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Disruptive Innovation Essays (Examples)

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Innovation in a Single Day the Average
Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21668510
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In a single day, the average person comes into contact with a range of services, products, and processes that can be categorized as forms of innovation. Furthermore, most of these innovations will differ in degree, some being radical innovations and others being merely incremental; some sustaining, others breakout, and still others viewed as disruptive innovations. This paper will analyze the different examples of innovation with which I come into contact on a daily basis, show how they are innovative, what generic lessons can be derived from them, and under what form of innovation they would be categorized.

The water purifier is a perfect form of process innovation that is often applied to product innovation: for example, it may be found within the mechanism of the refrigerator, attached to the kitchen faucet, or even inside a portable water bottle. All three provide purified water and illustrate how process innovation can…

Innovation Best Practices
Words: 1910 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60575523
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In his book, Beyond the obvious: killer questions that spark game-changing innovation, Phil McKinney (2012) argues that most innovation efforts fail because the right questions are never asked -- people are taught and do not stray from the obvious. McKinney asserts that in a rapidly changing world, people ought to ask the right questions about their businesses -- they must stretch beyond the basic or usual. Indeed, asking the right questions is the heart of innovation (Berger, 2014). Asking the right questions causes a fundamental shift in how a business sees its products and customers, and the way the two interact. In addition to asking the right questions, innovation involves creating an environment that supports innovation and having the right leadership practices. These three themes constitute the focus of this paper. The paper particularly highlights important questions that drive the innovation process and the role of leadership in creating a…

Disruptive Technology Focus on How
Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65298880
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However, by keeping apace of industry trends and consumer desires, it can be better poised to be aware of potential threats, as these are areas disruptive technologies often wish to target.

What strategies might they use when they do identify a technology that could be disruptive?

A company must remain both on the cutting edge of innovation in terms of technology in its industry, and have a clear knowledge of the needs of its customer base. Segmenting and addressing a diversity of needs that might be ripe for the targeting of new technologies is one way to remain in control of the market. Small firms, however, might be well advised to snap up and deploy such evolving technologies, as these could be potential growth opportunities in markets where they cannot have the advantage of producing on an economy of scale.

Innovation and Theories of Management Managerial Planning
Words: 2604 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97380941
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Innovation and Theories of Management.

Managerial Planning and Leading in Organizational Innovation

The account presented here is intended to examine the role of innovation in modern business practices. Particularly, this will be examined from the perspective of management and with a focus on the two primary management functions of Planning and Leading. The literature review hereafter considers these functions of management in direct relation to the complex questions pertaining to innovation. Primary areas of consideration are the decision-making which enters into the determination of whether to innovate or to follow market patterns; the impact of market externalities and economic cycles on this decision; and the correlation of internal factors and personnel matters on this decision. The discussion ultimately produces the finding that innovation is only suited for those firms possessing the right mix of internal and external conditions.


Corporate innovation is often thought of as an inherency in the…

Works Cited:

Abramson, Mark A. & Ian D. Littman. (2002). Innovation. Rowman & Littlefield.

Audretsch, David B. (1995). Innovation and Industry Evolution. The MIT Press.

Audretsch, David B. (2006). Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Barnett, Homer Garner. (1906). Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change. McGraw-Hill.

Discontinuous Innovation in a Business
Words: 2225 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2018783
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(1000 Ventures, 2008)

The work of Kaplan and Palmer (2007) entitled: "Strategic Imagination: External Thought Leaders Inspire Breakthrough Innovation" published by Innovation Point relates the fact concerning innovation efforts that they "often deliver disappointingly short-term ideas and fail to identify longer-term growth platforms. An organization's inwardly-focused and historically-biased view of the world limits its capacity for 'strategic imagination'. Bringing in fresh, future-oriented perspectives from outside the organization is an essential catalyst for innovative 'stretch thinking'." (Kaplan and Palmer, 2007) Bringing in what are termed to be 'external thought leaders' derived from various domains will assist the innovation process and assist the team in the development of 'Industry Foresight' and in identification of: "...non-obvious opportunities." (Kaplan and Palmer, 2007) External thought leaders are described as "...inspirational provocateurs and visionaries..." And are said to be the "...essential catalyst for teams that seek breakthrough innovation." (Kaplan and Palmer, 2007) the work of Wagner…


Herzberg, Torsten (2005-2006) Toward a Mid-Range of Method Selection for Innovation Pre-project Activities" School of Industrial Manufacturing Science Enterprise Integration.

Cranfield University. Online available at: 

Kaplan, Soren and Palmer, Derrick (2007) Strategic Imagination: External Thought Leaders Inspire Breakthrough Innovation. Innovation Point. LLC. Online available at 

Profitable Innovation in High Tech: Innovate to Compete, Innovate Profitably to Win (2008) Oracle. Online available at

Horizontal Innovation Networks By and for Users
Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18580766
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Horizontal Innovation Networks: By and for Users

Assessing the Viability of Horizontal Innovation Networks

In evaluating whether user generated innovation is good or bad for a company including if user innovation can happen independently from manufacturers, the insights and knowledge provided in Horizontal innovation networks - By and For Users (von Hippel, 2007) serves as the basis of this analysis. The integration of user-generated innovations into the product development process, and to the extent to which innovations' benefits and unique position within a manufacturers' marketing mix are analyzed in the context of social networks being the platform for open innovation (Bernoff, Li, 2008).

Defining the Value of User-Generated innovation

elying on microeconomic analysis and the frameworks of free revealing supported by examples from open source software and the development of the Apache Server software in addition to several other examples Horizontal innovation networks - By and For Users (von Hippel,…


Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Bucci, A., & Parello, C.. (2009). Horizontal innovation-based growth and product market competition. Economic Modelling, 26(1), 213.

Jeffrey H. Dyer & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.

Per Hilletofth, & David Eriksson. (2011). Coordinating new product development with supply chain management. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 111(2), 264-281.

Technology in Innovation the Role
Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47538234
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The cloud computing platform has also made it possible for companies to integrate their information technologies and services into a common strategy; a goal that had not been attainable in the past (Buttol, Buonamici, Naldesi, inaldi, Zamagni, Masoni, 2012).

A second strategic technology that is driving a high level of innovation in organizations is mobility and the rise of mobile computing, incouding the latest generation of operating systems in this area. Apple's iOS, Google's Android and many other operating systems are the foundation of disruptive innovation throughout many enterprises today. The early advances in mobile technologies are a case in point, as are the continued development of medical applications for the Apple iPad (Wickramasinghe, Sharma, Goldberg, 2003). Mobility is also showing the potential to be a technology that can support precise geo-positioning and analysis of the best delivery routes for courier services and supply chain-based companies as well. The rise…


Arinze, B., & Anandarajan, M. (2010). Factors that determine the adoption of cloud computing: A global perspective.International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems, 6(4), 55.

Buttol, P., Buonamici, R., Naldesi, L., Rinaldi, C., Zamagni, A., & Masoni, P. (2012). Integrating services and tools in an ICT platform to support eco-innovation in SMEs. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 14(2), 211-221.

Kleis, L., Chwelos, P., Ramirez, R.V., & Cockburn, I. (2012). Information technology and intangible output: The impact of IT investment on innovation productivity. Information Systems Research, 23(1), 42-59,280,282-283.

Nambisan, S., Bacon, J., & Throckmorton, J. (2012). The role of the innovation capitalist in open innovation. Research Technology Management, 55(3), 49-57.

Technology and Innovation -- Market
Words: 1707 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 1107256
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It takes insightful analysis of the key success factors from the customers' perspective while a strong commitment to re-orient internal, back-office systems to support customer-driven criterion. The examples of the e-commerce industry, which is known for increasing returns and being highly differentiated on knowledge, show how quickly the network effect can serve as an accelerator for second movers to gain customer base in a relatively short period of time.


Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.

Hsieh, T.. (2010, June). Why I Sold Zappos. Inc., 32(5), 100-104.

Isckia, T.. (2009). Amazon's Evolving Ecosystem: A Cyber-bookstore and Application Service Provider. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 26(4), 332-343.

Lieberman, M.B. & Montgomery D.B. 1998, 'First-Mover (Dis)Advantages: etrospective and Link with the esource-Based View, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 19, pp. 1111-1125.

Maida Napolitano.…


Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.

Hsieh, T.. (2010, June). Why I Sold Zappos. Inc., 32(5), 100-104.

Isckia, T.. (2009). Amazon's Evolving Ecosystem: A Cyber-bookstore and Application Service Provider. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 26(4), 332-343.

Lieberman, M.B. & Montgomery D.B. 1998, 'First-Mover (Dis)Advantages: Retrospective and Link with the Resource-Based View, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 19, pp. 1111-1125.

Action the Importance of Creativity and Innovation
Words: 6004 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 15705407
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The importance of creativity and innovation in the workplace is well documented, but the debate over nature vs. nurture continues with some authorities maintaining that people are born with attributes such as creativity and innovation while others argue that such attributes can be inculcated over time (Furnham & Heaven 1999). To determine the facts in these matters, this case study examines the relevant literature to gain some fresh insights concerning how creativity and innovation can be most effectively stimulated, support and sustained within a given organization. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the case study's conclusion.

Companies of all types and sizes are currently attempting to gain a competitive edge through creativity and innovation. Creativity in the workplace is defined by Garrison, Harvey and Napier (2008) as being "the production of ideas, products, or procedures that are (a) novel or original; (b) appropriate for…


'Coast Guard Innovation Program.' (2008) Commandant Instructions 5224.13, CG-09. Washington D.C., U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

Garrison, G. Harvey, M. & Napier, N. (2008) 'Global Decision-making: the Role of Managerial

Curiosity in Assessing Potentially Disruptive Information Technologies.' Multinational

Business Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 21-23.

Issues in Technology Innovation
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34143462
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technology s-curve analysis is useful to assess the developmental lifecycle stage of technology. The term s-curve refers to the share that the progress of the lifecycle will be seen as on a graph where the x axis is time and the y axis is performance White & Bruton, 201). The line resembles an s, as shown in figure 1 below

Figure 1; the Technology S-Curve

The curve is useful as it will help to assess where technology is in the life cycle, and whether there are likely to be major improvements, or if the product is moving towards maturity if it will be vulnerable to substitute technology White & Bruton, 2010). New technology that will be come a substitute is likely to start its lifecycle during the accelerated growth period of the exiting technology, so it is ready to become the substitute when the current technology reaches maturity. Understanding the…

(a) Key issues to remember in managing technology substitution include the way in which the consumers that buy the technology use it, and how the new products may be perceived in terms of acceptability (White & Bruton, 2010). This means looking not only at current needs, but at potential future consumer needs in order to ensure that the technology meets with market needs. Firms need to ensure potential substitutions will include the ability to satisfy needs and offer sufficient additional, but desired or useful benefits that will justify the consumer switching for a product that is likely to have a higher cost, and may include some inconvenience in terms of adapting to the changes in the technology (Kotler & Keller, 2011).

(b) When a firm manages technology substitution the process should begin before the technology is needed, so there is time for it to undergo the slower development stages before it is needed and can present with the enhanced performance the point the technology needs to be used as a substitution. The process should include focus on the market needs and forecasting consumer demand, as well as the technological capabilities and developments (White & Bruton, 2010). The process should also be undertaken in a manner that will protect the developments with patents etc...

(c) Managing technological substitution is important as now product will last forever; even lifecycle extension strategies will only prolong the lifecycle for a limited period of time. In technology where there is a highly competitive environment this is especially true. If the firm wishes to survive they will need to have product in place to act as substitutes, if they do not they will loose their customers to

Innovation Culture Horibe F 2001
Words: 4283 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 63023949
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Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of the types of qualities (passion, drive, confidence) that are needed to keep ideas alive and vital. A good manager can deal with the package and manage the wheat with the chaff.

Talking Points

Usually impossible to get the type of innovators one wants without getting some of their own negatives (arrogance, inability to compromise, etc.).

Managing means eliciting the needed strengths out of each individual employee, and harkens back to the idea that not all employees are equal.

Managers often have the urge to tame the wild nature of a dissenter; to "bring them into the fold."

There are people who provide dissent because they are simply unhappy -- regardless of the situation. These types of dissenters rarely contribute innovation, but instead…

Cited in

Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning

Organization. Broadway.

Tichy, N. And a. McGill, eds. (2003). The Ethnical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding

Integrity. Jossey-Bass.

Analyzing Innovation and Change
Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41703616
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Innovation and Change

Innovation is important in today's world. Indeed, innovation is an important element in the formula for success and even for survival, sometimes. It is for that reason that this subject is a top agenda for many organizations across the globe (American Management Association, 2006).

While entrepreneurship involves the will to risk starting and managing a business, innovation has to do with coming up with a new idea or just taking an old idea and making better use of it so that it becomes more valuable. Innovation entails the pursuit of new opportunities. Entrepreneurship and innovation are more like two sides of the same coin. They are essential ingredients of creativity. Creativity is about transforming ideas to reality. Social reality finds expression in organizations. It is in these set ups that intentions are grown for the sake of a better future.

The central reason that motivates change in…


American Management Association. (2006). A Global Study of Innovation Management. The Quest for Innovation .

Plante, L. (2012, March). A Guide to Entreprenuers who lead and Manage Change. Technology Innovation Management Review .

Research Team. (2015). Research Team 101. Reasons why Entrepreneural Organization seek Innovation Opportunities

Managing Innovation in Its Simplest Form Can
Words: 2635 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61641057
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Managing Innovation

Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).

The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…


AFUAH, A. 2003. Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation, and Profits, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press.

ALEXY, O. & REITZIG, M. 2012. Managing the business risks of open innovation. McKinsey Quarterly, 17-21.

BROWN & HELEN 2008. Knowledge and innovation: a comparative study of the U.S.A., the UK, and Japan London Routledge.

DANNEELS, E. 2002. The Dynamics of Product Innovation and Firm Competences. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1095-1121.

Tapping Into the Sources of Innovation
Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37656053
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Tapping Into the


Bower, J.L. & Christensen, Clayton M. (1995). Disruptive technology: Catching the wave. Harvard Business Review.

Chesbrough, H.W. & Appleyard, M.M. (2007). Open innovation and strategy. California Management Review, 50(1): 57-76.

Shehabuddeen, N. (2007). Innovation in real life - a hands-on guide to genuine innovation. NY: Open Innovation Ltd.

von Hippel, E. (1988). The sources of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press.

Business National or Regional Innovation
Words: 2520 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50882768
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MESIC's have been singularly unsuccessful, and have been deemphasized in recent years.

Related to this are: State-sponsored venture capital investments. Countries and regions invest in venture capital funds as Limited Partners, meaning that they have the same or similar financial returns as all other investors in a Fund. In many cases, such state investments require some conditions on the privately-run venture fund. The most popular conditions include:

fixed percentage threshold of investment in the region or country, or certain number of jobs to be generated by their investments, or Attracting a certain multiple of investment from outside the state or region into the fund, or Limiting the venture investments to the types of technologies and industries which are of greatest interest to that state or region.

Examples of the above can include the Indiana Futures Fund, in which the State of Indiana invested $100 million in several venture funds. Among…


Asen, R. "The Multiple Mr. Dewey: Multiple Publics and Permeable Borders in John Dewey's Theory of the Public Sphere." Argumentation and Advocacy, 2003: 174-182.

Balzac, M. "Recent Trends in the Research on National Innovation Systems." REPEC. November 26, 2007.  (Accessed November 28, 2007).

Birch, D.L. MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987.

Christensen, C. The Innovator's Dilemma. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995.

Analyzing Emerging and Disruptive Technologies for the Military
Words: 3556 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 13464373
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Disruptive Technologies for the Military

Disruptive technologies are innovations that aid in creating new markets, eventually going on to disturb or even dismantle the current value networks and market, and to displace an older technology. Clayton M. Christensen, a professor at Harvard Business School, coined this term, now used frequently in technology and business literature for describing innovations that bring about improvements to any service or product, in ways not expected by the market (Lucas, 2012). The Professor first made use of the term in his best-seller "The Innovator's Dilemma" (published in the year 1997), wherein he classified new technologies into two groups: disruptive and sustaining. The former category refers to novel, inadequately refined technology, typically associated with performance issues, known only to some group(s), and normally lacking any proven practical use. Meanwhile, the latter category includes familiar technologies undergoing successive improvements. Disruption may be viewed from another perspective, if…


Brimley, S., FitzGerald, B., Sayler, S. & Singer, P.W. (SEPTEMBER 2013). Game Changers: Disruptive Technology and U.S. Defense Strategy, Center for American New Security

Christiansen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.

FitzGerald, B., Sayler, K., Lynn III, W.J. & Stavridis, J. (JUNE 2014). Creative Disruption Technology, Strategy and the Future of the Global Defense Industry, Center for American New Security.

Fonseca, M. (03/02/2014). Guide to 12 Disruptive Technologies. digital, retrieved from  / on 20 February 2016

Analyzing Diffusion of Innovation
Words: 1848 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 82242035
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life stories in it in forming one's own DNP project.

Diffusion can be described as the procedure through which an innovation is conveyed via particular channels over time amidst members of a social system. An innovation, on the other hand, can be described as a practice, idea, or even object regarded as new by somebody or adoption unit (ogers, The process of diffusion basically entails both interpersonal communication and mass media channels. In the current world, information technologies like mobile phones and the internet are a representation of remarkable diffusion tools. Think of the following encounter of co-author Singhal in the Philippines.

In May 2006, as Singhal walked down Epifanio de los Santas Avenue (known as "Edsa") in Manila, Philippines, a Filipina associate noticed that "Edsa" was actually the street where cell phones brought down President Estrada's government. Taking in the bewildering look on Singhal's face, she explained that…


Cain, M., & Mittman, R. (2002). California Health Care Foundation -- Health Care That Works for All Californians. Diffusion of Innovation in Healthcare. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from 

Rogers, E., Singhal, A., & Quinlan, M. (n.d.). Diffusion of Innovations. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from

Thrower, T. (2014, December 7). Linked In. Disruptive Reinvention of Health Information Technology (HIT). Retrieved March 11, 2016, from

Tesla's innovation'strategy
Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76137792
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Exploiting Innovation
Elon Musk's companies rely heavily on innovation for their success. They take industries that are struggling to evolve, such as electric cars and space travel, and seek to enter those businesses with innovative strategies to bring fresh products to market. Because of this, these companies have significant competitive advantages. Tesla has introduced several major innovations that are transforming the automotive industry.
At a high level, Musk overpromises, but supports this with a desire to innovate using unconventional methodologies. He will set out an impossible task, then challenge his teams to find ways to make it happen. Sometimes these teams are put together for the express goal of tackling the challenge. Musk does not put limits or constraints on how these teams solve the problem, and this gives those teams the freedom to find their own innovative solutions. Typically, major challenges will run into a number of different problems,…

Diffusion of Innovation and Supervision
Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33672789
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Market researchers have long understood that complexity -- particularly in the form of too many choices -- can cause consumers to freeze up and not make a selection. Gottfredson and Aspinall (2005) argue that complexity is not just confounding for consumers, but that it can also contribute to lower profits. Innovation is perceived as a positive factor in business, but to a degree, innovation has taken on a life of its own. To illustrate how effective restraint can be in business, Gottfredson and Aspinall (2005) discuss the In-N-Out Burgers enterprise. While In-N-Out Burgers is focused on creating its own particular brand of harmony around the number four, other businesses need to identify a balance based on the attributes that are the most valued by their customers.

Contemporary consumers expect a level of customization that may actually serve to reduce the quality and expediency of their service experiences. Gottfredson and Aspinall…


Burgelman, R.A. And Siegel, R.E. (2006, December). Defining the minimum winning game in high-technology ventures. California Management Review.

Gottfredson, M. And Aspinall, K. (2005, November). Innovation vs. complexity: What is too much of a good thing? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review.

Moore, G.A. (1991). Crossing the chasm: Marketing and selling disruptive products to mainstream customers. New York, NY: Collins Business / Harper Collins Publishers. Retreived from

How Globalization Influences Innovation and Social Responsibility
Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 18209207
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Strategic Management Challenges Globalization

Strategic Management and Challenges of Globalization

"Innovation's Holy Grail"?

The article observes that sustainability and affordability are concepts with superior implications on company's premium pricing strategies. The elements therein influence innovation's drivers with fewer executives knowing the best ways of coping with certain shifts. Firms make various offerings available to many people through selling cheap and well-developed services and products on fewer resources (Prahalad & Mashelkar, 2010). Firms respond to such challenges by establishing strategies that permit the creation of more products using fewer resources and selling cheaper prices. The search for extensive manufacturing costs, as well as fresh talent sources, increase the pressure on globalization that leads to complex supply chains, cross-border interdependencies, and knowledge chains.

The article supports the notion of Gandhian innovation that goes against traditional categories relating to products, process, and pricing. The focus is on changing business dynamics, synthesizing technologies, and…


Grant, RM. 2013, Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Wiley; eighth edition

Haberberg, A., Rieple, A., 2008. Strategic Management: Theory and Application. New York: Cengage Oxford University Press.

Hill, C., Jones, G. 2012. Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. New York: Cengage Learning.

Hitt, M., Ireland, R.D., Hoskisson, R., 2012. Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. New York: Cengage Learning.

Negotiations Tendering Partnering for Innovation
Words: 6415 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42776519
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They may have different ideas and strategies on how the work should be performed. There is a fine distinction between competition and cooperation (Porter and Fuller, 1986). The companies must maintain a balance between the alliances and their own strategic position. The companies must avoid situations where one partner overshadows the other one (Dussauge and Garrette 1995).

Borys and Jemison (1989) found that four main factors affect the performance of partnerships. These four factors were the breadth of purpose, boundary determination, value creation process, and stability mechanisms. The breadth of purpose of the project in the construction industry is typically defined as the duration of the construction phase of the project. Boundary determination has more to do with how contractors interact with one another. Sometimes this is defined by a contractor, subcontractor relationship and sometimes it represents a truly collaborative effort. Sometimes boundaries are a part of the negotiation process.…

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Bartlett, C. & Sumantra, G. 1989. Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Beersma, B. & De Dreu, C. 1999. Negotiation processes and outcomes in prosocially and egoistically motivated groups. International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 10. pp. 385-402.

Borys, B. & . Jemison, D. 1989. Hybrid arrangements as strategic alliances: Theoretical issues in organizational combinations. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14. pp 234-49.

Brett, J. & Rognes, J. 1986. Intergroup relations. In P.S. Goodman (Ed.), Designing effective work groups. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Tata Motor Inc What Is
Words: 2262 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 76998268
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The process of reframing is well illustrated in the case of Tata Nano car concept. The reframers question themselves in an attempt to answer the question "why not." Tata for instant broke a century old paradigm for car manufacture by distributing the component kits for the manufacture of the Tata nano to a number of entrapreneural smaller firms could assemble closer to their customer base. This was as opposed to complete production of the car in their factories. They questioned the conventional wisdom in order to aid the firm in navigating the increasingly complex corporate environment.

The culture of creative dissatisfaction

Other than the formal system of the TSC the company has taken certain key steps that are aimed at the stimulation of creative thinking. The company trains its employees so as to think about improving its products at all times. They refer to this as the culture of creative…


Business Week (n.d). Tata's Innovation Engine:How Tata spurs creative thinking

Drucker, P (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles

Gosh, G (2010). Reframing is the key to Disruptive Innovation

Michael Dell's Influence on Dell
Words: 1711 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12204459
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His leadership has also led to the build-to-order strategy becoming an exceptionally profitable manufacturing strategy across dozens of industries.


Buffington, J. 2011, "Comparison of mass customization and generative customization in mass markets," Industrial Management + Data Systems, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 41-62.

Dell Investor elations (2012). Investor elations. etrieved February 23, 2012 from Dell Investor elations and Filings with the SEC Web site:

"A revolution of one: Michael Dell invented a business model that all the world wanted to copy; yet after all these years, almost nobody has; why?," 2001, Economist, vol. 359, no. 8217, pp. 63-63.

Dell, M.S. 1994, "Making the right choices for the new consumer," Managing Service Quality, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 22-22.

DellIsola, M.,D. 2002, "Impact of delivery systems on cost management," AACE International Transactions,, no. 15287106, pp. PM31-PM36.

Gama, J. 2006, "What Could Be the Solution?," AmericaEconomia,, no. 327, pp. 69-71.…


Buffington, J. 2011, "Comparison of mass customization and generative customization in mass markets," Industrial Management + Data Systems, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 41-62.

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Dell, M.S. 1994, "Making the right choices for the new consumer," Managing Service Quality, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 22-22.

Management in Healthcare What Is
Words: 788 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55360842
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This ensures each data entry point has a very clear purpose in the overarching development of the enterprise-wide IT systems throughout a healthcare provider (Tan, Payton, 2010). By taking this top-down governance and process management approach to defining an IT structure with data points, a healthcare organization can also ensure a much higher level of security to their entire network as well (Dwyer, einer, Siegel, 2004). Aligning IT spending to processes and governance frameworks ensures a higher level of performance.

3. Describe a situation where you would use a CHIN or HINO system to provide care. How would you utilize cloud computing?

The Community Health Information Network (CHIN) and egional Health Information Network Organizations (HINO) are best suited to serving a broad base of patients across a wide geographic and socioeconomic area. The CHIN platform has been specifically tailored to the development of metro and urban requirements, with success in…


Dwyer, S.J., Reiner, B.I., Siegel, E.L. (2004). Security

Hickman, G.T., Smaltz, DH (2008). The Healthcare Information Technology Planning Field book: Tactics, Tools and Templates for Building your IT Plan. Chicago: HIMSS. ISBN 978-0-9800697-1-6.

Tan, J., Payton, F.C. (2010). Adaptive Health Management Information Systems: Concepts Cases and Practical Applications (3rd ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN 13: 978-0-7637-5691-8.

Leadership Priorities and Practice in Organizational Management
Words: 2127 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10230667
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Leadership Priorities and Practice in Organizational Management

The enterprise software industry is going through a series of disruptive innovations that are disrupting the economics of the industry while also shifting the balance of power away from the Chief Information Officer (CIO) to the line-of-business leaders including the Vice Presidents, General Managers and Directors of Business Units. As this balance of power shifts throughout enterprise software, many long-standing approaches to developing, delivering, monetizing, and supporting software are also changing. One of the most successful companies in the enterprise software industry, specifically in the Aerospace and Defense sector, is Cincom Systems. Cincom has been able to attain a highly profitable business model by creating very customized systems for customers' needs while at the same time creating maintenance agreements that ensuring highly profitable recurring revenue stream over the long-term. This strategy has been largely responsible for the company's ability to withstand the recurring…


Adler, P.S., McDonald, D.W., & MacDonald, F. (1992). Strategic management of technical functions. MIT Sloan Management Review, 33(2), 19-19.

Carroll, S.J., & Gillen, D.J. (1987). Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial work? Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 38-38.

Cunningham, J.B. (1979). The management system: Its functions and processes. Management Science, 25(7), 657-657.

Gold, B. (1991). Towards the increasing integration of management functions: Needs and illustrative advances. International Journal of Technology Management,, 10-10.

Dyson Case Study Dyson Has Created a
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Dyson Case Study

Dyson has created a highly profitable business through the use of a series of processes, systems and practices that increase the probability of innovative new products being produced. It is insightful that the founder and CEO concentrates on finding those household items that aren't working well and dramatically improving their ergonomics, performance and value. This takes a unique approach to innovation that is not easily replicated or imitated by competitors, and further ensures the long-term success of the enterprise. His decision to employ engineers directly out of university further exemplifies the mindset of an innovator as he is deliberately creating a culture that seeks to challenge the status quo and how the majority of design and engineering professionals see the world. Speaking of this dynamic, Sir James Dyson commented that he seeks out those that don't see the world linearly, but rather are free thinkers. What's impressive…

Coping With Organizational Change a
Words: 3024 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57578537
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These are the two most powerful factors that anchor the Force Field Model analysis of the enterprise software industry. With the driving and restraining forces in continual interaction and at times conflict, productivity shifts drastically across the continuums of industries based on the impact of driving and restraining forces (Paquin, Koplyay, 2007).

Cincom is being affected by the disruptive driving forces of CAPEX and OPEX most severely as competitors are quick to create a competitive advantage for themselves by seizing these areas and exploiting them in the market. CAPEX and OPEX are driving such a high rate of disruptive innovation and transformation change that it is in turn disrupting cultures of companies and reordering stakeholder dynamics as well (Koslowski, Struker, 2011). The political and technological forces are also driven by these economic ones, with the restraining forces of the Force Field Model applied to enterprise software being led by CIOs…


Armenakis, a.A. & Harris, S.G. 2002, "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.

Boga, I. & Ensari, N. 2009, "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success," the Psychologist Manager Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 235.

Bordum, a. 2010, "The strategic balance in a change management perspective," Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 245-258.

Brown, a.D. 1994, "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.

Globalization Was Just Coming Into
Words: 3561 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 33566947
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g., Hofstede, five different cultural dimensions), and the other one is the Cultural Standards Model (e.g., lexander Thomas):

1. In a general sense, cultures and differences among cultures can be described and measured along cultural dimensions (Hall, 1990, 2000; Hofstede, 1980, 1993, 2001; House et al., 2004; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961; Rokeach, 1973; Schwartz, 1992 and Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1997).

2. In a more detailed and more descriptive sense, the cultural standard method deals with differences in the kinds of perceiving, norms of sensing, thinking, judging, and acting that can cause critical incidents in cross-cultural encounters (Thomas, 1996; Fink & Meierewert,


Due to significant developments in this field and the available range of value dimension studies, it is better to understand the possible impact of similarities and differences among cultures. Dimensions, which are quantitatively measured, can be used in statistical models (regression analysis) as well as to help explain…

Also, in the justification section, you use the terms "physical" and "relational" proximity. These are not terms that are used in the proposal. Either define them above or use terms that are defined. Once again, you may want to explain how this benefit compares to what is derived from Hofstede's approach. There are numerous studies on why Hofstede's approach does not work. You could address some of these studies and demonstrate why your methodology would prove better.

As you see, I have also noted areas that need sources and moved paragraphs around as well as added some copy. Make sure that every statement of fact that you present is backed up with a source, unless it is your own thought.

Hofstede, Geert. Culture's Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 2001

Leadership and Ethics
Words: 2612 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47887257
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Leaders Can Manage Change

Transforming the Client Organization:

From Transactional Management to Transformational Leadership

Staying in step with customer and client needs is more than fulfilling their requests on a periodic basis and meeting their basic expectations, as any company that excels in client management understands. It is the ability to align every aspect of an enterprise to the needs and expectations, experiences and requirements of clients. Often internally-based organizations including those that are given the objective of being client-focused, end up paradoxically being the most myopic and inward-focused, resistant to change. Any organization that is experiencing this is in danger of losing the most valuable relationships and trust they have with customers. As leaders must continually push accountability, ownership and a clear sense of responsibility for results to the front lines of their enterprises, when traditional management and leadership strategies fail to deliver results, change is required. The intent…

Bibliography and References

Armenakis, A.A. & Harris, S.G. (2002) "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.

Boga, I. & Ensari, N. (2009), "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success," The Psychologist Manager Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 235.

Bordum, A. (2010), "The strategic balance in a change management perspective," Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 245-258.

Brown, A.D. (1994), "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.

Wiki Sherry Martin CEO Ref
Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 17927829
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Suppose, for example, that the document requires, at some point, an import of a certain excel sheet or any other type of application.

Potential technical failure

. If the wikis are hosted either externally or on the internal server, a failure of the respective server may lead to the work in progress being lost. Overall, our productivity may decrease at company level if such events occur on a repeated basis and additional costs may be incurred.

Potential issues of managing content. With the content availability and flexibility also come the potential problems arising from the management of the existing content

. As such, some of the content may become obsolete at some point and would need to be deleted, some of the content might need to be restructured etc. Within our company, an improper management of all the data associated with the proposals, reports, and other documents that we need…


1. Tonking, Emma. 2005. Making the Case for a Wiki. Ariadne Magazine. Issue 42 January 2005. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on November 6, 2009

2. Gordon, Cindy. 2006. Wikis -- a disruptive innovation. KM World. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on November 6, 2009

3. Schwartz, Ephraim. 2008. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Wiki to Manage Your IT Projects. CIO. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on November 6, 2009

4. Advantages and disadvantages of using an external wiki over an internal hosted one. On the Internet at Last retrieved on November 6, 2009

Fujitsu Limited Case
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Strategy and Innovation

Impact of Strategy on Successful Innovation: The Case of Fujitsu Limited

Innovation, both product- and process-wise, has increasingly become a crucial source of competitive advantage in today's business world. Organisations that continually reinvent their products and processes in accordance to environmental dynamics achieve greater success in the marketplace compared to those that pay little or no attention to innovation (Beyene & Wu, 2016). Successful innovation, however, is predominantly dependent on an organisation's business strategy (Hajar, 2015). A firm's strategic orientation determines the extent to which it introduces new products or new ways of doing things. In other words, without the right strategy, an organisation may not innovate successfully. The connection between strategy and innovation is particularly true for Fujitsu Limited, a Japanese information and communication technology (ICT) company. With reference to Fujitsu, this paper discusses the impact of strategy on innovation. Attention is particularly paid to how…

New Ethical Dilemmas in Healthcare
Words: 2702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16425230
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3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).

Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.

According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…


Association of American Medical Colleges. (2010). Healthcare Innovation Zones: A True

Platform for Reform. Retrieved on 29th March, 2010 from 

Atlas, S. (2009). Ideals Changing the World: 10 Surprising Facts about American Health Care.

National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) No. 649

Wal-Mart Assessing External and Internal
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20736897
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Wal-Mart is also a highly delegative culture in terms of its subsidiaries, with in-store managers in all regions they operate in responsible for performance. The Wal-Mart approach to delegation also requires in-store associates to assist with the unloading of trailers when they arrive with merchandise at Superstores as well. Wal-Mart strongly holds efficiency and delegation in the same context (Appelbaum, Lichtenstein, 2006).

Diversity and Ethics

Wal-Mart has often been criticized for their lack of diversity and for a lack of ethics in managing part-time workers. In response to these claims and to practices that proved to be unethical, the company has created a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) program that is global in scope. Wal-Mart's efforts to ensure diversity and ethics have in turn been delegated to the store manager level (Spangler, Britt, Parks, 2008) where individual performance is measured and evaluated over time. The framework of planning, organizing, leading and…


Appelbaum, R., & Lichtenstein, N.. (2006). A New World of Retail Supremacy: Supply Chains and Workers' Chains in the Age of Wal-Mart. International Labor and Working Class History, 70(1), 106-125.

Bateman, Snell. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World. New York: McGraw Hill

Cherie Blanchard, Clare L. Comm, & Dennis F.X. Mathaisel. (2008). Adding value to service providers: benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking, 15(2), 166-177.

Krotov, V., & Junglas, I.. (2008). RFID as a Disruptive Innovation. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 3(2), 44-59.

Strategic and Financial Changes in Private Not-For profit
Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 42100512
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Strategic and Financial Changes in private, not-For=profit higher education institutions in Jamaica

Quantitative nalysis of Strategic and Financial Changes in private, not-for-profit higher education institutions in Jamaica

Summary of Chapter 1 and introduction to chapter 2:

Researchers are of the opinion that SIHE is in danger of being affected by external forces such as innovation, competition, and other disruptive forces (Christensen, nthony, & Roth, 2004; Kirp, 2004; Koblik & Graubard, 2000; McPherson & Schapiro, 1999; Roach, 2004; Townsley, 2002). They say that decreasing availability of the access to certain forms of higher education restricts and inhibits the options open to a growing segment of students at the undergraduate level (Hawkins, 1999; Hussar & Bailey, 2006; Townsley, 2002; NCES, 2005a). Based on empirical data and the process of resources allocation between SIHE strategies and implications, the study aimed to study the effects on higher education (Bower & Gilbert, 2005). The current…

According to Townsley (2002) a number of small Jamaican institutions were not sound financially and therefore were more vulnerable to financial hardships, inflation, decreasing number of students registering and increasing competition in the marketplace. Premising on an assessment of financial situation and plans of action for a number of small institutions, including the ones that did not fare well against competition, Townsley suggested plans of action revolving around a careful management of economics, encouraging educational programs that are flexible and in light with market demands, while at the same time, not changing the main purpose of the respective universities and colleges.

Adding to financial and competitive change indicators, a type of disruptive innovation threatening the conventional system of universities and colleges is the appearance of emerging entrants providing innovative educational populations to customers who are gradually but surely increasing, such as distance learning programs (Christensen, Anthony, & Roth, 2004; O'Donoghue, Singh, & Singh, 2002). The emerging Jamaican institutions comprise of institutions looking to make a profit and employ aggressive strategies to do so, who offer accredited graduate and post graduate programs via both on-ground and Internet facilities, the latter of which allows for flexibility and the option to choose courses that lead to much better curricula for the students (O'Donoghue, Singh, & Singh, 2002).

As attention is being shifted from conventional ways of learning to enrolling in distance educational programs, the traditional educational institutions are charged with the job of reconsidering their coping, operating and marketing plans of action so that their continuity and survivability can be assured. According to Roach (2004) some of the experts in the field of information technology distributed the later years of 1980s into the post and

Strategy and Human Resource Management
Words: 3815 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27087824
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For Apple, this strategy has translated into market dominance in the smartphone and tablet PC markets. The success of that company continues to underscore the inherent value in synchronizing these three elements of an HM framework, transformational leadership, and a continual supply of disruptive innovation for heavy investment in &D.

The Practicality of Agile HM Frameworks and Their Impact on Long-Term Financial Viability

The creation of an effective HM framework, continual improvement of transformational leaders and their skill sets, and the infusion of innovation can transform a company much like these approaches worked at Apple. For the majority of companies however the practicality of how best to manage these three areas and attain profitability remains a challenge. The majority of companies struggle with creating an agile HM framework that can balance the urgent need to get employees hired and accomplishing tasks quickly using transactional leadership vs. getting employees to buy…


Ann, G. & Pamela, D. & Jerry, W. 2008. 'Characteristics of leadership effectiveness: Implementing change and driving innovation in organizations' Human Resource Development Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 2, pp153. (Online Pro-quest)

Avolio, B. & Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. 2009. 'Leadership: current theories, research and future directions', Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 421 -- 449. (Online Pro-quest)

Brown, M. & Trevino, L. & Harrison, D. 2005. 'Ethical leadership: a social learning perspective for construct development and testing', Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 117 -- 134. (Online Pro-quest)

Cshawn, B. & Dana, E. & Sims, E. & Eduardo, S. 2007. 'Trust in leadership: A multi-level review and integration'. Leadership Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 6, pp 606 (Online Pro-quest)

Evolution of Business in the
Words: 4632 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92676924
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The major benefits to using a SaaS platform for integrating social networking, CM and marketing systems are the significantly lower costs of operation, the pay-as-you-go approach to leasing only the application areas used, and the flexibility of scaling the computing workload up or down based on the unique requirements of a given company's strategy. SaaS has become the platform of choice for managing social networks, as Facebook, Twitter, Friendfeed, millions of blogs hosted on WordPress, and Foursquare are all hosted on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) platform which is the most popular SaaS-based computing platform in use today (Lin, 73). The SaaS platform has rapidly emerged as a dominant platform for CM systems as today has over 60,000 implementations in place, each one numbering over 100 users or more (McKay, 15).

With the emergence of SaaS as a dominant platform for hosting social network applications, CM systems and marketing…


An, J.. "Evaluation of Customer Relationship Management's Performance under Networked Manufacturing. " International Journal of Business and Management 5.1 (2010): 156-159.

Babu, K., and B. Kumar. "Customer Service Management - Turning Customer Loyalty Into Profitability. " Synergy 8.2 (2010): 93-98.

Beck, K. "Thundering into Social Media. " Customer Relationship Management 1 Jan. 2011: Pages 37, 38.

Bernoff, J., and C. Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36.

Dell com Analysis the Potential the Internet Provides
Words: 2605 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73556992
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The potential the Internet provides businesses to scale their supply chains, manufacturing, fulfillment, services and new product development strategies globally is exemplified in the decades of lessons learned at Dell Corporation. Of the thousands of businesses that sought transformation of their business models with the Internet by concentrating only on the websites, Dell was immediately contrarian, looking to streamline back-office systems first. This analysis presents how the core strategies Dell continues to differentiate on, including build-to-order, configure-to-order and mass customization continue to earn them new customers and retain existing loyal ones through their website strategies. Dell has taken a more systemic and process-based perspective of their websites and as a result the product configuration, guided selling, pricing and innovative service applications are immediately functional and scale globally. Dell has been able to define a development methodology for online strategies that enables the core strengths of their order management,…


Celeste Altus (2007, March). Dell provides its users a forum to share ideas. PRweek, 10(9), 6.

AMR Research (2005) -- The Handbook of Becoming Demand Driven. AMR Research Report. July 15, 2005. Accessed with permission from the publisher. Lora Cecere, Roddy Martin, Debra Hofman.

AMR Research (2006) -- What is Demand Visibility? AMR Research Report. Published March 14, 2006. Accessed with permission from the publisher. Lora Cecere and Roddy Martin.

Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Escalating Commitment as the Reason for Polaroid's Failure
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Business Studies

What Caused Polaroid's Bankruptcy in 2001?

In 2001 Polaroid filed for bankruptcy. The circumstances surrounding the bankruptcy indicate several potential reasons, including poor management decision making and escalating commitment. The financial management of the firm appears to have been questionable in the year before the filing; a special bonus of $1.4 million was paid to the CEO Gary DiCamillo, and other board members received payments f between $63,000 and $272,000 (TParadiso, 2003). The payments were not illegal, but it is notable that the $1.4 million bonus for DiCamillo would not have been received if 6 months prior the auditor KPMG LLP had not been persuaded to refrain from issuing a going concern warning on the annual accounts (TParadiso, 2003). These actions may all appear questionable, especially the action of DiCamillio calling KMPG's CEO in order to ensure the going concern warring was not issued, but whatever the view,…


Rifkin, G, (2002, Jan), Losing Focus, Boston Magazine, accessed at  / on 2nd April 2014

Sandstrom, Christian; Magnusson, Mats; Jornmark, Jan, (2009), Exploring Factors Influencing Incumbents' Response to Disruptive Innovation, Creativity and Innovation Management, 18(1), 8-15

TParadiso, (2003, Aug 26), The Battle for Business Ethics, Polaroid's Final Days Come Into Focus, Motley Fool, accessed at  on 2nd April 2014

Wernher Von Braun in the Quote Research
Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70275756
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Wernher Von Braun

In the quote, research is what I'm doing when I do not know what I'm doing, Dr. Wernher Von Braun is saying that the elements of discovery, non-linear thinking, creativity and unstructured analysis can be even more powerful than a more thoroughly defined, dogmatic and highly constrained approach to primary research. The intent of this paper is to explain who the kind of research described in the quote can be helpful to science, and that the advantage in research that is more directed and purposeful can lead to more efficiency surrounding the process yet also limit the potential to find entirely new, unthought-of solutions to complex problems.

The essence of successful innovation is in finding associations or links between two or more disparate concepts, theories, frameworks or structures that combined deliver significant, often disruptive innovative value over time (Antonelli, Franzoni, Geuna, 201). An analysis of patent flows…


Antonelli, C., C. Franzoni, and A. Geuna. "The organization, economics, and policy of scientific research: what we do know and what we don't know - an agenda for research. " Industrial and Corporate Change 20.1 (2011): 201.

Bhattacharya, J., and M. Packalen. "Opportunities and benefits as determinants of the direction of scientific research. " Journal of Health Economics 30.4 (2011): 603.

Kumazawa, R., and P. Gomis-Porqueras. "An empirical analysis of patents flows and R&D flows around the world. " Applied Economics 44.36 (2012): 4755.

Disintermediation Why Has Disintermediation Through
Words: 3206 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5521775
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That irony is not lost on many of the high technology executives who at one time advocated disintermediating their entire dealer channel and taking their largest customers direct only to discover that trust is the greatest catalyst of efficient transactions of all (Smith, Manna, 2004, 377, 378).


Why Disintermediation Failed to Live Up to the Hype

Before discussing the reasons why disintermediation failed to live up to the hype associated with it, there are exceptions that need to be taken into account. The first is in those industries that have undifferentiated supply chains and where price and availability alone are the only differentiators, disintermediation often takes hold. Such is the case with the Indian tea market, and many sectors of the consumer electronics industries that sell on a commodity-based strategy. These are the industries most susceptible to disintermediation as the middle tier of the distribution channels don't deliver that…



Veneta Andonova. 2003. ONLINE DISINTERMEDIATION: Differences in the Behavior of Traditional Retailers in Adopting E-Commerce. Management Research 1, no. 3, (October 1): 279-290.

Bernoff, J., and C. Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3, (April 1): 36-42.

Bull, C.. 2010. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system, intermediation and disintermediation: The case of INSG. International Journal of Information Management 30, no. 1, (February 1): 94.

Evolution of Organizational Strategies it
Words: 4029 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 16740239
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The workforce is addressed on a personal level to ensure that each individual not only understands what the expectations are of him or her, but also to ensure that they will give only their best effort towards the organizational goal. In order to motivate employees in this way, it is necessary for each individual to understand the organizational goals and to care sufficiently about these. Employees therefore have to find meaning in their work. This can best be done by communication.

It is one fortunate feature of the current technological world that communication can occur both regularly and instantly. Instead of having to print out thousands of circulars, managers can write a single email and send it to thousands of employees simultaneously with a single click. This greatly facilitates the communication paradigm between management and employees, or indeed between the HR department and employees.

Various forms of communication are possible…


Business Wire (2008, Jan 31). Corporate Co-evolution Develops Broader Macroeconomic Principles that can be applied to today's International Corporate Environment. 

Carney, Michael. (2002, Jan-Feb). The co-evolution of institutional environments and organizational strategies. Organization Studies. 

Christensen, C.M. (2006). The innovator's dilemma. New York: Harper Collins, Collins Business Essentials.

Cuddihey, Alden (2003, Fall). Aligning human resources and business: an overlooked formula for success. Canadian Manager.

Moller Skycar Promotions Plan for 2013 Product
Words: 1478 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88421005
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Moller Skycar Promotions Plan for 2013 Product Introduction

The Moller Skycar is a disruptive innovation that once launched will disrupt the auto, ultra-light aircraft and low-end private aircraft industries by completely redefining the personal travel experience. The success of the product launch is heavily dependent on how well integrated and synchronized product, pricing, distribution, pricing and the unique value proposition of the company are consistent with each other. The most critical success factor of launching a disruptive product is how integrated each functional team is to the product strategy and the unique market position it occupies, all centered on communicating clearly and accurately what makes the new product unique and highly differentiated (Brettel, Heinemann, Engelen, Neubauer, 2011). The Moller Skycar is rich with product differentiation and unique value proposition potential because it can easily symbolize freedom and flexibility, agility and responsiveness. All of these are excellent messages and emotions to…


Begona Alvarez, & Rodolfo Vazquez Casielles. (2008). Effects of price decisions on product categories and brands. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(1), 23-43.

Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Brettel, M., Heinemann, F., Engelen, A., & Neubauer, S.. (2011). Cross-Functional Integration of R&D, Marketing, and Manufacturing in Radical and Incremental Product Innovations and Its Effects on Project Effectiveness and Efficiency. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(2), 251.

SA Delre, W Jager, THA Bijmolt, & MA Janssen. (2007). Targeting and timing promotional activities: An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products. Journal of Business Research, 60(8), 826.

Netflix Analysis Industry Drivers the Intent of
Words: 2010 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30558252
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Netflix Analysis

Industry Drivers

The intent of this analysis is to discuss the key industry drivers that are creating opportunities and threats for Netflix (NASDAQ: NFLX), in addition to defining the future of the mail-based and online movie rental subscription service. Competition from Video-On-Demand (VOD) services offered by cable television companies including Time Warner Cable, Comcast and others, combined with kiosk delivery network Redbox and the vertical integration of lockbuster are fundamentally reordering the industry today

(Netflix Investor Relations, 2013). Competition continues to accelerate as each of these competitors invest in research & development (R&D) to increase the performance and reliability of their individual services.

Of the myriad of economic factors that impact their business, Netflix senior management is most concerned and tracks through weekly reporting the level of consumer spending on entertainment in aggregate and for DVID, game and video rental specifically (Netflix Investor Relations, 2013). Additional external factors…


MacCormack, A., Murray, F., & Wagner, E. (2013). Spurring innovation through competitions. MIT Sloan Management Review, 55 (1), 25-32.

Netflix Investor Relations (2013). Investor Relations. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from Netflix Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: 

Papadimitriou, A., Symeonidis, P., & Manolopoulos, Y. (2012). A generalized taxonomy of explanations styles for traditional and social recommender systems. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 24(3), 555-583.

Pham, H.X., & Jung, J.J. (2013). Preference-based user rating correction process for interactive recommendation systems. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 65(1), 119-132.

Blockbuster Case Analysis Summary of
Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2558025
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The high level of debt capitalization inheent in how they have financed thei stoes, which is infeed fom the case study, also could be applied to a moe effective cloud-based delivey achitectue. Netflix did this and was vey pofitable as a esult. Thid, Blockbuste has fa to go in tems of ceating a moe effective custome expeience. Thee is significant potential fo geat upsell and coss-sell as a esult.

The theats include a highly commoditized and shinking move ental maket in the U.S. And globally, including the apid commoditization of titles that ae easily gained though othe channels. In addition, the gowing theat and costs of piacy is vey significant fo Blockbuste and evey othe etail chain as well. Thid, the cost stuctue of the chain is slanted towads etail and epesents a significant financial isk in tems of continually financing the debt.

Poblem Statement

Blockbuste is continually on the…

references. Become a very focused marketed on the customers with the highest potential for Lifetime Customer Value (LCV) and the lowest churn rates possible.

Selling Into Enterprise Corporate Marketing
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positioning affect segmentation and targeting strategies when entering a market?

Positioning strategies serve as the foundational framework for strategic marketing plans and planning, execution, management and evaluation of marketing strategies. Positioning is also used for defining how a company's products or services are differentiated within a customer segment. For example, Apple uses positioning very effectively selling its high-end iPads. his specific positioning strategy by Apple concentrates on only those consumers willing to pay for premium performance, reliability and convenience the iPad offers. Apple does this to position themselves above the myriad of Google Android-based tablets who are competing primarily on price. Apple also uses positioning successfully to sell more on value and less on price. Positioning not only defines the competitiveness of a given product or service relative to competitors, it also communicates the unique value and differentiated features as well (Perreault, Cannon, 2012). Apple excels at this type of…

The maturity of any business has a direct and long-lasting effect on the positioning strategy any company uses to market its products. For start-ups, their positioning strategy will often focus on innovation and how their new products are completely redefining existing markets and leading to entirely new ones being created. Startup companies must continually innovate to stay alive, and their positioning strategies reflect a more focused message on replacing substitute products and services that may have grown obsolete and less useful to customers. The success of the new electric car models from Tesla are a case in point. The positioning being used by Elon Musk who runs Tesla is showing the value of having an all-electric vehicle that doesn't pollute, is cheaper to maintain than an internal combustion engine-based vehicle and is sleek, stylish and very quiet to travel in. All of these product features and benefits of the Tesla are used for defining its positioning as a disruptive innovation in automobile design. Conversely, General Motors' (GM) many variations of car brands all show how a company much more mature uses product line repositioning and product line extensions to continually differentiate their vehicles. GM concentrates on making slight variations to their positioning so they can support marketing and selling strategies from a product perspective. GM is also very focused on cost reduction, while Tesla is obsessed with building market share right now. Given the youth of Tesla and their focus on disruptive innovation as a positioning statement relative to the staid, conservative approach of GM, these positioning directions make sense. This examples shows how positioning varies by startups vs. very mature companies. Positioning will also vary by the stage of the product lifecycle of a given product or service, and in broader terms, entire industries (Perreault, Cannon, 2012).

Explain how the product life cycle can influence the choices available?

The product life cycle is the most rigid constraint there is to defining positioning strategies, as product features and benefits must support, accentuate and deliver on the promises made in market positioning statements and strategies by marketers. The specific product lifecycle phase of a given product often dictates the type of positioning strategy used (Perreault, Cannon, 2012). For new products that deliver exceptional levels of disruptive innovation, as the Tesla, iPad,

Starbuck's Augmented Porter Analysis Starbucks'
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These two factors of aspirational value of the brand and customer experience are what also make this factor a very critical opne in the augmented analytical framework.

Market Growth

The growth of coffee retailing continues to be flat, only generating 5% growth on a compound annual basis (Joo, Min, Kwon, Kwon, 490). This is forcing coffee retailers to concentrate on highly differentiated approaches to selling. For Dunkin' Donuts their approach is to branch out into retail channels with their coffee being available in grocery stores. Other competitive strategies include creating satellite locations and smaller airport kiosks, a strategy Caribou Coffee has tried in the northwest U.S..

Market Turbulence

The rapid pace of disruptive innovation in coffee retailing is increasing, as Starbucks is now challenged by McDonald's entering the high end of the coffee retailing market with their McCafe brand of customized coffee beverages. There is also a shakeout of smaller…


Seong-Jong Joo, Hokey Min, Ik-Whan G. Kwon, and Heboong Kwon. "Comparative efficiencies of specialty coffee retailers from the perspectives of socially responsible global sourcing. " International Journal of Logistics Management 21.3 (2010): 490.

Stanley Slater and Eric Olson. "A fresh look at industry and market analysis. " Business Horizons 45.1 (2002): 15.

Online Social Networks Blog Post
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com last week for over $300M signaled a shift in the CM vendors' strategy to quantify the value of social networking over time. is a leading provider of hosted CM systems on the SaaS platform and has been one of the leading vendors creating social networking-based applications for business customers. Their acquisition of adian6 signals a view they have of metrics and measuring performance of social media applications being critical to the long-run success of their business. This also signals a shift in the market Dr. McAfee wrote about in the context of Enterprise 2.0, which is the observation of collaboration, communication, cooperation and strength of coordination will eventually be quantified and reported on from a metrics standpoint over time (McAfee, 2006).

Blog Post 3: Charting the Transition to Web 3.0: Why Contextual Search and Semantics Matter More Than Ever

From the highly collaborative nature of Web 2.0, which…


Beck, K.. (2011, January). Thundering into Social Media. Customer Relationship Management, 15(1), 37-38.

Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Eric Kavanagh. (2010). The New View: Web 3.0 Will Change Our Perspective: With semantic understanding, we'll unravel the complex world of unstructured content. Information Management, 20(5), 56.

Andrew P. McAfee. (2006). Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(3), 21-28.

Cloud Computing on Database Management
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Cloud computing applications often need to have a 99.999% uptime as customers use them directly over the Internet, and there is little chance of solving problems from a remote location (McAfee, 2011). As a result, databases used in cloud computing must have a very high level of reliability and be capable of managing small errors that would cause other databases to stop working or need to be rebooted. The requirement from cloud computing users for databases to be able to manage these higher levels of reliability is leading to a completely different level of research and development today (Limbasan, Rusu, 2011). Taking into account all of these factors it is clear that cloud computing is having a very disruptive effect on database research, development and use today. Cloud computing is forcing many enterprise software vendors who create databases to focus more on how their applications can be used as more…


Malcolm Chisholm. (2009). The Dawn of Big Data: Are we on the cusp of a new paradigm that goes beyond what we can do with traditional data stores?. Information Management, 19(8), 45.

Limbasan, A., & Rusu, L.. (2011). Implementing SaaS Solution for CRM. Informatica Economica, 15(2), 175-183.

Andrew McAfee. (2011, November). What Every CEO Needs to Know About the Cloud. Harvard Business Review, 89(11), 124-132.

Upson, S.. (2011). Cloud Computing. IEEE Spectrum, 48(1), 43.

M& a Examples in
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conditions is M&a activity more likely to create rather than destroy value? Use case examples and appropriate academic frameworks to support your answer.

Globalization & Merger and Acquisitions

M&A and Cultural Problems

The Multi-Cultural Organization

The Nokia-Microsoft Case

Microsoft changed Nokia Culture to Gain Value

Other Value Propositions that Microsoft Considered

Mergers and acquisitions have become an integral part of international business, companies, in an effort to expand their market, look to enter new markets through the strategy of mergers and acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions are an important, fast and effective way to enter markets. This is also an effective business strategy to gain market share quickly and reduce competition by buying out rival companies if possible.

Merger and acquisitions also comes with their share of problems, especially problems that relate to functioning in an environment that is often alien to a company that leads the merger and acquisition. There…


Ben-Aaron, D. (2010). Nokia Names Microsoft's Elop CEO as Apple Wins Market. [online] Available at:  [Accessed 30 Aug. 2015].

Canals, J. (n.d.). Leadership Development in a Global World.

DePamphilis, D. (2008). Mergers, acquisitions, and other restructuring activities. Amsterdam: Elservier/Academic Press.

Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse. New York: Viking.

Analyzing Kodaks Slow Adoption of Information Technology
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Kodak's Slow Adoption Of Information Technology

Corporate history reveals only a few blunders that are as confounding as Kodak's wasted digital photography opportunities; what's more, Kodak was, in fact, the inventor of digital photography technology. The company's strategic failure stemmed directly from its decades-long weakening, with digital photography destroying Kodak's film-based model of business. For several decades, management was unable to realize that digital photography constituted a disruptive new technology, at the same time company researchers extended that technology's boundaries (Mui, 2012). Kodak had a head start into digital technologies and could manufacture industry-leading digital cameras and technologies ahead of competitors. But it took a whole decade for digital cameras to dominate the market for cameras. It was only in 2002 that total digital camera sales finally exceeded analog camera sales. In hindsight, the company possessed over two valuable decades' time for responding to a threat to its existence. Considering…


Chopra, A. (2013). How Kodak and Polaroid fell victim to the dark side of innovation. Retrieved April 11, 2016, from 

Kotter International. (2012). Barriers to Change: The Real Reason Behind the Kodak Downfall. Retrieved April 11, 2016, from 

Mui, C. (2012). How Kodak Failed. Retrieved April 11, 2016, from 

The Economist. (2012). The last Kodak moment? Retrieved April 11, 2016, from

Social Media Travel and Tourism
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This focus on the positive benefits of consumer word of mouth behaviour is a natural tendency. I certainly like to think that positive comments have a greater impact on my decisions than negative comments. In fact, the respondents to the survey reported that the two factors that had the biggest impact on their airline choices were comparison-shopping on the Internet (38%) and personal recommendations from an acquaintance on Facebook or Twitter (42%). but, although personal recommendations have a clear impact on choices, the question is whether positive comments have a greater impact than negative comments. This distinction has not yet been made with regard to word of mouth marketing effects. The U.S. national election in 2004 was viewed by many as the most negative in recent memory (Johnson, 2011). Why would hard-nosed politicians with limited budgets invest so much in negative advertising if positive comments had greater impact on behaviour?…


Arnold, S.E., 2010. Twitter can lower marketing costs -- how to put the cost effective service to good use, Smart Business San Diego.

Brown, J., Broderick, a.J. And Lee, N., 2007. Word of mouth communication within online communities: conceptualizing the online social network, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), pp.2-20;

Curran, James M. 2011. Lennon, Ron. Participating in the Conversation: Exploring Usage of Social Media Networking Sites. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 15.

Doganis, Rigas. The Airline Business in the Twenty-First Century. Book by Routledge, 2010.

Leadership Lessons Learned From Herb
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The transformation was so effective in the company that it eventually changed an entire industry as well (Lawless, 1998).

Another aspect of leadership lessons learned from Her Keller include his tolerance for individuality and non-conformity on the part of his employees, and how the culture of the company became known as a haven for those who wanted to work hard yet also have fun (Lubans, 2009). Not every leader can accomplish this unique feat of creating a culture tolerant and even promoting non-conformity over time, let alone become its main evangelist for this approach. Yet Mr. Kelleher realized that if management and the employees were going to trust one another, there would need to be an unpretentious, open culture that had a tolerance for failure and nonconformity (Lindebaum, Cartwright, 2010). Getting back to the point made earlier, a mindset that sees failure as feedback, not a dead-end, is critical for…


Bennis, W. (2009). Crises Reveal the Quality of Leadership. Leader to Leader, 2009(54), 27.

Why Herb Kelleher Gets So Much Respect from Labor. (1984, September). Business Week: Industrial/Technology,(2861), 112.

Robert Lawless. (1998). Introduction: Speech-Herb Kelleher. Competitiveness Review, 8(1), 1.

Lee, William G. (1995). Southwest Airlines' Herb Kelleher: Unorthodoxy at work. Management Review, 84(1), 9.

Small & Medium Enterprises SME Can Gain
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Small & Medium Enterprises (SME)

Can Gain the Strategic Benefits of EP

Agility, time-to-market and insights into market dynamics are a few of the many benefits of standardizing the operations of an organization on an Enterprise esource Planning (EP) system. Up until about a decade ago, the economics of enterprise software relegated these systems to larger, more diverse and well-capitalized enterprises, with the majority of EP systems being installed and customized in Fortune 1,000 corporations (Velcu, 2010). These EP implementations began to be pervasively supported by Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) during the later 1990s and continue throughout today. As SOA architectures have permeated organizations, the lessons learned from a business process re-engineering (BP), distributed order management and software engineering gains have contributed to the success of Cloud computing in general and Software-as-a-Service specifically (Moore, 2002). In addition, Open Source Software (OSS), Cloud- and SaaS-based EP systems (Passion for esearch, 2012b)…


Darrow, B. & Lingblom, M. 2002, "SAP unveils ERP offerings for SMBs," CRN,, no. 999, pp. 12-12.

Used for determining how SAP is addressing the SME market through their product strategy and their approach to optimizing OPEX-based expenses by SMEs.

Henschen, D. 2010, "SAP SaaS Strategy Needs To Deliver," InformationWeek,, no. 1268, pp. 27-27.

An excellent article showing how SAP's business model is going through major shifts due to the change form CAPEX to OPEX.

Enterprise Architecture New Text Is
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The hybrid nature of cloud computing in general and SaaS specifically will continue as enterprises question if they are really getting the value out of the systems they are relying on.


Bala, ., & Carr, S. (2010). Usage-based pricing of software services under competition. Journal of evenue and Pricing Management, 9(3), 204-216.

Beimborn, D., Miletzki, T., & Wenzel, S. (2011). Platform as a service (PaaS). Business & Information Systems Engineering, (6), 1.

Benlian, a., & Hess, T. (2011). Opportunities and risks of software-as-a-service: Findings from a survey of it executives. Decision Support Systems, 52(1), 232.

Cusumano, M. (2010). Technology strategy and management cloud computing and SaaS as new computing platforms. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 27.

Doelitzscher, F., Sulistio, a., eich, C., Kuijs, H., & Wolf, D. (2011). Private cloud for collaboration and e-learning services: From IaaS to SaaS. Computing.Archives for Informatics and Numerical Computation, 91(1),…


Bala, R., & Carr, S. (2010). Usage-based pricing of software services under competition. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 9(3), 204-216.

Beimborn, D., Miletzki, T., & Wenzel, S. (2011). Platform as a service (PaaS). Business & Information Systems Engineering, (6), 1.

Benlian, a., & Hess, T. (2011). Opportunities and risks of software-as-a-service: Findings from a survey of it executives. Decision Support Systems, 52(1), 232.

Cusumano, M. (2010). Technology strategy and management cloud computing and SaaS as new computing platforms. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 27.

Profit Pools A Fresh Look
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Dell was setting a very rapid pace of new product introductions during the period analyzed by the author and afterwards as well. The focus on just the direct channel and thoughts of disintermediating the indirect channels through their highly successful direct build-to-order model blinded Dell from the much larger and more diverse profit pool all channels could provide. Ignoring these market dynamics and believing the direct model was by far going to win the battle of channel models in the PC industry, Dell experienced exceptional declines immediately following this rapid run-up of growth. In the end, Dell chose to use the profit pool concept to gain an even greater insights into their customer base and was able to generate profits 3 times higher than industry average (Gadiesh, Gilbert, 1998). Dell recovered form a potentially disastrous situation by using the profit pool concept effectively.

There is also the example of how…


Gadiesh, O., & Gilbert, J.L. (1998, Profit pools: A fresh look at strategy. Harvard Business Review, 76(3), 139-142+.

Future of Advertising and Its
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Behavioral analytics are making it possible for companies to combine personas and social networks, gaining invaluable insights into the performance of promotional programs in real-time. In addition to all of these benefits, analytics will make it possible for marketers to fine-tune each element, offer and even digital channel used in the presentation of a promotional offer to a specific audience. By combining all available sources of analytics, marketers will be able to have a 360-degree view of customers while also aligning their promotional strategies to each phase of the buying process with much greater precision than has ever been possible before (Acker, Grone, Blockus, Bange, 2011).

Impact of the Internet on Advertising

In strategic terms the Internet has made digital marketing, promotion and advertising strategies more precise and measurable. The proliferation of analytics applications, many of them Cloud-based, are revolutionizing how marketers plan and execute their promotional, advertising, and services…


Acker, O., Grone, F., Blockus, a., & Bange, C. (2011). in-memory analytics - strategies for real-time CRM. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 18(2), 129-136.

Saravudh Anantachart 2004. Integrated Marketing Communications and Market Planning: Their Implications to Brand Equity Building. Journal of Promotion Management 11, no. 1 (January 1): 101-125.

Beltran-Royo, C., Zhang, H., Blanco, L.A., & Almagro, J. (2013). Multistage multiproduct advertising budgeting. European Journal of Operational Research, 225(1), 179.

Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.