Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Distributive Justice Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

Justice in Society
Words: 870 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74393946
Read Full Paper  ❯

Justice in Society

What does justice in society really mean?

"It's not fair." One of the first phrases every child articulates clearly relates to a kind of a rough philosophy of justice. This sentiment reflects the idea that because people are not being treated 'the same' the world is unjust. A child may regard the fact that older siblings get to go to bed later as unfair. However, as rough and crude as a child's logic of justice may seem, underlying its assumptions are some of the concepts that relate to a larger sense of justice, namely the issue of equitable treatment. For a society to be just, there must be efforts to create social and economic parity to ensure that the nation's political and judicial systems truly honor such principles of equity.

One concept of equalizing to create justice is that of "John awls' alternative distributive principle, which he…


Lamont, Julian and Favor, Christi. (2008). Distributive justice. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved: 

Stiglitz, Jonah. (2011). Of the1%, by the 1%., for the 1%. Vanity Fair. Retrieved:

Justice in Modern Organizations Organizational
Words: 1804 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4095158
Read Full Paper  ❯

The U.S. stress on individualism is an obvious example of the latter, in particular). But much of the evidence collected in the rest of the book can be said to mainly apply to only organizations within the West, where the research was collected.

Then, the final section followed by a conclusion and summary by the editors. The Handbook of Organizational Justice is admittedly incomplete in an evolving field, and often raises more questions than it answers. Because the field is so young, the research it offers is relatively short-term in duration, and fairly small in terms of its samplings. There are certain limits to how much can be extrapolated from this research and applied to more multinational organizations. There is also the inevitable problem of business books, which they grow quickly out of date, and the most current surveys of organizational justice may be more easily found in peer-reviewed journals…

Justice Has Been Explained by
Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6773329
Read Full Paper  ❯

Rawls sets out to propose a new theory, which he does by formulating two principles and "to show that the two principles of justice provide a better understanding of the claims of freedom and equality in a democratic society than the first principles associated with the traditional doctrines of utilitarianism, with perfectionism, or with institutionalism" (Rawls, Political Liberalism 292).

Nozick suggests an entitlement theory of justice that might seem to reflect the categorical imperative but which actually counters Kant's theory of property. John Rawls offered a revision of Kantian theory so it could be used as a grounding in ethical theory. Nozick also shows a strong commitment to prepolitical individual rights. He also recognizes that there are forces, including past injustices, which shape our holdings in society in various ways, raising the question of what ought to be done to rectify these injustices:

The general outlines of the theory of…

Works Cited

Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.

Nozick, Robert. "The Entitlement Theory." In Morality and Moral Controversies, John Arthur (ed.), 253-259. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

Olen Jeffrey and Vincent Barry. Applying Ethics. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 1996.

Rawls, John. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Justice Political Philosopher John Rawls Looks at
Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56843888
Read Full Paper  ❯

Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).

Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…

Works Cited

Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rawls, J. (1957). Justice as Fairness. Philosophical Review. 54 (22): 653-62.

Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rawls, J. (2001). A Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Justice as it Applies to Ethics Justice
Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20211067
Read Full Paper  ❯

justice as it applies to ethics. Justice is a social issue and a part of character, as noted in the lecture. There must be another party involved that requires justice, along with an obligation, and that is why it is a social issue. Justice is also a major portion of ethics, because of the choices made involved with justice.

In business ethics, justice is extremely important, because justice is necessary for a business and an individual to become successful. The three types of justice all pertain to business in some way, but the interpersonal type of justice is probably the most important in the business relationship. In interpersonal justice, there is a contract either real or implied, between two parties. One creates goods or services and offers them to another, who accepts them with the obligation to pay for the products. In an ethical situation, both parties will conduct their…

Compare the U S Justice System Ti India's Justice System
Words: 2789 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12825290
Read Full Paper  ❯

U.S. Justice System vs. India's Justice System

This paper compares the system of justice in India with the system of justice in the United States. Although they are both democracies -- in fact India is the biggest democratic country in the world -- the two countries are quite different in their approach to formal justice. Moreover, the system of justice in India has been the subject of a great deal of criticism in recent years due to the corruption that has been found in the system.

Comparing the U.S. And Indian Justice Systems

The legal system in India is backed by the Indian Constitution and is a mix of "adversarial and accusatorial," according to the Loyola University in Chicago (LU). There is an attempt to respect both Hindu and Muslim jurisprudence and to "preserve the timeworn tenets of both" (LU). In rural areas of India, an informal system of justice…

Works Cited

Bhushan, Prashant. (2009). 'My Honest And Bonafide Perception.' Outlook India. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from .

Country Listing. (1995). India: The Criminal Justice System. Center for Children's Law and Policy. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from

Global Corruption Report 2007: Corruption in Judicial Systems. (2007). New York: Cambridge

Loyola Library. (2010). Criminal Justice System in India. Retrieved September 14, 2012,

Organizational Justice Concepts and Distinctions
Words: 463 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65607716
Read Full Paper  ❯

Moreover, interactional aspects of organizational justice can (and sometimes do) differ substantially from procedural and distributive elements of organizational justice. In fact, interactional justice can even be used as a mechanism of attempting to compensate employees for unfairness and inequity in the other component elements of organizational justice.

Procedural justice is most directly determinative of employee perceptions precisely because it determines the extent to which employees have opportunities to qualify for advancement and for greater consideration in connection with resource allocation and reward distribution. The procedural justice component outlines the respective ability of employees to pursue their fair share of responsibility, receive recognition of their commitment to the organization, and the relative quality of their work. Specifically, procedural justice requires transparency and the absence of bias in job performance measurement, salary, and advancement opportunities. In principle, interactional justice is preferable to its absence, but it is comparatively meaningless without distributive…

Criminal Justice Gaetz S July 2004 Safe
Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26021148
Read Full Paper  ❯

Criminal Justice

Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.

This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…

Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.

Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."

The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.

Truth vs Justice
Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38028870
Read Full Paper  ❯

Domestic Homicide in South Carolina

The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread," wrote French intellectual and social critic Anatole France in The Red Lily in 1894 and in doing so he summarized the often great distance that exists between laws and people's concepts of justice and truth. Justice is a slippery concept and the truth even more so - and this is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the practices of the "truth commissions" established in a number of countries newly accustoming themselves to democracy. The Orwellian sound of "truth commission" is not inappropriate, for the connection between the actions of these commissions - in places like Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala and South Africa - and the truth of experience or any sense of absolute justice was both tenuous…

Constraints to Greater Justice in Our Collective Lives
Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84803742
Read Full Paper  ❯

Obstacles to Achieving Greater Justice in Our Collective Lives

Today, major disparities continue to exist between the rich and poor in terms of money, political and health care access as well as treatment by the criminal justice system. Although these types and other fundamental inequalities have existed through history, the fact that these disparities remain firmly in place in the 21st century suggests that they are intractable to change unless aggressive steps are taken to overcome them. To this end, this paper reviews the literature to identify the greatest obstacles to achieving greater justice in our collective lives today, including class, race, gender, and ability as well as the potential for a combination of these to represent the greatest obstacle. An examination concerning how people acculturated to view these categories that interfere with meaningful change to achieve greater justice from various perspectives in the future is followed by a summary…

Works Cited

Fleming, James E. and McClain, Linda C. (1997, December). "In Search of a Substantive Republic." Texas Law Review 76(2): 509-511. Print.

Lloyd, Jason. (2003, Fall). "Let There Be Justice: A Thomistic Assessment of Utilitarianism and Libertarianism." Texas Review of Law & Politics 8(1): 229-233. Print.

Manos, Mary Ann. (2008, Summer). "The Moral Compass of Bi-Polar Ethics." Phi Kappa Phi Forum 88(2): 34-36. Print.

Russello, Gerald J. (2013, September/October). "Liberalism's Greatest Critic." The American Conservative 12(5): 49-52. Print.

Justice Mean to Me What
Words: 1377 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54198216
Read Full Paper  ❯

If the convicted criminal feels that his sentencing was not just and fair, he can 'appeal', and his case would be tried again, if necessary. (Justice and Prisons, how justice works)

It must be remembered that in general, when a crime is committed, it can mean that there has been a violation of a local or a state or a federal law, and for which there was no real justification. However, the term 'justice' can mean different things for different people, and there is no real agreement on what exactly it means. This has what, in fact, led to the many controversies in the criminal justice system today. There are some individuals who conceptualize justice as meaning 'equality for all', that is, everyone must have the same amount, no matter what amounts they have produced. Some others define justice in terms of 'equity' wherein a person must get benefits in…


Baumgarth, William P; Aquinas, Thomas. On law, morality and politics.

Hackett Publishing. 2002.

Feibleman, James Kern. Justice, law and culture.

Springer. 1985.

Justice and Social Equity
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4696600
Read Full Paper  ❯

Social Equity

Justice and Social Equity

Income inequality is growing at a precipitous rate in America. The cry for justice for the 99% reflects the notion that America is increasingly being dominated by wealthy elites, and the wealthy can use their greater economic, political and social capital to sustain their advantage at the helm of American society. This is manifested in a variety of ways, including the high burden of debt carried by young people who try to better themselves by going to college and then are faced with the prospect of being beholden to that debt for most their productive working lives -- provided that they can find a job upon graduating. Fear of debt may drive the children of the middle and lower classes to cheaper colleges, thus creating even more of a concentration of wealth and power, given the social connections that can be fostered at elite…


Frederickson, H. George. (2005). The state of social equity in American public administration.

National Civic Review.

Justice in Social Work Social
Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75981104
Read Full Paper  ❯

" (Shiele, 2006) All of these are important yet they do not address the use of "the worldviews and cultural values of people of color as theoretical bases for new social work practice models" (Shiele, 2006) but instead hold the beliefs that: (1) that only White people - especially White men - have the ability and skill to develop theories and social work practice models; (2) that people of color, specifically African-Americans, lack the ability and skill to develop theories and social work practice models; (3) that the precepts of European-American culture are the primary, if not the only, precepts through which social problems can be analyzed and solved; and/or (4) that culture, and the internalization of culture by the theorist, has little or no effect on theory - that theory or theorizing is mostly or completely an objective activity." (Shiele, 2006)


Sohng, S. (2004). A brief overview of…


Sohng, S. (2004). A brief overview of contemporary theories of social justice. Justice lecture notes October 04, pp. 1-13.

Rawls. J. (1997). Justice and Equity, in L. Pojman & R. Westmoreland (Eds), Equality: Selected Readings (pp.183-190). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Reisch, M. (2002). Defining social justice in a socially unjust world. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 83, 343-354.

Isbister, J. (2001). Capitalism and justice, Chapter 1 and 2 (pp. 3-29). Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.

Distributive and Integrative Bargaining
Words: 7428 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45993930
Read Full Paper  ❯

Realm of Legal Negotiation


Negotiation involves a dialogue of two or more parties or people with the intention to reach a favorable outcome. This favorable result can be for just one party or both parties involved. The integrative approach to negotiation tries to expand the "pie" to make sure everyone gets something. However, the distributive approach ensures one side "wins" and the other, "loses." The legal landscape of practicing lawyers today asks for a further analysis of what is effective and what is not. Meaning, the distributive method greatly outweighs the integrative method in terms of its utilization in lawyer-to-lawyer negotiations because of how it can be used to help one side get what it wants. That is what lawyers do, they try to get the best outcome for their client, not for both parties involved.

Negotiation is a difficult activity to learn and master. ADR or…

Social Justice and Macklemore
Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86451251
Read Full Paper  ❯

No Justice, No Peace
In Z-Ro’s “No Justice No Peace,” the hip hop artist states, “No justice, no peace
It's us against police. Every time I turn around they shoot another brother down.” The argument made by the artist is that police brutality and oppression is marginalizing African-Americans and making them fearful of the law—which to them represents white rule, white power, and white aggression. The artist, like all hip hop artists, is coming from a traditional of criticism against Jim Crow: his descendents are men like Malcolm X and MLK, Jr., Ice Cube, and Tupac Shakur. Z-Ro’s words echo with all the history of those stories and more rolled into a monumental protest anthem. It is an anthem that many can understand. However, there is also a racial component to it that disqualified anyone who is not African-American from identifying with the song. For instance, others who are white…

Fairness in Hiring and Promotion
Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32935501
Read Full Paper  ❯

All organizations and business have some form of ethical culture to carry out their goals, which cannot be inconsistent with the aims of utilitarianism. All organizations aim at the pleasure of achieving or creating something. This line of thought can be strictly infused into the awareness of employees during meetings or seminars. The goals of the theory may also be infused into new employees as part of their orientation. Existing employees may be promoted on the basis of their best contribution to organizational goals and the welfare of fellow employees. These are measurable criteria and a source of motivation to other employees.

The utilitarian theory necessarily states that it is an employee's duty to perform and behave in the best possible way to benefit the business, fellow employees, society and himself or herself. Consequently, he or she has the right to expect the same benefits from the organization, fellow employees,…


Gilani, N. (2011). Utilitarianism in the workplace. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved

on November 30, 2011 from

Lamont, J. (2007). Distributive justice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Stanford

University. Retrieved on November 30, 2011 from

Faith Baptist Church in Manchester NH Melody
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 77365556
Read Full Paper  ❯

Faith Baptist Church in Manchester, NH

Melody Jennings

The Evaluation of the Impact of Organizational Justice and Group Dynamics on Employee Motivation, Performance and Service Delivery in Public Management

Organizational justice, which results from certain policies and systems in treatment and administration of employees, is considered an important tool for creation of motivation among employees. Similarly, Group dynamics which enhances performance of individual when they work as in groups is considered another important tool in motivating employees for better work performance and service delivery. I would like to analyze through this paper the various ways in and the extent to which organizational justice and group dynamics are instrumental in impacting motivation, performance and service delivery of public management organizations.

Even though both organizational justice and group dynamics are important tools in effecting motivation performance and service delivery, they are different in the way; they impart motivation, performance and service delivery.…

Mental Retardation This Work Examines
Words: 6188 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58210378
Read Full Paper  ❯

Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…


Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.

Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0

Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.

Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at

Redundancy and Survivor's Syndrome Investigating
Words: 3538 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 96236096
Read Full Paper  ❯

Downsizing, upsizing, and restructuring have had an impact on the skill set of the employees. These changes meant employees must learn new routines, new skills, and take on greater responsibility (Littler and Innes, 2003). In some cases, this has meant that employees must deskill. For instance, they may have to perform the jobs that were once assigned to lower skilled, displaced workers. Deskilling can have a significant psychological impact on the surviving workforce as well. In certain sectors, such as the healthcare industry, or social work, restructuring and job shifting can have a significant impact on their ability to deliver quality care. Carey (2007) suggests that in countries where these public services have undergone privatization, a deskilling of the labour force has occurred and will continue to occur unless something is done to stop it.

Survivor's guilt results from traumatic events. Many times it is associated with an event such…


Brandes, P., et al. 2008. 'The Interactive Effects of Job Insecurity and Organizational Cynicism on Work Effort Following a Layoff.' Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies

14 (3), pp. 233-247

Carey, M. 2007. 'White-Collar Proletariat? Braverman, the Deskilling/Upskilling of Social Work and the Paradoxical Life of the Agency Care Manager.' Journal of Social Work 7 (1), pp.


Post Brings Up a Number of Topical
Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44287321
Read Full Paper  ❯

post brings up a number of topical issues associated with domestic violence as it relates to women. However, the claim that domestic violence "is not only a crime of oppression, but of sexism" is astute but should be modified to include the concession that domestic violence also occurs to men. The claims that domestic violence is an issue in media, and that it is global, are certainly true but not justified by any statistical evidence. Certainly, global cultures (Italian culture, for example, is highly patriarchal) although no examples are provided to support the claim that domestic violence is a global issue.

This post offers a comprehensive account of Slate's argument concerning the pitfalls of how distributive justice is implemented. The author is excessively deferential to Slate and would benefit from a greater degree of assertiveness. While it is true that fair allocation of resources is essential for the well-being of…

Business as Defined by the
Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43746638
Read Full Paper  ❯

Robert Nozick's Entitlement Theory asserts that free market exchanges are manifestations of society's respect for people as equal -- an economic phenomenon that is given a moral dimension/explanation. This theory is hinged on three principles: transfer principle, acquisition principle, and rectification principle. The first principle holds the argument that all holdings or properties freely acquired from others are considered justly acquired. In the same vein of argument, the second principle posits that people are entitled to have holdings/properties, so long as they are acquired in a just manner. Lastly, an "injustice" committed can be rectified by giving the property back to its rightful owner (i.e., a property unjustly acquired can be corrected by returning it back to the original owner/first owner).

John Rawls' theory of distributive justice contains within its argument the principles of liberty and difference. In his theory, Rawls argues that the principles of justice determine how the…

Aristotle and Capt Pun Aristotle's
Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28796277
Read Full Paper  ❯

Therefore it is fair to conclude we live in an immoral time. People's good character suffers from an inability to see right from wrong. Instead of the issue being that of black or white; an eye for eye; it has become far too gray. There is too room open for interpretation. This type of thinking makes for immoral acts on both sides of the argument.


This paper examined capital punishment as a moral issue and argue the opinion that it is an immoral practice. In order to do this, this paper employed Aristotle's ethical system and explore his notion of values. This paper carefully identified and explained the premises that lead to this argument,

To do this effectively, one must also look at the flipside of the issue and create a possible counter argument. This counter argument established that capital punishment is indeed a moral practice and acceptable consequence…

Works Cited

Aristotle's Ethics. 10 Oct. 2005 ..

Mris Legal and Scientific Review
Words: 5397 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2692818
Read Full Paper  ❯

There are three types of stimuli used, which are:

1) Targets;

2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.

These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.

Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…


Taylor, Erich (2007) a New Wave of Police Interrogation? Brain Fingerprinting, the Constitutional Privilege against Self-Incrimination and Hearsay Jurisprudence

Pope, Harrison (nd) the Emperor's Tailoring. FMS Foundation Newsletter. Online available at

Stetler, Russell and Wayland, Kathleen (2004) Capital Cases - Dimension of Mitigation. June 2004. Online available at,+determination+of+guilt+or+innocence&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=50&gl=us.

Workplace Fairness
Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58375535
Read Full Paper  ❯


Landy and Conte (2013) note the fairness is understood as a component of exchange between two or more parties. The fairness reflects some form of equity, but the authors note that there are a few different perspectives against which fairness can be evaluated. The first of these is distributive fairness. This concept reflects a fairness of outcomes. This principle can come in a pure form, like in Cuba where everybody earns the same wage, but more often it comes with some sort of caveat, like "equal pay for equal work." There are different norms to describe distributive justice. These can be merit (the equal pay for equal work) norm and the need norm (to each according to his need). Landy and Conte also note that culture plays a role in how justice is perceived. The norm of a country will be different based on the collectivist-individualist paradigm. Because equity…


Folger, R. & Konovsky, M. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 32 (1) 115-130.

Landy, F. & Conte, J. (2013). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. John Wiley & Sons.

Moral Theology in Today's Economically
Words: 3061 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4543742
Read Full Paper  ❯

The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…


Bretzke, James T. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Theology.

Curran, Charles. The Catholic Church, Morality and Politics.

Curran, Charles. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today. Center for Economic and Social Justice.

Elliott, Hanna. "Stereotypes of Religious Voters Don't Fit." Associated Baptist Press, 03 Nov. 2006.

Business People Study Ethics What Are the
Words: 2431 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33452697
Read Full Paper  ❯

business people study ethics. What are the possible benefits to companies, individuals, society and the world of business?

According to a gallop poll administered by the Better Business Bureau in 2008, consumer trust in business professionals is on the decline. Of the consumer populous polled, only 42% expressed trust in banks and financial institutions, representing a 6% decline in trust since 2007, while only 24% responded positively toward contractors and service professionals, representing a decline in trust of 4%. Of the 14 industries polled, trust was lowest in real estate brokers and auto dealers, with a positive trust response of only 13%, representing a 3% decline in trust (Farrell, Fraedrich and Farrell, 2009). In particular, trust levels declined rapidly as a result of public scandals which "cost many companies their emotional appeal, the strongest driver of reputation" (Ferrell et al., 2009).

According to ethics professor Rick Garlikov, the reputation of…

Kohlberg's model of ethical development varies from previous models insofar as development is not the product of maturation or socialization alone, but rather the product of one's cognitive contemplation of moral problems (Cain, 1985). Kohlberg's model coincides with character development specialist Thomas I. White's assertion that ethical character development is the result of ethical reasoning as opposed to a focus on "being a good person" (Ferrell et al., 2009). Studying ethics and contemplating ethical frameworks, therefore, is imperative to the development of an ethical character and the ability make ethically informed decisions.

Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136. Retrieved Jan. 31, 2011 from

Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. (2009). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases. (7th ed.) Mason: South-Western Cenage Learning.

Social Philosophy
Words: 2053 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19656090
Read Full Paper  ❯

Social Philosophy

Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).

In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of…


1). Macedo, Stephen. April 1995. Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: the Case of God v. John Rawls. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp.468 -496.

2). Carter, Stephen. 1987. Evolutionism and Treating Religion as a Hobby. Duke Law Journal.

3). Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

4). Kenneth Baynes. 1992. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Albany. Suny Press.

Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy
Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74340233
Read Full Paper  ❯

Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry

The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…


Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.

Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.

Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.

Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.

Enforced Beneficence How to Get Health Care
Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41550477
Read Full Paper  ❯

Veatch compares two principles of distributive justice as applied to health care, namely maximum principle and egalitarian principle. Describe briefly his characterizations of these principles. Which principle does he prefer for health care distribution and why?

Veatch (1994) characterizes these principles in terms of fairness, i.e. justice, and autonomy (p. 694), discovering between the two the differences inherent in their individual assessments of health care through the lens of the max-min principle and the egalitarian principle. The min-max principle rests on the maximum good (utilitarian) for the most people with the minimum negative consequences, while the egalitarian principle rests on the sense of all things and people being equal and therefore on the same footing and deserving of the same amount of care.

Veatch prefers this principle: "The principle of justice for health care stated as follows: People have a right to needed health care to provide an opportunity…


Veatch, Robert M. "Justice, the Basic Social Contract, and Health Care" (CIB, 633-638)

Buchanan, Allen. "The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care" (CIB, 639-644)

migration from a catholic'social teaching perspective
Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75208076
Read Full Paper  ❯

Population migration is nothing new, but is happening now to an unprecedented degree, with untold numbers of migrants shifting around the globe not because they want to, but often because they must. While not all patterns of migration can be considered problematic, Catholic Social Teaching (CST) focuses on and addresses the patterns that are in order to alleviate suffering and promote more humanitarian policies and programs. CST challenges the underlying social, political, and economic structures that impact migration and attitudes towards migrants. Viewed through the lens of CST, some of the prevailing political attitudes can be clarified and resolved.
The crux of CST is social justice and human rights. As Groody & Cross (2014) point out, there are several CST themes relevant to migration including the right to stay in one’s homeland as well as the right to move when conditions demand it. Moreover, CST recognizes the emergence of a…

Redundancies Survivor Perceptions of Organisational
Words: 2623 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 42641001
Read Full Paper  ❯

From these findings, while the present analysis cannot argue that any universal conclusions have been produced, said analysis may put forth the argument that fewer than half of respondents justify a resolution that there is a connection between the procedural justice applied in the redundancy process and the perception held of general organisational justice by many of the employees that are left behind. That said, it would still be appropriate given the inconclusive nature of the present section of findings to recommend a study which distills the connection between procedural justice and the general perception of redundancy survivors of broader organisational justice.

Interactional Justice:

The findings in this section would also be somewhat inconclusive. In this section, researchers would seek to establish a connection between employee perceptions of broader organisational justice and the justice shown to remaining members of the organisation through redundancy procedures. For survivors, that is, there is…

Works Cited:

Streeter, C.L. (1992). Redundancy in Organizational Systems. Social Service Review, 66(1), 97-111.

Fair Trade
Words: 1309 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42388461
Read Full Paper  ❯

moral problem of fair trade. There exists a dilemma here, with respect to the role of corporate actors within our society -- do they serve to increase profits only, or are they bound by a different morality? The role of business in society has to be understood in the context that a business is not an entity capable of action, no matter what the purpose of its formation was. A business, ultimately, is a group of resources, including people, and those people are not separate from society as a whole -- indeed, they are society as a whole. The principles of both consequentialism and Kantian morality are applied to the problem of fair trade and it is determined that despite the enduring popularity of the "corporations are engines for profit" mentality, it is a view that is at odds with the prevailing ethics of our society, while the distributive justice…

Works Cited

Blake, Michael & Patrick Smith. "International distributive justice" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 24 October 2013. Web.

Friedman, Milton. "The social responsibility of business is it increase its profits." New York Times Magazine. 13 September 1970: Print.

Johnson, Robert. "Kant's moral philosophy" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 6 April 2008. Web.

Miller, David. "Fair trade: What does it mean and why does it matter?" CSSJ Working Papers Series, SJO13. November 2010. Web.

Application of Ethical Decision Making Models to Volkswagen S Diesel Scandal
Words: 3359 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86031665
Read Full Paper  ❯

Managerial Social Responsibility - Volkswagen Diesel Scandal

In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In order to determine the ethical decision Volkswagen should have made, one can use ethical decision-making models, such as: Utilitarianism; Kantian Ethics; Ethical Rights; and Distributive Justice. Though these four models use different approaches, one or more of them can result in a justified recommendation for the correct ethical decision that Volkswagen should have made.

Facts Underpinning the Ethical Dilemma

In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In 2014-2015, U.S. emissions experts tested some Volkswagen vehicles and found deliberate fraud through the use of "defeat device" software that turns emissions equipment on for emissions tests and off for actual driving (Plungis & Hull, 2015). The deception…

Works Cited

Ewing, J., 2016. VW presentation in '06 showed how to foil emissions tests. [Online]

Available at: 

[Accessed 27 April 2016].

Plungis, J. & Hull, D., 2015. VW's emissions cheating found by curious clearn-air group. [Online]

Affirmative Action Defined Affirmative Action
Words: 2996 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15644035
Read Full Paper  ❯

Hence, it is important for the proper application of the AA idea that those who make the anti-discrimination and AA policies understand both sides of the story and both the discriminator's and the victim's perspectives. So, in essence those groups of people who disagree on certain ideas or approaches towards justice must try to adopt an unbiased approach to understanding the reason behind the existence of the differences and resolve them through negotiation. This particular approach will allow the phenomenon of AA to be ethically acceptable in the long run (Katznelson, 2006).

There are many researchers who also support the use of the distributive format of justice for maintaining equality instead of the compensatory format of justice. This is so because many of these researchers believe that compensatory justice does not have an impact on the discriminatory act instead it mainly compensates ad tries to make up for the harm…


Boston, T and Nair-Reichert, U. (2003). Affirmative Action: Perspectives from the United States, India and Brazil. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 27.

Bulman-Pozen, J. (2006). Grutter at Work: A Title VII Critique of Constitutional Affirmative Action. Yale Law Journal, 115

Chambers, D.L., Clydesdale, T.T., Kidder, W.C. And Lempert, R.O. (2005). The Real Impact of Eliminating Affirmative Action in American Law Schools: An Empirical Critique of Richard Sander's Study. Stanford Law Review. 57: 6.

Chronicle of Higher Education. (2001). College enrollment by racial and ethnic group, selected years. Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac. Available:

American & God's Dream the
Words: 2814 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 23912517
Read Full Paper  ❯

Marx's interpretation of Twentieth-Century Capitalism, as described by Miller, describes the changes in the American dream. The American dream was initially one linked to the idea of land ownership. Immigrants came from Europe, where land ownership had been a privilege of the wealthy. However, when America was relatively unsettled, almost anyone could theoretically come to America and claim land, and many people did just that. Of course, some of these early Americans did so in a grand way, traveling westward from the cities and establishing homesteads in the wilderness. The idea of home ownership, however, was not limited to those frontiersmen. Instead, only 100 years ago, someone could come to America and, because of the cheap price of land, afford to build his own home if he worked hard enough to do so. However, the nature of the home, itself, was different. Those homes were centers of production: at the…

Works Cited

Medaille, John. The Vocation of Business: Social Justice in the Marketplace. New York:

Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007

Miller, Vincent Jude. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture.

New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

Performance Appraisals for Business Effective
Words: 8831 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91375895
Read Full Paper  ❯

However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible. In addition, there is also the question about whether a truly accurate (when negative) appraisal is the best course of action due to the possible negative consequences.

Management by Objectives (MBO)

Sudarsan (2009) surmises that, in the past, researchers have concluded that there are primarily three approaches to performance appraisals. The first approach -- the results focused approach -- is centered on determining whether a specific job has been performed or not. If these performance targets are met or exceeded, the employee is rewarded. The second approach -- the behavioral approach -- focuses on employee behavior. The actual output of the employee is ignored, but instead the methods the employee is using is evaluated. This approach has the benefit of being…


Addison, J. & Belfield, C. (Sept 2008). The determinants of performance appraisal systems. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.

Addison and Belfield compare the findings of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey with their findings in Britain, using the Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Of particular interest for this paper was the conclusion from both studies that tenured employees are not strongly motivated by performance appraisals. This shows the ineffectiveness of appraisals, no matter what system is used, for those employees with tenure.

Banu, C. & Umamaheswari, P. (Jul 2009). A study on 360 degree performance appraisal systems in Reliance Life Insurance, Udumalpet. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 8(7). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.

Banu and Umamaheswari research the use of the 360-degree performance appraisal system on a life insurance company. It was found that this appraisal system was helpful in identifying training needs, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It was also found to be useful in determining rewards and incentives, as well as promotions. However, the authors failed to acknowledge the challenges inherent in this system, as found be other researchers.

Analyzing Ethical Dilemma AIDS and Needles Case
Words: 3082 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95716426
Read Full Paper  ❯

Ethical Dilemma: AIDS and Needles Case

Ethical dilemmas, also considered as moral dilemmas, are circumstances that require a decision to be made between two choices, a moral and an immoral act. According to ethical dilemmas' assumption, the chooser will follow the societal norms i.e. the procedures of law or religious teachings, while making his choice that is ethically impossible (Your Dictionary 1996-2016). Employees have to choose between the company's success, as they have strong pressures to perform and their personal attractions for an easy way out. Thus, as employees face many dilemmas throughout their career, the company should arrange for their training and should assist them in taking the right decision. (Mann n.d.) People can take ethical decisions only when they recognize an issue or situation as ethical, therefore developing this ethical issue awareness should be the first step in the direction of business ethics. (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell 2011,…

Reference List

Ferrell, OC, Fraedrich J & Ferrell, L 2011, Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases, 9th edn, Cengage Learning, p. 6.

Holzhey, H & Mudroch, V 2005, The A to Z of Kant and Kantianism. Scarecrow Press, Inc., United Kingdom, p. 180.

Mann, T (Demand Media) n.d., What Causes an Ethical Dilemma in Conducting Business?, Small Business, viewed 23 May 2016,

Roemer, JE 1996, Theories of Distributive Justice, Harvard University Press, United States of America, p. 5.

susatinability for drug companies
Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63977208
Read Full Paper  ❯

Sustainability in Pharmaceuticals Industry

Ethical Pricing in the Pharmaceutical Industry

The reality of medicine if the modern era is that resources must be allocated to help support the development of new pharmaceutical and in turn, there must also be a way to compensate those who devote their resources to help cure some of the preventable diseases that plague the modern age. The moral issue at stake here is distributive justice, and Rawls' framework is especially germane since it underlines the material benefits everyone deserves as Kantian persons and the need for an egalitarian approach for the distribution of society's essential commodities such as health care; the concern for distributive justice should be a critical factor in the equation of variables used to set prices for pharmaceuticals (Spinello, 1992).

For example, the question of how humanity delivers on a social scale that advances that humanity makes is among one of the…

Works Cited

Buckley, J., & Seamus, T. (2005). International pricing and distribution of therapeutic pharmaceuticals: an ethical minefield. Business Ethics, 127-141.

Cocks, D., & Virts, J. (2014). Pricing Behavior of the Ethical Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Business, 349-362.

Freeden, M. (2008). Failures of Political Thinking. Political Studies, 141-164.

Spinello, R. (1992). Ethics, pricing and the pharmaceutical industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 617-626.

Libertarian Views on Welfare the
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82275573
Read Full Paper  ❯

He believes that social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit to the least advantaged and that offices and positions of authority be open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity (Piccard).

Rawls contends that in order for distributive justice to work social and economic process must exist under suitable political and economic institutions. He calls for the establishment of four background institutions or branches, in the government to ensure equity of justice. The allocation branch ensures that the pricing system is competitive and that no individual or corporation forms unreasonable market power. The stabilization branch endeavors to bring about reasonably full employment opportunities for those that want to work. The transfer branch guarantees a certain level of well-being. Finally, the distribution branch strives to preserve an approximate justice in distributive shares by means of taxation and the necessary adjustments…

Works Cited

James, Louis. "Libertarian Party on Welfare & Poverty." On the Issues. Source LP News. 1 April 1999. 13 Fedruary 2011.

Loo, Dennis. "Libertarianism and Poverty." The Ethical Spectacle. April 2003. 13 Fedruary 2011.

Piccard, Dick. "A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls." 4 April 2005. 13 Fedruary 2011.

Rawls, John. "An Egalitarian Theory of Justice." A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Abortion Two Opposing Sides Abortion Is One
Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 54519093
Read Full Paper  ❯

Abortion: Two Opposing Sides

Abortion is one of the most difficult and controversial bioethical issues of modern times. This is perhaps because there are equally compelling arguments on both sides -- in favor of and against. hen debating abortion we are dealing with the question of when human life begins in a meaningful fashion, which is, to some extent, unanswerable.

Four principles of bioethics

Autonomy: The idea that human beings are autonomous, and possess the right to govern their own fate can be used to support a women's right to choice. However, from the point-of-view of an opponent of abortion, if the fetus is a person, it possesses a right to autonomy and to choose to live. But from the mother's perspective, because it is her body at stake, her right to autonomous choice trumps the right even of the father's to decide whether she does or does not have…

Works Cited

"Bioethical principles." The Nathaniel Center. [June 14, 2011]

Ethical Issue With Respect to
Words: 2022 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54429181
Read Full Paper  ❯

Therefore, total emissions are reduced over time, which is seen in the EU. A period of emissions was to be reduced by 5% with 199- levels while the next set of years were to reduce emissions by 20%. As a result, the cap-and-trade system offers the policymakers and those concerned with the environment a definite emissions target.

A cap-and-trade strategy makes sure that the short-run resources of abatement are assumed first since firms have the incentive and motivation to reduce their emissions levels when they can accomplish this at a price lower than the market. The market price rewards firms should they make the reductions but are punished if they don't. The cap is to ensure environmental sanctity and the trade advocates minimum cost. Therefore, this method minimizes waste, and it is individual firms that offer a cheap source of abatement to reduce gas emissions. Cap-and-trade method also maintains liberty…

Counterproductive & Productive Behaviors in Organizations in
Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36030779
Read Full Paper  ❯

Counterproductive & Productive Behaviors in Organizations

In every organization that are some behaviors that are counterproductive, and also there are productive behaviors to be found in every organization. hat are those behaviors, what impact to they have on job performance and what strategies would be best to ensure a maximum number of workers are engaged in productive behaviors? This paper reviews those issues and provides answers to the questions.

Productive Behaviors

Productive behaviors are those that contribute to the success of an organization and to the happiness of the individual employee. Those behaviors include cooperation; loyalty; flexibility when being assigned to a new task; genuine concern for doing things correctly; and consistency in attendance and adherence to company guidelines.

There are strategies for increasing or improving productive behavior, according to authors of Getting Things Done (David Allen) and Be Excellent at Anything (Tony Schwartz). Both of these authors were interviewed…

Works Cited

Chang, Kirk, and Smithikrai, Chuchai. (2010). Counterproductive behavior at work: an investigation into reduction strategies. The International Journal of Human Resource

Management, 21(8), 1272-1288.

Harvard Business Review. (2011). Being More Productive. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from .

Business Ethics Corporate Social Responsibility and the
Words: 1567 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78632563
Read Full Paper  ❯

Business Ethics: Corporate Social esponsibility and the Triple Bottom Line

Picture two companies, Company A and Company B. Company A manufactures chemical products and has been on the receiving end of criticism and public outcry for the air and water pollution caused by its chemical manufacturing plant. Due to increased pressure, Company A devises a strategy to start a project that will enable all farmers in the neighboring areas to get clean water in an effort to give back to the community and reduce bad publicity. Company B. is a nonprofit organization which employs visually impaired and handicapped individuals to conduct research on strategies that communities and corporations can apply to conserve the environment. This company uses Braille technology and has come up with a variety of green strategies for both companies and the government. The community benefits from both companies but Company A embraces corporate social responsibility by providing…


Henriques, A. & Richardson, J. (2004). The Triple Bottom Line: Does It All Add Up? Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Matteson, M. & Metivier, C. (2015). Corporate Social Responsibility and the Triple Bottom Line. Business Ethics. Module 3. Retrieved 17 February 2015 from 

Savitz, A. (2006). The Triple Bottom Line: How Today's Best-Run Companies Are Achieving Economic, Social and Environmental Success and How You Can Too. San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Scott, R. (2012). The Bottom Line of Corporate Good. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 18 February 2015 from

Fault An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based
Words: 30263 Length: 110 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86754711
Read Full Paper  ❯

Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales

The United Kingdom

statistics regarding claims
























Works Cited



At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…

Ethics Sterba James P Three
Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33948485
Read Full Paper  ❯

Although Sterba might argue in the long run that the children of all the world's people will be best served by placing limits upon development, it is hard to argue that it is just and fair that members of the developing world may suffer fewer benefits from industrialization because of the developed world's excesses. Neither the principles of restitutive or distributive justice are really served by either example. The wrongs done to the formerly colonialized peoples of the world are not addressed if they cannot attain parity with those nations that exploited them in a restitutive fashion, and the extent to which the earth must be and has been damaged by environmental harms caused by man to survive in a modern fashion suggests no restitution can be made to the earth from an environmentalist's perspective without an end to human development. Also, in terms of distributive justice for the greatest…

The Problem of Climate Change in the US
Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 48767081
Read Full Paper  ❯

Climate Change and Moral Responsibility

The position that will be supported in this paper is that climate change is a fact and Americans in the U.S. have a moral responsibility to address it.

The background to this issue includes the following: since the 19th century, scientists and researchers have been looking more closely at changes in the climate and the impact of greenhouse gases on the atmosphere. As Meyer and Roser point out, "the emission of greenhouse gases causes climate change" (223). Since the rise of industrialization, greenhouse gases and pollutants have surged, leading to global warming, which has resulted in polar ice caps melting, sea levels rising, and temperature and weather patterns changing -- all of which has major ramifications for the planet.

From the standpoint of distributive justice, specific questions arise when looking to address climate change. For instance, many people believe there should be a cap on…

Works Cited

Javeline, Debra. "The Most Important Topic Political Scientists Are Not Studying:

Adapting to Climate Change." Perspectives on Politics, vol. 12, no. 2 (2014): 420-434.

Meyer, Lukas; Roser, Dominic. "Distributive Justice and Climate Change: The

Allocation of Emission Rights." Analyse & Kritik: Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory, vol. 28, no. 2 (2006): 223-249.

Organization Awards Since the Industrial
Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14256811
Read Full Paper  ❯

This suggests that people act fairly in part because of what they think may be the result of other people's reaction to the self-serving behavior. People appreciate distributive equity that further supports their personal circumstances. On the other hand, more recently, social scientists, such as Miller (1999) have argued that people do care about justice and behave with justice-seeking behavior instead of this more selfish self-interest. In other words, there is no overall behavior that is common to all people.

As noted in ischer et al. (2007), what motivates employees has normally been studied in laboratory settings, which is an artificial approach. or, the better alternative, studies have asked employees about their thoughts concerning the company's allocation policies. As noted, it is important to know what employees actually perceive instead of what decision makers intend to do. Thus, ischer's research focused on employees' perceptions of the allocation decisions made by…

Fischer, R., Smith, PB., Richey, B et al. 2007 "How Do Organizations Allocate Rewards?"

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol 38, no 1, pp 3-18.

Miller, DT 1999. "The norm of self-interest," American Psychologist, vol 54, pp.1053-1060.

Locke and Nozick Conceptions of
Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5355377
Read Full Paper  ❯

Finally, property comes only through one's own labor. Therefore, money then becomes a conduit to translate labor into property in the modern sense.

obert Nozick offers several modern praises and critiques of Locke's ancient concepts. Nozick critiques Locke's assumption of natural law based on the limited context of his era. England claimed to have a divine right to acquire property, yet in a free market economy this does not so applicably apply, "Lock believed that makers have property rights with respect to what they make just as God has property rights with respect to human beings because he is their maker," (Tuckness 1). In today's market, there is less faith in the concept of divine law, but rather a system built for functioning for the people. According to Nozick, Lockean property rights "constrain the extent to which we are entitled to act on our intuitions and theories about distributive justice,"…


Locke, John. The Second Treatise on Civil Government. Prometheus Books. 1986.

Tuckness, Alex. "Locke's Political Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2005. Retrieved 28 Oct 2009 at 

Waldron, Jeremy. "Property. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2004. Retrieved 28 Oct 2009 at

Health Care Right or Privilege Health Care
Words: 1856 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1592459
Read Full Paper  ❯

Health Care ight or Privilege

Health Care ight Privilege

Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.

Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…


Brownstein, B. (1980). Pareto optimality, external benefits and public goods: a subjectivist approach. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, IV (1), 93-106. Retrieved from

Gensler, H. (1998). Ethics: a contemporary introduction. New York: Routledge.

Glannon, W. (2005). Biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hare, R. (1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press.

Comparison of Plato and Aristotle's Political Theories
Words: 4573 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19177001
Read Full Paper  ❯

Plato and Aristotle's political theories

The most capacious account of Plato's established philosophical views has been published in "The epublic" as a comprehensive handling of the most basic values for the behavior of human life. As it deals with a large number of matters, The epublic can be interpreted in a lot of diverse manner: as a discourse on political conjecture and observation, as an academic manual, or the manner in which to protect moral behavior for instance. (Plato: The State and the Soul) Politics written by Aristotle gives a substantial assessment of the beginning and configuration of the nation. (Theme Analysis: The Politics) A significant matter to keep in mind while taking into account the opinion and involvement of Aristotle in Philosophy is the fact that he was there 2000 years back. One of the early foundations done by him was Lykeion that was involved solely with pure sciences,…


Boeding, Ron. Ideals of Aristotle and Hayek: A Synthesis. Retrieved from  Accessed on 8 November, 2004

Conceptions of Equality/Plato, Aristotle and additions. Retrieved from Accessed on 8 November, 2004

Irbe, George. Aristotle's Spurned Legacy. 23 October, 2000. Retrieved from's%20legacy.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004

Kemerling, Garth. Aristotle: Politics and Art. 27 October 2001. Retrieved from  Accessed on 8 November, 2004

Nozick's Entitlement Theory of Property
Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34386909
Read Full Paper  ❯


obert Nozick's Entitlement theory is mainly connected with the issue of property and transfer of property but it is essentially based on the issue of Justice and how it comes into question when property is being transferred or owned. Nozick believes that property rights need to be studied in the social context to understand how transfer and owning of property can give rise to the issue of justice within the society. He believes that when a property that was previously not owned by anyone is transferred to someone and an individual becomes the owner of that piece of land, it is the duty of the government to ensure that no one is left worse off due to this transaction. This is the Libertarian view of property rights and was previously raised by some important thinkers including Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. ousseau and Bentham also touched upon the…


Funnell, Warwick, Accounting for justice: Entitlement, want and the Irish Famine of 1845-7. Accounting Historians Journal; 12/1/2001;

G.A. Cohen, 'Nozick on Appropriation', New Left Review, no. 150, 1985

Levy, Neil, Self-ownership: defending Marx against Cohen.(Karl Marx and G.A. Cohen) Social Theory and Practice; 1/1/2002;

Paul Russell, 'Nozick, Need and Charity', Journal of Applied Philosophy, vol. 4 number 2, 1987, pp. 205-216.

Ethics and Decision Making With
Words: 4532 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 18079971
Read Full Paper  ❯

In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.

The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…


Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall

DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.

Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.

Systems the Concept of Freedom
Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91721707
Read Full Paper  ❯

In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…


1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006

2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. 

3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006.

4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006.

Same-Sex Marriage This Subject Interests Me From
Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85357846
Read Full Paper  ❯

same-sex marriage. This subject interests me from both a moral and a legal standpoint. The topic has gained national as well as global attention. The debate is especially heated in the United States where the matter is being decided on a state by state basis.

The essential question that surrounds this topic is if same-sex marriage good for society. The ongoing debate over same-sex marriage often generates more heat than light as there are people who feel very strongly about the issues involved on both sides of the argument. This debate cannot be ignored, as legislators and voters around the country wrestle with whether and how to recognize same-sex relationships.

Almost two decades ago William Bennett and Andrew Sullivan argued this issue. Sullivan (1996) asserted that forbidding same-sex partners to marry prevents them from being a full and equal part of America and forces these couples to lie or hide…


Bennett W. (1996, June 3). Leave marriage alone. In An exchange on same sex marriage William Bennett and Andrew Sulivan. Newsweek. Retrieved April 28, 2012, from 

Farrow, D, (2012, January/February). Why fight same sex marriage? Touchstone: A journal of mere Christianity, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 24-31. Retrieved April 28, 2012, from 

New York Times. (2012, February 28). Same-sex marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships. The New York times. Retrieved April 29, 2012, from 

Rawls, J. (1971). An egalitarian theory of justice. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Problem of the Uninsured Health Disparities
Words: 3554 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8086671
Read Full Paper  ❯

Health Disparities of Uninsured

Statistics show that approximately 47 million of America's population lacks medical coverage, and another 38 million has inadequate health insurance. What these statistics imply is that one-third of Americans are insecure and unsure about whether they would afford healthcare if they fell sick or needed medical help today. The State of Texas tops the list, with an uninsured population of approximately 8 million, representing 25.1% of the total (Code ed, 2006). Minority groups form a bulk of the uninsured population (Wu & ingwalt, 2005). The impact of a large uninsured population, however, is massive -- the uninsured affect both themselves and the communities in which they live, compromising the quality of care and placing everyone at risk. They do not often have a primary care physician, which means that they neither seek out medical care when they are supposed to, nor turn up for preventive care…


Abdullah, F., Zhang, Y., Lardaro, T., Black, M., Colombani, P.M., Chrouser, K., Pronovost, P.J. & Chang, D.C. (2009). Analysis of 23 Million U.S. Hospitalizations: Uninsured Children have Higher All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality. Journal of Public Health, 32(2), 236-244.

ACEP. (2013). The Uninsured: Access to Medical Care. American College of Emergency Physicians. Retrieved 22 July 2014 from  -- Access-To-Medical-Care/

ANA. (2008). ANA's Health System Reform Agenda. American Nurses Association (ANA). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from 

Bernstein, J., Chollet, D. & Peterson, S. (2010). How does Insurance Coverage Improve Health Outcomes? Mathematica Policy Research Inc. (No. 1). Retrieved 22 July 2014 from

darwinism and evolution in woodlanders
Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68735241
Read Full Paper  ❯

Thomas Hardy's The Woodlanders was published in 1887, a few years after the death of Charles Darwin. However, the novel was set in the middle of the 19th century, in about the same year that Darwin published On the Origin of the Species. Hardy may not have selected his setting arbitrarily. The Woodlanders has often been read within the context of Darwinian influences in society and literature. However, literary critics tend to emphasize the fusion between Romantic and Darwinian depictions of nature in The Woodlanders to show how Hardy drew from Darwin to develop his characters and themes. Irvine, for example, claims Hardy was an "evolutionary pessimist," and this is certainly apparent in The Woodlanders, which provides an overtly pessimistic view of human nature but especially of patriarchy (625). In fact, Hardy's The Woodlanders shows that while Darwinian principles of evolution sometimes favor members of the species with no moral…