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Though also quite controversial due to the environmental degradation that is created by any industrial interest in the natural world, pharmaceutical researchers are increasingly turning to plants and other naturally created compounds for the development of new pharmaceuticals (Newman & Cragg 2007). As research continues into this relatively new and unexamined area of pharmaceutical potential, it is likely that many profound new discoveries will be made.
One particular piece of research that examined twenty-five years' worth of empirical and primary research in the area of naturally derived pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical compounds came to some startling conclusions. Though plants have been a major source of chemicals used in a variety of human industries, including in the pharmaceutical industry, these researchers concluded that is microbial interactions taking place on host plants in their natural settings that is often the source of the desired compounds rather then their having been derived directly from…
Humer, F. (2005). Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry -- Future Prospects. Zu-rcher Volkswirtschaftliche Gesellschaft. Accessed 27 November 2010. www.roche.com/fbh_zvg05_e.pdf
Newman, D. & Cragg, G. (2007). Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the Last 25 Years. Journal of Natural Products 70(3), pp. 461-77.
Clinical Counseling Writing
Information for this project was obtained in a phone interview with Mrs. Mary Boyce,
Mrs. Boyce has been a practicing Clinical Psychologist for 25 years specializing in Marriage, Family, and Child Psychology. Her experience includes families, couples, children, adolescents, small ones, and a variety of disorders. The interview focused on the amount and types of writing involved in the Clinical Counseling profession, specifically Childhood Counseling. Mrs. Boyce runs her own private clinical practice.
Child Counselors work alone in a private practice setting, however may from time to time consult with other professionals for assistance in a particular case. Their records must be readily available for board review at any time. Keeping accurate records in this setting is extremely important to protect against litigation. Mrs. Boyce also added that Child Counselors who practice in a setting such as Children's Services or a Group Practice would have their case…
Boyce, Mary R.M.A. Marriage, Family, and Child Counselor. Phone Interview. June 17, 2002.
Community and Social Justice
Since the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it has continued to be engaged with human rights as proven by the struggle for decolonization, self-determination, and independence of the African continent. Embodied with this, obviously, is the fact that those fighting and agitating for independence sought human right principles to justify their struggle because colonialism disregarded human rights of the colonized persons. In contrast to the OAU, the African Union (AU) made human rights an explicit component of its obligation as encoded in its Act and human rights in its mainstream programs and activities. However, with no doubt, the current approaches require strengthening with a perspective of creating a holistic, integrated and comprehensive methodology to ensure respect for all human rights.
OAU to AU: An overview
The OAU charter is grounded on the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty. It stipulates the battle for…
Bachir, S. (2009). Individual, Community, and Human Rights: a lesson from Kwasi Wiredu's philosophy of personhood. Transition, Issue 101, 2009, pp. 8-15 (Article) Published by Indiana University Press.
Diagne, S.B. (2010). Islam and open society: Fidelity and movement in the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Harris, G. (2009). Organization of African Unity. Oxford, England: Clio Press.
Nmehielle, V.O. (2011). The African human rights system: Its laws, practice, and institutions. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff.
Vocabulary, Practices, and Proficiencies:
I began going to the gym earlier in the day before the prime-time hours between approximately 5:00 PM and 8:00 PM during which the general energy level and rhythm of the gym increased and it became the most crowded. During the non-peak hours it was much easier to observe and learn about the environment while getting used to the standard operating procedures that all the regulars already seemed to know.
I learned that generally, it is expected that people use specific pieces of gym equipment one at a time, occupying them for as long as reasonably necessary to perform multiple "sets" of an exercise. (Exercises are performed in successive "sets" each set consisting of anywhere from a few "repetitions" or "reps" to fifteen or more reps of the movement.) When only one piece of particular equipment is available, individuals often ask one another for permission to…
.....justice' transcends the scope of a majority of arguments. A discourse on its many connotations offers dynamic players on opposite sides of law enforcement lines a peaceful way to promote fairness via exchanges and interface. The requisite interface transcends the "no justice, no peace" principle. However, defining the term 'justice' would be a fine way to begin (Walton 10).
State and federal level regulation safeguards citizens of the nation against abuse as well as other similar violations on the part of law enforcers and other governmental authorities. Police abuse victims may individually sue both policemen and the local governmental bodies employing those officials (Advice Company Staff 3).
Usually, law enforcement officers are sued by society under the 1871 Civil Rights Act, §1983. The Act expressly forbids individuals who act on legal authority against infringing others' civil rights. Further, law enforcers are provided legal safeguards (e.g., "qualified immunity" that often shields…
Spiritual Transformation Through Community
Importance of Community for Spiritual Transformation
Process of Growth
iblical and Theological Foundations
The broad theme that this research project will endeavor upon is to what extent is there a necessity of community within spiritual transformation. Transformation can be thought of on many different levels that include on a personal as well as a corporate level transformation. It is reasonable to assume that every individual in the ody of Christ must align themselves fully on an individual basis so they are in a position to make their optimal contribution to the community and the church can move in its fullness of power and purpose. However, it is also reasonable to believe that the power of the collective Christian community is far greater than just the sum of its parts; that ultimately, there should be a Christian community transformation…
American Experience. (N.d.). People & Ideas: Walter Rauschenbusch. Retrieved from God in America: http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/walter-rauschenbusch.html
Armstrong, C. (2008). How John Wesley Changed America. Retrieved from Christianity Today: http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/2008/august/how-john-wesley-changed-america.html
Barton, R. (2011, January 6). What We Believe About Spiritual Transformation. Retrieved from Transforming Center: https://www.transformingcenter.org/2011/01/what-we-believe-about-spiritual-transformation/
Bonheoffer, D. (1959). The cost of discipleship. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object
esearch in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics
Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the 21st century. There is no doubt that there are social, perceptual, psychological, linguistic, and behavioral affects of technology and media upon users and communities. Objects of discourse analysis vary in their definition of articulated sequences of communication events, speech acts, etc. Media is nothing but a series of coordinated sequences of various communications events operating semiotically. Therefore, media discourse analysis is a worthwhile linguistic research endeavor. The hypothesis of the research contends that media discourse analysis, as part…
Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.
Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.
Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.
Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.
My approach can now be summarized and classified into one of the COI's subdivision categories which definitely helps me simplify my academic approach. Having an anchor point that corresponds to Frontier's philosophy essentially gives me a new way of communicating any topic to anyone who can understand the basic tenets of both COI and Frontier. It is essentially like speaking a different language that is specific to our line of thought.
Overall the experience at Frontier Bound really opened my eyes not only at ways that I can succeed and get better, but also introduced me to the serious problems that I will soon face. Learning about the conditions of our community can be a little disheartening at times, but with support of both my school and classmates, it appears I am part of something bigger than myself and can draw strength from this source. This new perspective of community…
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
Inuktitut in Modern Inuit Communities in Northern Canada
The role of language in identity construction of the Inuit in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada), which nourishes the evolution of their ethno-territorial movement in the eastern Canadian Arctic, had been around since the 1970s. This paper is an analysis of the legal-political context of the Quebec State then enables the detachment of the cornerstones of its policy speech in general, and finally those with respect to the indigenous population, in particular to the Inuit language.
There are eight major Inuit communities: those of the LABADO, the UNGAVA, and the BAFFIN, of Iglulik, the CAIBOU, of Netsilik and Copper as well as the Inuit of the Western Arctic (which replaced MACKENZIE INUIT). There are five main dialects Inuit in Canada Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut and inuttut grouped under a single language, Inuktitut or Inuktitut. (McGrath 2007) At the last census, 70% of Inuit said they…
Alia, Valerie (2009). Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845451653
Billson, Janet Mancini; Kyra Mancini (2007). Inuit women: their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742535961
Crandall, Richard C (2000). Inuit art: a history. McFarland. ISBN 0786407115
De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). ISBN 1-55597-249-7
' These stressors are distinct and separate from the stressors related to understanding one's own identity and gender orientation which, if treated properly, should be reconciled without ever attacking the core 'rightness' or 'wrongness' of one's gender orientation.
This denotes, and Bryant supports this interpretation, that therapy has not only failed gender variant individuals through its application of past DSM classification but that it has been destructive to the mental health and identity reconciliation of many gender-variant individuals. Bryant "shows how critiques have been central in shaping both the diagnosis and the evaluation and treatment practices associated with it, but that these critiques have often been incorporated in ways that jettison their most important critical components. Further by focusing on adult sexual outcomes (homosexuality), a frame initially developed by the gender researchers themselves, critics have largely missed an opportunity to rethinkl menta health support for gender-variant children in terms of…
Bryant, K. (2006). Making Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood: Historical Lessons for Contemporary Debates. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(3).
Conrad, P. & Angell, a. (2004). Homosexuality and Remdicalization. Society, July/August 2004.
Grush, L. (2013). The DSM-5 is Here: What the controversial new changes mean for mental health care. Advocate.
Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked about various strategies, they ultimately aim to deter the effects and eliminate completely the occurrence of oppression in the society.
Reflecting on the significant contributions of each individual to the progress of the civil rights movement and educational reform in the history of American society, it is evident that there cannot be one superior or best strategy that must be adopted to eliminate or deter oppression. What these readings and analyses of the works of Malcolm X, King, and Freire say about social change is that history provides us with various ways or perspectives to find a solution to a problem; each insight is helpful to the improvement of social changes in society. Freire's critical analysis of the educational system is…
Freire, P. (1990). "The Banking Concept of Education." In Ways of Reading. Boston: St. Martin's Press, Inc.
King, M.L. (1964). "Martin Luther King -- Acceptance Speech." Available at http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html .
Malcolm X (1964). "The Ballot or the Bullet." Available at http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
elational Discourse in a Film of Your Choice
Conceptual Framework Discussion
Forms of relational development
Primary factors draw predominantly from Knapp's version of relationships: utilizing "steps." Nevertheless, this text utilizes the concept of moving up/down-similar to a lift) (Khanna, 2010)
Motion via the stages:
• Motion usually systematic as well as sequential. Nevertheless, sequence has been interchangeable/fluid; a few stages might be neglected.
• Motion might be onward-in the direction of higher intimacy if continuing to move forward.
• Motion might be in reverse-maybe because of decline in intimacy; perhaps because stages skipped and moving back and "obtaining" them
• Escalation "upward" signifies a motion in the direction of higher intimacy (trust/closeness) (not invariably sexual closeness) and relational fulfilment can improve (Khanna, 2010).
Pre-interaction consciousness - after we end up being "conscious" related to the other individual (before contact). Ex: viewing somebody from across a packed area; observing somebody…
Khanna. (2010). Stages of Relational Development. Speech -- 16. Available at: http://facultyfiles.deanza.edu/gems/khannaanu/StagesRelationalDevelopmentS.pdf
Ackerman, J.M., Li, N.P. And Griskevicius, V. (2011). Let's Get Serious: Communicating Commitment in Romantic Relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 100, No. 6, 1079 -- 1094.
Baxter, L.A., & Bullis, C. (1986). Turning points in developing romantic relationships. Human Communication Research, 12, 469 -- 493.
Baxter, L.A., & Pittman, G. (2001). Communicatively remembering turning points of relational development in heterosexual romantic relationships. Communication Reports, 14, 1 -- 17.
As designs continue to roll out, it will be crucial to keep the public engaged, so that the new business developments will only enhance the community, and not isolate members from their beloved neighborhoods. Kathleen Treed, of the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association, believes that this is a "fabulous example of working towards community benefit." This truly is an example of a community working together to beautify a shared space, while still working to increase its overall functionality and safety to improve the lives of the residents and visitors within its proximity. It is more important now than ever to show your support or opposition to the projects as they continue to develop from designs on paper into reality.
As the cityscape of Manhattan continues to change, it is crucial that we do not loose focus on the human aspect of life here in the city. So many are…
NYC.gov. (2013). July Letters Part I. Community Board 4: Manhattan, New York City. Web. http://www.nyc.gov/html/mancb4/downloads/pdf/july_2013/
Sunrise Foster Senior Community
The Older American Act (OAA) was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on August 14, 1965. The purpose of the law was to provide for the needs of an increasing number of older persons in the United States. The specific objectives of the law included strategies to maintain the dignity and welfare of older individuals. To accomplish this, the law created a vehicle for organizing, coordinating, and providing these services and opportunities not only for the older individuals themselves, but also for their families (Administration on Aging, 2011).
In 2011, Congress is considering reauthorization and some amendments to the OAA to take effect in 2012. Specifically, three mechanisms are under scrutiny to be involved in this process: Administration on Aging (AoA)-convened Listening Forums; OAA eauthorization Input Events; and Direct Input via the AoA Website or Mail.
In order to carry out the mandates of the…
Administration on Aging (2011). Older Americans Act and Aging Network. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.aoa.gov/aoaroot/aoa_programs/oaa/introduction.aspx
Binstock, R.H. (1991, Summer/Fall). From the great society to the aging society - 25 years of the Older American Act. Generations, Vol. 15, Iss. 3.
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…
Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.
Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
eintegration of Ex-Felons
Although the paradigms of public administration have undergone considerable scrutiny and some evolution, particularly over the past several decades, there is merit in considering the historical paradigms with respect to public administration as an academic and scientific discipline. Paradigm 2, The Principles of Administration, circa 1927 to 1937, serves as the springboard for this discussion. In Henry's words, "Thus the focus of the field -- its essential expertise in the form of administrative principles -- waxed [in the 1930s and early 1940s], while no one thought seriously about its focus. Indeed the locus of public administration was everywhere because principles were principles and administration was administration" (Henry, 1795, p. 380). By the time a decade had passed, Herb Simon had eschewed the traditional foundations of public administration and presented his own version of a new paradigm for the discipline. Simon seized on the idea that "there ought…
Brown, B. (2011). Vocational psychology and ex-offenders' reintegration: A call for action. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(3), 333-342. doi: 10.1177/1069072710395539
Henry, N. (1975, July -- August). Paradigms of public administration. Public Administration Review, 35(4), 378-386.
Hughs, O.E. (1994, 1998, 2003). Public management and administration: An introduction (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
Morrison, A. (2012). Obama administration announces $20.5 million in ex-felon grants. Loop21. Retrieved http://www.loop21.com/politics/obama-administration-20-million-ex-felon-grants
Answer the following questions for each video in paragraph form. Also for each video, provide a thought provoking question of your own for discussion and attempt to provide a response to it.
Video one: Bill of Rights Overview
Which amendment do YOU value most?
I consider Amendment I the most crucial aspect of the Constitution's Bill of Rights.
Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987).
Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today?
Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern…
The Sovereign can only demand from the citizens those services that serve for the purpose of the community (ousseau, 15).
ousseau explains why the general will "is always in the right" in a civil society (idem). The society is always conditioned by "the true principle of equity" (idem) that should guide its laws. A civil society binds its citizens under the same conditions and gives them the same rights. The absolute power of the body politic, that is, the Sovereign, is legitimate in making an act of sovereignty because "it is based on the social contract, and equitable, because common to all" (idem, 16).
The civil society provides its members a "better and more secure life" than what they had before uniting in forming it (idem, 16). The civil society gives its citizens liberty in exchange for their natural independence, security, in exchange for the right to harm others and…
Rousseau, J.J. The Social Contract, a Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, and a Discourse on Political Economy. Digireads.com Publishing, 2006
Hobbes, T. The Leviathan. Kessinger Publishing, 2004
Locke, J. Two Treatises of Government. Kessinger Publishing, 2004
esbian Separatist Communities
Sandliands, Catrolanda. (2002).esbian separatist communities and the experience of nature:
Towards a queer ecology. Organization Environment, 15 (131).
Environmental movements have begun to link racial injustice with injustice towards the environment. Indigenous communities point to the fact that environmental destruction and the destruction of their ways of life are conjoined. However, according to Catrolanda Sandilands' article "esbian separatist communities and the experience of nature: Towards a queer ecology," sexuality is also a dimension in terms of how the environment is treated or mistreated. Sandilands specifically discusses lesbian separatist movements that attempted to 'go back to the land' and who articulated an ideology linking mistreatment of Mother Earth with mistreatment of women. She specifically focuses on one community still in existence, which began in the 1970s during the first flowering of the environmentalist movement.
esbian separatists argued that women were innately more connected to nature than their male…
Lesbian separatists argued that women were innately more connected to nature than their male counterparts, and this connection would enable them to develop new, positive woman-woman connections (Sandilands 2002: 122). The discourse of what is natural has informed how sexuality is viewed in Western culture, and lesbian separatists attempt to question and challenge this. Queer ecology fuses a non-heterosexist view of the landscape with ecofeminism. Sandilands analyzes a lesbian separatist community in Oregon to examine this issue. The community wished to create a kind of utopian existence, free from heterosexual norms. Land was to be owned commonly. But inevitably divisions begin to emerge between owners and non-owners and the community began to shrink. Sandilands ascribes clear ideological motivations to the separatists, whom she suggests consciously felt rural landscapes were sites of domination by men (Sandilands 2002: 146). Women used traditional agriculture and strove to be in harmony with the land, ethics that still remain today in the remaining separatist's attitudes.
Going back to rural life was seen as a political act, and a rejection of male, urban culture based on ownership. Gardens were gynocentrically designed; women took on the names of natural forces. Sandliands paints a highly idealized portrait of this community, and she also stresses how ideology was woven into the relationship of the women to the land. However, there are hints in the article that this uncomplicated and natural relationship may not be as harmonious as Sandliands' dominant tone. During the collective's early years, she vaguely notes that there were profound conflicts between members about practical matters such as land ownership, hygiene, and farming practices. Practical matters pertaining to how the land was used did not always conform to the collective's ideology. Sometimes, the women were led astray by their ideology, as their zeal for planting trees caused them to plant conifers which interfered with the growth of white oak (Sandilands 2002: 147).
Ultimately, farming is a hands-on endeavor in a way that transcends 'feminism' as a concept, and the land must be responded to, not theorized. How the women created a viable community is not clear from the article, and all of the women's differences are only alluded to in a few sentences, although there was significant attrition of the community. It is significant that the Collective's most notable 'production' is not agriculture, but a work of writing. This suggests, despite the insistence on the bounty of the land, that for the collective the land still remains a symbolic place on which ideas are imposed, rather than something in and of itself. Imposing concepts upon Mother Earth is, of course, what patriarchy is accused of doing. Noting this is not to blame the women, but it is important to ask if it is really possible to have a 'value free' and 'judgment free' relationship with nature.
The former are commissioned to improve the balance and affordability of healthy food options and the latter are considered valuable policy advocates, with prominent entertainers and athletes serving to the proliferate an important message. ith respect to the distribution of this method, though certain demographics are targeted for their heightened vulnerability, the state of California is the population served on the whole here. The implications of this service direction are crucial to such large-population contexts as the Los Angeles County and metropolitan area.
The program is generally facilitated by public funding such as the taxpayer's allotment which is given to the California Department of Public Health.
The primacy of prevention is crucial to what the COPP does. Therefore, one its core services is the provision of outreach to those demographics which are recognized as being high risk. In our research, populations of particular note are those living in…
Brownell, KD. (2007). Culture Matters in the Obesity Debate. Los Angeles Times.
California Department of Public Health (CDPH). (2010). California Obesity Prevention Plan (COPP). State of California.
Los Angeles County Public Health. (2006). The Obesity Epidemic in Los Angeles County Adults. Retrieved July 10, 2010, from http://lapublichealth.org/wwwfiles/ph/hae/ha/obesity05.pdf
Schwarzenegger, A.; Belshe, K. & Shewry, S. (2006). California Obesity Prevention
Duneier, M. "Sidewalk" (p. 115-154)
Summary of the author's argument
Despite the reluctance of many more affluent citizens to accept them, there have been growing numbers of homeless people in general and homeless minority member in particular eking out a living in inner urban settings through recycling and scavenging. These processes are especially evident in New York City where the homeless were pressured by Amtrak police to leave Pennsylvania Station, creating a need for them to forge a new way of life on the peripheries. For instance, Duneir points out that, "Today, the sidewalks around Sixth Avenue and Eighth Street are bustling with many minorities from other parts of the city and the suburbs who must be assimilated into the neighborhood's sidewalk life" (p. 128). The process of assimilation was facilitated by laws that allowed the sale of written materials on sidewalks by otherwise-unemployable residents, a process that the author…
Nursing Roles for the Elderly
Nursing professionals play a number of valuable and important roles for members of society. They act as reliable sources of information regarding health issues. They also act as educators and counselors to help patients adjust to changes in their health, treatment and lifestyle. Most importantly, nurses act as caregivers who look after the physical, psychological as well as emotional well-being of their patients. Some of these roles become more essential and pronounced for elderly patients because of their distinct needs as opposed to those experienced by other patient groups.
Nurses as Caregivers for the Elderly
The most important role of nursing professionals is that of a caregiver or care provider. Nurses provide care to patients at the hospital as well as at home in the capacity of private nurses. They help patients in the administering of medical treatment and in following the lifestyle changes recommended…
But that is partly because what I have to suggest is not a method but a stance towards one's teaching. This stance requires a sort of doubleness: an awareness that one's course is part of an ideological structure that keeps people from thinking about their situation, but also a belief that one can resist this structure and help students to criticize it' (Myers 172). Even while using collaborative learning techniques, Myers does not want students to lose their individuality. This is also Holt's goal but it is unclear if this as easy in 'theory' as it is in fact, based on the experiences she chronicles. Holt calls the Bruffee approach 'democratic' but in a perfect democracy there can be a loss of valuable minority opinions.
riting, it could be argued, is designed to express individualism. But not all authors agree with this idea. John Trimbur's "Consent and Difference in Collaborative…
Bruffee, Kenneth a. "Collaborative learning and the 'Conversation of Mankind'." College
English, 46. 7 (Nov., 1984): 635-652
Holt, Mara. "The importance of dissent in collaborative learning." The Writing Center Journal,
English for Academic purposes (EAP) teaching and research have come up. These are the systematic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and other parts of the world (for example Lee, 2010; Hood, 2006; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacy approaches in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world (for example Lillis & Scott, 2008; Turner, 2004; Thesen & Pletzen, 2006). Despite the two approaches drawing from sociocultural and ethnographic traditions, they tend to have a focus on various facets of EAP. As a language theory, SFL has used linguistic analysis for the establishment of nature of discourses and avenues of getting students participate in the discourses. The pedagogy and research have focused on language systems, language being used and texts. Most academic research literatures have focused on investigating ethnographic leanings and critiquing the predominant institutional and academic practices. The methods in use have focused on finding practices, identities of…
Achugar, M. & Colombi, C., n.d.. Systemic Functional Linguistic explorations into the longitudinal study of the advanced capacities, s.l.: s.n.
Coffin, C. & Donohue, J., 2012. Academic Literacy and systemic functional linguistics: How do they relate?. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, pp. 64-75.
Chen, Y., & Foley, J. (2004).Problems with the metaphorical reconstrual of meaning in Chinese EFL learners' expositions. In L. Ravelli, & R. Ellis (Eds.). Analyzing academic writing: Contextualized frameworks (pp. 190-209). London: Continuum
Christie, F., & Maton, K. (Eds.). (2011). Disciplinarity: Functional linguistic and sociological perspectives. London: Continuum
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Key Terms and Definitions:
DeLuca, K. And Demo, a. (2000). Imaging nature: Watkins, Yosemite, and the birth of environmentalism.
B. Central Claim:
The popularity of landscape photography led directly to environmentalism.
C. Central Focus or Purpose for Criticism:
Images can have a greater impact than words when trying to create a rhetorical point.
D. Arguments About the Text:
-Yosemite was saved because Carleton Watkins took a picture of it
- Pictures create reality
-1864 Yosemite protection came from photographic evidence
- Pictures led to public support of the environment and natural landscapes
- the sublime is both wonderful and can feel horror as it creates fear such as in cliffs
- There are secular and religious joys which can come from the natural world.
- Watkins image is a rhetorical devise which uses political, cultural, commercial,…
Death Penalty Is Wrong
It is often suggested that morality comes from a venerated source - from reason, or from God (Wheatley & Haidt, 2005). Judgments on the basis of morals are important, complex, and intuitive. Moral judgments thus become particularly fertile foundations of motivated reasoning (Ditto, Pizarro, & Tannenbaum, 2009). In view of this respected observation, we chose to develop a broad-based questionnaire based on morality institutional regimens. This has been necessitated as Morality does not have the same rigors as that of logical and reasoning assiduity. The essence of Morality and post hoc deliberations are relative and affect combined societal percepts. There has always been a quandary about the rights of a person when posited in opposition to another. "The consensus view in moral psychology has been that morality is first and foremost about protecting individuals"-- (Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009). Thus, quandaries arise out of morality being…
Right from the times of Plato in the fourth century B.C., philosophers have been intrigued by the dilemma faced by humans between logic and emotion. Emotions have been seen as conceptual errors leading to difficult conditions created by affectual feelings of morality. The model presented in support of such an understanding makes use of the affectations of reasoning of one person, A, on the intuition of another, B whose judgment, consequently in turn affects the intuition of A, thereby becoming a self-feeding mechanism leading to a social acceptance that, as noted earlier is swayed by motivated or manipulated machinations. This is a rationalist model of moral judgment, in which moral judgement is thought to result from moral reasoning (Haidt, 2001). This strategy is perhaps the most persuasive of all three adopted strategies. The audience is made to ponder over what is being presented. It employs facts, statistical data, and authorities, i.e. this approach is fact-based. Logos refers to appeal which is based on reason or logic. Documents that are distributed by corporations or companies are logos-guided, as are scholarly documents. Logos (plural: logoi) refers to rational appeal or its simulation; the word 'logic' stems from 'logos'. Normally, it is used for describing facts or figures to support the topic of the speaker. Logos appeals tend to enhance ethos, as this information makes the individual speaking appear prepared and knowledgeable to the audience (Henning, 1998).
Rationality and logic are greatly valued in the present society, and this kind of strategy for persuasion is more privileged compared to an appeal to the speaker's character or the audience's emotions. However, scientific reasoning and formal logic are not usually apt for the general audience; thus, a dependence on more rhetorical kinds of reasoning should be made (Edlund & Pomona). In particular, an eliciting situation affects senses and by consequence morality that in turn has an effect on the reasoning (or the lack of it) an individual carries, which is the fore bearer of judgement in the rationalist model of judgement
This strategy is opposed by the hypothesis put forward, where moral reasoning does not cause moral judgement; rather, it is an after effect generated when a judgment has been made (Haidt, 2001).. Implying that, the reverse sequence holds
Examining & Weighing Community Participation
Community means more than people who live in proximity and occupy the same relative environment. Community, when in reference to terms such as community participation and community engagement, means several orders of interaction and motivation. People who participate in their communities are internally motivated. They care about the community socially, culturally, environmentally, economically, and otherwise; their motivation extends into action that supports their belief in their community. Community participation in many parts of the world may be the best and fastest ways for communities to rectify their own problems and establish firm ties with public administration and government.
Bureaucracy, administration, politics, and other factors often interfere with communities receiving the assistance or allocation of resources necessary to solve a problem. They may be issues, sociological ones for example, that may only find firm resolution if it is generated and executed by the community…
Baiocchi, G. 1999, 'Participation, Activism, and Politics: The Porto Alegre Experiment and Deliberative Democratic Theory.' University of Wisconsin: Madison.
Bovaird, T. 2007, 'Beyond Engagement and Participation: User and Community Coproduction of Public Services.' Public Administration Review, September/October, 846 -- 860.
Carr, D.S., & Halvorsen, K. 2001, 'An Evaluation of Three Democratic, Community-Based Approaches to Citizen Participation: Surveys, Conversation With Community Groups, and Community Dinners.' Society and Natural Resources, vol. 14, 107 -- 126.
Cornwall, A., & Coelho, V.S.P. (eds) 2004, 'New Democratic Spaces?' Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 2, 1 -- 100.
Community College Leadership
Specializing as a community college leader is a good opportunity to enhance my degree path in Education. By obtaining a doctorate in education and specializing in Community College Leadership, I can address some of the issues that impact students coming into the university for the first time as well as issues that affect other students who are looking for direction and needing assistance with applying their education to the real world (in terms of finding a career, for instance, or in just finding the right path forward for them). Community colleges are known for being smaller-scale higher education settings as compared to larger universities that are famous across the nation for having high profile athletics programs or high reputation academic programs. Community colleges tend to offer more affordable rates of tuition to students who are simply seeking an education at the university level without the fanfare of…
Dobbs, D. (2011, October). Beautiful brains. National Geographic, 220(4), 36-59.
Jimerson, S., Renshaw, T. (2012). Retention and social promotion. Principal Leadership: 12-16. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tyler_Renshaw/publication/271652282_Retention_and_Social_Promotion/links/54cf21780cf29ca810fd8eeb.pdf
Lickona, T. (1993). the return of character education. Educational Leadership, 51(3):
Mahiavelli's Understanding of the Populae in the Prine and the Disourses
The fous of this study is Mahiavelli's Understanding of the Populae in the Prine and the Disourses. This study will answer the question of what makes the populae of his ontemporary era different from that of other plaes and times. Seondly this work will ompare the populae of Mahiavelli's ontemporary era with past soieties and republis.
Mahiavelli's Understanding of the Populae in the Prine and The Disourses
Mahiavelli stated in 'The Prine' in Chapter Three that when dealing with the publi or the populae that it is better to either aress or to rush them beause if only minor damage is done to them they will seek out revenge however, aording to Mahiavelli "if you ripple them there is nothing they an do." (p.9-10) It was the belief of Mahiavelli that are two diretions whih a Prine may take…
cited include that of Hieronymus, the grandson of Hiero and the Syracusan was murdered in Syracuse and his army received the news and upon hearing what had happened were incited to seek out those who had killed Hieronymus. However, the army, upon gaining the knowledge that the death of Hieronymus was in actuality the cry of Syracuse for liberty, the army set about considering the best way to organize self-government in Syracuse. The answer to how the populace of different places and times differed from that of Machiavelli's contemporary populace is simply that there is no real difference because when the population is ruled by tyranny, that population will seek to gain their freedom and liberty.
In this instance then, the face and politeness phenomena become of crucial importance. Since the conversations in phone call centers are not conducted face-to-face, the most important aspect becomes the politeness (Stembrouck, 2006). This is vital for complete customer satisfaction and can be identified and corrected through discourse analyses.
All in all, the employees at the call center have the ultimate purpose of transferring data to the customers in a way that is both polite and informative. The discourse analysis conducted on the pre-recorded phone calls is a useful means of monitoring the communication between employee and customer. It allows the corporate management to identify any shortages in communication, resulting in customer dissatisfaction. The conversational analysis is a helpful approach to identifying internal problems and resolving them in a way that increases customer satisfaction and organizational revenues.
4. Types of Discourse Analyses and their Applications
As established in the previous…
Bielski, L., 2000, E-Business Models Stress Putting the Customer First, ABA Banking Journal, Volume 92
Buttle, F., 2003, Customer Relationship Management, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Chimombo, M., Roseberry, R.L., 1998, the Power of Discourse: An Introduction to Discourse Analysis, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Cook, G., 1990, Discourse, Oxford: OUP
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
Vernacular hetoric has an element of discussion which ensures that there is hope of better and newer social circumstances to emerge as the ideologies behind social movements keep changing. The combination of hetoric and vernahas yielded the momentous Theory of Vernacular hetoric which embodies the teachings of persuasive use of inherent and familiar tongues to offer resistance by persons to bring social change.
Amos, . (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.
Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.
Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.
Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.
Conley, T. (1994). hetoric in the European tradition. University of Chicago Press.
Hauser, G.A. (1999). Vernacular voices: Univ of South Carolina Press.
Hauser, G.A., & McClellan, E.D.…
Amos, R. (1969). House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin.
Aristotle. (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse. Oxford University Press.
Boyd, T.E. (1991). Deep in the Shed: The Discourse of African-American Cinema. Iowa Journal of Literary Studies, 11(1), 99-104.
Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature and method. Univ of California Press.
As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).
In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…
e. cursing, swearing) and not using discriminatory language or language that is "racist, sexist, ageist" (Caldwell, 2004) or so forth. The concept of 'communicative competence" (Caldwell, 2004) is described as grammar that "relates to the nature of language teaching" in an approach." (Caldwell, 2004) that is fairly universally advocated in L2 teaching." (Caldwell, 2004) the mistakes that are made may either be in "form" due to lack of knowledge or through use of irregular past tense forms implying that grammar should be descriptive or mistakes in 'use" or knowing when the present perfect or the simple past tense should be used implying that grammar should be descriptive.
It is suggested by Tomlin (1994, pp. 141-42) that teaching communicative language in inclusive of (1) systematic attention to functional and structural aspects; (2) Situational and contextualized use of language in class; (3) Teaching and Learning being made transparent through representational support; (4)…
DeRolf, Judith D. (1995) English Communication Through Practical Experiences Kanto Gakuin Univeristy, Yokohama Japan 1995 March No. 24.
Brotoluzzi, Maria (2005) Blurring the Boundary Between Spoken and Written Language in EFL. Online available at http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Bortoluzzi-Boundary.htm.
Chou, Yen-Lin (nd) Promoting Learner's Speaking Ability by Socioaffective Strategies. Online available at http://iteslj.org/Articles/Chou-Socioaffective.html .
Greenbaum, S. (1996) the Oxford English Grammar, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Stone presents a model of power that identifies nonofficial and invisible types of power that are more important than visible electoral clout. Social capital, cultural capital, and economic capital are within the province of this invisible type of power. Specifically, Stone identifies several types of unofficial and invisible power including potential power, nondecision making, and anticipated reactions. Nondecision making is defined as "the capacity of elite groups to restrict the scope of community decision making," effectively "not making" decisions while effectively making decisions that are of great importance to the disenfranchised community and the individuals that comprise it. Stone also refers to contextual forces that impact the manifestation and usefulness of power, and conceptualizes "systemic power," which is defined as "the impact of the larger socioeconomic system on the predispositions of public officials," (979). Lukes presents his argument about power from the perspective of the oppressed. His research question…
Arendt, Hannah. "Communicative Power."
Lukes, Steven. "Three-Dimensional Power." In Power: A Radical View.
Stone, Clarence M. "Systemic Power in Community Decision Making: A Restatement of Stratification Theory."
The Public Sphere
Jurgen Habermas and the "Public Sphere"
The idea that the continuum of people in a geographical space make up some sort of cohesive unit has been championed since the beginning of known history. Humans need the protection of groups because only then does brain power outweigh the otherwise immense power of fang and claw. This seems to be an evolutionary imperative that remains strong within people. However, as people gather together, they begin to realize that their close proximity also means that they have the power to decide how they will live as a community, and that every person can influence that through the power of voice. Every person has the ability to state and opinion, no matter how inane it may seem to the others of the group. Teacher's will often say that there are no dumb questions, and within a social group, there…
Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Bourdieu, P. (2005). The political field, the social science field, and the journalistic field. In. R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field. (pp. 29-47). Cambridge: Polity Press..
Habermas, J. (1991). The public sphere. In C. Mukerji & M. Schudson (Eds.)., Rethinking popular culture (pp. 398-404). Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
In an increasingly globalized world concerned with environmental destruction, there has been a recent rise in the practice of sustainable tourism, especially within the context of developing nations. Yet, because the context of sustainable tourism is such a new development within the larger industry, there are many controversies and questions revolving the practice of sustainable tourism. Still, sustainable tourism development can promote sustainable development through regional community involvement, as long as the people living in these areas continue to see benefits from their devotion to sustaining eco-friendly practices within their tourism models.
Sustainable tourism is a relatively new element within the larger tourism industry. Ecotourism is often defined as "travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people," (Kiss 2004 p 232). Sustainable tourism occurs in a situation where organizations make eco-friendly choices in order to maintain a higher degree of sustainability…
Berns, Maurice; Townend, Andrew; Khayat, Zayna; Balagopal, Balu; Reeves, Martin; Hopkins, Michael; & Kruschwitz, Nina. (2009). The Business of Sustainability. MIT Sloan Management Review. Web. http://www.mitsmr-ezine.com/busofsustainability/2009#pg1
Carrier, James G. & McLeod, Donald V.L. (2005). Bursting the bubble: The socio-cultural context of ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2005), 315-344.
Clarke, Arthur C. (2000). Models. Profiles of the Future. Indigo Publishing. 109-130.
Kiss, Agnes. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds? TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5), 232-238.
What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…
IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm
Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.
Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.
Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
IS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF KNOLEDGE PRIVILEGED IN AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY?
The Australian society is very complex and it is important for a person to look at it from a series of perspective in order to gain a better understanding of why it promotes particular attitudes. Many Australians are likely to put across feelings related to relaxation, even in the face of danger, and this is why the community has experienced success throughout history. In spite of this relaxation, Australia promotes values related to hard-working and determination, as it is generally focused on encouraging forward-moving attitudes, regardless of the situation. hile it would seem that such thinking is unlikely to cause any damage, the truth is that it tends to bring on ignorance at times as society only focuses on assisting particular groups. Australia's cultural diversity plays an important role in generating information concerning knowledge-related matters.
Knowledge as seen from an…
Armitage, Andrew, "Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand," (UBC Press, 01.01.2011)
Garas, Dimitri, and Godinho, Sally, "Configuring of Masculinity in an Ethnocentric Community School," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Australia ECU University Website: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1417&context=ajte
Harrington, Marilyn, "Australian Government funding for schools explained," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Parliament of Australia Website: http://aphnew.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/bn/sp/schoolsfunding.pdf
Reld, Ian, "WHAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE AUSTRALIA A KNOWLEDGE-DRIVEN AND LEARNING-DRIVEN SOCIETY?," Retrieved February 22, 2013, from the Business/Higher Education Round Table Website: http://www.bhert.com/publications/position-papers/B-HERTPositionPaper05.pdf
Health Care Free
SHOULD HEALTH CAE BE FEE?
The following debate takes place between four individuals as follows: Dr. Barker, a public health sector physician with an experience of fifteen years; Ms. Gomez, a social activist working for improving opportunities and living conditions for immigrants to the United States; Mr. Walters, a journalist who writes on social and political issues in several newspapers and self-professed atheist; and Mr. Bucelli, a modern poet and novelist with strong humanist inclinations. All four are residents of the Green Springs Community and are recognized members of the community. The debate takes place at the community hall where the debaters are taking part in the annual debate challenge where they have been given the topic Should health care be free? Ms. Gomez and Mr. Bucelli support the proposition that health care should be free for all residents whereas Dr. Barker and Mr. Walters are against…
Abelson, Reed. "Health Insurance Costs Rising Sharply This Year, Study Shows." The New York Times. 27 September 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. < http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/business/health-insurance-costs-rise-sharply-this-year-study-shows.html?pagewanted=all&_moc.semityn.www >.
Ball, James, and Denis Campbell. "More Patients Waiting Too Long for NHS Treatment." The Guardian. 14 July 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Bialik, Carl. "The unhealthy accounting of uninsured Americans." Wall Street Journal. 24 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
CBS News. "The debate Over Health Care." CBS News. 20 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Einstein's Theory of Relativity Jewish Science?
This study examines the work of Gimbel (2012) entitled "Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion" and specifically pages 112-217 and seeks to answer the question of how the categorization of Einstein and others functions from a sociological perspective. This study seeks to answer as to if Einstein as a second-class Jewish citizen also resounded in the Jewish community itself and particularly among the Jewish intelligentsia and how important this is for understanding the nature of religion? This study will answer as to whether there are Jewish aspects to liberal universalism and if so what was found in the reading of Gimbel. Finally, this study will answer as to what was found to be most interesting and most insightful and what was found to be contentious in Gimbel's work.
Gimbel: Categorization of Einstein and Function from Sociological Perspective
Gimbel, S. (2012). Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion, Pages 112-217
Weinstein, D. And Zakai, A. (nd) Exile and Interpretation: Reinventing European Intellectual History in the Age of German Tyranny and Barbarism. (Or "How German-Speaking Jewish Intellectual Exiles -- Hans Baron, Karl Popper, Leo Strauss, Erich Auerbach -- Transformed Modern Intellectual History"). Retrieved from: http://college.wfu.edu/politics/exileandinterpretation/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Exile-and-Interpretation-manuscript2.pdf
Zeve, Rosenkranz (2013) Steven Gimbel, Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion. The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 2013), pp. 160-164. Retrieved from: http://www.einstein.caltech.edu/images/news/Rosenkranz%20review%20of%20Gimbel,%20Einstein 's%20Jewish%20Science.pdf
Media on the U.S. Society
Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).
Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…
Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).
Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.
Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.
Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
School African-American Males Who Are Attending a Community-Based After-School Program
ANTICIPATED ESEACH METHODOLOGY
A qualitative case study would be conducted by the researcher. As described by Gay, Mills, and Airasian (2009), a case study explores and analyzes the behavioral patterns of an exclusive group over an extended period of time. In this approach the researcher analyzes the behavior of the participants while they participate in the intended activities and their response to the outside stimuli. (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009) Case studies are bounded in an approach that connects time (existence) with a place (environment) (Stake, 2005). The case study approach provides the researcher with a stage to examine the patterns of behavior that the individuals portray.
PUPOSE OF THE ESEACH
The purpose of the study is to explore the behaviors of middle-school African-American males who are attending a community-based after-school program. In addition to that, the study will explore…
Afterschool Alliance (2004). After-School alert: Poll report. Retrieved from http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/documents/polling/poll_jan_2004.pdf
Apsler, R. (2009). After-school programs for adolescents: A review of evaluation research. Adolescence, 44(173), 1-19.
Baker, J., Rieg, S., & Clendaniel, T. (2006). An investigation of an after school math tutoring program: University tutors+ elementary students = A successful partnership. Education, 127(2), 287-293.
Baker, P. (2005). The impact of cultural biases on African-American students' education: A review of research literature regarding race-based schooling. Education and Urban Society, 37(3), 243-256.
A study of e-government initiatives in Canada by Ayert, for example, found that, "Each department valued its own information system, its own database, and its own information culture. Malevolence was not involved; rather, the systemic goal was perceived through the departmental filter" (770). Moreover, despite mandates from the government's top authorities to develop seamless e-governmental systems and approaches to deliver services in an online setting, governmental departments engaged in a series of "turf battles" in order to protect their computer systems. In this regard, Ayert adds that, "Senior managers continued to hoard information and protect their own department's system. They declined to participate intensively with their peers in other departments, thus effectively ending the possibility of creating a new organizational culture cutting across departments" (770). In these types of environments, the cost savings that can be achieved using e-government techniques are not realized and the costs of administering governmental operations…
Averyt, William. 2005, "E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age," American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Bourquard, Jo Anne, 2003, March, "What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan It May Provide a Means to Reduce State
Spending." State Legislatures 29(3): 24-25.
Davidsson, Robert, 2008, April, "Welcome to the E-Government Library of the Future-Today."
- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.
Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.
He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…
Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.
Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.
President ush -- Speeches and…
Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.
Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.
Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.
Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
Gustav Klimt Lesson Plan
"Describe the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in the learning segment".
Students will learn the art of Gustav Klimt, which will assist in creating the work of art that will resemble Klimt's style. Moreover, students will be introduced to the Gustav Klimt's artwork focusing on his love for cats. (Weidinger, 2007).Students will also learn their artistic style and utilize their patterns and shapes to fill up their works. Moreover, students will continue to build and develop the basic skill sets utilizing art tools such as paint, glue, scissors, and oil pastels. Students will also learn how to utilize the line variation, stylized form, symbol, color, and media variety with the ability to create their "Tree of Life". Moreover, the lesson plan will assist students to learn about cool and warm colors incorporating them into the artistic styles of Gustav…
He does not, however, say where the text came from.
Another main way of seeing the problem is to claim that the writer has used different sources to create his gospel. These sources preceded him in the Christian tradition, and may have included both the synoptic gospels and other non-canonical or lost texts. In putting different sources together, he has been forced to make decisions. When he relied on tradition and not his own account, he is not able to make a coherent well-flowing narrative. It comes out disjointed.
Schnackenburg proposes perhaps the most satisfactory solution. His view is that John 15-16, and John 17 separately, were later insertions to the text done by an editor. He accepts that there is some continuity of content in the discourses following 14:31, which makes chapters 15-17 appropriate. ut he accepts also that the transition is overly abrupt, and that the more original…
Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Trans G.R. Beasley-Murray, R.W.N. Hoare, & J.K. Riches. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971.
Haenchen, Ernst. John 2: A Commentary on the Gospel of John Chapters 7-21. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.
Schnackenburg, Rudolf. The Gospel According to St. John. Vol. 3: Commentary on Chapters 13-21. New York: Crossroad, 1990.
Rudolf Bultmann, the Gospel of John: A Commentary, trans G.R. Beasley-Murray, R.W.N. Hoare, & J.K. Riches (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971), 625-631.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…
Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.
Locke and Rousseau on the Question of Inequality
John Locke's Second Treatise of Government argues that "men are naturally free" (55). In other words, Locke believed that humans, in their natural state, and prior to the creation of civil society, would have been a kind of sovereign entity, possessing a set of natural rights prescribed by God and nature, and those rights would have afforded individuals the opportunity to protect themselves against the transgressions of others. Societies, for their part, were set up in order to avoid civil, interpersonal, or foreign wars -- wars that might have occurred over a dispute, for example, about property. Locke believed that in the early stages of evolution, humans would have lived with one another as co-owners of the earth and its resources, and given this type of communal existence, humans were all equal. In the natural world, a natural set of laws took…
Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Ed C.B. Macpherson. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1980.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. "Discourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Mankind." In The Social Contract and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Ed. Lester G. Crocker. New York: Washington Square, 1974. 149-258.
It is through interviews and analysis; we will see how these individuals feel about the new cultures and regulations around them. Living in a new place, these individuals can very easily let go of the limitations they were under before. Therefore, their answers will give a sound idea of what sort of struggle they are experiencing with the new culture and how to retain their self and identity.
This study was only carried out on eight students and that is the major limitation of this research project. As stated before, half of the sample size is directly from Saudi Arabia and the other half has lived in countries such as well. Despite these differences, there are other factors such as economic class, religious sect, education and family structure that make each of these individuals different one from another. Due to these differences, the generalization created from this sample set…
Balbo, Marcello. "Social and spatial inclusion of international migrants: local responses to a global process." (2009): Print.
Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and self-identity. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991. Print.
Goffman, Erving. The presentation of self in everyday life. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1973. Print.
Islam101.com. "The Utility of Islamic Imagery in the West." 1960. Web. 17 May 2013. .
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822