planning: states participating in FEMA's pilot program made progress, but better guidance could enhance future pilot programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.
Brownstein, C. (2007). Report of the DHS national small vessel security summit managing the risk. Arlington, VA: Homeland Security Institute.
Davis, B.J. (2011, November 1). Interagency Logistics Education and Training: Building Homeland Defense and Civil Support Liaisons: Disasters within the United States
Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Cornell University Press.
What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.
Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…
Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.
Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.
Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
Government in Continuity Planning
Since the 1950s, continuity planning has been a major part of U.S. government policy. This is because there were concerns that some kind of nuclear attack or natural disaster could have an adverse impact on entire regions of the country. When this happens the odds increase that there could be various forms of lawlessness in these areas. To mitigate these kinds of situations, continuity planning was created to ensure that vital resources and personnel are dispatched to these kinds of areas. (Daleo, 2009, pp. 919 -- 925) ("Continuity Guidance Circular," 2009)
After September 11th, is when these ideas were once again revisited. In this case, National Security Presidential Directive-51 (NSPD-51) and Homeland Security Presidential Directive-20 (HSPD-20) were enacted to provide a strategy for dealing with disasters. Taking the lead in this area is the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). They have created the Continuity Guidance Circular.…
Continuity Guidance Circular. (2009), FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/org/ncp/cont_guidance1.pdf
Daleo, E. (2009). State Constitutions and Legislative Continuity. DePaul Law Review 58, 919 -- 925.
An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.
Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:
Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…
Ball, J.L. (2001). Employee Fire and Life Safety: Developing a Preparedness Plan and Conducting Emergency Evacuation Drills. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/pdf/evacuation.pdf
"Fire Preparedness & Response: What the OHS Laws Require." (n.d.). Labor Tek Safety
Training Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.labortek.com/images/articles/24.pdf
"Fire Prevention Plan." (2009, April 21). JSRCC Fire Prevention Plan. Retrieved from J.
36). The United States is very much a patchwork of different approaches.
The Netherlands is a much smaller and more homogeneous country, especially in terms of the major factors that have the most immediate impact on urban planning (unhaar, Driessen, & Soer, 2009). The country is indeed -- as the name suggests -- a low-lying nation, a fact that has required central planning over generations to avoid catastrophic flooding and to ensure that the nation has sufficient arable land. Unlike the United States, which includes lands ranging from desert to tundra and densely population urban areas to very sparsely population plains, the Netherlands as a nation is bound together by its shared geography as well as by a population that has until recently been highly homogeneous. This has meant that almost all planning takes place on the national level and reflects shared cultural ideals about what the nation should and…
Garvin, a. (2002). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Runhaar H., Driessen, PJ., Soer, P. (2009). Sustainable urban development and the challenge of policy integration: An assessment of planning tools for integrating spatial and environmental planning in the Netherlands. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36(3): 417 -- 431.
"Disaster" as a Trigger
Joseph Scanlon, Director of the Emergency Communications esearch Unit at Carleton University, states that the term "disaster" has undergone a transformation in the wake of 9/11. Its transformation is the center of debate for researchers whose work relies on an adequate definition and understanding of "disaster" -- yet Scanlon makes clear that he has been particularly struck "by how much of the debate [is]...influenced by awareness of various events and how much of that awareness [is] media related" (Scanlon 2005:13). In the field of emergency communications, that awareness has led to a new culture of "disaster" maintenance, and it has been largely influenced by media representation. According to Wolf Dombrowsky, "the term 'disaster' has only ephemeral significance. It is a trigger, a flag to signal a meaning, a stimulus to produce a specific reaction" (Dombrowsky 1998:15). Dombrowsky's assertion has been challenged by several researches, but…
Alexander, D 2005a, 'An Interpretation of Disaster in Terms of Changes in Culture,
Society and International Relations. What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old
Questions. [Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli] International Research
Committee on Disasters.
Logistic Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations by teven J. Romano
It seems to me that Romano is addressing his article to the Department of Defense (DOD) pointing out various issues in their humanitarian missions that he thinks need addressing. I found the article heavy and intense, although it is lightened up, to some extent, by photographs. Nonetheless, I wondered how the photographs were related to the issue at hand.
Romano is unhappy with the way that the DODF conducts its humanitarian missions saying that the DOD violates many logistical concerns in their operations:
Most humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations are characterized by rapidly changing circumstances and a lack of clear and accurate information; they are also distinguished by substantial pressure to quickly provide relief supplies and materiel to an affected area.
Romano maintains that DOD does have "the airlift capacity, disaster funding, critical supplies, and logistics systems to…
Romano, SJ. Logistics Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations
Emergency Planning: Washington, DC
Emergency planning entails planning carefully for every type of hazard that may affect a particular area. It involves forecasting and developing a plan to deal with natural, manmade and technological disasters.
Washington, DC's emergency planning has of course changed entirely since September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks that left the entire country stunned and scarred had a particularly strong impact on Washington, DC. The center of America's political structure and a strong financial base, Washington continues to be a prime target for terrorists, one that will always be on a "short-list," so to speak, of cities that may yet again have to endure a terrorist attack of mammoth proportions.
One of the primary concerns for Washington, DC emergency planners is Reagan National Airport. The airport is so close to the most important landmarks and population centers in downtown Northwest Washington, DC, that it poses a continual…
Crisis and Disaster
The running of any Government, Community, Society or even an Organization for that matter is, no doubt, a very complicated matter. The main reason for this complication is the many arrays of problems and situations that can arise and each one of them demands special attention to cater to. This makes the smooth running of any setup, then, a big challenge for the concerned authorities. However, this smooth running turn into more of a challenge in the face of a disaster or a crisis, which can completely turn the entire setup upside down.
Before an analysis of the Frontline Documentary "The Spill" can be presented, it is important that we understand the background of the event presented and the difference between crisis and disaster and how it ties up to the incident in question.
Merriam ebster defines Crisis as "A situation that has reached a critical phase"…
BBC News. (2006, November 1st). BP 'knew of Texas safety worries'. Retrieved December 17th, 2011, from BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6100938.stm
Boin, A. (2009). The New World of Crises and Crisis Management: Implications for Policymaking and Research. Review of Policy Research, 26, 367-377.
Bolton, C.A. (2006, October). The Difference between Crisis and Disaster is a Plan. Retrieved December 16th, 2011, from Public Relations Society of America: http://media.prsa.org/article_download.cfm?article_id=929
Broder, J.M. (2010, March 31st). Obama to Open Offshore Areas to Oil Drilling for First Time. Retrieved December 17th, 2011, from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/31/science/earth/31energy.html
" hile it is true that some plane crashes cannot be prevented, there are measures that can be taken to ensure that when a crash does occur, the proper help gets to the scene in time.
The first secondary measure for a plane crash is "Foster informed, empowered individuals and communities." hether the witness of a crash is a doctor or a hospital secretary, everyone can play a role in assisting at the scene. If nothing else, the person can call authorities and report the crash. For hospital staff, education in basic first-aid is standard at most hospitals and this includes sufficient knowledge to aid a victim in stopping bleeding or splinting a leg.
The second measure is "Develop and maintain the workforce needed for national health security." ith most hospitals understaffed, there is a real need for more nurses in the event of an emergency. Otherwise, a nearby hospital…
Baker S, Brady J, Shanahan D, Guohua L (2009). Aviation-Related Injury Morbidity and Mortality: Data from U.S. Health Information Systems. Aviat Space Environ Med, 80(12): 1001-5.
Center for Disease Control (1992). A Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Disease and Injury Prevention. Accessed on 30 April 2012 at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00016403.htm
Chaturvedi a, Smith D, Canfield D (2001). Blood carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide concentrations in the fatalities of fire and non-fire associated civil aviation accidents, 1991 -- 1998. Forensic Science International, 121(3): 183-88.
Gouhua, Li & Baker, Susan (1997). Injury Patterns in Aviation-Related Fatalities: Implications for Preventive Strategies. American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology, 18(3): 265-270.
Meantime the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first law establishing "the broad national framework for protecting the environment"; any proposal for an airport, or military complex, highway, parkland and other federal activities are proposed (www.purdue.edu/environsoft/grants/src/laws.htm#NEPA).
An example of the government taking steps to address environmental planning is found in Executive Order 13148, signed into law April 21, 2000. The president ordered that environmental management strategies shall be developed by "each [federal] agency" to ensure that there is compliance to all federal environmental laws and that leadership programs, policies and procedures are established and followed (http://ceq.hss.doe.gov). Another example is the final rule issued through CERDLA/EPCRA regarding an "exemption for air releases of hazardous substances from animal waste at farms" (EPA / Office of Emergency Management). The exemption is that they don't have to report the release of hazardous substances from animal waste to the air under CERCLA section 103…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). CERCLZ/EPCRA Administrative Reporting
Exemption for Air Releases of Hazardous Substances from Animal Waste at Farms.
Retrieved April 2, 2011, from http://www.epa.gov/emergencies .
Executive Order (2000). Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental
Similarly, there is no way to ensure 100% job satisfaction with every employee all the time. One can only cross-train, communicate, work on a job extension and stretch plan, and use every potential resource available to allow the employee to self-actualize. Change is frightening to some, but with perserverance, tenacity, and commitment, our organization will be stronger because of it. Further, effectiveness within an organization is a measure of how effective the organization is in achieving the outcomes or goals it has for itself. An organization's effectiveness is also interdependent upon its set of morals, ethics, and ability to community appropriately. Effectiveness is important in different ways for different organizations because of the criteria used to judge (e.g. A non-profit aid group might have a different benchmark than a new accounting firm). It is sometimes difficult for an organization to be effective due to external factors, lack of clear definition…
Bloom, B. (2006, January). Bloom's Theory and Constructivism. Geoconstructivism.com. Retrieved from: http://goconstructivism.blogspot.com/2006/08/blooms-taxonomy.html .
Choi, T. (1995). Conceptualizaing Continuous Improvement: Implications for Organizational Change. Omega, 23(6), 607-24.
Culp, C. (2001). The Risk Management Process: Business Strategy and Tactics. New York: Wiley.
Huber, D. (2006). Leadership and Nursing Care Management. Trenton, NJ: Elsevier.
By doing so, they will safeguard the lives of the Miami inhabitants, as well as that of the millions of tourists to the region. What the local government would in fact do is to redistribute the funds collected in the form of taxes and redistribute them to the citizens by protecting them in case of emergencies. In case the endeavor fails, public pressure should be put on the authorities.
b) The community
The community should be approached through the media and asked to donate small amounts of money for the creation of the emergency plan. It is necessary to make it easy for the populations to donate and also to ask them to donate small sums of money; 2 dollars with an SMS to a given number for instance. For larger donations, the community members could make a payment in a pre-established bank account. It is however important to strongly…