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Civil disobedience has had varying degrees of prevalence ever since the history of civilized man. This fact is due to a variety of causes including social points of stratification, basic economics and even religious concerns. hat is interesting about these periods of strife is that they frequently accompany periods of quiescence -- whether willingly or unwillingly on one faction or another. As such, the best examples for the use of civil disobedience are found in the analysis of various points in history. Such an examination frequently elucidates the point that social progress has routinely occurred on the heels of civil disobedience; perhaps the best examples of this fact include the Revolutionary ar, the Civil Rights movement, and the Vietnam ar.
The use of civil disobedience is well illustrated with the Colonial ar and the revolution that occurred in America as a result. The central aspects of this conflict -- which…
Arendt, Hannah. Crises of the Republic. New York: Harcourt Brace. 1972. Print.
Calvert, Scott. "Baltimore Mayor Fires Police Commissioner Anthony Batts. The Wall Street Journal. Web. 2015. Web. http://www.wsj.com/articles/baltimore-police-union-criticizes-departments-response-to-rioting-1436372551?tesla=y
Dzurec, David. Prisoners of war and American self-image during the American Revolution. War in History. 20(4), 430-451. 2013. Print.
Orbe, Michael. (2005). "The more things change…:"civil rights health assessment in a 'Majority-Minority' U.S. Community. The Howard Journal of Communications. 16, 177-199. 2005. Print.
He goes so far as to say that disobedience may be the thing that eventually saves the human race. His argument is that if people blindly follow the commands of the leaders of their nations, and the leaders of their nations have a reason to bomb one another, then the human race will be eradicated because those people obeyed the commands to push those bomb-sending buttons (Fromm). According to this argument, disobedience must at the very least be considered valuable and worth contemplation.
Fromm supports his claim regarding the value of disobedience with examples from two very popular myths. The first is the Hebrew myth of Adam and Eve, the first human beings to walk the earth. The story is told that Adam and Eve disobeyed a command to stay away from the fruit of one particular tree in their home, the Garden of Eden. hen they disobeyed this command,…
Asch, Solomon E. Opinions and Social Pressure.
Fromm, Erich. Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral Problem
Zimbardo, Philip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…
2012 Puerto Rico Statehood Amendment. (2012). Boards. Retrieved from: http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=77582334
Commerce Clause. (2012). Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127865/commerce-clause
Principles of Constitutional Construction. (2010). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/cons/prin_cons.htm
Sin Taxes. (2005). Six Taxes. Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/publications/bud05sintax02.pdf
What does this have to do with the rest of paragraph 27?
The individual and the institution of the state cannot flourish when their interests are in competition: one of the 'seeds' must die.
33. In this paragraph, Thoreau talks about how he sees his neighbors in a new light after his night in jail.
After suffering the loss of his liberty, he sees how little his neighbors are willing to risk of their own security to see justice done.
Paraphrase each of these observations:
a. "I saw to what extent the people among whom I lived could be trusted as good neighbors and friends;"
I saw that the people amongst whom I lived were good in name only -- they spoke about the value of justice, but would not lift a finger to do promote justice.
b. "that their friendship was for summer weather only;"
They did good deeds…
He centers on people's inability to act according to the dictates of their conscience, for the existence of laws and policies rendered society paralyzed and unable to think conscientiously about their actions -- that is, whether the actions they committed were conscientiously right or wrong. Asserting this point, he stated, "Can there not be a government in which majorities do not virtually decide right and wrong, but conscience?... Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator? Why has every man a conscience, then? I think that we should be men first, and subjects afterward." From this passage, Thoreau stressed the importance of civil society as the primary holder of power and control in the sovereign rather than the individuals who were supposedly given the function to represent civil society (i.e., political leaders and officials).
In "On the duty of civil…
' However, ill-tempered is a somewhat subjective judgment, given that the protestors of the civil rights era were likely to be judged as similarly 'ill tempered' by those who opposed African-American legal parity with whites. King's claim of lovingly breaking the law did not mean that he joyously accepted his punishment of jail time for exercising his rights in the segregated south: King may have embraced his punishment because of his hopes for change, not out of some sort of self-abnegating humility. The civil rights movement was about self-assertion of one's rights. The love in his heart came from his hope for the possibility of change. This did not mean, just like contemporary groups, that he was not outraged by his jailing and the violent actions of the police against civil rights demonstrators.
But James J. Lopach and Jean A. Luckowski seem to have another agenda: their distaste for the…
Conflict between Civil Obedience and Moral Freedom (Free ill and Personal Conscience) in the Discourses of Henry Thoreau, Martin Luther King, and Plato
People in societies, upon establishing institutions that provides and maintains order, unity, and peace within the society, are bound together through an agreement. This agreement, termed the "social contract," binds people together to commit subject themselves to the power of the government, where part of an individual's free will is given to it. The government acts as an agent, the representative of the people, in order to ensure that all members of the society comply with the laws of Nature, wherein humans are under obligation to follow.
In effect, the government plays a vital role in ensuring the society that peace, unity, and order are established. Any deviation or disobedience from the laws imposed by the society can result to punishment of the individual. Indeed, social institutions…
King, M.L. (1963). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Available at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html.
Plato. Crito. Translated by Sanderson Beck. Available at http://www.san.beck.org/Crito.html .
Thoreau, H. (1849). On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. Available at http://www.constitution.org/civ/civildis.htm .
How should one interpret the final escape attempt? There are definitely more sides to it. First of all, Luke is trying to escape his prison condition and, in conformity with everything that has been shown so far, battle authority and manifest his disobedience against rules and order. However, it is also an attempt to escape his own human condition, also a similar type of prison to the one he is experimenting in his real existence. Caught between a set of societal rules that need to be respected in order to be able to survive in society and his own fight against authority, corroborated with his desire to lead an existence without such boundaries, Luke attempts escapes from his own human condition, which is probably what increases the drama and tragedy of the movie, because we all know that is not possible except through death. This also anticipates the end of…
Gandhi Influenced Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr. is a historical figure as he helped to win civic liberties and social equality for the Black Americans during the 1950s and 1960s. His approach towards the struggle was based on nonviolent civil disobedience as opposed to armed struggle. In that, he was inspired by the philosophy of nonviolence used by Gandhi to gain independence for India against the British. Despite belonging to two different cultures and historical periods, there is great fundamental similarity in the philosophies of both the leaders. At the same time, King adopts a more active approach and gives relatively less stress on personal suffering and endurance.
hat King adopted from Gandhi's Philosophy
Gandhi initiated the civil disobedience movement against the British rule in the Indian subcontinent. Since the British had military superiority over the local Indian population, Gandhi devised a novel and effective strategy to highlight…
Center for Compassionate Living. Principles of Nonviolence. Center for Compassionate Living, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.
King, Mary, E. Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.: The Power of Nonviolent Action UNESCO Publishing. 1999. Print
Nojeim, Michael, J. Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance Greenwood Publishing. 2004. Print
The King Center. The King Philosophy. The King Center, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.
Two, countries or world leaders might act with selfish motives. For instance, genocide might be ignored if that country is a valuable trading partner or a member of a strategic alliance.
Non-Violent Civil Disobedience
Discussion 1: Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr. And Nelson Mandela all organized massive movements based on non-violent solutions to major social crises. In each of these cases, non-violent solutions resulted in positive social change. Ghandi secured India's independence from British colonial rule; King bolstered the Civil Rights movement and helped break down institutionalized racism in the United States; and Nelson Mandela fought against apartheid even from within his prison cell. Each of these cases demonstrates the effectiveness of non-violence as a means to secure social change. Moreover, in each of these cases the non-violent movement brought the cause into the public arena. Ghandi, King, and Mandela garnered tremendous support for their causes by refraining from…
Charles Fort's We do not Fear the Father and Louise Edrich's the Lady in the Pink Mustang, what are the metaphors, similes and allegories in these two poems? How do they enhance the meaning of the poem?
A pink car signifies that she wants to be a girly-girly with a simple life, but the car, proud, and different. The car is a mustang, which is a wild, fast, and promiscuous creature. "The sun goes down for hours, taking more of her along than the night leaves with her," reflects the kind of empty work that she does during the night, and that she only belongs to herself in the day time when she is not performing. "It is what she must face every time she is touched, the body disposable as cups." Could the girl in the pink mustang be a stripper, a showgirl, or a prostitute? Regardless, she feels…
Monkey Wrench Gang," by Edward Abbey [...] issue, where does Monkey Wrenching (the type of political activity in the Monkey Wrench Gang) fit into protest politics as a bridge to mass movement politics? Is Monkey Wrenching a part of the fabric of participatory democracy? Monkey Wrenching is clearly extraordinary politics, but does it have a place in our participatory representative democracy?
THE MONKEY WRENCH GANG
Participation in America may seem like a dying art, but every day, thousands of Americans participate in their communities, take care of others, and spout their political beliefs for the betterment of all. From grandmothers who read to children in their local library, to college student protesting the war in Iraq, citizens in America have the right to change the world, one person at a time. Edward Abbey's "The Monkey Wrench Gang" is a novel of participation at its best. The motley gang of four…
Abbey, Edward. The Monkey Wrench Gang. New York: Perennial Classics, 2000.
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)
Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups
The Earth Liberation Front
If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)
There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.
Earth Liberation Front. (N.d.). Earth Liberation Front. Retrieved from Earth Liberation Front: http://earth-liberation-front.com/
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (N.d.). Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Testimony Before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism
Libcom.org. (2012, January 12). If a tree falls: A story of the Earth Liberation Front (documentary). Retrieved from Libcom.org: http://libcom.org/blog/if-tree-falls-story-earth-liberation-front-documentary-12012012
Letter From a Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr., and John Locke's views on social contracts. Specifically it will discuss the structure of law according to Locke and how King's views on civil disobedience and how they related to Locke's views. Both men talk about the types of laws and whether they are social contracts, along with our obligation under law.
John Locke believed laws were central to a civil society, and in fact, they defined civil society. He wrote, "Those who are united into one body, and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between them, and punish offenders, are in civil society one with another" (Locke 3). He also believed that no one should be exempt from the laws, or a civil society would not exist. Laws are created when civil society elects representatives, who pass laws that act…
Locke, John. Chapters 7 & 8.
Tarcov, Nathan. "Locke's Second Treatise and 'The Best Fence Against Rebellion'." The Review of Politics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (April, 1981), pp. 198-219.
social commentator, Thomas Frank, has published an insightful article in the February, 2011 issue of Harper's magazine assailing the members of what he describes as the privileges class in America failure to exhibit empathy and understanding for the plight of the working and middle class. In the article, entitled "Servile Disobedience," Frank states, "The rich are different from you and me (T. Frank). They are ruder and less generous. They don't get what others are thinking and apparently they don't really care." In offering these comments, Frank echoes the thoughts offered many years before by the writer and poet, Ralph aldo Emerson. Emerson saw the United States as being infected with "selfishness, fraud and conspiracy (Emerson)."
Frank in his article laments that, "e need the rich to be nicer. e need the rich to discover brotherly love, and fast." He recognizes that among the rich there are a number who…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Essential Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Frank, Robert. "Millionaires Support Warren Buffett's Tax on the Rich." 27 October 2011. Wall Street Journal. 1 December 2011 .
Frank, Thomas. "Servile Disobedience." Harper's February 2011.
Kraus, Michael W. "Social Class, Contextualism and Empathic Accuracy." Psychological Science (2010): 11716-1723.
Thoreau and Locke acknowledge the right of the people to renounce their allegiance to their government, what is the difference between their understandings of this right and what different conditions would warrant such an act?
When do citizens have the right to throw off the yoke of a sovereign and adopt a new form of governance that is more in keeping with the wishes and their needs of the majority of the populace? During the age of the Enlightenment in Great Britain, the philosopher John Locke wrote in his "Second Treatise of Governance," that all governments of the world must protect the life, liberty, and property rights of the common citizens. Locke wrote that if a government fails to honor this function, then its citizens had the right to revolt against the government, as the social contract between the governed and the government was not being honored. For example, if…
By developing military weapons that can hurt a large percentage of people if deployed, what the country is doing is the exact opposite of what it is required to do. If I am not getting the benefits I expect, this means I can disobey the law if the moral need to do so arises.
Gratitude then becomes a vague term. I am grateful to the state for something such as property on which I live, rights that I have had, access to education and healthcare I have enjoyed. In exchange for these, I am expected to obey the law. Fair enough! But if obedience of law hurts my rights or rights of some other person, should I still follow the law? This is the question that we need to ask ourselves. There is more than one case where we might actually end up hurting the moral rights of someone while…
Rawls, J., 'Legal obligations and the duty of fair play,' S. Hook ed., Law and Philosophy (New York: N.Y.U. Pr., 1963)
Hart, H. 'Are there any natural rights,' Philosophical Review 64 (1955)
Ross, W. The Right and the Good (Ox! ford: Oxford U. Pr. 1930).
Martin Luther King, Jr. And Lewis Van Dusen, Jr. state their respective positions on the feasibility of civil disobedience. Each argument is eloquent, well-organized, impassioned, and thorough. Martin Luther King, Jr. asserts that civil disobedience is an absolute necessity to achieve the aims of the civil rights movement, while Lewis Van Dusen, Jr. claims that civil disobedience subverts the democratic process and can potentially lead to violence. It is difficult, if not impossible, to find weaknesses in King's actual argument: his position is supported with historical fact, personal experience, and ethics. He challenges the status quo, which is always irksome, but his argument is sound. Van Dusen, while he has a point about the destructive consequences of mob mentality, fails to understand the ingrained prejudices in the democratic system he holds so dear. Martin Luther King, Jr. And Lewis Van Dusen, Jr. disagree on several levels, the most fundamental of…
Henry Thoreau and Ralph Emerson were two of the romantic American writers of the transcendentalist movement, which in essence stresses that less is more, that nature is to be studied, to be a true intellect you must read the classics and that living a life off the beaten path is more satisfying than one on the beaten path. Though Emerson began his writings first, Thoreau and Emerson are both credited with this movement. Emerson was clearly the founder of this initial movement, but Thoreau's writings were also critically acclaimed. The publishing of Thoreau's Civil Disobedience (1849) and alden (1854) followed the 1837 commencement speech of Emerson entitled "The American Scholar" and the 1841 essay "Self-Reliance." The similar views of these two men and their principles for living are seen throughout their respective works though it can be said that Thoreau applied Emerson's beliefs to his own.
"The American Scholar" was…
While Emerson clearly began his works before Thoreau, Thoreau was heavily influenced by his writings and his lifestyle. Emerson stated principles about Nature being important, Literature being a guide and Self-Reliance being our judge and Thoreau carried these ideas out and wrote about them.
Thoreau, Henry. Walden; or Life in the Woods. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1995
Ralph Waldo Emerson: Texts http://www.emersoncentral.com 17 February 2002
Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Amelia Bloomer were all instrumental in shifting the status of women in American society. Their writings reveal the personalities, assumptions, and values of the authors. Each of these women took incredible personal risks by challenging the underlying assumptions in the society that women were not valid, valuable members of society. The place of women in American society prior to suffrage was no better than domestic servitude. Anthony forever aligns herself with the likes of Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., by using the technique civil disobedience to achieve social justice. Each of these women recognized the connection between slavery of African-Americans and slavery of women. They each fought for abolition as well as suffrage, and therefore understood that women's rights were human rights.
When Anthony, Stanton, and Bloomer fought for equality, they did so in a time when more than fifty percent…
Anthony, S. (1872). On women's right to vote. Retrieved online: http://womenshistory.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womenshistory&cdn=education&tm=443&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.historyplace.com/speeches/anthony.htm
Bloomer, A. (1895). Women's right to the ballot. Retrieved online: http://www.apstudent.com/ushistory/docs1851/suffrge1.htm
Stanton, E.C. (1898). Eighty Years And More: Reminiscences 1815-1897. New York: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898. Retrieved online: http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/stanton/years/years.html#XV
Their philosophy was that immoral laws could be changed through the constitutional process and that even non-violent and civil disobedience was a form of lawlessness and that it is not acceptable to violate any laws even to achieve justice.
5.) According to Zinn, what were the achievements of the Civil Rights era and what has yet to be achieved?
Zinn acknowledges that the United States made tremendous progress in racism. However, he also warns that there are still many remaining areas of inequality between white and black society that have lasted much longer. In almost every measure of the quality of life, black people have fewer advantages than white people and they still face prejudice and discrimination. Zinn suggests that there is still a substantial amount of racism in the country that exists on more subtle levels that, in some ways makes it harder to address effectively.
1.) What is…
King did not stray from the moral imperative of ahimsa, doing no harm.
Moreover, King knew that his civil rights campaign was grounded in the same philosophies that kick-started the union. Locke noted, "All men may be restrained from invading others rights, and from doing hurt to one another,' (Chapter 2, section 7). So long as no harm is done, each individual has the right to act as he or she pleases. King was trying to point out that "all men may be restrained from" harming African-Americans. Discrimination had become part of the American experience. Depriving African-Americans of their rights to vote, to have access to social, political, and economic resources: these are acts that are directly harming human beings. Alluding to the Declaration of Independence, King echoed the passage, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator…
If somebody has been accused of something that is punishable whether civilly or criminally, he will do everything just to be able to surpass the trial, even resorting to escape.
Concerning the value of the law, Socrates has shown his strong standpoint about respect to its decisions. For him, if one has the ability to choose whether to obey a law, then it is a way of destroying the power of the law. He considered disobeying the law as unjust because the people and the law should go together. The law will not exist without the people and vice versa. If he will escape, then, he will disobey the law. He believed that this will bring him in a wobbly position in his life after death. Again, if we are going to read the New Testament, the duties towards state authorities is mentioned in Romans 13:1-7,
Everyone must obey state…
Beck, Sanderson (n.d.). "Confucius and Socrates: Teaching Wisdom." Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://san.beck.org/C&S-Contents.html
Jowett, Benjamin (n.d.). "The Crito." Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at http://eawc.evansville.edu/anthology/crito.htm
Plato, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo" (n.d.). Retrieved on November 30, 2006 at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Aabo%3Atlg%2C0059%2C003&query=43a
The Holy Bible.
The term "manifest destiny" was coined by John L. O'Sullivan during the administration of President James Knox Polk in the middle of the 19th century. However, the concept of manifest destiny seemed to have guided the original settling of the European colonies in North America, with the accompanying sense of entitlement to the lands and people therein. Manifest destiny suggested that God ordained America to be special, and wanted Americans to conquer and amass as much land as possible. Territorial acquisition became the cornerstone of American politics in the 19th century. Under President Polk, the boundaries of the United States stretched as far as they could possibly go, warranting war with a neighboring state: Mexico. Therefore, the events leading up to the Mexican War were directly linked to the overall concept of Manifest Destiny.
However, there were other precursors to the Mexican War. ebellions in California led to…
University of Virginia (2013). American president. Retrieved online: http://millercenter.org/president/polk/essays/biography/1
"War Fever and Antiwar Protests." Digital History. Retrieved online: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3266
The movie 'El Laberinto del Fauno' with 'Pan's Labyrinth' as English translation of the title directed by Del Toro revolves round the issue of the reason behind story telling. Although it is fact that in traditional fairy tales the validity and authenticity of magic and wonder is not questioned yet many characters in modern fairy tales fiction as well as movies are shown arguing that magic does not exist. Why it is so that several stories conclude at the end that magic that the character and audiences experience while going through a story either reading it or watching in the form of a film is dismisses like a dream? is it so that some characters insist to privilege truth upon lies in the fiction fairy tale and films is merely setting up the corny argument that some lies tell a greater truth than just facts?
The current essay…
Lanser, Susan S (1996). Querring Narratology. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology & British Women Writers. Ed. Kathy Mezei. Chapel Hill: U. Of North Carolina P, 1996. 250-261. Print
Pan's Labyrinth (El Laberinto del fauno).(2006 ) Dir. Guillermo del Toro. Perf.Ivana Baquero, Sergi Lopze. New Line Home Video, 2006. DVD
Propp, Vladimir.(1968) Morphology fo the Folklore. Trans. Laurance Scott. 2nd ed. Austin: U. Texts P. Print
Shepard, Lucius. (2008). Supercalifragilisticexpialimonstrous Rev. Of Pan's Labyrinth. Dir. Guillermo Del Toro. The Magzine of Fantasy and Science Fiction. 113.1(2007): 135-140.
Old Testament books, Deuteronomy, Samuel and Kings, establishing a monarchy for Israel and Judah proved somewhat problematic. This was due both to the divinity of God and the inevitable humanity that would be part of a human king. Throughout the historical books of the Old Testament God repeatedly states that he is a jealous God, tolerating no others. Kingship then might be seen as an attempt to usurp the power of God, or indeed to detract from worshiping God as the nation's ultimate leader. Furthermore a monarchy is a pagan idea that has penetrated Israel from the foreign nations they have been in contact with through battle. This of course connects further negativity with the idea of a king for God's people. The demand of a king is thus in effect the rejection of God as ruler over Israel and Judah. An issue closely related to this is the problem…
Howard, D.M. Jr. 1998 "The Case for Kingship in Deuteronomy and the Former Prophets," Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 476-78.
Sumner, Darren. 1999. "The Bible Shelf." http://www.thesumners.com/bible
There are three discourses, stretching over Chapter 1:6-4:40, Chapters. 5-28, and Chapters 29-30). The concluding addendum comprises Chapters 31-34. This is the final words of Moses to his people before they enter Canaan. Traditionally the discourses are attributed to Moses, although some scholars believe that some portions of the book come from a later time.
The first discourse: Deuteronomy 1:6-4:40
This renunciation, depending on one's perspective, represents either a willful act of sacrifice or a selfish act of disobedience. Sandra Pouchet Paquet, however, frames this problematic deed in neutral terms in her analysis of the text, which focuses on its ambivalence toward the role of ancestral knowledge in identity formation. Paquet (2009) asserts that Janie "repudiates the values of her surrogate parents in her conscious quest for selfhood" (p.501). She also suggests that ancestral knowledge operates merely as a means to "psychic wholeness" in the novels and argues that the text is successful in exploring "the divorce from ancestral roots that accompanies conventional notions of success" (p. 500) Indeed, this tension between ancestral knowledge and individualistic goals is why Janie has to grapple with interpreting the nature of the knowledge imparted in her moments of coming to consciousness. Specifically, she wants to interpret the mystery conferred to her through the…
Jones, Sharon L. A Critical Companion to Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Reference to her Life and Work (New York: Facts on File, 2009)
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. New York: Perennial Classics, 1998. Print.
Morrison, Toni. "Intimate Things in Place': A Conversation with Toni Morrison." The Massachusetts Review. By Robert Stepto. 18.3 (1977): 473-89. JSTOR. Web. 9 December 2009.
Ramsey, William M. "The Compelling Ambivalence of Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God." The Southern Literary Journal. 27.1 (1994): 36-50. JSTOR. Web. 26 October 2010.
John Milton's Paradise Lost tells the story of Heaven and Hell both before and after Adam and Eve fell from grace. At the center of Milton epic poem is the story of the character of Satan, a being who has been sent to the underworld to live in agony forever after trying and failing to take over the control of Heaven from God. Satan will spend the rest of eternity amid the demons and monsters that live in what is now his realm. As he was punished for disobeying and daring to challenge God, so he wishes to damn all of God's creations in kind. Mankind is God's newest experiment and thus the subject of Satan's diabolical machinations. Before, God had made angels and other celestial beings that were extremely powerful and thus could pose a challenge to Him. ith man, God took a different position with his…
Anderson, Gary A. "The Fall of Satan in the Thought of St. Ephrem and John Milton." Hugoye:
Journal of Syriac Studies. 3:1. 2000. Print.
Benet, Diana Tevino. "Adam's Evil Conscience and Satan's Surrogate Fall." Milton Quarterly.
39:1. 2005. 2-15. Print.
"That government is best which governs least," (Thoreau). The opening line of Civil Disobedience testifies to the importance of individual enlightenment over blind conformity. Government should ideally be by the people and for the people. Laws are often arbitrary and reflect outmoded social norms. In Crito, Plato foresees centuries of government oppression of the people via unjust laws. Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela are both figureheads of civil disobedience because they followed the rational and sound examples set by Plato and Thoreau. Like Socrates in Crito, Martin Luther King understands that anarchy is not the solution to overturning unjust laws. No individual should obey an unjust law. The intelligent individual promotes democratic ideals and self-empowerment rather than acting as a martyr. In fact, obeying an unjust law is akin to perpetuating injustice. It is the duty of every conscious citizen, who is intent on promoting the good life,…
Plato. Crito. Retrieved online: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/crito.html
Thoreau, Henry David. Civil Disobedience. Retrieved online: http://thoreau.eserver.org/civil1.html
Thoreau's Resistance To Civil Government
This is a paper discussing the Henry David Thoreau's essay 'Resistance to Civil Government' and arguing that his ideas represent the extreme individualism and anarchist ideology.
The renowned American author and naturalist Henry David Thoreau is considered to be one of the most influential minds in the American thought and literature. Thoreau had not only great influence on American thought but also on the politics of the world, some of his ideas and concepts that he developed were the most original political doctrines devised by American thinker. We appreciate this more, considering the fact that he was an unconventional thinker. At the heart of Thoreau political philosophy was the concept of individualism, he was a supreme individualist and championed the human spirit against materialism and social conformity. His most famous book, "Walden" 1854 is an eloquent account of his experiment in near solitary living in…
Elizabeth Hall Witherell & Elizabeth Dubrulle, "The Life and Times of Henry D. Thoreau" 1999
Resistance to Civil Government, or Civil Disobedience - "Webtext" with detailed annotations and study notes by Jessica Gordon & Ann Woodlief at Virginia Commonwealth University, 1999
One might think that finding parallels between a Dr. Seuss story and the real-life story of Rosa Parks does not make sense. However, that is less than true as the parallels and commonalities are early and often when it comes to comparing the history of one and the story created on the other. Indeed, civil disobedience has taken on many forms but it is seemingly the least violent yet poignant events that seem to be the most effective. It was something that Martin Luther King Jr. greatly touted and Rosa Park and her refusal to move from her seat was just another example of that. While civil disobedience is sometimes disruptive or otherwise counterproductive, it is a thing of magic when it is done well.
To answer the important question first, civil disobedience is basically a means that people use to protest laws that are deemed to…
Yet, investigators still wanted to gather evidence, to show he was communist. Where, they never collected one piece of information, supporting these assertions. This is significant, because it shows how law enforcement and private investigators can let their personal feelings / emotions interfere with an investigation. As a result, various codes of ethics would be developed, because of the events that took place in the 1960's. Where, officials wanted to prevent these runaway abuses from occurring on a regular basis. (enecil, 2009, pp. 11 -- 29)
From a global perspective, how have the events and issues of the 60s changed international relations?
The events of the 1960's have meant, that the world would continue to become smaller and more interconnected. As the different changes, would bring about new standards, as to how various international and non-governmental institutions would interact with one another. This would help to establish the basic foundation…
Benecil, P. (2009). Private Investigator Entry Level. Bloomington, IN: I Universe.
Beyth, R. (2004). I knew it would happen. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13 (1). 1 -- 16.
Brady, B. (2003). Love Activists. Christian Love. (pp. 213). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Burner, D. (1996). Making Peace with the 60's. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
At first, the passage in Romans seems unequivocal -- a rebellion against established authority seems to be the same as a rebellion against God. But a closer and more considered examination of the situation suggests that this is not the case. First, Romans was written with a very specific government in mind -- the Roman government, as a matter of fact. It considers authority as the earthly servant of God. At the same time, this passage suggests that free will exists, in that men have the ability to rebel against God and authority. Therefore, individual authorities could rebel against God and use their authority in ways that were not in his service. This would make the authority no longer the arbiter of sin, and rebellion would be almost morally necessitated.
For many who rebelled during this nation's revolution, and even those who came to the continent in the preceding century…
Augustine of Hippo, Saint. City of God. Accessed 26 April 2009. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/120104.htm
Romans. New International Bible. Accessed 27 April 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=romans%2013
1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Birmingham for his participation in the demonstrations against segregation. While imprisoned, King took the time to respond to the statement against non-violent protests contained in the article "A Call for Unity." In his response from the Birmingham jail, King explains the reasons behind his actions, as well as the imminent social threat that looms over the South. In "The Letter from a Birmingham Jail," King explains his course of action, the events that have led up to it, and the consequences of inaction.
King was jailed for his participation in Birmingham demonstrations that had been brought on by the segregation between the Black minority and the White majority. King states that the most effective course of action against this injustice is civil disobedience. King does not advocate civil disobedience without cause, rather presents the steps necessary for the social uprising against injustice.…
Doctor Martin Luther King, Jr. is celebrated four decades after his death because he was an effective and persuasive civil rights advocate. A holiday marks the birthday of Doctor King because of what he accomplished using nonviolent civil disobedience in the tradition of Mahatma Gandhi. However, the holiday also reminds students of English, of History, of Speech, and of Law how to be a persuasive rhetorician. King was so effective and persuasive precisely because he was an enormously powerful wordsmith; King was uniquely able to translate overwhelming emotions and sensitive subject matter into logical, well-formed, and inarguable stances. As a result, his "I have a dream" speech has become a part of common vernacular, as have several original sayings derived from his speeches and writings. Statements such as "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" have become so famous that many people would actually be hard-pressed to…
Locke's version of the social contract is essentially a justification for the wealthy to assert political control over everyone else.
Locke's arguments justifying government were liberal, even radical for their time. The popular view was that kings ruled by mandate from God, and were not subject to the consent of the people. Locke's Two Treatises of Government were written during the exclusion crisis, and supported the hig position that the king did not have an absolute right to rule. (Rj) During the exclusion crisis, king Charles had no hier, making his brother James the next in line for the throne. James was a Catholic, which made him very unpopular in protestant England. Parliament repeatedly tried to pass bills excluding James from succession to the throne. Each time, Charles dissolved parliament before the bill could be passed. (Ellywa) Locke's version of social contract theory provides a justification for citizens rejecting Charles's…
Ellywa "Exclusion Bill" Wikipedia. 8, Jan 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exclusion_crisis
Gregmcpherson "Social Contract" Wikipedia. 26, Mar 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Social_Contract
Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/trgov10.txt
Marx, Karl. Manifesto of the Communist Party. Feb 1848 http://wikisource.org/wiki/Manifesto_of_the_Communist_Party
1857 Indian Rebellion been elusive to characterize as "The first war of Indian independence?"
Lack of Strategy
Shortage of Military Skills
Unity in Communities
The first war of Indian independence in 1857 is also characterized in terms of mutiny and the movement of civil disobedience. A brief about the historic events taking place during 1957 revile that the movement started with a notion to refuse using the cartridges used by the ritish Military. The greased cartridges were provided to the native soldiers of the military. The solider MangalPanday of arrackpur in engal refused to use these cartridges on 28th April 1957 and he also shot two of his superior officers of ritish military. He was caught and hanged for instigating a single-handed revolt on 8th April, 1957. He is also named as the first martyr of freedom movement. [2: .RaghunathRai. Themes in Indian History (New Delhi: VK Publications,…
Bibliography:Alison Blunt. "Embodying war: British women and domestic defilement in the Indian -- Mutiny --, 1857 -- 8.," Journal of Historical Geography 26, no. 3 (2000): 403-428.Andrew Ward. Our Bones Are Scattered: The Cawnpore Massacres and Indian Mutiny of 1857, London: John Murray Publishers, 1996.Bipan Chandra, eds. India's Struggle for Independence: 1857-1947, New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 1989.Clare Anderson. The Indian Uprising of 1857-8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion, New York: Anthem Press, 2007.George Bruce Malleson and Colonel Malleson. Kay's and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny of 1857-8, Vol. 1, London: Hesperides Press, 2006.Mukherjee, Rudrangshu. Awadh in revolt, 1857-1858: a study of popular resistance, New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2002.Pati, Biswammy, eds. The Great Rebellion of 1857 in India: Exploring Transgressions, Content, and Direction New York: Rutledge, 2010.Rai, Raghunath.Themes in Indian History, New Delhi: VK Publications, 2011.Richard Collins. The Great Indian Mutiny: A dramatic account of the Sepoy Rebellion, USA: Dutton & Co, 1964.SailendraNath Sen. History Of Freedom Movement In India (1857-1947), New Delhi: New Age, 2009.Samuel Matrin Burke and Salin al-din Quraishi.The British raj in India: A Historical Review, London: Oxford University Press, 1997. Simon Paul Mackenzie. Revolutionary armies in the modern era: a revisionist approach, New York: Routledge, 1997.Taylor, P.J.O. What really happened during the mutiny: a day-by-day account of the major events of 1857-1859 in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.The Great Mutiny: India 1857. Christopher Hibbert; Viking Press, 1978.]
The rebellion events of the 1857 war were started through a soldier revolting the orders of its superiors and killing the officials of British authority. The results of violent actions against the rebel soldier sparked a wave of revolution and instigated the rebel activities. The later review of the reasons and motives behind the rebel actions provides an account elaborating these actions. The actions of the soldiers were primarily religious. The reasons of disobedience were that the soldiers believed that the cartridges provided to them are coated with the pig and cow fat which is not allowed in their religion.
The religious ground so the revolt soon turned into a national revolt after the execution of the rebel soldier. The soldiers of his regiment and others showed their solidarity with the forces and started a revolt movement. The movement soon turned into a violent activity as soon the locals joined the forces to ensure that the British forces are fought and sent back to their country. The local lords and land holders did not patronize with the revolutionary forces and sided with the British occupation. The turning point of the movement from purely a religiously motivated action into a national independence war is observed when the unsatisfied locals aided the rebel soldiers. The locals fought side by side with the forces and captured various strategic and symbolic places of the foreign establishment.
The question rises that the rebel actions and nationalized efforts of locals to regain their freedom from the British forces remains acts of revolt and rebellion events. They fall short of a national movement and a nationwide war for independence. More importantly the actions of the rebels also remained unaccepted as to be noted as the first war of Indian independence. The historians provide various reasons after the review of events and the effects of the war. The major reasons are described as the lack of national motive, bad generalship, and lack of war skills.
Psalm 1 read in different translations.
The New International Version (NIV), The American Standard Version (ASV), The New Living Translation (NLT), The King James Version (KJV), The Contemporary English Version (CEV), The Message (MSG), and The Harper Collins Study Bible, New Revised Standard Version (NRSV).
I read the NIV the most often because I grew up reading the NIV and am comfortable with its language and cadence. I find that, of the Bibles I read, it is the one that feels the most familiar. I actually found reading MSG a little disconcerting; I do not know that it conveyed the feelings that the other translations conveyed. It actually made me think about the number of times the Bible has been interpreted and how connotation and denotation both impact the meaning of different passages.
To me, Psalm 1 is a reminder that sinners have no place in Lord's kingdom. It was…
Addis, W.E. "The Psalms." Peake's Commentary on the Bible. Ed. Arthur Peake. New York:
Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1920. 366-. Print.
ASV. The American Standard Version Bible. Online at Bible Gateway.com.
Blair, Edward. The Illustrated Bible Handbook. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1987.
unter and the unted:
Courtly Love and the Many Faces of the ero
Literature abounds in depictions of the hero.
Solomon, Esther, Gawain, and countless others call to mind tales of strength, valor, and passion. Whether a text's purpose is religious, instructional, or purely a matter of entertainment, a single character stands out. Emotion is often overpowering, as too, are the choices between what is right and what is wrong. Morality plays an equally important role in each of these "superhuman" stories. Frequently, the path of virtue is crossed by the highways of desire. A hero may take the high road, or he may take the low road, but which choice is correct depends upon the specific circumstances of the narrative, and upon the central figure's point-of-view. A bewildering array of problems, impossible tasks, and larger-than-life villains can turn closely-held beliefs inside out, and cause a hero to commit acts…
Heide Estes, "Bertilak Reads Brut: History and the Complications of Sexuality in Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight," Essays in Medieval Studies, 17, 72, Allen J. Frantzen, Ed. Illinois Medieval Association, 2000.
Guinevere Shaw, "Interpretations of Honor in the Medieval Period," URL: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/1170/medhero.html.
Civil ights: The ole of Black Churches
The audience will understand the role that black churches played in the ongoing Civil ights Movement.
In this speech, I will show that black churches -- through methods of advocacy, spiritual leadership and active participation -- play a significant role in the ongoing Civil ights Movement that began in the mid-20th century and clearly continues on into today's times.
Everyone knows of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the important role he played in the Civil ights Movement. But how many people know about or realized that King was one of many black pastors to bring black churches into the Movement, providing leadership, spiritual nourishment, and advocacy to African-Americans struggling for equality? Or that black churches continue today to be part of that ongoing struggle? Just as black churches are making an impact in cities around the country where communities are torn by racial…
African-American Registry. (n.d.). The Black Churches: A Brief History. AARegistry.
Retrieved from http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/black-church-brief-history
Calhoun-Brown, A. (2000). Upon this rock: The black church, nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(2): 168-174.
Dagan, D. (2015). Black churches led the Civil Rights Movement. Can they do it again? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/14/baltimore-black-churches-freddie-gray_n_7556560.html
Black Lives Matter: The Paradox of Injustice—“If We Must Die…”
In the poem “If We Must Die,” by Claude McKay, the African American poet writes that “If we must die, let it not be like hogs / Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot, / While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs, / Making their mock at our accursèd lot.” He states if blacks must be persecuted, let it not be in vain—but rather let them fight back. This was essentially the directive of Malcolm X as well (Fiero, 2010). However, Martin Luther King, Jr., had a different take on the plight of black people in America. He believed they should use non-violent means of protest. He based his idea on Thoreau’s (1849) “Civil Disobedience.” McKay’s poem does not promote civil disobedience but rather actual physical confrontation. McKay did not want his people to be passive. He wanted…
The poem focuses heavily on maternity and the fact that a woman is forced to live life day-by-day, with a different understanding of "good." For God, though, this respect again is usually interpreted as simple obedience. It is God's most basic definition of good, the one individual should not violate another -- that is the ultimate cause for the destruction of the cities, however, and Batey's lack of acknowledgment for this event seems to suggest that neither she nor Lot's wife can truly dismiss this transgression. Still, the single incident does not seem to warrant near-instant and outright destruction in human terms of "good."
It is this perspective that is most fully examined in Batey's poem. "Good in human terms," to Batey, means following the impulses of friendship and allegiance that get one through life, whether they are good or bad. Being good means understanding that mistakes are made, and…
As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.
These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).
Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…
Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family
Journal, 13(4), 452-455.
Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
The second section of the Jonah story is that which is contained in the third chapter, where Jonah preaches to the people of Nineveh and they quickly turn back to God and away from their errant behaviors. The main subject of this section is God's compassion, which is willingly bestowed upon the deserving. Whereas the previous section contained immediately present and observable threats to the very lives of the people involved, in this section it is merely Jonah's admonition that is required to turn the people of Nineveh back on to the path of righteousness. Upon hearing his words, even the king reduces himself to fasting and sackcloth, and requires the same turning to God of all the citizens and even the livestock that live within the city. This total devotion to God from a mere reminder of his due is enough to restore God's compassion and dissuade him from…
Living in the palace as a prince was no doubt an indulgent experience, and likely contributed to the temper that Moses was so famous for. As an infant, he is the very image of innocence and hope, just like the baby Jesus. But as his life went on, his character became much more complex. The first story form the Old Testament that clearly illustrates Moses' inability to contain his temper comes in the second chapter of the book of Exodus: "He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. Glancing this way and that and seeing no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand" (Exodus 2:11-12). This episode is especially telling because it does not show simply a rash display of temper -- Moses takes the time to make sure no one will witness his actions before he kills the Egyptian. He is…
In fact, sexual moral obligations were one of the major concerns addressed by Jude, who cautioned that immoral behavior by teachers was dangerous. He believed that it had the ability to corrupt everyday Christians, and to keep them from attaining salvation. Therefore, he wrote Jude as a way of warning Christians against these false prophets, and against a life of immoral behavior.
Perhaps more significantly, Jude contains a very strong pro-evangelical message, because it encourages Christians to live their religions, making religion a part of daily life. For Jews who lived under religious laws, Judaism was necessarily part of daily life. Every single meal was dictated by religious facets. Moreover, religious law dictated choice of spouse, the ability to marry or divorce, the naming of children, and other facets of daily life. hen Jesus freed Jews of their obligations under Jewish laws, it had the impact of making religion less…
Knight, Kevin. "Epistle of St. Jude." The Catholic Encyclopedia. (2009). New Advent. 28
Mar. 2009 .
Kummel, Werner Georg. Introduction to the New Testament. Trans. Howard Clark Kee.
Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1975.
Heavy rule will always lead to destruction one way or another. Individuals can only take being oppressed for so long. An ideal society is one where the government and the people are happy.
e see the results of oppression when we look at Martin Luther King's ideas and dreams for a better society. A world apart from Machiavelli's time, King captures the plight of the oppressed individual. He knows all too well what people experience when they are held down by a government that encroaches on everyday freedom. He urges his readers to "rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice" (King). He also sees hope in the future and asks people to "make justice a reality for all of God's children" (King). Justice is part of the government's responsibility to the people. Elizabeth Cady Canton also understood the struggle for independence.…
Elizabeth Cady Stanton. "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution." Rutgers University Online. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/seneca.html
Jefferson, Thomas, et al. "The Declaration of Independence." 1776. The Indiana University School of Law Online. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
King, Martin Luther. "I have a Dream." American Rhetoric. Information Retrieved October 1, 2008. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1992.
" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.
American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…
Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53
Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"
Hooks, Bell. "Postmodern Blackness." 19 Apr 1994.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 16 April 1963.
It was clear that destructive disobedience does create a stressful situation, as the participants knew they were doing harm by obeying these orders. Some participants even showed nervous laughter and uncontrollable seizures in 3 of the participants (Milgram 1963). In terms of how far they lasted in the study, the results were actually surprising. Thus, "upon the command of the experimenter, each of the 40 subjects went beyond the expected break off point" (Milgram 1963 p 375). Only 5 refused to obey at the 300-volt level, with 2 more at 330 volts. In total, 14 subjects "defied the experimenter," leaving 26 to obey the rules of the experiment until the very end, showing a willingness to inflict even the strongest shocks out of obedience.
Yet, the study found negative consequences being experienced by the participants, as the experience left the participants incredibly nervous and anxious. Many also regretted how far…
Milgram, Stanley. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 67(4), 371-378.
nature of consensus. This is a process through which a group of people can reach a common agreement on a course of action. It is important to note that the entire group comes to an agreed course of action. Here the ideas and contribution from all participants from within the group are viewed and then combined together to come to a final decision. This decision has to be acceptable to every member of the group. This process generally achieves a better solution to the problems that the group is facing, but also makes the group a stronger community and builds trust within them. While using consensus for achieving decision making in some instances, the group can us other methods at other times for achieving decisions and these can be through individual decisions, compromises, or through a majority decision. Yet in the process of a consensus, the discussions generally concern a…
"Civil Disobedience Training." Retrieved from http://www.actupny.org/documents/CDdocuments/Consensus.html
Accessed on 15 June, 2005
"Consensus Decision Making." Retrieved from http://www.uhc-collective.org.uk/knowledge/toolbox/meetings_and_organisation/consensus_short.htm Accessed on 15 June, 2005
"Consensus Decision Making." Retrieved from http://www.givingforum.org/givingcircles/downloads/Consensus%20Decision%20Making%20Philosophy%20NGAAP.pdf Accessed on 16 June, 2005
" The narrator of the film asks: "hat's this war in the heart of nature? hy does nature vie with itself, the land contend with the sea? Is there an avenging power in nature?" Because it is a war film set during the Battle of Guadalcanal, the film explores the meaning of death and acts as a meditation on death much in the same way Christian eschatology contemplates the Four Last Things. In this sense, Malick's Thin Red Line explores themes similar to those explored by hitman and recognizes the need for spiritual transcendence in a world obsessed with death.
Likewise, just as Emily Dickinson represents the force and power of eternity in "Because I Could Not Stop for Death," so too does Malick in the Tree of Life. Dickinson writes in her poem of her understanding of immortality: "Since then -- 'tis Centuries -- and yet / Feels shorter…
Dickinson, Emily. "Because I could not stop for death." Bartleby. Web. 22 Oct 2012.
Malick, Terrence, dir. The Thin Red Line. Los Angeles: 20th Century Fox, 1998. Film.
Malick, Terrence, dir. The Tree of Life. Los Angeles: Fox Searchlight, 2011. Film.
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. NY: Penguin Books, 2002. Print.
al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.
In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice
in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
Life of a Slave Girl, Harriet Jacobs relates to the readers her experiences as a slave girl in the Southern part of America. Her story started from her sheltered life as a child to her subordination to her mistress upon her father's death, and her continuing struggle to live a dignified and virtuous life despite being a slave. Her struggle involves her constant degradation from her master; the danger of being sexually exploited by her mistress' husband, Dr. Flint; her broken relationship with a free colored man; her pregnancy to a man named Mr. Sands; and her fight for her and her children's freedom from slavery. All of these experiences helped Linda learn to fight justly for her right to become a free individual, but most of all, to be subordinated to Dr. Flint, the man who wanted so bad to exploit her, yet, was not able to because of…
Universally accepted as one of the world's foremost epics, John Milton's Paradise Lost traces the history of the world from a Christian perspective. (Milton, 1667) The narrative of the poem largely deals with falling and how desires -- God, Satan, Jesus, Adam and Eve's -- lead to it. The book is about mankind's fall -- Original Sin -- Adam and Eve's disobedience of God. There are other instances of falling in the plot too. First, Satan's fall from God's graces, as related to Adam and Eve by the angel Raphael, represents the past in the Universe's creation. The second instance -- the present (in the narrative) -- is the Adam and Eve's eating of the Forbidden Fruit. The third instance represents the future. Michael, as he readies to escort Adam and Eve out of Paradise, presents to them the various falls of man until Jesus comes to rescue by dying…
Bendz, Fredrik. Proof That There Is No God. 1998. Fredrik Bendz. Available. December 27, 2002. http://www.update.uu.se/~fbendz/nogod/no_god.htm
Milton, John. Paradise Lost. The Poetical Works of John Milton. Vol. I and II. Boston R.H. Hinkley Company, 1667.
Wigglesworth, Michael. Day of Doom. The Poems of Michael Wigglesworth. Ed. Roland Basco. New York: University Press of America, 1662.
Studying the characters of Adam and Samson reveals that they have many things in common but it seems totally out of place to compare them with Jesus. Adam and Samson typify men who are on a godward journey while Jesus is the way and also the end of the road.
John Milton the poetic legend of the seventeenth century is well-known for his deep belief in providence and divine judgement. His puritanical sentiments are echoed in most of his poems. His sheer belief in divine ordinance is reflected in his works like "On his Blindness," "Paradise lost" and the tragic poem "Samson Agonistes." In all these poems we see a peculiar pattern wherein Milton projects his own beliefs through the characters. In these poems there is a gradual transition wherein the troubled conscience finally finds tranquility and deliverance by divine grace. Particularly Milton's Paradise lost and "Samson Agonistes" have…
Donald Trump Being a recking Ball Could Be the Best Thing to Happen to American Politics
A lot of people have a lot of different reasons for supporting Donald Trump as the Republican Presidential nominee in the upcoming 2016 November Presidential election against whomever the prevailing Democratic nominee will be (Bernie Sanders or Hillary Clinton). Some like Trump's stance on trade (Beversdorff). Others like his policy on immigration (Hahn). Still others like him simply because the "Establishment" -- represented by men like Mitt Romney, illiam Kristol and Karl Rove -- appears bent on stopping him, and, so the logic goes, if the so-called "Establishment" hates him, he has to be all right (Buchanan). But what should one make of Trump from a dispassionate perspective? hat, in other words, does Trump represent that America is in need of? Change? Obama represented that (theoretically) in 2008 and all the country received was…
Alloway, Tracy. "This Is What's Going On Beneath the Subprime Auto-Loan Turmoil."
Bloomberg, 21 Mar 2016. Web. 22 Mar 2016.
Beversdorff, Thad. "Let Me Show You Why Trump is Right on Trade Agreements."
First Rebuttal, 22 Mar 2016. Web. 22 Mar 2016.
disobedience between individuals and it deals with unjust authority. An experimental scenario was set up by the authors in order to see -- from a group of 149 individuals -- how many of them would obey an "unethical request" and how many would not obey, and would instead blow the whistle on the request.
The authors did this study because they believe that there has not been enough research into the "nature of disobedience to unjust authority," and the bottom line it seems is this: who are the whistleblowers and how are they different from those who go along with unfair, immoral, or unjust demands?
Summary of the procedure used by the authors: The authors explain on page 37 that the whistleblower doesn't get off just because he revealed a situation that is wrong or unjust; rather, the whistleblower must expect to have "future involvement" with the authorities that he…
Bocchiaro, P., Zimbardo, P.G., and Van Lange, P.A.M. (2012). To defy or not to defy: An experimental study of the dynamics of disobedience and whistle-blowing. Social Influence, 7(1), 35-50.
They are words that last forever, and when we face challenges where racial inequities and inhumane horrors cause to pause in stunned silence, often times these words of inspiration come to us and move us take action for social justice. Harrell explains Mandela's gift in this regard saying:
"Mandela exhibited the characteristics that made jeremiad in South Africa social protest feasible: he combined lament and call to consciousness in sustaining South Africa's democratic mission. His ultimate success depended upon his rational appeal to those who saw his course of action would be the most sensible choice (7 of 15)."
Indeed, with words so carefully crafted as to emphasize the essences of democracy, Mandela ensured the support of those in South Africa who had long been deprived democracy. He also appealed to those who understood that the only way to bring about a world peace, was to pursue democratic principles, ensuring…
Harrell, Willie J. (2009). "We Shall Crush Apartheid: Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, and the Rhetoric of the South African Anti-apartheid Jeremiad. Ethnicity and Race in a Changing World: A Review Journal, Vol 1 Issue 1, January 2009, found online at http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/journals/journal.asp?id=18 , retrieved March 20, 2010.
Downing, David (2003). Apartheid in South Africa,
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…
works cited at the end.
If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!
JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997
Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
As a character, Celie's own experiences have not engaged her on the same levels that Shug's sexual experiences have. This is to say that Celie's life and collection of experiences have not been personally gratifying or freeing in the way that Shug suggest sexual experiences should or can be. To Shug, sex is more about the personal gratification and the freedom of bodily and emotional expression that comes with the act of making love (Selzer, 69). Since Celie's life has revolved around taking care of her children and making sure the men in her life are happy, she really hasn't had much time to develop her own personal sex life in a gratifying or selfish way.
It is important to make the distinction between acting selfishly as the men in Celie's life have and acting selfishly as Shug suggests Celie do. These are two separate things, and the act of…
Gates, Henry L. And Nellie Y. McKay. The Norton Anthology of African-American
Literature, 2nd Ed. New York: Norton, 2004.
Hamilton, Carole. "Dutchman: Baraka's Concept of the Revolutionary Theatre." Drama
for Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 1998. pp. 228-235.